PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876


California Birds 

Noting those during 
Focus On Nature Tours
in central California
with an (*)

During the FONT West Coast USA Tour
from 1991 thru 2015,
usually in the month of September

A central California bird list with some photos,
compiled by Armas Hill

UPPER RIGHT PHOTO:  The YELLOW-BILLED MAGPIE is a bird endemic to California.

263 species of birds have cumulatively been seen  
during 12 FONT West Coast birding and nature tours in California,
during the month of September.

Pelagic species during sea-trips from Monterey, California
are indicated with an (mp).   


(USe):     endemic to the United States
(USqe):   quasi (or nearly) endemic to the USA
(USneb): near-endemic breeder in the USA
(NAi):      species introduced into North America
(CAi):      species introduced into California    

(NAi):      species introduced into North America
(CAi):      species introduced in California

(CAe):     endemic to California
(CAqe):   quasi (or nearly) endemic to California 

(NAr):    rare in North America
(wNAr): rare in western North America
(CAr):    rare in California

(t): a globally threatened or rare species, designated by Birdlife International
      (t1): critical     (t2): endangered     (t3): vulnerable
(nt): a near-threatened species globally

Bird whose names are capitalized in the list are uncommon or rare in California.  

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website 

Species with a PR occur, or have occurred, in the area of Point Reyes.
Noted with their status: 
c: common  fc: fairly common  un: uncommon  r: rare  x: extremely rare 


Upcoming Birding & Nature Tours in North America, including California

A Complete List (with some photos) of North American Birds, north of Mexico, in 6 parts:
List #1: Grouse to Anhinga     List #2: Condor to Shorebirds     List #3: Jaegers to Cuckoos
List #4: Owls to Flycatchers
     List #5: Shrikes to Pipits     List #6: Olive Warbler to Buntings

Mammals & some Other Wildlife during FONT tours in California 

Marine Life  (inc. Fish, Jellyfish, Mollusks (Shells), & Arthropods: Crustaceans & Echinoderms)

Directory of Photos in this Website


  1. Mountain Quail  (*)  ______ 
    Oreotyx p. pictu
    (the single member of is genus)  

  2. California Quail  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Callipepla californica brunnescens

  3. Gambel's Quail  ______
    Callipepla gambelii

  4. Chukar Partridge  (NAi)  ______ 
    Alectoris chukar

  5. Common (or "Ring-necked") Pheasant (NAi) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Phasianus colchicus

  6. Wild Turkey  (CAi) (ph) (*)  ______ 
    Meleagris gallopavo

  7. Ruffed Grouse  (ph)  ______
    Bonasa umbellus

  8. Greater Sage Grouse  (nt) (ph)  ______
    Centrocercus urophasianus

  9. White-tailed Ptarmigan  (CAi) (ph)  ______
    Lagopus leucurus

  10. Sooty Grouse  ______
    Dendragapus fuliginosus

    The Sooty Grouse is part of the former "Blue Grouse".  

  11. Sharp-tailed Grouse  ______  
    Tympanuchus phasianellus

    The Sharp-tailed Grouse is extirpated in California.

  12. Black-bellied Whistling Duck  (ph)  ______
    Dendrocygna autumnalis

  13. Fulvous Whistling Duck  ______
    Dendrocygna bicolor

  14. Tundra Swan  ______  PR:r
    Cygnus c. columbianus

  15. Trumpeter Swan  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Cygnus buccinator

  16. Whooper Swan  (NAr) (ph)  ______
    Cygnus cygnus

  17. Brant  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Branta bernicla nigricans

  18. Canada Goose  (*)  ______  PR:u
    Branta canadensis

  19. Cackling Goose  (ph)  ______
    Branta hutchinsii

  20. Greater White-fronted Goose  (*)  ______  PR:r
    Anser albifrons elgasi

  21. Snow Goose  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    (has been Chen) caerulescens

  22. Ross' Goose  ______  PR:r
    (has been Anser) rossii

  23. Emperor Goose  (nt)  ______  PR:x
    (has been Anser) canagica

  24. Wood Duck  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Aix sponsa

    In California, flocks of hundreds of Wood Ducks are sometimes seen in the fall. 

  25. Mallard  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Anas p. platyrhynchos

  26. Northern Pintail  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Anas acut

  27. Blue-winged Teal  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:r

  28. Cinnamon Teal  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Anas cyanoptera septentrionalium

  29. Green-winged Teal  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Anas carolinensis

    Anas carolinensis
    has been considered conspecific with the Eurasian Teal, Anas crecca.

  30. Northern Shoveler  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c

  31. Gadwall  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Anas s. strepera

  32. American Wigeon  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c

  33. Eurasian Wigeon  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Anas penelope

  34. Falcated Duck  (NAr) (ph) ______
    Anas falcata

  35. American Black Duck  (CAr) (ph)  ______
    Anas rubripes

  36. Garganey  (NAr)  ______  PR:x
    Anas querquedula

  37. Baikal Teal  (NAr) (ph)  ______ 
    Anas formosa

  38. Eurasian Teal  ______  PR:x
    Anas crecca

  39. Redhead  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u 

  40. Lesser Scaup  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc

  41. Greater Scaup  ______  PR:c
    Aythya marita mariloides

  42. Ring-necked Duck  (ph)  ______  PR:fc
    Aythya collaris

  43. Canvasback  ______  PR:c
    Aythya valisiineria

  44. Common Pochard  (NAr) (ph)  ______
    Aythya ferina

  45. Tufted Duck  (NAr) (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Aythya fuligula

  46. Steller's Eider  (nt) (CAr) (ph)  ______
    Polysticta stelleri

  47. King Eider  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Somateria spectabilis

  48. Harlequin Duck  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:r
    Histrionicus histrionicus 
    (now said to be monotypic) (the single member of its genus)

  49. Surf Scoter  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c

  50. White-winged Scoter  ______  PR:c
    Melanitta deglabdi

  51. Black Scoter  (ph)  ______  PR:u
    Melanitta americana

  52. Long-tailed Duck  (nt) (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Clangula hyemalis

  53. Common Goldeneye  ______  PR:fc
    Bucephala clangula

  54. Barrow's Goldeneye  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Bucephala islandica

  55. Bufflehead  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c

  56. Smew  (NAr)  ______
    Mergellus albellus

  57. Common Merganser  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:r
    Mergus merganser americanus

  58. Red-breasted Merganser  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc

  59. Hooded Merganser  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Lodhodytes cucullatus

  60. Ruddy Duck  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Oxyura j. rubida

  61. Red-throated Loon  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Gavia stellata 

  62. Pacific Loon  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Gavia pacifica

    Pacific Loon

  63. Common Loon  (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Gavia immer 

  64. Yellow-billed Loon  ______  PR:x
    Gavia adamsii

  65. Arctic Loon  (CAr)  ______
    Gavia arctica

  66. Black-footed Albatross  (t3) (*)  ______ (mp) PR:u
    Phoebastria nigripes 

    The Black-footed Albatross is by far the most common of the large tubenoses off the California seacoast, where it patrols the coolest waters of the continental slope year-round, most commonly during the summer months and most commonly north from Monterey Bay. 

  67. Laysan Albatross  (t3)  ______  PR:r
    Phoebastria immutabilis

    The Laysan Albatross is rather rare in California oceanic waters. It tends to occur beyond the shelf break in open ocean.

  68. Short-tailed Albatross  (t3) (CAr)  ______  PR:x
    Phoebastria albatrus 

    Before 1900, the Short-tailed Albatross could be rather common close to the California coast, but the decimation in the early 20th Century of the nesting birds in Japan substantially reduced the population.   

    Federally, the Short-tailed Albatross is classified as ENDANGERED.  

  69. Shy Albatross  (NAr) (ph)  ______
    Thalassarche cauta

  70. Light-manted Albatross  (NAr)  ______
    Phoebetria palpebrata

  71. Wandering Albatross  (NAr)  ______ 
    Diomedea exulans

  72. Northern Fulmar  (ph) (*)  ______  (mp)  PR:fc
    Fulmarus glacialis rodgersii

    Northern Fulmar
    (photos by Alan Brady)

  73. White-chinned Petrel  (NAr)  ______
    Procellaria aequinoctialis

  74. Great-winged Petrel  (NAr)  ______
    Pterodroma macroptera

  75. HAWAIIAN PETREL  (t3) (NAr) (*)  ______ (mp)  (seen during the FONT tour in 2005) 
    Pterodroma sandwichensis 

    The Hawaiian Petrel was conspecific with what is now the Galapagos Petrel. When so, it was called the Dark-rumped Petrel. 

  76. Murphy's Petrel  (nt)  ______
    Pterodroma ultima

  77. Mottled Petrel  (nt) (NAr)  ______  PR:x
    Pterodroma inexpectata

  78. Cook's Petrel  (t2)  ______
    Pterodroma cookii

  79. Stejneger's Petrel  (t3) (NAr)  ______
    Pterodroma longirostris

  80. Bulwer's Petrel  (NAr) (ph)  ______
    Bulweria bulwerii

  81. Streaked Shearwater  (NAr)  ______
    Calonectris leucomelas

  82. Cory's Shearwater  (CAr) (ph)  ______  
    Calonectris diomedea

  83. Sooty Shearwater  (nt)  (ph) (*)  ______ (mp)  PR:c
    Puffinus griseus 

    A Sooty Shearwater photographed during a FONT tour.

  84. Short-tailed Shearwater  (ph) (*)  ______ (mp)  PR:r
    Puffinus tenuirostris 

    A Short-tailed Shearwater photographed during a FONT tour.

  85. Pink-footed Shearwater  (t3) (ph) (*)  ______ (mp)  PR:u
    Puffinus creatopus 

    A Pink-footed Shearwater photographed during a FONT tour.

  86. Flesh-footed Shearwater  (*)  ______ (mp)  PR:r

  87. Buller's (or New Zealand) Shearwater  (t3) (*)  ______ (mp)  PR;u
    Puffinus bulleri 

  88. Black-vented Shearwater  (t3) (*)  ______ (mp)  PR:r
    Puffinus opisthomelas 

  89. Great Shearwater  (CAr)  ______
    Puffinus gravis

  90. Wedge-tailed Shearwater  (NAr)  ______
    Puffinus pacificus

  91. Manx Shearwater  (CAr)  ______
    Puffinus puffinus

  92. Least Storm Petrel (*)  ______ (mp) 
    (formerly Halocyptena) microsoma  (monotypic) 

  93. Ashy Storm Petrel  (nt) (CA:qe) (*)  ______ (mp)  PR:fc
    Oceanodroma homochroa 

    The global population of the Ashy Storm Petrel is essentially confined to offshore California islands: the Farallons (75 per cent of the population) and the Channel Islands (the rest), where there are very limited breeding opportunities in rocky crevices.
    Most of these storm petrels flock together in Monterey Bay in the fall, potentially exposing the entire population to any single, possible calamity. 
    And of course the concentrated breeding colonies also face threats such as nest disturbance by humans and livestock, and predation by introduced mammals such as rats and cats, and depredation by gulls. These are threats to many of California's seabirds, but the Ashy Storm Petrel, being so local and geographically isolated, is especially susceptible. 

  94. Black Storm Petrel  (*)  ______ (mp)  
    Oceanodroma melania 

  95. Wilson's Storm Petrel  (wNAr) (ph) (*)  ______ (mp)  PR:x
    Oceanites o. oceanicus

  96. Fork-tailed Storm Petrel  ______  PR:r
    Oceanodroma furcata

  97. Leach's Storm Petrel  ______  PR:u
    Oceanodroma leucorhoa

    Various subspecies of Leach's Storm Petrels have been seen in California offshore waters. Among the notable subspecies in the eastern Pacific Ocean are these:  

    Oceanodroma leucorhoa chapmani  (the "Chapman's Storm Petrel"): Described in 1937. it differs from the nominate subspecies (which is usually white-rumped) by having a smaller size and some subtle differences in proportions, and by being mainly dark-rumped. It occurs in the eastern Pacific ocean off California and Mexico.

    Oceanodroma leucorhoa socorroensis  (the "Townsend's Storm Petrel"): Described in 1890. On islets off the south end of the Guadalupe Islands of Mexico (mainly on Islote Afuera & on Isolote Negro). It is a summer breeder. The population on Isolote Afuera has been estimated as being about 4,000 birds, and that on Isolote Negro as 3,000 birds.

    Oceanodroma leucorphoa cheimomnestes  (the "Ainley's Storm Petrel"):  Described in 1980. On Guadalupe Island, Mexico. It is a winter breeder. Generally, after breeding, the "Ainley's Storm Petrel" seems to travel southward, based on limited specimen data. 

  98. Wedge-rumped Storm Petrel  (NAr)  ______
    Oceanodroma tethys 

  99. Hornby's Storm Petrel  (NAr)  ______
    Oceanodroma hornbyi

  100. Pied-billed Grebe  (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Podilymbus p. podiceps

  101. Least Grebe  (ph)  ______
    Tachybaptus dominicus

  102. Horned Grebe  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Podiceps auritus cornutus

  103. Red-necked Grebe  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Podiceps grisegena holboellii

  104. Eared Grebe  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Podiceps nigricollis californicus

    Another name for Podiceps nigricollis is the Black-necked Grebe

  105. Western Grebe  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Aechmophorus occidentalis

    The Western Grebe and the Clark's Grebe (below) were conspecific.

  106. Clark's Grebe  (*)  ______  PR:u
    Aechmophorus clarkii

  107. White-faced Ibis  (ph) (*)  ______   PR:x

  108. Glossy Ibis  (ph)  ______
    Plegadis falcinellus

  109. American White Ibis  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Eudocimus albus

  110. Roseate Spoonbill  (ph)  ______
    Ajaia ajaja

  111. Wood Stork  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Mycteria americana

  112. American Bittern  (ph) (*)  ______  (seen during FONT California tours in 1991 & 2005)  PR:r
    Botaurus lentiginosus

    American Bittern
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  113. Least Bittern  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Ixobrychus exilis

  114. Great Blue Heron  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Ardea herodias fannini

  115. Great Egret  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    (has been Ardea) alba egretta

  116. Snowy Egret  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Egretta thula brewsteri

  117. Little Blue Heron  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Egretta caerulea

  118. Tricolored Heron  (ph)  ______
    Egretta tricolor

  119. Reddish Egret  (ph)  ______  
    Egretta rufescens

  120. Western Cattle Egret  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Bubulcus ibis

  121. Green Heron  (*)  ______  PR:r
    Butorides virescens anthonyi

  122. Black-crowned Night Heron  (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli

  123. Yellow-crowned Night Heron  (ph)  ______
    Nyctanassa violacea

  124. RED-TAILED TROPICBIRD  (NAr) (*)  ______ (mp)  (seen during FONT tour in 1995)
    Phaethon rubricauda melanorhynchos

  125. Red-billed Tropicbird  (ph)  ______
    Phaethon aethereus

  126. White-tailed Tropicbird  (ph)  ______
    Phaethon lepturus

  127. Magnificent Frigatebird  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Fregata magnificens

  128. Great Frigatebird  (NAr)  ______
    Fregata minor 

  129. Nazca Booby  (ph)  ______
    Sula granti

  130. Blue-footed Booby  (ph)  _______
    Sula nebouxii

  131. Brown Booby  (ph)  ______
    Sula leucogaster 

  132. Red-footed Booby  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Sula sula

  133. American White Pelican  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Pelecanus erythrorhynchos

  134. Brown Pelican  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Pelecanus occidentalis californicus

    Both federally and in the state of California, the Brown Pelican has been classified as ENDANGERED. 

    Brown Pelican, the race californicus
    (photo by Abram Fleishman)

  135. Double-crested Cormorant  (*)  ______ PR:c
    Phalacrocorax auritus albociliatus

  136. Brandt's Cormorant  (*)  ______  PR:c

  137. Pelagic Cormorant  (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Phalacrocorax pelagicus resplendens

  138. Neotropic Cormorant  (ph)  ______
    Phalacrocorax brasilianus mexicanus

  139. Anhinga  (ph)  ______
    Anhinga anhinga leucogaster

  140. Turkey Vulture  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Cathartes a. aura

  141. Black Vulture  (ph)  ______
    Coragyps atratus

  142. California Condor  (t1) (ph)  ______  (was extirpated in the wild in California; since then, introduced)
    Gymnogyps californianus

    By 1982, only 22 free-ranging California Condors remained in California. By 1986, only 1 female and 4 male condors roamed free. The U.S. Fish & Wildlife sanctioned capturing those birds and adding them to the captive breeding population. The last one was captured in April 1987.

    In 1992, 63 condors existed in captivity. A few were released that year into the wild. 8 young birds were returned to California, but within a couple years, half had perished from collisions with power lines, shooting, or poisoning.    

    Both federally and in the state of California, the California Condor is classified as ENDANGERED.

    The above photograph, taken in California in 1981,
    is one of the last California Condors in the wild.

    (photo by Armas Hill)

  143. Osprey  (ph) (*)  ______   PR:fc
    Pandion haliaetus
    (the single member of its genus)  

  144. White-tailed Kite  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Elanus leucurus majusculus

  145. Mississippi Kite  ______
    Ictinia mississippiensis 

  146. Bald Eagle  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:r
    Haliaeetus leucocephalus

    Federally the Bald Eagle was classified as THREATENED. In California, it has been classified as ENDANGERED.

  147. Northern Harrier  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc

    The Northern Harrier has been considered conspecific with the Hen Harrier, Circus cyaneus, of Eurasia.

  148. Sharp-shinned Hawk  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Accipiter striatus velox

  149. Cooper's Hawk  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Accipiter cooperi 

  150. Northern Goshawk  _______  PR:x
    Accipiter gentilis

  151. Common Black Hawk  (ph)  ______
    Buteogallus anthracinus

  152. Harris's Hawk  (ph)  ______
    Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi

  153. Red-shouldered Hawk  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Buteo lineatus elegans

    In the western US, the Red-shouldered Hawk is almost entirely confined to California, with a small number occurring into southern Oregon.

    A juvenile Red-shouldered Hawk
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  154. Red-tailed Hawk  (ph) (*) ______  PR:c
    Buteo jamaicensis calurus 
    (this subspecies of the western US has pale, rufous, and dark morphs.)

  155. Swainson's Hawk  (ph) (*)  ______ PR:x
    Buteo swainsoni 

    The Swainson's Hawk is classified as THREATENED in California.

    Buteo swainsoni occurs in two morphs: light & dark. 

  156. Broad-winged Hawk  ______  PR:r
    Buteo p. platypterus

  157. Ferruginous Hawk  (nt) (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Buteo regalis 

  158. Rough-legged Hawk  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Buteo lagopus sanctijohannis

  159. Zone-tailed Hawk  (ph)  ______
    Buteo albonotatus

  160. Golden Eagle  (*)  ______  PR:r
    Aquila chrysaetos canadensis

  161. American Kestrel  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Falco s. sparverius

  162. Merlin  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Falco c. columbarius

  163. Peregrine Falcon  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Falco peregrinus

  164. Prairie Falcon  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:r
    Falco mexicanus

  165. Gryfalcon  (ph)  ______
    Falco rusticolus

  166. Ridgway's Rail  (ph) (*)  ______ (seen during the FONT California tour in 1994)  PR:x
    (3 subspecies in California)
    Rallus obsoletus obsoletus  (*)
    Rallus obsoletus levipes
    Rallus obsoletus yumanensis

    Until 2014, the Ridgway's Rail was part of the Clapper Rail.

    Two of the subspecies in California, obsoletus and yumanensis, are classified in the state as ENDANGERED. Obsoletus is classified as federally ENDANGERED.
    Rallus obsoletus obsoletus, sometimes called the "California Ridgway's Rail", is now restricted almost entirely to the San Francisco Bay's tidal marshes. Formerly, Morro Bay was one of the few locations outside the Bay Area where it occurred, but it has not been found there since the mid 1970s. 
    Further southward, the below Point Conception, the "Light-footed Ridgway's Rail", R. o. levipes, replaces obsoletus, and although gone from most of its former haunts, it can still be found in appropriate habitat in upper Newport Bay, the Tijuana River mouth, and patches of habitat in the San Elijo Lagoon and south San Diego Bay.  

  167. Virginia Rail  (ph) (*)  ______ (seen during the FONT California tour in 1991)  PR:fc
    Rallus l. limicola

    Virginia Rail
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  168. Sora  (*)  ______  PR:u
    Porzana carolina 

    Porzana carolina is sometimes called Sora Rail, but actually it is in a genus of crakes.

  169. Black Rail  ______  PR:r
    Laterallus jamaicensis cortuniculus

    The Black Rail is classified as THREATENED in California. 

  170. Yellow Rail  ______  PR:x
    Coturnicops noveboracensis

  171. Common Gallinule  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:r

    The Common Gallinule was conspecific with the Common Moorhen of the Old World, Gallinula chloropus.

  172. Purple Gallinule  (ph)  ______
    Porphyrio martinica

  173. American Coot  (*)  ______   PR:c
    Fulica a. americana

  174. Sandhill Crane  (ph) (*)  ______ (seen during the FONT California tour in 2005)  PR:x
    Grus canadensis tabida

    In California, the Sandhill Crane, the subspecies g. c. tabida, is classified as THREATENED.
  175. Black-bellied Plover  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Pluvialis squatarola cynosurae

  176. American Golden Plover  (ph)  ______  PR:u
    Pluvialis dominica

  177. Pacific Golden Plover  ______  PR:u
    Pluvialis fulva

  178. Snowy Plover  (ph) (*)  ______  PRfc

    The Snowy Plover was conspecific with the Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus, of the Old World.

    Federally, the Snowy Plover is classified as THREATENED. 

  179. Semipalmated Plover  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc

  180. LESSER SAND PLOVER  (NAr) (ph) (*)  ______ (seen during the FONT California tour in 1992) 
    Charadrius mongolus stegmanni

    Another name for Charadrius mongolus has been the Mongolian Plover. 

    A photograph of the Lesser Sand Plover seen during 
    the FONT tour in California in 1992. 

  181. Killdeer  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Charadrius v. vociferus

  182. Mountain Plover  (nt) (USneb) (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Charadrius montanus

    The population of the Mountain Plover has seriously declined in the last 25 years. 

    The species has been classified by Birdlife International as a "vulnerable" species, but more recently its status has been downlisted to "near threatened".

    It has been said that about 80 per cent of the Mountain Plover population winters in California, with nearly a quarter of them in the Central Valley. 
    During a census in 1998, 2.663 birds were counted , with the two largest flocks containing about 250 birds each. One of those flocks was in Yolo County, and the other was in the Imperial Valley.  

  183. Wilson's Plover  (ph)  ______
    Charadrius wilsonia

  184. Piping Plover  ( )  (ph)  ______  
    Charadrius melodus

  185. Greater Sandplover  (NAr)  ______
    Charadrius leschenaultii

  186. Eurasian Dotterel  (NAr) (CAr) (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Charadrius morinellus

  187. Black Oystercatcher  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Haematopus bachmani

    A Black Oystercatcher photographed during a FONT West Coast Tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  188. American Oystercatcher  (ph)  ______
    Haematopus palliatus

  189. Black-necked Stilt  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:r
    Himantopus mexicanus

    The Black-necked Stilt has been considered by some to be conspecific with the Black-winged Stilt of the Old World.

  190. American Avocet  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc

  191. Greater Yellowlegs  (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Tringa melanoleuca 

  192. Lesser Yellowlegs  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u

  193. "Western" Willet  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    (formerly Catoptrophorus) semipalmata inornata

  194. Solitary Sandpiper  ______  PR:r
    Tringa solitarius

  195. Common Greenshank  (NAr)  ______
    Tringa nebularia

  196. Spotted Redshank  (NAr)  ______
    Tringa erythropus

  197. Wandering Tattler  (*)  ______  PR:u

  198. Grey-tailed Tattler  (NAr)  ______
    Heteroscelus brevipes

  199. Spotted Sandpiper  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u

  200. Terek Sandpiper  (NAr)  ______
    Xenus cinereus

  201. Upland Sandpiper  (CAr)  ______
    Bartramia longicauda

  202. "American" Whimbrel  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus

  203. LITTLE CURLEW  (NAr) (*)  ______  (seen during the FONT California tour in 1994)
    Numenius minutus

  204. Long-billed Curlew  (nt) (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Numenius americanus parvus

  205. Bristle-thighed Curlew  (t3) (NAr) (CAr)  ______ 
    Numenius tahitiensis

  206. Marbled Godwit  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Limosa fedoa

    The Marbled Godwit is a common bird 
    along the California coast in September 

    (photo by Abram Fleishman)

  207. BAR-TAILED GODWIT  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:x
    Limosa lapponica baueri

  208. Hudsonian Godwit  ______
    Limosa haemastica

  209. Ruddy Turnstone  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Arenaria interpres morinella

  210. Black Turnstone  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Arenaria melanocephala

  211. Surfbird  (*)  ______  PR:r
    Aphriza virgata 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    In California, Surfbirds are very local, occurring rather commonly at some sites, but very sparingly, if at all, at others. 
    It is always a surprise to see Surfbirds at Point Reyes, for example, but they can be expected at Bodega Bay, in similar habitat, just 10 miles north.  

  212. Red Knot  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Calidris canutus rufa

  213. Sanderling  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Calidris alba rubida

  214. Pectoral Sandpiper  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u

  215. Baird's Sandpiper  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Calidris bairdii 

  216. Western Sandpiper  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Calidris mauri

  217. Semipalmated Sandpiper  (wNAr) (*)  ______ (during the FONT California tour in 1993)  PR:r
    Calidris pusilla

  218. Least Sandpiper  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Calidris minutilla

  219. LONG-TOED STINT  (NAr) (ph) (*)  ______ (during the FONT California tour in 1992)
    Calidris subminuta

  220. Dunlin  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Calidris alpina

  221. Rock Sandpiper  ______  PR:x
    Calidris ptilocnemis

    The Rock Sandpiper is essentially a sedentary resident of the Bering Sea shores, but some of its population moves southward in the non-breeding season into northern California. It is found, uncommonly, along Humboldt's craggier coastline, and more rarely further south along the California seacoast. 
    An apparent scarcity of the Rock Sandpiper in California in recent decades may be the result of a northward contraction of its range in winter, rather than a population decline.      

  222. White-rumped Sandpiper  ______  PR:x
    Calidris fuscicollis

  223. Red-necked Stint  (NAr) (ph)  ______
    Calidris ruficollis

  224. Little Stint  (NAr)  ______  PR:x
    Calidris minuta

  225. Sharp-tailed Sandpiper  (NAr)  ______  PR:x
    Calidris acuminata

  226. Curlew Sandpiper  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Calidris ferruginea

  227. Stilt Sandpiper  ______  PR:x
    (has been Micropama) himantopus

  228. Buff-breasted Sandpiper  (nt) (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Limicola falcinellus

  229. Ruff / Reeve  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Philomachus pugnax

  230. Short-billed Dowitcher  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Limnodromus griseus

  231. Long-billed Dowitcher  (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Limnodromus scolopaceus 

  232. Wilson's Snipe  (ph)  ______  PR:u
    Gallinago delicata 

  233. Jack Snipe  (NAr)  ______
    Lymnocryptes minmus

  234. American Woodcock  (ph)  ______ 
    Scolopax minor

  235. Wilson's Phalarope  (*)  ______  PR:r 
    Phalaropus tricolor

  236. Red Phalarope  (ph) (*) ______  (mp)  PR:fc
    Phalaropus fulicaria

    Red Phalarope

  237. Red-necked Phalarope  (ph) (*)  ______ (mp)  PR:fc
    Phalaropus lobatus

    A Red-necked Phalarope photographed during a FONT tour in California

  238. Pomarine Jaeger  (ph) (*) ______  (mp)  PR:u
    Stercorarius pomarinus 

    A Pomarine Jaeger
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  239. Parasitic Jaeger  (ph) (*)  ______  (mp)  PR:u
    Stercorarius parasiticus 

  240. Long-tailed Jaeger  (ph) (*)  ______ (mp)  PR:r
    Stercorarius longicaudus

    An immature Long-tailed Jaeger
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  241. South Polar Skua  (ph) (*) ______  (mp)  PR:r
    (or Catharacta) maccormicki

    South Polar Skua
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  242. Franklin's Gull  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    (formerly Larus) pipixcan

  243. Laughing Gull  (ph)  ______
    (formerly Larus) atricilla

  244. Black-headed Gull  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    (formerly Larus) ridibudus 

  245. Bonaparte's Gull  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    (formerly Larus) philadelphia

  246. Little Gull  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    (formerly Larus) minutus

  247. Heermann's Gull  (nt) (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Larus heermanni   

    The Heermann's Gull breeds south of California on islands off Baja California, Mexico. It is found along the California coast mainly in the fall and winter, where it often accompanies Brown Pelicans, snapping up fish that escape from the pelican's pouches.

    Heermann's Gull
    (photo by Armas Hill)

  248. Ring-billed Gull  (ph) (*)  ______   PR:c
    Larus delawarensis

  249. California Gull  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Larus c. californicus

    California Gull
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  250. "American" Herring Gull  (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Larus argentatus smithsonianus

  251. Western Gull  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Larus o. occidentalis

  252. Glaucous-winged Gull  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Larus glaucescens

  253. Mew Gull ______  (called Common Gull in Eurasia)  PR:c
    Larus canus brachyrhynchus

  254. Yellow-footed Gull  (ph)  ______
    Larus livens

  255. Thayer's Gull  ______  PR:u
    Larus thayeri

  256. Glaucous Gull  (ph)  ______   PR:r
    Larus hyperboreus

  257. Iceland Gull  (ph)  ______ 
    Larus glaucoides kumlieni

  258. Lesser Black-backed Gull  (ph)  ______
    Larus fuscus graellsii

  259. Belcher's Gull  (NAr)  ______  (has been called Band-tailed Gull)
    Larus belcheri

  260. Black-tailed Gull  (NAr) (ph)  ______
    Larus crassirostris

  261. Sabine's Gull  (ph) (*)  ______  (mp)  PR:r
    Xema sabini

  262. Black-legged Kittiwake  (ph) (*)  ______  (mp) PR:u 
    Rissa tridactyla

  263. Red-legged Kittiwake  ( ) (CAr)  ______
    Rissa revirostris

  264. Ivory Gull  (CAr) (ph)  ______
    Pagophila eburnea

  265. Gull-billed Tern  ______
    (formerly Sterna) nilotica 

  266. Caspian Tern  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    (formerly Sterna) c. caspia

  267. Arctic Tern  (*)  ______ (mp) PR:u
    Sterna paradisaea

  268. Forster's Tern  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Sterna forsteri

  269. Common Tern  (*)  ______  PR:u
    Sterna h. hirundo

  270. Royal Tern  (ph) (*)  ______ (seen during the FONT California tour in 1992)  PR:x
    Thalasseus (formerly Sterna) m. maxima

  271. Elegant Tern  (nt) (*)   ______  PR:c
    (formerly Sterna) elegans

  272. Sandwich Tern  ______ 
    (formerly Sterna) sandvicensis acuflavida

  273. Least Tern  ______  PR:x
    (formerly Sterna) antillarum

  274. Bridled Tern  (ph)  ______
    (formerly Sterna) anaethetus

  275. Sooty Tern  (ph)  ______
    (formerly Sterna) fuscata

  276. Black Tern  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:x
    Chlidonias niger surinamensis

  277. WHITE-WINGED TERN  (NAr) (ph) (*)  ______  (seen during the FONT California tour in 1999)
    Chlidonias leucopterus

    The White-winged Tern is a Eurasian bird.
    These two photos of the species were taken in North America.
    (photos by Alan Brady)


  278. Black Skimmer  (ph)  ______
    Rynchops niger

  279. Common Murre  (ph) (*)  ______ (mp)  PR:c
    Uria aalge californica

    The Common Murre has been a dominant member of the California breeding seabird community. It has had a variable history of decline and recovery, but numbers have suffered in recent decades because of mortality from the gill-net fishery and oil spills. There has also been low reproductive success caused by an increasing frequency of El Nino events.

    In central California, the population was decimated in the late 1800s and early 1900s by an "egging" operation out of San Francisco. After the chicken poultry industry was established and the demand for Common Murre eggs was reduced, the population rebounded and grew to several hundred thousand breeding pairs in California by the early 1980s. 

    That recovery was marred, however, by intense mortality, as just noted, by gill-netting, with as many as 70,000 murres known to have been killed between 1979 and 1987. Legislation to abate "by killing" was enacted in 1987, and the Common Murre was given a reprieve, only to be later hit by oil spills in 1980 & 1984, among others, and then some intense El Nino years
    The central California population declined by 60 per cent in the 1980s, and it has not substantially recovered since. 

    Common Murre
    (photo by Kim Steininger)

  280. Thick-billed Murre  ______
    Uria lomvia

  281. Pigeon Guillemot  (*)  ______ (mp)  PR:fc
    Cepphus c. columba

  282. Marbled Murrelet (nt) (*)  ______ (mp)  PR:u
    Brachyramphus marmoratus

    The Marbled Murrelet, a small seabird, has the curious and unusual trait of nesting high in the limbs of old-growth coniferous trees in the forest. 
    Its nesting habits are so unusual for a seabird that they remained a mystery until 1974, when a nest was discovered in the Big Basin State Park, in Santa Cruz County.  Other than a smaller population in the Santa Cruz Mountains, the entire breeding range of the Marbled Murrelet in California is in the conifer forests on the immediate coast of Del Norte, Humboldt, and northern Medocino Counties. 

    Federally, the Marbled Murrelet is classified as THREATENED. In California, it is classified as ENDANGERED. 

    There is a fine book entitled "Rare Bird - Pursuing the Mystery of the Marbled Murrelet", by Maria Mudd Ruth, published in 2005, that is an excellent read about the bird.

  283. Long-billed Murrelet  (NAr) (CAr)  ______
    Brachyramphus perdix

  284. Kittlitz's Murrelet  (t1) (CAr)  ______
    Brachyramphus brevorostris

  285. Scripps's Murrelet  (t3) (*)  ______ (mp)  PR:r  (was part of what was the Xantu's Murrelet, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus
    us scrippsi  

    Synthliboramphus scrippsi occurs at sea mostly in California. Away from its breeding sites, it occurs north, rarely, to northern California and more rarely to Oregon and Washington State, and south to southern Baja California, Mexico. 
    It breeds on islands off southern California: San Miguel, Santa Cruz, Anacapa, Santa Barbara, San Clemente, and formerly Santa Catalina, and in western Baja California, Mexico on San Benito, and Coronado and San Jeronimo islands. On larger islands (such as San Miguel, Santa Cruz, and San Clemente), it is confined largely or entirely to offshore rocks.  

  286. Guadalupe Murrelet  (t3)  ______  (was part of what was the Xantu's Murrelet)
    Synthliboramphus hypoleucus 

    Synthliboramphus hypoleucus breeds on offshore rocks and islands off western Baja California, Mexico from Guadalupe Island south to the San Benito Islands. Breeding is unconfirmed on San Martin Island, in Baja California, and San Clemente and Santa Barbara Islands in California, USA.
    It presumably winters offshore within the breeding range along the Pacific coast of Baja California.        

  287. Craveri's Murrelet  (t3) (*) ______ (mp) 
    Synthliboramphus craveri

  288. Ancient Murrelet  ______  PR:u
    Synthliboramphus antiquus

  289. Cassin's Auklet  (*)  ______ (mp)  PR:c
    Ptychoramphus aleuticus

    The population of the Cassin's Auklet has declined precipitously since the 1980s due to an increase in ocean temperature and thermocline depth. 
    The decline of the species has also been due to predation by Western Gulls at breeding sites, particularly at California's largest colony of Cassin's Auklets, on the Farallon Islands. 
    The correlation between an increasing Western Gull population and a decreasing Cassin's Auklet population is emblematic of unintended consequences of the human urbanization of the California coast. Gulls on the Farallon Islands commute regularly (even daily) from Bay Area landfills and dumps, a distance of about 20 miles.
    Cassin's Auklet numbers have also been declining at Price Island in the Channel Islands.

  290. Rhinoceros Auklet  (*)  ______ (mp)  PR:u
    Cerohinca monocerata

  291. Parakeet Auklet  ______  PR:x
    Aethia psittacula

  292. Least Auklet  (ph)  ______
    Aethia pusilla

  293. Crested Auklet  ______  PR:x
    Aethia cristatelia

  294. Tufted Puffin  ______  PR:r
    Fratercula cirrhata

  295. Horned Puffin  ______  PR:x
    Fratercula corniculata

  296. Common (or Feral) Pigeon (NAi) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Columba livia

  297. Band-tailed Pigeon  (*)  _______  PR:fc
    (formerly Columba) flavirostris

  298. White-winged Dove  (*)  ______  (seen during the FONT California tour in 1995)  PR:x
    Zenaida asiatica

  299. Mourning Dove  (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Zenaida macroura

  300. Inca Dove  ______
    Columbina (or Scardafella) inca

  301. Common Ground Dove  ______
    Columbina passerina

  302. Ruddy Ground Dove  (NAr)  ______
    Columbina talpacoti

  303. Spotted Dove  (NAi)  ______
    Streptopelia chinensis

  304. Eurasian Collared Dove  (NAi)  ______
    Streptopelia decaocto

  305. White-winged Parakeet  (NAi) (*)  ______  (seen during the FONT California tour in 1993)  
    Brotogeris versicolurus

    What is now the White-winged Parakeet was called the Canary-winged Parakeet. Native to South America, the Canary-winged Parakeet has been "split" into the Yellow-chevroned Parakeet, Brotogeris chiriri, and the White-winged Parakeet.  

  306. Red-masked Parakeet/Conure  (nt) (NAi) (*)  ______  (seen during the FONT California tour in 2005)
    Aratinga erythrogenys

    The native range of the Red-masked Parakeet is in South America, mostly in Ecuador, also Peru. 
    It occurs in San Francisco, especially near Telegraph Hill.

  307. Red-crowned Amazon  (NAi)  ______
    Amazona viridigenalis

  308. Yellow-billed Cuckoo  ______  PR:x
    Coccyzus americanus

  309. Black-billed Cuckoo  ______  PR:x
    Coccyzus erythropithimus

  310. Greater Roadrunner  (ph) (*)  ______ 
    Geococcyx californianus

  311. Groove-billed Ani  (CAr)  ______
    Crotophaga suicirostris

  312. Barn Owl  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Tyto alba pratincola

  313. Western Screech Owl  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u 
    (formerly Otus) kennicottii

  314. Flammulated Owl  ______
    (formerly Otus) flammeolus

  315. Great Horned Owl  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Bubo virginianus saturatus

  316. Snowy Owl  ______  PR:x
    (formerly Nyctea) scandiacus

  317. Northern Pygmy Owl  (*)  ______   PR:r
    Glaucidium c. californicum 
    (previously Glaucidium gnoma, which is now said to be Mountain Pygmy-Owl of Mexico & Central America, reaching north into southern Arizona & New Mexico) 

  318. Elf Owl  ______
    Micrathene whitneyi

  319. Burrowing Owl  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:r 
    Athene cunicularia hypugaea

  320. Spotted Owl  (ph)  ______  PR:u
    Strix occidentalis

    The "Northern Spotted Owl", S. o. caurina, is a characteristic bird of dense, fog-drenched forest. It is rarely noticed because of its strictly nocturnal habits and its quiet demeanor. Because of loss of habitat resulting from aggressive forestry practices in older growth forests, the Spotted Owl is classified as a THREATENED SPECIES both federally and in California.
    It faces another threat as sell. Studies have shown that where the forest has been fragmented by logging, the Barred Owl, Strix varia, has encroached into territory formerly held by the Spotted Owl. Although Spotted Owls require dense forest, Barred Owls are more tolerant of open forests and thus are more adapted to the environment being created by ongoing forestry practices.
    Barred Owls were first detected in the northernmost Coast Ranges of California in the early 1980s. By 2002, they had been found as far south as the Muir Woods National Monument in Marin County, the southernmost locale of the Northern Spotted Owl in the humid north coast forest.
    The theory of "competitive exclusion"" suggest that two such similar species can not coexist, and that ultimately one will displace the other. Larger and adapted t more open habitat than the Spotted Owl, the Barred Owl seems to have the competitive advantage.     

  321. Barred Owl  (ph)  ______
    Strix varia

  322. Great Gray Owl  (ph)  ______
    Strix nebulosa

    The Great Gray Owl is classified as ENDANGERED in California. 

  323. Northern Long-eared Owl  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Asio otus

  324. Short-eared Owl  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Asio flammeus

  325. Northern Saw-whet Owl  (ph)  ______  PR:fc
    Aegolius acadius

  326. Common Nighthawk  (*)  ______  PR:x
    Chordeiles minor hesperis

  327. Lesser Nighthawk  ______  PR:x
    Chordeiles acutipennis

  328. Common Poorwill  ______  PR:r
    Phanaenoptilus nuttallii

  329. Chuck-will's-widow  (CAr)  ______
    Caprimulgus carolinensis

  330. Buff-collared Nightjar  (CAr)  ______
    Caprimulgus ridgwayi

  331. Mexican Whip-poor-will  ______  PR:x
    Caprimulgus arizonae

  332. American Black Swift  (*)  ______  (during the FONT California tour in 1997)  PR:r
    Cypseloides niger borealis

  333. Vaux's Swift  (*)  ______  PR:u
    Chaetura v. vauxi

  334. Chimney Swift  (CAr)  ______  PR:x
    Chaetura pelagica

  335. White-throated Swift  (*)  ______  PR:r
    Aeronautes saxatalis

  336. White-collared Swift  (CAr)  ______
    Streptoprocne zonaris

  337. Broad-billed Hummingbird  ______
    Cynanthus latirostris

  338. Xantu's Hummingbird  (NAr) (ph)  ______
    Hylocharis xantusii

  339. Violet-crowned Hummingbird  (CAr)  ______
    Amazilia violiceps

  340. Blue-throated Hummingbird  (CAr)  ______  (also called Blue-throated Mountaingem
    Lampornis clemenciae

  341. Magnificent Hummingbird  ______
    Eugenes fulgens
  342. Anna's Hummingbird  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Calypte anna

    Anna's Hummingbirds are sexually dimorphic, as the plumage of each sex is distinct. The male is festooned with a bright magenta-colored throat (or gorget) and head. The female has a much less conspicuous plumage.
    The Anna's is a common hummingbird, occurring across much of the Pacific slope, moving easily (and often) among habitats, from chaparral and coastal scrub through mixed woodland and riparian edges, exploiting a variety of nectar sources during different seasons. 

    Males and females tend to have different habitat preferences, as sexually dimorphic species often do. Male Anna's Hummingbirds take territorial stands in more open situations, as up canyon sides or on hillslopes or out of level washes, while females during the time of their nesting activities adhere to tracts of evergreen trees, most commonly perhaps, those of live oaks.
    This separation of habitat use is possible because male Anna's Hummingbirds are polygynous. They mate with many females and take no part in nesting or chick rearing.  

    The widespread introduction of exotic fall-flowering trees and shrubs has enabled Anna's Hummingbirds, both males and females, to overwinter in California.

    Anna's Hummingbirds
    Above: a male 
    Below: a female 

  343. Black-chinned Hummingbird  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Archilochus alexandri

  344. Ruby-throated Hummingbird  (CAr) (ph)  ______
    Archilochus colubris

  345. Costa's Hummingbird  (ph)  ______  PR:x 
    Calypte costae

  346. Calliope Hummingbird  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    (formerly Stellula) calliope

  347. Broad-tailed Hummingbird  (ph)  ______
    Selasphorus platycercus

  348. Rufous Hummingbird  (ph)  ______  PR:u
    Selasphorus rufus

  349. Allen's Hummingbird  (ph)  ______  PR:c
    Selasphorus sasin

    The breeding range of the Allen's Hummingbird conforms almost exactly with that of the "Nuttall's" White-crowned Sparrow, in the soft chaparral along the California coast.
    Migrating Allen's Hummingbirds do well in suburban environments and habitat edges within the coastal zone.    

  350. Belted Kingfisher  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc 
    (formerly Ceryle) alcyon

  351. Acorn Woodpecker  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Melanerpes formicivorus

    The Acorn Woodpecker is an oak-dependent species, rarely wandering far from a forest or savannah with oak trees. Like jays, Acorn Woodpeckers harvest acorns prodigiously but rather than burying them in the ground, they store their bounty in trees. in "granaries", which they supply and maintain communally. 
    The granaries, then, provide a food source for the woodpecker in winter and spring, long after the trees have finished fruiting. Usually, each acorn is placed in a small excavated hole. A variety of trees are selected from granaries, but rarely do the birds use living oaks that have thin bark and hard wood. They prefer the softer dead tissue found in thick-barked trees or dead snags. They also use telephone poles and fence posts. 
    In older granaries, much of the tree or fence post may be riddled with storage holes, but because the woodpeckers avoid living tissue, the borings tend not to damage living trees. By avoiding the moist, living tree tissue (cambium), the acorns dry more readily and are not subject to mold or rot. The colony tends their cache, rotating acorns to aid drying and moving them to smaller holes as the drying acorns shrink, Through their attentive behavior, Acorn Woodpeckers are both stewards and parasites of the oaks.

    The stewardship, just described, has caused the Acorn Woodpecker to evolve a complex, communal social system ("cooperative breeding"). The woodpecker colony is an extended family (kinship) group that consists of a breeding core of four or more related males, usually brothers or a father and his sons, who share up to three related females, usually sisters or a mother and her daughters. Older offspring may participate in the group as "helpers", attending to the granaries and assisting in raising younger birds.

    Acorn Woodpecker
    (photo by Armas Hill)

  352. Lewis's Woodpecker  ______  PR:x
    Melanerpes lewis

    Small groups of Lewis's Woodpeckers sometimes nest in the gaunt snags of burnt-out forests. 

    The Lewis's Woodpecker lacks the characteristic undulating flight of other woodpeckers.   

  353. Red-headed Woodpecker  (CAr) (ph)  ______
    Melanerpes erthrocephalus

  354. Gila Woodpecker  (ph)  ______
    Melanerpes uropygialis

    The Gila Woodpecker is classified as ENDANGERED in California.

  355. Williamson's Sapsucker  ______
    Sphyrapicus thyroideus

  356. Red-naped Sapsucker  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Sphyrapicus nuchalis

  357. Red-breasted Sapsucker  ______  PR:u
    Sphyrapicus ruber

  358. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker  (CAr)  ______  PR:x
    Sphyrapicus varius

  359. Nuttall's Woodpecker  (*)  ______  PR:u
    Picoides nuttallii

    The Nuttall's Woodpecker is essentially a bird of California's live oak woodlands, but it also breeds in Baja California and wanders very rarely into Oregon and Nevada.

  360. Ladder-backed Woodpecker  (ph)  ______
    Picoides scalaris

    The Ladder-backed Woodpecker is very similar in coloration to the Nuttall's Woodpecker, while its call, a series of rapidly descending notes, is like that of the Downy Woodpecker.
  361. White-headed Woodpecker  (*)  ______  (during FONT California tours in 1997 & 2004)
    Picoides a. albolarvatus

  362. Downy Woodpecker  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Picoides pubescens turati 

  363. Hairy Woodpecker  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Picoides villosus hyloscopus 
    (in western California)  PR:c
    Picoides villosus orius
    (in mountains of Washington & California)  PR:r

  364. Black-backed Woodpecker  ______
    Picoides arcticus

  365. "Red-shafted" Northern Flicker  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Colaptes auratus

  366. Gilded Flicker  (ph)  ______
    Colaptes chrysoides

    The Gilded Flicker is classified as ENDANGERED in California.

  367. Pileated Woodpecker  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:r
    Dryocopus pileatus

  368. Olive-sided Flycatcher  (*)  ______ (an alternate name could be "Boreal Pewee")  PR:fc
    Contopus cooperi 
    (was for a while Contopus borealis)

  369. Western Wood Pewee  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Contopus sordidulus

  370. Greater Pewee  ______
    Contopus pertinax

  371. Pacific-slope Flycatcher  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Empidonax difficilis 

  372. Willow Flycatcher  (*)  ______  PR:r
    Empidonax trailii

    Both federally and in the state of California, the Willow Flycatcher, the subspecies E. t. extimus, are classified as ENDANGERED.

  373. LEAST FLYCATCHER  (wNAr) (*)  ______  (during the FONT California tour in 1991)  PR:x
    Empidonax minimus

  374. Hammond's Flycatcher  ______  PR:x
    Empidonax hammondii

  375. Gray Flycatcher  ______  PR:x
    Empidonax wrightii

  376. Dusky Flycatcher  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Empidonax obehholseri

  377. Cordilleran Flycatcher  ______
    Empidonax occidentalis

  378. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher  ______
    Empidonax flaviventris

  379. Alder Flycatcher  ______
    Empidonax alnorum

  380. Black Phoebe  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Sayornis nigricans

  381. Say's Phoebe  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Sayornis saya

  382. Eastern Phoebe  ______  PR:x
    Sayornis phoebe

  383. Vermilion Flycatcher  (ph)  ______
    Pyrocephalus rubinus

  384. Ash-throated Flycatcher  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc 
    Myiarchus cinerascens

  385. Brown-crested Flycatcher  ______
    Myiarchus tyrannulus

  386. Dusky-capped Flycatcher  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Myiarchus tuberculifer

  387. Nutting's Flycatcher  ______
    Myiarchus nuttingi

  388. Great Crested Flycatcher  (ph)   ______  PR:x
    Myiarchus crinitus

  389. Brown-crested Flycatcher  ______
    Myiarchus tyrannulus

  390. Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher  (CAr)  ______  
    Myiodynastes luteiventris

  391. Western Kingbird  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Tyrannus verticalis

  392. EASTERN KINGBIRD  (wNAr) (ph) (*)  ______  (during FONT California tours in 1991 & 2005)  PR:x
    Tyrannus tyrannus

  393. Cassin's Kingbird  ______  PR:x
    Tyrannus vociferans

  394. Tropical Kingbird  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Tyrannus melancholicus

  395. Couch's Kingbird  (CAr) (ph)  ______
    Tyrannus couchii

  396. Thick-billed Kingbird  (CAr)  ______
    Tyrannus crassirostris 

  397. Scissor-tailed Flycatcher  (CAr) (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Tyrannus forficalus

  398. Fork-tailed Flycatcher  (NAr) (ph)  ______
    Tyrannus savana

  399. Loggerhead Shrike  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    l. ludovicianus
    Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi  

    The subspecies L. l. mearnsi is federally classified as an ENDANGERED subspecies. Called the San Clemente Loggerhead Shrike, it is restricted to San Clemente Island, 49 miles from the mainland, and 56 square miles in size. Thus, this subspecies has seemingly the smallest range of any bird in North America, and it is one of the most endangered. Although the shrikes formerly occurred throughout the island, defoliation and predation by feral cats and ravens have taken their toll.   

  400. Northern Shrike  (ph)  ______  (called the Great Grey Shrike in Eurasia)  PR:x
    Lanius excubitor

  401. Brown Shrike  (NAr)  _______  PR:x
    Lanius cristatus

  402. Cassin's Vireo  (*)  ______  (was called Solitary Vireo when it was conspecific with what are now the Plumbeous and Blue-headed VireosPR:r
    Vireo cassinii

  403. Plumbeous Vireo  ______  (was called Solitary Vireo, as was the Cassin's VireoPR:x
    Vireo plumbeus

  404. Hutton's Vireo  (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Vireo huttoni

  405. Warbling Vireo  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Vireo gilvus

  406. White-eyed Vireo  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Vireo griseus

  407. Bell's Vireo  (nt)  ______  PR:x
    Vireo bellii

    Two subspecies of the Bell's Vireo are classified in California as ENDANGERED: V. b. arizonae & V. b. pusillus. 
    Vireo b. pusillus is federally classified as ENDANGERED.
  408. Gray Vireo  ______
    Vireo vicinior

  409. Yellow-throated Vireo  ______  PR:x
    Vireo flavifrons

  410. Blue-headed Vireo  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Vireo solitarius

  411. Philadelphia Vireo  ______  PR:x
    Vireo philadelphicus 

  412. Red-eyed Vireo  ______  PR:x
    Vireo olivaceus

  413. Yellow-green Vireo  ______
    Vireo flavoviridis

  414. Gray Jay  (ph)  ______
    Perisoreus canadensis 

  415. Steller's Jay  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c 
    Cyanocitta stelleri carbonacea 

  416. Blue Jay  (ph)  ______
    Cyanocitta cristata

  417. Western Scrub Jay  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Aphelocoma c. californica

  418. Island Scrub Jay  (CAe)  ______
    Aphelocoma insularis  

    The Island Scrub Jay is restricted entirely to Santa Cruz Island (with 96 square miles) off the southern California coast. It differs from its closest relative on the mainland, the Western Scrub Jay, by its larger size, brighter blue color, hoarser voice, and different breeding behavior.    

  419. Pinyon Jay  (*)  ______ (during the FONT California tour in 2004)  PR:x
    Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus

  420. Clark's Nutcracker  (*)  ______  PR:x
    Nucifraga columbiana

  421. Black-billed Magpie  (*)  ______  (was conspecific with the Eurasian Magpie, Pica pica
    Pica hudsonia 

  422. Yellow-billed Magpie  (CAe) (USe) (ph) (*)  ______
    Pica nuttalli  

    In California only, the Yellow-billed Magpie ranges throughout the Central Valley, and along the south coast, but nowhere else except as a rare vagrant.

    Yellow-billed Magpie

  423. American Crow  (*)  ______   PR:fc
    Corvus brachyrhnchos hesperis

  424. Northern Raven  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Corvus corax principalis

  425. Horned Lark  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Eremophila alpestris

  426. Eurasian Skylark  (NAr)  ______  PR:x
    Alaudia arvensis

  427. Cedar Waxwing  (ph)  ______  PR:fc
    Bombycilla garrulus

  428. Bohemian Waxwing  ______
    Bombycilla garrulus

  429. Phainopepla  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:x
    Phainopepla nitens

  430. Purple Martin  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Progne subis

  431. Tree Swallow  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Tachycineta bicolor

  432. Violet-green Swallow  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Tachycineta t. thalassina

  433. Bank Swallow  ______  (also called Sand MartinPR:r
    Riparia r. riparia

    The Bank Swallow is classified as THREATENED in California.

  434. Barn Swallow  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Hirundo rustica erythrogaster

  435. American Cliff Swallow  ______  PR:c
    Petrochelidon pyrrhonota

  436. Northern Rough-winged Swallow  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Stelgidopteryx s. serripennis

  437. Chestnut-backed Chickadee  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Poecile r. rufescens 
    (two other subspecies along California coast: P.r. neglectus & P.r. barlowi

  438. Mountain Chickadee  (*)  ______  PR:x
    Poecile gambeli baileyae

  439. Black-capped Chickadee  (ph)  ______
    Poecile atricapilla

    In California, the Black-capped Chickadee is a montane breeder with a distribution extending into the state to the Klamath Mountains and coastward only as far south as Humboldt County. 

  440. Oak Titmouse  (*)  ______ (was at one time part of Plain Titmouse when it was conspecific with what is now the Juniper Titmouse PR:u
    Baeolophus i. inornatus

  441. Juniper Titmouse  ______  (was part of the Plain Titmouse, as was the Oak Titmouse)
    Baeolophus ridgwayi

  442. Verdin  (ph)  ______
    Auriparus flaviceps

  443. American Bushtit  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Psaltriparus minimus
    (a complex species with 11 subspecies in 3 "groups")
    In California, these 2 subspecies, in the "Minimus Group", the
    "Plain Bushtit":
    P. m. minimus 
    (along coastal California)
    P. m. californicus
    (in California east of the Coastal Range)
    Birds in the "Plumbeous Group", the
    "Lead-colored Bushtit", P. m. plumbeous, also occur in California east of the Sierra Nevada.

  444. Red-breasted Nuthatch  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Sitta canadensis

  445. White-breasted Nuthatch  (ph)  (*)  ______  PR:r
    Sitta carolinensis aculeata 

  446. Pygmy Nuthatch  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Sitta pygmaea melanotus 
    (in northern California)
    Sitta p. pygmaea 
    (in coastal, central California)

  447. Brown Creeper  (ph) (*)  ______  (an alternate name could be "American Treecreeper" PR:fc
    Certhia americana occidentalis

  448. Cactus Wren  (ph)  ______
    Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus

  449. Rock Wren  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Salpinctes o. obsoletus

  450. Canyon Wren  ______  PR:x
    Catherpes mexicanus

  451. Bewick's Wren  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Thryomanes bewickii spilurus 
    (in central California)

  452. House Wren  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:r
    Troglodytes aedon

  453. Pacific Wren  (*)   ______  (was part of the Winter WrenPR:c
    Troglodytes pacificus

  454. Marsh Wren  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Cistothorus palustris
    (subspecies in coastal & central California)  

  455. Sedge Wren  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Cistothorus platensis

  456. American Dipper  ______  PR:x
    Cinclus mexicanus

  457. Ruby-crowned Kinglet  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Regulus calendula

  458. Golden-crowned Kinglet  (ph)  ______  PR:fc
    Regulus satrapa

  459. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:r
    Polioptila caerulea

  460. California Gnatcatcher  ______
    Polioptila californica

    The California and Black-tailed Gnatcatchers are two sibling species that were, until recently, considered subspecies of the same species. 
    The California Gnatcatcher is a bird of the coastal scrub. The Black-tailed Gnatcatcher is thoroughly desert adapted.

    The subspecies of the California Gnatcatcher, P. c. californica, is federally classified as THREATENED. 

  461. Black-tailed Gnatcatcher  ______
    Polioptila melanura

  462. Lanceolated Warbler  (NAr)  ______
    Locustella lanceolata

  463. Dusky Warbler  (NAr)  ______
    Phylloscopus fuscatus

  464. Arctic Warbler  (CAr)  ______
    Phylloscopus borealis

  465. Red-flanked Bluetail  (ph)  ______
    (formerly Tarsiger) cyanurus

  466. Northern Wheatear  (ph)   ______   
    Oenanthe oenanthe

  467. Western Bluebird  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Sialia mexicana

  468. Mountain Bluebird  (ph) (*)  ______ PR:x
    Sialia currucoides

  469. Townsend's Solitaire  ______  PR:x
    Myadestes townsendi

  470. Swainson's Thrush  (*)  ______  PR:c
    u. ustulatus

    The nominate subspecies of the Swainson's Thrush is a summer visitor to California coastal woodlands which resonate, when the birds are there, with their ascending flute-like songs, that are among the most beautiful to be heard in the state, or anywhere.

    The subspecies Catharus u. ustulatus was described by Nuttall in 1840. 3 other subspecies of the Swainson's Thrush also occur in California.

  471. Hermit Thrush  (ph)  ______  PR:c
    Catharus guttatus

  472. Veery  ______  PR:x
    Catharus fuscescens

  473. Gray-cheeked Thrush  ______  PR:x
    Catharus minimus

  474. Wood Thrush  ______  PR:x
    Hylocichia mustelina

  475. American Robin  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Turdus migratorius 

  476. Rufous-backed Robin  (NAr)  ______
    Turdus rufopalliatus 

  477. Eye-browed Thrush  (NAr)  ______
    Turdus obscurus

  478. Varied Thrush  (ph)  ______  PR:fc
    Ixoreus naevius  

    The Varied Thrush is a denizen of the shady forest, of redwood and spruce, where its sound can be heard, a strange, mechanical "veeeer".  

  479. California Thrasher  (CAqe) (*)  ______ 
    Toxostoma redivivum

  480. Bendire's Thrasher  ______
    Toxostoma bendirei

  481. Le Conte's Thrasher  ______
    Toxostoma lecontei

  482. Crissal Thrasher  ______
    Toxostoma crissale

  483. Curve-billed Thrasher  ______
    Toxostoma curvirostre

  484. Brown Thrasher  ______  PR:x
    Toxostoma rufum 

  485. Sage Thrasher  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Oreoscoptes montanus

  486. Northern Mockingbird  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Mimus polyglottos

  487. Gray Catbird  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Dumetella carolinensis

  488. Common Starling  (NAi) (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Sturnus vulgaris

  489. Wrentit  (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Charmaea fasciata 

    The distinctive call of the Wrentit is often the only clue to the presence of that secretive denizen of tangled scrub. It is a year-round resident in chaparral and coastal scrub, and endemic to the West Coast from southern Oregon to far-northern Baja California. 

  490. House Sparrow  (NAi) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Passer domesticus

  491. American Pipit  ______  PR:fc
    Anthus rubescens 

  492. Olive-backed Pipit  (NAr) (ph)  ______
    Anthus hodgsoni

  493. Red-throated Pipit  (CAr)  ______  PR:x
    Anthus cervinus

  494. Sprague's Pipit  ( ) (CAr)  ______
    Anthus spragueii

  495. Eastern Yellow Wagtail  (CAr)  ______  PR:x
    Motacilla tschutschensis

  496. Grey Wagtail  (CAr)  ______
    Motacilla cinerea

  497. White Wagtail  (CAr) (ph)  ______  (includes what has been the Black-backed Wagtail)
    Motacilla alba

  498. Brambling  (NAr)  ______  
    Fringilla montifringilla

  499. Gray-crowned Rosy Finch  (ph)  ______
    Leucosticte tephrocotis

  500. Black Rosy Finch  (ph)  ______
    Leucosticte atrata

  501. Pine Grosbeak  (ph)  ______
    Pinicolas enucleator

  502. Purple Finch  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    (formerly Carpodacus) purpureus

    A male Purple Finch
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  503. Cassin's Finch  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:x
    (formerly Carpodacus) cassinii

  504. House Finch  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    (formerly Carpodacus) mexicanus

    House Finch
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  505. Red Crossbill  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Loxia curvirostra

  506. White-winged Crossbill  (ph)  ______
    Loxia leucoptera

  507. Common Redpoll  (ph)  ______
    Acanthis (formerly Carduelis) flammea

  508. Pine Siskin  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    (formerly Carduelis) pinus

  509. Lesser Goldfinch  (*)  ______  PR:fc
    (formerly Carduelis) psaltria

  510. Lawrence's Goldfinch  (*)  ______ (during FONT California tours twice)  PR:x  
    (formerly Carduelis) lawrencei

  511. American Goldfinch  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    (formerly Carduelis) tristis

  512. Evening Grosbeak  (ph)  _____  PR:r
    Coccothraustes vespertinus 

  513. BLACK-AND-WHITE WARBLER  (wNAr) (*)  ______  (during the FONT California tour in 1998)  PR:r 
    Mniotilta varia 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  514. Blue-winged Warbler  (ph)  ______
    Vermivora pinus

  515. Golden-winged Warbler  ______
    Vermivora chrysoptera

  516. Orange-crowned Warbler  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    (formerly Vermivora) celata

  517. Nashville Warbler  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    (formerly Vermivora) ruficapilla

  518. Tennessee Warbler  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    (formerly Vermivora) peregrina

  519. Virginia's Warbler  ______  PR:x
    Oreothlypis (formerly Vermivora) virginiae

  520. Lucy's Warbler  ______  PR:x
    (formerly Vermivora) luciae

  521. Yellow Warbler  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    (formerly Dendroica) petechia 

  522. "Audubon's" Yellow-rumped Warbler  (*)  ______  PR:c
    (formerly Dendroica) coronata auduboni

  523. "Myrtle" Yellow-rumped Warbler  ______  PR:c
    (formerly Dendroica) c. coronata 

  524. NORTHERN PARULA  (wNAr) (ph) (*)  ______   PR:r
    (formerly Parula) americana

  525. Black-throated Gray Warbler  (*)  ______  PR:u
    (formerly Dendroica) nigrescens

  526. BLACK-THROATED BLUE WARBLER  (wNAr) (*)  ______  (during the FONT California tour in 1991)   PR:r
    Setophaga (formerly Dendroica) caerulescens

  527. Townsend's Warbler  (*)  ______  PR:fc
    (formerly Dendroica) townsendi

  528. Hermit Warbler  (*)  ______  PR:u
    (formerly Dendroica) occidentalis

  529. Palm Warbler  ______  PR:r
    (formerly Dendroica) palmarum 

  530. BLACKPOLL WARBLER  (ph) (*)   ______  (during the FONT California tour in 1991)  PR:r
    Setophaga (formerly Dendroica) striata

  531. Chestnut-sided Warbler  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    (formerly Dendroica) pensylvanica

  532. Magnolia Warbler  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    (formerly Dendroica) magnolia

  533. Cape May Warbler  ______  PR:r
    (formerly Dendroica) tigrina

  534. Black-throated Green Warbler  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    (formerly Dendroica) virens

  535. Golden-cheeked Warbler  (t2 ) (CAr)  ______
    (formerly Dendroica) chrysoparia

  536. Blackburnian Warbler  (ph)  ______
    (formerly Dendroica) fusca

  537. Yellow-throated Warbler  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    (formerly Dendroica) dominica

  538. Grace's Warbler  ______
    (formerly Dendroica) graciae

  539. Pine Warbler  _______  PR:x
    (formerly Dendroica) pinus

  540. Prairie Warbler  (ph)  _______  PR:r
    (formerly Dendroica) discolor

  541. Bay-breasted Warbler  ______  PR:r
    (formerly Dendroica) castanea

  542. Cerulean Warbler  (t3) (CAr)  ______  PRx
    (formerly Dendroica) cerulea

  543. Prothonotary Warbler  ______  PR:x
    Protonotaria citrea

  544. Worm-eating Warbler  ______  PR:x
    Helmitheros vermivorum

  545. Ovenbird  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Seiurus aurocapilla

  546. Northern Waterthrush  ______  PR:r
    Parkesia noveboracensis

  547. Louisiana Waterthrush  ______
    Parkesia motacilla

  548. Connecticut Warbler  ______  PR:x
    Oporornis agilis 
    (now the single member of its genus) 
  549. Mourning Warbler  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    (formerly Oporornis) philadelphia

  550. MacGillivray's Warbler  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    (formerly Oporornis) tolmiei

  551. Common Yellowthroat  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Geothlypis trichas

  552. Kentucky Warbler  ______  PR:x
    (formerly Oporornis) formosa

  553. Hooded Warbler  ______  PR:x
    (formerly Wilsonia) citrina

  554. Wilson's Warbler  (*)  ______  PR:c
    (formerly Wilsonia) pusilla

  555. Canada Warbler  ______  PR:x
    (formerly Wilsonia) canadensis

  556. Red-faced Warbler  (CAr)  ______
    Cardellina rubrifrons

  557. AMERICAN REDSTART  (wNAr) (ph) (*)  ______  (during the FONT California tour in 1991)  PR:r   
    Setophaga ruticilla

  558. Painted Whitestart  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Myioborus pictus

  559. Yellow-breasted Chat  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Icteria virens

  560. Red-winged Blackbird  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Agelaius phoeniceus

  561. Tricolored Blackbird  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Agelaius tricolor

    The Tricolored Blackbird is a gregarious species, often nesting in large colonies in California lowlands and foothills. It is nearly endemic to California, rarely spilling over the borders of the state, with small colonies in southern Oregon and Baja California. 
    In recent years, the species has had a declining population.

    Tricolored Blackbirds are ""itinerant breeders", moving among areas to nest sequentially within a single season. Grasslands in central California regularly support colonies from 5,000 to 10,000 breeding birds and even larger wintering flocks.     

  562. Yellow-headed Blackbird  (ph) (*)  ______ (during the FONT California tour 1998)  PR:x  
    Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  563. Western Meadowlark  (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Sturnella neglecta

  564. Brewer's Blackbird  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Euphagus cyanocephalus

  565. Rusty Blackbird  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Euphagus carolinus

  566. Brown-headed Cowbird  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Molothrus ater

  567. Great-tailed Grackle  (ph)  ______
    Quiscalus mexicanus

  568. Common Grackle  ______  PR:x
    Quiscalus quiscula

  569. Hooded Oriole  (*)  ______  (during the FONT California tour in 1991)  PR:x
    Icterus cucullatus

  570. Bullock's Oriole  (ph) (*)  ______ (for a while was merged with the Baltimore Oriole, and called Northern Oriole)  PR:u
    Icterus bullockii

  571. Scott's Oriole  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Icterus parisorum
  572. Orchard Oriole  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Icterus spurius

  573. Baltimore Oriole  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Icterus galbula

  574. Streak-backed Oriole  ______
    Icterus pustulatus

  575. Bobolink  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Dolichonyx oryzivorus

  576. Green-tailed Towhee  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Pipilo chlorurus
      (formerly Chlorura chlorurus)

  577. Spotted Towhee  (ph) (*)  ______ PR:c
    Pipilo maculatus

    The Spotted Towhee was called Rufous-sided Towhee when it was conspecific with what is now the Eastern Towhee of North America and the Olive-sided and Socorro Towhees of Mexico.
    The Spotted Towhee is now said to be conspecific with the Collared Towhee of Mexico.  

  578. California Towhee  (*)  ______  PR:c
    Melozone crissalis 
    (formerly Pipilo crissalis)  

    The California Towhee was called Brown Towhee was it was conspecific with the now Canyon Towhee, Pipilo fuscus.

    The subspecies of the California Towhee, P. c. eremophilus, is classified federally and in California as ENDANGERED. That subspecies is known as the Inyo California Towhee. Fewer than 200 individuals are known to exist. It is a relict population of a species that was historically widespread in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. 
    Due to prehistoric climatic changes beginning in the Pliocene, this population became restricted to mountain areas in the northern Mojave Desert. Its range is now limited to riparian habitats within the southern Argus Range in Inyo County, where it is geographically isolated from other subspecies of the California Towhee. The population is dependent on a limited riparian habitat that has been reduced or eliminated by human activities, such as grazing, removal of water, mining, recreational and military activities, and "development"..      

  579. Abert's Towhee  (ph)   ______
    Melozone aberti 
    (formerly Pipilo aberti)

  580. Rufous-crowned Sparrow (ph) (*)  ______  PR:r
    Aimophila r. ruficeps

  581. Cassin's Sparrow  ______
    Peucaea cassinii 
    (formerly Aimophila cassinii)

  582. Chipping Sparrow  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Spizella passerina boreophila

  583. Brewer's Sparrow  (nt) (ph) (*)  ______  PR:x
    Spizella b. breweri 
    (this subspecies valid as long as "Timberline Sparrow" of Canada is considered conspecific)

  584. Clay-colored Sparrow  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Spizella pallida

  585. Black-chinned Sparrow  ______  PR:x
    Spizella atrogularis

  586. American Tree Sparrow  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Spizelloides arborea 
    (formerly Spizella arborea)

  587. Field Sparrow  _______
    Spizella pusilla

  588. Vesper Sparrow  (*)  ______ (an uncommon migrant in California)  PR:r
    Pooecetes gramineus affinis

  589. Lark Sparrow  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:r
    Chondestes grammacus

  590. Black-throated Sparrow  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Amphispiza bilineata

  591. Sagebrush Sparrow  (ph) (*)  ______   
    (formerly Amphispiza) nevadensis   

    The Sagebrush Sparrow was called the Sage Sparrow.

  592. Bell's Sparrow  ______  PRx
    Artemisiospiza belli

    The Bell's Sparrow is the former Sage Sparrow of coastal California.

    The subspecies of the Sage Sparrow, A. belli clementae, is federally classified as THREATENED. 

  593. Lark Bunting  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Calamospiz melanocorys

  594. Savannah Sparrow  (ph) (*)  ______   PR:c
    Passerculus sandwich
    (the single member of its genus)
    Passerculus sandwichensis rostratus
    Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi

    The endangered "Belding's Savannah Sparrow", P. s. beldingi, still continues as a permanent resident of fragmented marshes from Santa Barbara southward to San Diego.
    Another race so distinctive, that some have considered it a species, is the "Large-billed Savannah Sparrow". P. s. rostratus, with a wintering range in California restricted entirely to tidal marshes from San Diego north to Morro Bay.

    The subspecies P. s. beldingi is classified as ENDANGERED in California. 

  595. Grasshopper Sparrow  (ph)  ______  PR:u
    Ammodramus savannarum

  596. Baird's Sparrow  ______
    Ammodramus bairdii 

  597. LeConte's Sparrow  (ph)  ______
    Ammodramus leconteii
  598. Nelson's Sparrow  ______  (was formerly, with the Saltmarsh Sparrow, part of the Sharp-tailed SparrowPR:x
    Ammodramus nelsoni

  599. "Slate-colored" Fox Sparrow  ______  PR:c
    Passerella iliaca schistacea

  600. Song Sparrow  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Melospiza melodia  
    (there are 11 subspecies in California)

    Three distinct geographic races of endemic salt marsh Song Sparrows are restricted almost entirely to the San Francisco tidal marshes:
    M. m. samuelis, the "San Pablo Song Sparrow",
    M. m. maxillaris, the "Suisun Song Sparrow", and
    M. m. pusillula, the "Alameda Song Sparrow".
    Among the most sedentary of California's birds, these tidal marsh Song Sparrows maintain territories year-round, although they actively defend them only in the breeding season, which, as with most resident birds, begins yearly in the season. However, these marsh-dwelling sparrows nest even earlier than the sparrows in adjacent upland habitats. They are in full song by mid-February, and eggs incubated by mid-March. Because the marsh sparrows build their nests mostly in tidal marsh vegetation, often within a few inches of the ground, early nesting enables the sparrows to fledge young before spring high tides inundate the marshes each May and June. 
    Other marsh-nesters also phase their nesting to miss the high springs tides. 
    Although their habitat is quite restricted in extent, the marsh sparrows occur in extremely high densities, an average of about 9 birds per acre. The needs a sparrow pair and offspring (they may produce 2 or 3 clutches in a season) are provided year-round within a fraction of an acre, indicative of the richness of tidal marsh habitat.

    The songs of Song Sparrows vary widely among individuals and populations, but collectively these variations are characteristic of California's wetlands.
  601. Lincoln's Sparrow  ______  PR:u
    Melospiza lincolnii

  602. Swamp Sparrow  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Melospiza georgiana

  603. White-crowned Sparrow  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:c
    Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli  

    The "Nuttall's White-crowned Sparrow", Z. l. nuttalli, is a year-round resident along the immediate California coast. In the spring, its sweet song is heard from the lupine-covered dunes and coastal scrub within the "fog belt",
    Other more-northerly subspecies, the "Gambel's" and the "Puget Sound" White-crowned Sparrows. Z. l, gambelii and Z. l. pugetensis respectively, arrive in California to spend the winter, but the "Nuttall's" stays all year.  

    Along the California coast, from Bodega Bay to Bolinas, there is a distinct variation in the basic song of the resident White-crowned Sparrows. Usually the last four notes of the song vary, but in a recognizable way. The dialects do not change gradually, but rather abruptly, so the Boderga dialect sounds nothing like that of Bolinas. These sparrow s are sedentary, and therefore evolutionary products of their coastal neighborhoods. Through their songs, the birds may express a subtle variety that exists in their natural habitat, the soft chaparral of California's central coast.

    White-crowned Sparrow
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  604. Golden-crowned Sparrow  ______  PR:c
    Zonotrichia atricapilla

  605. White-throated Sparrow  ______  PR:r
    Zonotrichia albicollis

  606. Harris's Sparrow  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Zonotrichia querula   

  607. "Oregon" Dark-eyed Junco  (*)  ______   
    Junco hyemalis
    oreganus  PRc
    Junco hyemalis shufeldti 
    (coastal California)  PRr
    Junco hyemalis pinosus
    (in hills in central California) 
    Junco hyemalis caniceps   PRx

  608. Lapland Longspur  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Calcarius lapponicus

  609. Chestnut-collared Longspur  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Calcarius ornatus

  610. McCown's Longspur  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Calcarius mccownii

  611. Smith's Longspur  (ph)  _______
    Calcarius pictus

  612. Little Bunting  (NAr)  ______
    Emberiza pusilia

  613. Rustic Bunting  (NAr)  ______
    Emberiza rustica

  614. Snow Bunting  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    (formerly Okectrophenax) nivalis

  615. Western Tanager  (ph) (*)  ______  PR:u
    Piranga ludoviciana

  616. Summer Tanager  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Piranga rubra

  617. Hepatic Tanager  ______
    Piranga hepatica

  618. Scarlet Tanager  (ph) _______  PR:x
    Piranga olivacea

  619. Dickcissel  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Spiza americana

  620. Northern Cardinal  (ph)  ______
    Cardinalis cardinalis

  621. Pyrrhuloxia  (ph)  ______
    Cardinalis sinnatus

  622. Black-headed Grosbeak  (*)  ______  PR:fc
    Pheucticus melanocephalus

  623. ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK  (wNAr) (ph) (*)   ______  (during FONT California tours in 1998 & 2005)  PR:r
    Pheucticus ludovicianus

  624. Blue Grosbeak  (ph)  ______  PR:x
    Passerina caerulea

  625. Lazuli Bunting  (ph)  ______  PR:u
    Passerina amoena

  626. Indigo Bunting  (ph)  ______  PR:r
    Passerina cyanea

  627. Varied Bunting  ______
    Passerina versicolor

  628. Painted Bunting  (ph)  ______
    Passerina ciris

(land and marine) 

Focus On Nature Tours 
in central California

1991 thru 2015

during the month of September

List compiled by Armas Hill 

Seen offshore during Monterey CA pelagic trips: (mp)


  1. Virginia Opossum  (ph) ______
    Didelphis virginiana 

  2. California Myotis ______
    Myotis californicus

  3. Big Brown Bat ______
    Eptesicus fuscus

  4. Northern River Otter ______
    Lontra canadensis

  5. Sea Otter  (ph) ______ (seen during all tours) (IN PHOTO AT TOP OF LIST)
    Enhydra lutris

  6. Coyote  (ph) ______
    Canis latrans

  7. Gray Fox ______
    Urocyon cinereoargenteus

  8. Bobcat  (ph) ______
    Lynx rufus

  9. California Sea Lion  (ph) ______ (the Galapagos Sea Lion is a race of this species, there is another rare subspecies in Japan)
    Zalophus californiannus   

  10. Northern Fur Seal  (ph) ______ (mp)
    Callorbinnus ursinus

  11. Harbor Seal  (ph)  ______
    Phoca vitulina

  12. Northern Elephant Seal ______
    Mirounga angustirostris

  13. California Ground Squirrel ______
    Spermophilus beecheyi

  14. Merriam's Chipmunk ______
    Tamias merriami

  15. Panamint Chipmunk ______
    Tamias panamintinus

  16. Western Gray Squirrel ______
    Sciurus griseus

  17. Desert Cottontail  (ph)  ______
    Sylvilagus audubonii

  18. Brush Rabbit ______
    Sylvilagus bachmani

  19. Black-tailed Jackrabbit  (ph) ______
    Lepus californicus

  20. Tule Elk ______ 
    Cervus elaphus nannodes 
    (a subspecies of the Elk native to California)

  21. Mule Deer  (ph) ______  
    Odocoileus hemionus

  22. (Common) Fallow Deer  (NAi) (ph) ______  (feral population in California; native to the Mediterranean region of the Old World) 
    Dama dama

  23. (Short-beaked) Common Dolphin  (ph) ______ (mp)
    Delphinus delphis

  24. Northern Right Whale Dolphin ______ (mp)
    Lissodelphis borealis

  25. Pacific White-sided Dolphin ______ (mp)
    Lagenorhynchus obliquidens

  26. Risso's Dolphin  (ph)  ______  (mp)  (also called Gray Grampus
    Grampus griseus

  27. Orca  (ph)  ______ (mp) (also called Killer Whale)  
    Orcinus orca

  28. Short-finned Pilot Whale ______ (mp)
    Globicephala macrorhynchus

  29. Baird's Beaked Whale  (ph)  ______ (mp) (8 seen nicely during 2005 tour)
    Berardius bairdii

  30. Gray Whale ______ (mp)
    Eschrichtius robustus

  31. Humpback Whale  (ph)  ______ (mp)
    Megaptera novaeanliae

  32. Blue Whale  (ph) ______ (mp)
    Balaenoptera musculus

Reference for this mammal list is the new book: "Mammals of North America" by Roland W. Kays & Don E. Wilson, published by Princeton Univ Press, 2002. 

 Other Wildlife:

Leatherback Sea Turtle  (ph)  ______ (mp)
Dermochelys coriacea

Blue Shark ______ (mp)
Prionace glauca

Thresher Shark ______ (mp)
Alopias vulpinus

Ocean Sunfish
  (ph) ______ (mp)
Mola mola


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