PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876

Website: www.focusonnature.com

 

The Birds of 
North America 



Condor to Shorebirds



Part 2 of a List  
and Photo Gallery of 
North American Birds
compiled by Armas Hill





Noting those found during Focus On Nature Tours in Alaska, Arizona, British Columbia, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Iowa, Kansas, North Carolina, Nebraska, Newfoundland, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Virginia, Washington State, & Wyoming, including offshore pelagic trips  

Birds found during FONT tours & pelagic trips in North America, north of the Rio Grande, have an (*).   


PHOTO AT UPPER RIGHT: A CALIFORNIA CONDOR during the FONT tour in northern Arizona in August 2010  
(photo by Marie Gardner)



CODES:

In the list that follows, birds found during FONT tours are noted, indicating the US state or Canadian province & the months when found. 

(The codes below relate to the United States unless indicated otherwise.) 

AK:    Alaska
AZ:    Arizona
BC:    British Columbia, Canada 
(until 2001, during our West Coast Tours in September) 
CA:    California 
(during our September West Coast Tours)
CO:    Colorado
DE:    Delaware 
(including offshore pelagic trips from DE & some land-birding tours) 
FL:     Florida
IA:     Iowa 
(with our Nebraska Tours in March)
KS:    Kansas 
(with our Colorado Tours in April)
NC:    North Carolina 
(including offshore pelagic trips and spring & summer land-birding tours)
NE:    Nebraska 
(tours in March & with our Colorado tours in April) 
NF:    Newfoundland, Canada
NM:   New Mexico 
(with our West Texas Tours in the spring & our Arizona Tours in the late-summer)   
OK:   Oklahoma  (with our Colorado Tours in April)    
TX:    Texas
VA:    Virginia 
(in conjunction with a NC Tour in the spring)
WA:   Washington State 
(during our September West Coast Tours) 
WY:   Wyoming 
(with our Colorado Tours in April)

During FONT pelagic trips:

DEP:    offshore from Delaware
CAP:    offshore from California  
NCP:    offshore from North Carolina 
NJP:    offshore from New Jersey
WAP:   offshore from Washington State 


The months when the birds have been found are with the above codes. 

(ac):        north of the Arctic Circle 
(DT):       in the area of the Dry Tortugas islands in Florida
(PI):        at the Pribilof Islands in Alaska


(USe):          endemic to the USA 
(USqe):        quasi (or nearly) endemic to the USA
(USeb):        endemic-breeder in USA 
(USneb):      near-endemic breeder in the USA
(NAi):           species introduced into North America
(NAri):          re-introduced species
(r/NA):          rare in North America
(r/US):          rare in the USA

(t): a globally threatened or rare species, designated by Birdlife International
(t1): critical   (t2): endangered   (t3): vulnerable
(nt): a near-threatened species globally


(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT web-site  

       
Links to Bird Groupings in this part of this List:

Raptors (including Vultures)    Rails & Allies    Cranes    Limpkin    Shorebirds


Links to Other Parts of this North American Bird List:

Part #1:  Grouse to Anhinga    Part #3:  Jaegers to Cuckoos   Part #4:  Owls to Flycatchers

Part #5:  Shrikes to Pipits    Part #6:  Olive Warbler to Buntings

Birds during FONT Tours in:

Alaska    Arizona    California    Colorado    North Carolina    Texas    Washington State


Links to Lists & Photo Galleries of Other Nature, including North American:

Mammals    Butterflies, Dragonflies    Amphibians, Reptiles    Marine Life, inc Fish, Crustaceans


Links to Information about Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours:

in North America
    by month in:   2014   2015   or:   by geographic location


Other Links:

Directory of Photos in this Website 

A Photo Gallery of Birds that would be Rare In North America


List of Birds:


      
RAPTORS (including VULTURES)

  1. California Condor  (t1) (*)  (ph)  ______  AZ:aug
    Gymnogyps californianus 
    (monotypic)



    The above photograph, taken in California in 1981, 
    is of one of the last California Condors in the wild. 
    (photo by Armas Hill)



    A California Condor & Northern Raven photographed in September 2009 in Arizona
    (photo by Doris Potter) 


    By 1982, only 22 free-ranging California Condors remained in California. The above upper photograph was taken of one of those birds in late 1981.
    By 1986, only 1 female and 4 male condors roamed free. The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service sanctioned capturing those birds and adding them to the captive breeding population. The last one was captured in April 1987,

    In 1992, 63 condors existed in captivity. A few were released that year into the wild. 8 young birds were returned to California, but within a couple years, half had perished from collisions with power lines, shooting, or poisoning.
    In the fall of 1996, 6 young condors were taken to a holding pen atop Vermilion Cliffs near Page, Arizona. After several weeks of feeding them stillborn calf carcasses, they were released. 
    From their release site, they wandered through the Monument Valley and Grand Canyon in northern Arizona, Bryce Canyon in Utah, Mesa Verde in Colorado, and as far north as Flaming Gorge in southwestern Wyoming.
    Condor releases have continued about annually in northern Arizona.

    In 2003, the Arizona condor population produced its first wild offspring in the Grand Canyon. A number of the birds, in that area, during the summer of 2006 traveled north to Utah to reside in hills near Zion National Park, but in the winter they returned to Arizona, where food was always available for them..
    By March 2009, the number of wild-living condors in Arizona and southern Utah reached 75. In May of that year, the Peregrine Fund reported on its website that there were 358 California Condors. 189 of them were wild birds in California, Arizona, and elsewhere in the US, and in Baja California in Mexico. 169 of them were in captivity, including those in zoos, maintained for breeding purposes, or pending release.

  2. Black Vulture  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:jul,aug  DE:may  FL:apr  NC:may,jun,aug  TX:mar,apr,may 
    Coragyps atratus 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Black Vulture has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Venezuela.



    Black Vulture
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  3. Turkey Vulture  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:jul,aug,sep  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  DE:may  IA:mar  KS:apr  NC:may,jun,jul,aug  NE:mar,apr  NM:apr,jul,aug  TX:mar,apr,may  WA:sep  WY:apr 
    Cathartes aura

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Cathartes aura aura  ______ 
    (subspecies from southern Canada to Costa Rica, & in Cuba)
    Cathartes aura septentrionalis  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern North America)

    The Turkey Vulture was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    South of the US, the Turkey Vulture has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama (with huge numbers in migration in October), Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Venezuela. 



    Above: a young Turkey Vulture with a black head 
    Below: an even younger Turkey Vulture chick, 10-days old  (or 10-days young)
    (upper photo by Howard Eskin; lower photo by Alan Brady)



    A Turkey Vulture chick, 10-days old  (or 10-days young)
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  4. Northern Crested Caracara  (*) (ph) ______  AZ:jul  TX:mar,may
    Caracara cheriwayi 
    (now monotypic)

    South of the US, the Northern Crested Caracara has been seen during FONT tours in Belize, Brazil (north of the Amazon), Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela.



    A Northern Crested Caracara photographed in Texas
    (photo by Rhett Poppe)

  5. Collared Forest Falcon ______  (r/US)
    Micrastur semitorquatus

    A species normally occurring from northeastern and northwestern Mexico south through much of South America.
    A light-morph adult was present in South Texas, at the Bentson-Rio Grande Valley State Park, from January 22 to February 24, 1994.

    South of the US, the Collared Forest Falcon has been seen during FONT tours in Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela.

  6. American Kestrel  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun  AZ:jan,jul,aug,sep  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  DE:may  IA:mar  FL:apr  KS:apr  NC:may,jun,aug,sep  NE:mar,apr  OK:apr  TX:mar,apr,may  WA:sep  WY:apr
    Falco sparverius

    SUBSPECIES NORTH OF MEXICO & THE WEST INDIES:
    Falco sparverius paulus  ______ 
    (subspecies in the southeastern US) 
    Falco sparverius sparverius  ______ 
    (subspecies in Alaska, Canada, the US, and western Mexico, with some wintering south to Panama)  

    There are 15 other subspecies of Falco sparverius south of the United States. 

    The American Kestrel was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    South of the US, the American Kestrel has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, the Cayman Islands, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, Venezuela.

    []

    A male American Kestrel
    (photo by Howard Eskin)


  7. Merlin  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:jun  AZ:aug  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr  DE:may  FL:apr (DT)  NC:may,sep  TX:mar,apr  WA:sep  WY:apr 
    Falco columbarius

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Falco columbarius columbarius  ______ 
    (widespread subspecies from Alaska to Newfoundland and in the northern US to the southern US, the West Indies, and northern South America)
    Falco columbarius richardsoni  ______ 
    (subspecies on the Great Plains, migrating south to the central US & northern Mexico)   
    Falco columbarius suckleyi  ______ 
    (subspecies from southeastern Alaska to the northwestern US)
         
    The darkest of all of the races of the Merlin, F. c. suckleyi
    (noted above), is the "Black Merlin", occurring in coastal Washington State & British Columbia.  

    The Merlin was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Outside North America, the Merlin has been seen during FONT tours in Iceland, Japan, Sweden, and south of the US in Belize, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Jamaica, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, Venezuela.

  8. Aplomado Falcon  (ri) (r/US) (*) (ph)  ______  TX:mar,may 
    Falco femoralis

    SUBSPECIES NORTH OF MEXICO:
    Falco femoralis septentrionalis  ______ 
    (subspecies historically in the southwestern US; also in Mexico) 

    This species ranges in parts of Mexico and Central America, and more so in South America. It formerly occurred in open grasslands and deserts from south Texas west to southeast Arizona, disappearing from that northern part of its range by the early 20th Century. 
    Some birds reported reported in New Mexico and west Texas in the 1990s may have been wanderers from a small extant population in the northern part of the Mexican state of Chihuahua. A reintroduction program has been underway in south coastal Texas.    

    South of the US, the Aplomado Falcon has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica (where rare), Ecuador, Venezuela.

  9. Peregrine Falcon  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  AZ:aug  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr  FLapr (DT)  NC:may,sep  TX:apr  WA:sep
    Falco peregrinus

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Falco peregrinus anatum  ______ 
    (subspecies from the Aleutians and coastal Alaska to Washington State, migrating to Central America)  
    Falco peregrinus pealei  ______ 
    (subspecies in the Commander and Aleutian Islands, southern Alaska, and southwestern Canada, with some migrating to the western US and others south to Japan)
    Falco peregrinus tundrius  ______
     
    (subspecies from northern Alaska to Greenland, migrating to South America)  (subspecies described in 1968)

    There are 13 other subspecies of Falco peregrinus elsewhere in the world.   

    Outside North America, the Peregrine Falcon has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, France, Hungary, Japan, Romania, Sweden, Turkey, and south of the US in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, Venezuela. 



    A Peregrine Falcon in flight, photographed in Texas
    (photo by Rhett Poppe)

  10. Prairie Falcon  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:jan,aug  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  KS:apr  WA:sep
    Falco mexicanus 
    (monotypic) 

    South of the US, the Prairie Falcon has been seen during a FONT tour in Mexico (Sonora).

  11. Gyrfalcon (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun
    Falco rusticolus 
    (monotypic)

    The Gyrfalcon was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Outside North America, the Gyrfalcon has been seen during FONT tours in Iceland, Japan.



    A black-and-white photo of a dark Gyrfalcon
    in flight
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  12. Eurasian Kestrel ______  (r/NA)
    Falco tinnunculus

    A widespread Old World species, where there are 12 subspecies. In North America, it is rare in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, and elsewhere in the Bering Sea region. There are records of it as a vagrant in eastern North America in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada, and in New Jersey & Florida in the US. On the North American West Coast, it has occurred as a vagrant as far south as Washington State. 

    The Euasian Kestrel was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    Outside North America, the Eurasian Kestrel has been seen during FONT tours in Andorra, Bulgaria, the Canary Islands, France, Hungary, Iceland (where rare), Japan, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey..
     
  13. Northern Hobby ______  (r/NA)
    Falco subbuteo

    An Old World species. It occurs rarely in the late spring and summer in the Bering Sea region and in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska. There is a record of an October occurrence at Seattle, Washington. 
    Off eastern North America, a notable record is of a bird on a ship off Newfoundland.  

    The Northern, or Eurasian Hobby was described by Linnaeus in 1758.  

    Outside North America, the Northern Hobby has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, France, Hungary, Japan, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey.

     
  14. Red-footed Falcon ______  (r/US)
    Falco verspertinus

    A species that breeds in eastern Europe & western Asia, wintering in southern Africa. A first-summer male was on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, August 8-24, 2004. How that bird got there is an interesting question.   

    The Red-footed Falcon was described by Linnaeus in 1766.

    Outside North America, the Red-footed Falcon has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Turkey.

  15. Osprey  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:jun  AZ:aug  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr  DE:may  FL:apr  NC:may,jun,jul,aug  NF:jul  TX:mar,apr,may  WA:sep
    Pandion haliaetus 

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Pandion haliaetus carolinensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in North America, migrating as far as central South America) 

    The Osprey was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    Outside North America, the Osprey has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Japan, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and south of the US in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, the Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Venezuela.



    Osprey
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  16. Hook-billed Kite  ______  (r/US)
    Chondrohierax uncinatus  

    SUBSPECIES THAT HAS OCCURRED IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Chondrohierax uncinatus uncinatus  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Argentina) 

    The Hook-billed Kite is a Neotropical species, ranging from Mexico to South America. It is uncommon in much of its range. In North America, it occurs, as a rare resident, in south Texas in the lower Rio Grande Valley, from the Santa Ana Refuge to the Falcon Dam. It is found in dense woodlands, above which it can be seen riding the thermals upward in the late morning.     

    South of the US, the Hook-billed Kite has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama.

  17. Swallow-tailed Kite  (*) (ph)  ______  FL:apr
    Elanoides forficatus

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Elanoides forficatus forficatus  ______ 
    (subspecies from the southern US to South America)

    The Swallow-tailed Kite was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    South of the US, the Swallow-tailed Kite has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama, Venezuela.

  18. White-tailed Kite  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:aug,sep  CA:sep  NM:aug  TX:may
    Elanus leucurus

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Elanus leucurus majusculus  ______ 
    (subspecies in the southern US & Mexico)

    South of the US, the White-tailed Kite has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Venezuela.



    A White-tailed Kite in flight
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  19. Mississippi Kite  (*)  ______  AZ:jul,aug  NC:may,jun  TX:may
    Ictinia mississippiensis 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Mississippi Kite has been seen during FONT tours in Guatemala (in migration).

  20. Snail Kite  (*) (ph)  ______  FL:apr
    Rostrhamus sociabilis

    SUBSPECIES NORTH OF MEXICO & THE WEST INDIES:
    Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus  Everglades Kite  ______ 
    (subspecies in Florida) 

    South of the US, the Snail Kite has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Uruguay, Venezuela.



    A Snail Kite photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  21. Double-toothed Kite  ______  (r/US)
    Harpagus bidentatus

    SUBSPECIES THAT HAS OCCURRED IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Harpagus bidentatus fasciatus  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Ecuador)  

    A Neotropical species ranging from Mexico to South America. One was photographed at High Island, Texas in May 2011, but it was identified until several weeks later. 

    South of the US. the Double-toothed Kite has been seen during FONT tours in Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama, Venezuela. 

  22. Bald Eagle  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  AZ:aug  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  DE:may  FL:apr  IA:mar  NC:may  NE:mar,apr  NF:jul  TX:may  WA:sep  WY:apr
    Haliaeetus leucocephalus

    SUBSPECIES:
    Haliaeetus leucocephalus leucocephalus  ______ 
    (subspecies from the southern US to northwestern Mexico)
    Haliaeetus leucocephalus washingtoniensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Alaska, Canada, the northern US)

    The Bald Eagle was described by Linnaeus in 1766.  



    Bald Eagles
    Above:  Adults at a nest 
    (photo by Paul West)
    Below:   Two immature birds in flight 
    (photo by Kim Steininger)





  23. White-tailed Eagle  (nt) (ph) ______  (r/NA)
    Haliaeetus albicilla

    An Old World species, ranging across the Palearctic region from Iceland to eastern Siberia. West of that, it occurs in Greenland. Near the eastern edge of its range, it occurs rarely on western Aleutian Islands, Alaska. On the westernmost of them, Attu, it has nested.

    Haliaeetus albicilla is monotypic, aside from Haliaeetus a. greenlandicus in Greenland.

    Outside North America, the White-tailed Eagle has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Iceland, Japan (mostly in Hokkaido), Poland.
         
  24. Steller's Sea Eagle  (t3) (ph) ______  (r/NA)
    Haliaeetus pelagicus 
    (now monotypic)

    An east Asian species, with an estimated total population of less than 5,000 birds. It has occurred rarely in Alaska: in the Aleutian Islands, the Pribilof Islands, Kodiak Island, and near Juneau in southeastern Alaska.    

    Outside North America, the Steller's Sea Eagle has been seen during FONT tours in Japan, mostly in Hokkaido, where during the winter it is often plentiful.  

    For more regarding the STELLER'S SEA EAGLE, go to:  Rare Birds of Japan 
     
  25. Northern Harrier  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  AZ:jan,jul,sep  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  DE:may  FL:apr  IA:mar  KS:apr  NC:may,aug  NE:mar  TX:mar,apr,may  WA:sep  WY:apr  (has been considered conspecific with the Hen Harrier, Circus cyaneus, of Eurasia)
    Circus hudsonius 
    (monotypic)

    The Northern Harrier was described by Linnaeus in 1766.

    South of the US, the Northern Harrier has been seen during FONT tours in Belize, Guatemala, Mexico.






    Northern Harriers
    Two photographs - a female above, and a male below.
    (photos by Kim Steininger)
     
  26. Sharp-shinned Hawk  (ph)  ______  AK:jun  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr  DE:may  FL:apr  KS:apr  WA:sep
    Accipiter striatus

    SUBSPECIES NORTH OF MEXICO & THE WEST INDIES:
    Accipiter striatus perobscurus  ______ 
    (subspecies from Queen Charlotte Island in Canada south to Oregon)
    Accipiter striatus velox  ______ 
    (subspecies in Canada & the US, with some migrating as far south as Central America)  

    South of the US, the Sharp-shinned Hawk has been seen during FONT tours in Belize, the Dominican Republic (an endemic subspecies), Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico (an endemic resident subspecies).



    Sharp-shinned Hawk
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


  27. Cooper's Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:jan,jul,aug  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  KS:apr  NE:mar,apr  TX:mar,apr,may  WA:sep  WY:apr
    Accipiter cooperi 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Cooper's Hawk has been seen during FONT tours in Belize, Guatemala, Mexico.



    Cooper's Hawk

    (photo by Frank Stermitz)

  28. Northern Goshawk  (*)  ______  AK:may,jun  AZ:jul,aug  CO:apr,jul  WA:sep
    Accipiter gentilis 

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Accipiter gentilis apache  ______ 
    (subspecies in the southwestern US & northwestern Mexico)   
    Accipiter gentilis atricaapillus  ______ 
    (subspecies in North America, other than the other 2 here)
    Accipiter gentilis laingi  ______ 
    (subspecies in southwestern Canada, on British Colombia islands)   

    Outside North America, the Northern Goshawk has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Japan, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, and south of the US in Mexico.

  29. Crane Hawk  (ph) ______  (r/US)
    Geranospiza caerulescens 
    (the single member of its genus)

    A species normally occurring from northeastern & northwestern Mexico south through much of South America. 
    One wintered in southern Texas, at the Santa Ana Wildlife Refuge, from December 20, 1987 to April 9, 1988. 

    South of the US, the Crane Hawk has been seen during FONT tours in Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama, Venezuela.

  30. Gray Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:jul,aug  TX:may
    Buteo
    plagiatus

    The Gray Hawk was conspecific with the Gray-lined Hawk, Buteo nitidus, of southern Central America and South America.
    The range of the Gray Hawk is from Arizona and Texas south to Costa Rica.  

    South of the US, the Gray-lined, or Gray, Hawk has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela.
     
  31. Common Black Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:jul,aug  TX:apr    
    Buteogallus anthracinus

    South of the US, the Common Black Hawk has been seen during FONT tours in Belize, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Saint Lucia (where rare), Saint Vincent, Venezuela.  
    In the Caribbean, also called "Black Crab Hawk". 

    The Cuban Black Hawk, Buteogallus gundlachii, also known as the "Cuban Crab Hawk" occurred in Georgia on April 8, 2009, but there was a question as to the bird's origin. 
    The Cuban Black Hawk has been split from the Common Black Hawk.
     
  32. Harris's Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:jan,jul,aug  TX:apr,may  
    Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi

    South of the US, the Harris's, or Bay-winged, Hawk has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela.

    Another name for Parabuteo unicinctus is the Bay-winged Hawk.

  33. Red-shouldered Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  CA:sep  DE:may  FL:apr  NC:aug  TX:mar,may
    Buteo lineatus



    Above: a Red-shouldered Hawk photographed in Texas
    (photo by Rhett Poppe)  
    Below: a Red-shouldered Hawk in flight
    (photo by Doris Potter)





  34. Broad-winged Hawk  (*)  ______  CO:apr (r/CO)  FL:apr  NM:apr
    Buteo p. platypterus

    South of the US, the Broad-winged Hawk has been seen during FONT tours in Costa Rica, Dominica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico (an endemic resident subspecies), Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent. 
    In addition to the endemic resident subspecies on Puerto Rico, there are 4 other endemic resident subspecies on Caribbean islands.
     
  35. Swainson's Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:jul,aug,sep  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  KS:apr  NE:apr  NM:apr,jul  OK:apr  TX:apr,may  WA:sep  WY:apr
    Buteo swainsoni 
    (monotypic, but with light & dark morphs)

    South of the US, the Swainson's Hawk has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico (including Sonora), Panama.



    (Above & below) Two photos of an intermediate morph
    juvenile Swainson's Hawk
    (photos by Howard Eskin)




  36. Short-tailed Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:jul,sep  FL:apr
    Buteo brachyurus

    South of the US, the Short-tailed Hawk has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela.

  37. White-tailed Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  TX:mar,apr,may
    Buteo albicaudatus

    South of the US, the White-tailed Hawk has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela.

  38. Zone-tailed Hawk  (*)  (ph)  ______  AZ:jul,aug
    Buteo albonotatus

    South of the US, the Zone-tailed Hawk has been seen during FONT tours in Brazil, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (in Sonora), Venezuela.

  39. Red-tailed Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun  AZ:jan,jul,aug,sep  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  DE:may  IA:mar  KS:apr  NC:may,jun,jul,aug  NE:mar,apr  NM:apr  OK:apr  TX:mar,apr,may   WA:sep  WY:apr
    Buteo jamaicensis 

    South of the US, the Red-tailed Hawk has been seen during FONT tours in Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico. 
    The endemic resident subspecies of the Caribbean islands is the nominate, B. j. jamaicensis.


    "Harlan's" Red-tailed Hawk (*) ______  CO:apr 
    (a subspecies of the Red-tailed Hawk
    Buteo jamaicensis harlani

  40. Ferruginous Hawk  (nt) (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:jan  CO:apr,jul  KS:apr  NE:mar  OK:apr  WA:sep
    Buteo regalis 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Ferruginous Hawk has been seen during a FONT tour in Mexico (Sonora).
     
  41. Rough-legged Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun  AZ:jan  CO:apr  NE:mar  WY:apr  
    Buteo lagopus sanctijohannis

    In Eurasia, Buteo lagopus is called the Rough-legged Buzzard. 

    Outside North America, the Rough-legged Buzzard has been seen during FONT tours in Japan, Sweden. 



    Above & below: Rough-legged Hawks
    Above: the light morph; below: the dark morph 
    (photos by Howard Eskin)



  42. Roadside Hawk  (ph) ______  (r/NA)
    Buteo magnirostris

    A Neotropical species, ranging from Mexico to Argentina. In North America, it has occurred rarely in the winter in the lower Rio Grande Valley in south Texas.   

    South of the US, the Roadside Hawk has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Venezuela.

  43. Golden Eagle (*)  ______ AK:may,jun  AZ:jul,aug  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  NM:apr  OK:apr  TX:apr  WA:sep  WY:apr
    Aquila chrysaetos canadensis

    Outside North America, the Golden Eagle has been seen during FONT tours in Andorra, Bulgaria, France, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Turkey.  


    RAILS and ALLIES


  44. Yellow Rail  (*)  ______  DE:may
    Coturnicops noveboracensis

  45. Black Rail  (nt) (*)  ______  DE:may  NC:may,jun  TX:may
    Laterallus jamaicensis

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus  ______ 
    (subspecies in California; also in Baja California, Mexico)
    Laterallus jamaicensis jamaicensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in the eastern US, migrating to the southern US & Central America; also in the Greater Antilles)   

    South of the US, the Black Rail has been found during a FONT tour in Costa Rica.

  46. Clapper Rail  (*) (ph)  ______  CA:sep  DE:may  NC:may,jun,aug  TX:apr  VA:may
    Rallus longirostris

    SUBSPECIES NORTH OF MEXICO & THE WEST INDIES:
    Rallus longirostris crepitans  ______ 
    (subspecies from Connecticut to northern North Carolina) 
    Rallus longirostris insularum  ______ 
    (subspecies in the Florida Keys)
    Rallus longirostris levipes  ______
      (subspecies from south-central California to Baja California)
    Rallus longirostris obsoletus  ______ 
    (subspecies in central California)
    Rallus longirostris saturnatus  ______ 
    (subspecies from southern Alabama to northeastern Mexico)   
    Rallus longirostris scotti  ______ 
    (subspecies in coastal Florida)  
    Rallus longirostris waynei  ______ 
    (subspecies from southern North Carolina to Florida)
    Rallus longirostris yumanensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in southeastern California & southern Arizona; also northwestern Mexico)  

    South of the US, the Clapper Rail has been seen during FONT tours in the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Puerto Rico.

  47. King Rail  (*)  ______  DE:may  TX:may
    Rallus elegans

    SUBSPECIES NORTH OF MEXICO & THE WEST INDIES:
    Rallus elegans elegans  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Canada & the eastern US)

  48. Virginia Rail  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:aug,sep  CA:sep  CO:jul  DE:may  NC:may,jun
    Rallus limicola

    SUBSPECIES NORTH OF MEXICO:
    Rallus limicola limicola  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Canada and the western, central & eastern US, migrating south as far as Guatemala)     



    Virginia Rail
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  49. Spotted Rail ______  (r/US)
    Pardirallus maculatus

    The Spotted Rail is a species normally occurring in the West Indies (Cuba, Hispaniola, & other islands), and from Mexico to South America. 
    There are North American specimens (of the race insolitus) from Beaver County, Pennsylvania on November 12, 1976 and from Brown County, Texas on August 9, 1977.  

    South of the US, the Spotted Rail has been found during FONT tours in Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic

  50. Sora  (*)  ______  AZ:jan,aug,sep  CA:sep  CO:jul  TX:mar,apr,may
    Porzana carolina 
    (monotypic)

    The Sora was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    South of the US, the Sora has been found during FONT tours in the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico.
     
  51. Paint-billed Crake ______  (r/US)
    Neocrex erythrops

    The Paint-billed Crake normally occurring from Panama south into South America. 
    In North America, there are specimens from Brazos County, Texas on February 17, 1972 of the race erythrops, and from near Richmond, Virginia on December 15, 1978, of the race olivascens.   

  52. Corncrake  (nt) (ph)  ______  (r/NA)
    Crex crex

    The Corncrake is a European species that has greatly declined during recent decades. 
    When it was more common in Europe than it is today, it occurred as a rarity along the East Coast of North America in the fall. 
    Most recently, there have been occurrences on Briar Island, off Nova Scotia, Canada on May 4 & 5, 1993 (the most recent) and on the island of Saint-Pierre (in North America, off Canada, but part of France), on October 22, 1989. Earlier Canadian occurrences were in Newfoundland in September 1928, and prior to that, further north on Baffin Island.
    In the US, one was on Long Island, New York, November 2, 1963. 
    Historical records in the United States (mostly prior to the 20th Century) were in Maine, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey (in Salem in 1854 and in Dennisville in 1905), and Maryland (in what is now Stockton in Worcester County in 1900). 4 of the 5 Corncrake specimens from Long Island, New York were collected prior to the 20th Century.  

    The Corncrake was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    Outside North America, the Corncrake has been found during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania.



    The Corncrake
    specimen, as noted above, from 1900 in Maryland.
    (photo courtesy of Rick Wiltrout)

  53. Purple Gallinule  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:aug (r/AZ)  TX:mar,may
    Porphyrio martinica 
    (monotypic)

    The Purple Gallinule was described by Linnaeus in 1766.

    South of the US, the Purple Gallinule has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, the Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Panama, Puerto Rico, Venezuela.



    A Purple Gallinule
    photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  54. Purple Swamphen  (NAi)  ______
    Porphyrio porphyrio

    The Purple Swamphen was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Outside North America, the Purple Swamphen has been found during FONT tours in Spain, where it is native.
     
  55. Common Gallinule  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:jul,aug  CA:sep  DE:may  IA:mar  FL:apr  NC:jun,aug  NM:aug  TX:mar,apr,may  
    Gallinula galeata

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA;
    Gallinula galeata cachinnans  ______ 
    (subspecies in Canada & the US, and south to Panama)   

    South of the US, the Common Gallinule has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, the Cayman Islands, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, Venezuela. 

    The Common Gallinule was conspecific with the Common Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus, of the Old World.

    In the Old World, the Common Moorhen has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Japan, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Turkey.



    A juvenile Common Gallinule 

    (photo by Doris Potter)

  56. American Coot  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:jan,jul,aug,sep  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  DE:may  KS:apr  NC:jun,sep  NE:mar,apr  NM:apr  TX:mar,apr,may  WA:sep  WY:apr
    Fulica americana

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA;
    Fulica americana americana  ______ 
    (subspecies from Alaska & Canada south into Central America; also in the West Indies)   

    South of the US, the American Coot has been seen during FONT tours in Belize, the Cayman Islands, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Puerto Rico.
    Closely related to the American Coot (some have said conspecific), the Caribbean Coot has been seen during FONT tours in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia (where rare), Venezuela. 
    The Caribbean Coot has not been found to occur in the US.



    An American Coot
    (photo by Howard Eskin during an Audubon Christmas Bird Count in Delaware, with Armas Hill in December 2011)

  57. Eurasian Coot ______  (r/NA)
    Fulica atra 

    The Eurasian Coot was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Outside North America, the Eurasian Coot has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, the Canary islands, Hungary, Iceland (where rare), Japan, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Turkey. .

  58. Sungrebe  (ph) ______  (r/US)
    Heliornis fulica

    The Sungrebe is a species of Central & South America, ranging north locally in Mexico. 
    In the US, in New Mexico, one, a female in unworn plumage, occurred at the Bosque del Apache Refuge from November 13 to 18, 2008. 
    The bird was so unexpected that it was first thought to be a Red-necked Grebe. But of course in its photograph the ID was unmistakable. The New Mexico bird was 850 miles out of range, without much suitable habitat in between. The Sungrebe is not a species that's thought to be kept in captivity.  
      
    South of the US, the Sungrebe has been seen during FONT tours in Belize, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Venezuela.


    CRANES

  59. Sandhill Crane  (*) (ph) ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  AZ:jan  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr  NE:mar  TX:mar
    Grus canadensis 



    A Sandhill Crane photographed in Alaska
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA, NORTH OF THE WEST INDIES:
    Grus canadensis canadensis  ______ 
    (subspecies from Alaska & Canada east to Baffin island; also west into Siberia, migrating south to the southern US & northern Mexico)
    Grus canadensis pratensis  ______ 
    (a resident subspecies in Georgia & Florida) 
    Grus canadensis pulla  ______ 
    (a resident subspecies in Mississippi)  (subspecies described in 1972)
    Grus canadensis rowani  ______ 
    (subspecies in Canada from British Colombia to northern Ontario) (subspecies described in 1965)
    Grus canadensis tabida  ______
      (subspecies in southwestern Canada and the western & central US, migrating to the southern US & north-central Mexico)     

    The Sandhill Crane was described by Linnaeus in 1758.      

    Outside North America, the Sandhill Crane has been seen during FONT tours in Japan, when, during the winter, it joins in with other crane species more common in Asia.



    Above: Sandhill Cranes coming in to land at dusk - feet down.
    (photo by Monika Dorman)
    Below: a Sandhill Crane in Florida, the subspecies Grus canadensis pratensis
    (photo by Ed Kendell)






    Another photo of a Sandhill Crane, this one in Delaware.
    Recently more Sandhill Cranes have been occurring in northeastern North America.
    (photo by Marie Gardner)
     

  60. Whooping Crane  (t2) (*)  ______  NE:mar  TX:mar
    Grus americana 

    During the summer of 2007, a record number of Whooping Crane chicks hatched at the Wood Buffalo National Park in northern Alberta, Canada. An aerial survey of the breeding grounds found 65 nests and 84 new chicks. Among the chicks, there were 28 sets of twins. The previous summer, there had been 76 new chicks, including among them 24 sets of twins.

    About seven decades earlier, during the winter of 1941-42, after a century of shooting, egg-collecting, and habitat destruction (including the drainage of Gulf Coast marshes to create rice fields), only 15 Whooping Cranes returned to spend the winter at Aransas, in Texas. At that time, that was the entire population of the species in the wild.  

    The Whooping Crane was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    For more about the Whooping Crane, go to:
      RARE & THREATENED BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA

     

    Above: a drawing of Whooping Cranes at the Aransas Refuge in Texas,
    given as a gift to Armas Hill from the illustrator, Charles Gambill

    Below: a family of Whooping Cranes at the Aransas Refuge,
    with the young bird flanked by its two parents 
    (photo by Marc Felber) 




    Below: 2 Whooping Cranes at the Redrock National Wildlife Refuge in 1984,
    photographed by Howard Eskin.
    Howard, who was there for fishing, was not expecting to find these birds. 
    It was just he and the birds (and hopefully a few fish) along the river. 





  61. Common Crane  (ph) ______  (r/NA)
    Grus grus

    A Eurasian species. In North America, it occurs as a rarity usually on the Great Plains, but sometimes more rarely further east. When so found, It is almost always with migrating flocks of Sandhill Cranes

    The Common Crane was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    Outside North America, the Common Crane has been seen during FONT tours in Hungary, Japan (where it is not common), Poland, Spain, Sweden. 


    LIMPKIN

     
  62. Limpkin  (ph)  _____
    Aramys guarauna

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Aramys guarauna pictus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Florida; also in Cuba & Jamaica)

    The Limpkin was described by Linnaeus in 1766.

    South of the US, the Limpkin has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Uruguay, Venezuela.
    The subspecies in the Dominican Republic is an endemic resident on Hispaniola, a bird found in dry forest in hills that rarely, if ever, flies. 
    The subspecies in Jamaica is the same that occurs in Cuba and Florida.   


    SHOREBIRDS


  63. Double-striped Thick-knee  (ph)  ______  (r/US)
    Burhinus bistriatus

    The Double-striped Thick-knee is a resident species in parts of Central & South America, from Mexico south to Brazil, and very locally in the West Indies. An interesting recent nesting record, not far from the US, has been on Great Inagua Island in the Bahamas.
    In the US, there's a specimen from the King Ranch, Kleberg County, Texas on December 5, 1961. A more-recent bird in Yuma, Arizona was determined to be transported (from Mexico).       

    South of the US, the Double-striped Thick-knee has been seen during FONT tours in Costa Rica, Venezuela.

  64. Northern Lapwing  (ph) ______  (r/NA)
    Vanellus vanellus 
    (monotypic)

    The Northern Lapwing is a Eurasian species. 
    In North America, it occurs, most often in the late fall, in northeastern states in the US and eastern provinces in Canada. It has also occurred further south in the eastern US, as far south as Florida.  

    The Northern Lapwing was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Outside North America, the Northern Lapwing has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Japan (in the winter), Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey.
     

  65. Black-bellied Plover (*) (ph) ______ AK:jun  AZ:aug  BC:sep  CA:sep  DE:may  FL:apr (DT)  NC:may,jun,aug  TX:apr,may  WA:sep 
    Pluvialis squatarola cynosurae 

    An alternate, and probably preferable name is Grey Plover, as it is called in the Old World; others in the genus also have black bellies.

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Pluvialis squatarola cynosurae  ______ 
    (subspecies in from northern Canada to South America)

    The Black-bellied Plover was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Outside North America, the Grey (or Black-bellied) Plover has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Iceland, Japan, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and south of the US in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, the Cayman Islands, Chile, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, the Galapagos Islands, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia.



    Black-bellied Plover
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  66. American Golden Plover  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun  NC:aug  TX:mar
    Pluvialis dominica 
     (monotypic)

    Unusual was an American Golden Plover, along with numerous other shorebirds, at the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge along the North Carolina Outer Banks, during the FONT tour there in August 1993.

    South of the US, the American Golden Plover has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, the Galapagos Islands, Saint Lucia.
      
  67. Pacific Golden Plover  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  WA:sep
    Pluvialis fulva 
    (monotypic)

    Outside North America, the Pacific Golden Plover has been seen during FONT tours in Japan.



    Pacific Golden Plover
    (photo courtesy of Cameron Rutt)
     

  68. European Golden Plover  (ph) ______  (r/NA)
    Pluvialis apricaria

    The European Golden Plover breeds in Europe from northern Russia west to Iceland. Also breeds in Greenland. 
    It winters in Europe and North Africa. 
    In North America, in addition to Greenland, it occurs uncommonly in eastern Canada in Newfoundland and Labrador, and rarely in eastern Quebec and Nova Scotia, and on the islands of Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, usually in the spring and especially after storms. More rarely, there have been occurrences further south in eastern North America in Maine and Delaware.

    The European Golden Plover was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Outside North America, the European Golden Plover has been seen during Iceland, Spain, Sweden. Hearing it in Iceland, where it breeds, is one of the nicest of sounds heard during FONT tours.  

  69. Snowy Plover  (*) (ph)  ______  CA:sep  CO:apr  TX:apr  WA:sep  
    Charadrius nivosus

    The Snowy Plover was conspecific with the Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrius, of Eurasia.

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Charadrius nivosus nivosus  ______ 
    (subspecies in US, south to Panama; also in the West Indies) 

    South of the US, the Snowy Plover has been seen during FONT tours in Chile, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico (the Yucatan), Puerto Rico (where rare).

    Outside North America, the now closely-related Kentish Plover has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Japan, Spain, Turkey. I do not know of any occurrences of the Kentish Plover in North America.

  70. Wilson's Plover  (*) (ph)  ______  FL:apr  NC:may,jun  TX:apr,may  
    Charadrius wilsonia

    SUBSPECIES NORTH OF MEXICO & THE WEST INDIES:
    Charadrius wilsonia wilsonia  ______ 
    (subspecies in the eastern US and south into eastern Mexico to Belize) 

    South of the US, the Wilson's Plover has been seen during FONT tours in Barbados, the Cayman Islands (where rare), Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico (the Yucatan), Panama, Puerto Rico.



    Wilson's Plover
    (photo by Marie Gardner during a FONT tour)

  71. Semipalmated Plover  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  AZ:aug  CA:sep  CO:apr  DE:may  FL:apr  NC:may,jun,aug  TX:apr,may  WA:sep
    Charadrius semipalmatus 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Semipalmated Plover has been seen during FONT tours in Barbados, Belize, Brazil, the Cayman Islands, Chile, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Venezuela.

  72. Piping Plover  (t3) (*) (ph)  ______  CO:apr (r/CO)  NC:jun,jul,aug  TX:may
    Charadrius melodus 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Piping Plover has been seen during FONT tours in Mexico (the Yucatan).

  73. Killdeer  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:jan,jul,aug,sep  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  DE:may  IA:mar  FL:apr  KS:apr  NC:may,jun,aug  NE:mar,apr  NM:apr  OK:apr  TX:mar,apr,may  WA:sep  WY:apr
    Charadrius vociferus

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA NORTH OF THE WEST INDIES:
    Charadrius vociferus vociferus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Canada, the US, and in Mexico, migrating south to northwestern South America)

    The Killdeer was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    South of the US, the Killdeer has been seen during FONT tours in Belize, Chile (far-north), the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti,  Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico.
    There is a resident subspecies of Killdeer in the Caribbean, but in the winter birds from mainland North America also occur there. 


     
    An adult Killdeer with 2 babies (on the ground to the right of the adult)  

  74. Mountain Plover  (t3) (USneb) (*) (ph)  ______  CO:apr,jul  KS:apr (r/KS)  
    Charadrius montanus 
    (monotypic)

    An alternate name for Charadrius montanus could be the "Mountain Dotterel", although actually the bird is more of the plains than the mountains.

    For more about the Mountain Plover, and the "Mountain Plover Festival" held annually in a very small town on the plains of Colorado, go to:  RARE & THREATENED BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA   


  75. Eurasian Dotterel  (ph) ______  (r/NA)
    Charadrius morinellus

    The Eurasian Dotterel is, as its name indicates, a Eurasian species. 
    It is an uncommon, sporadic breeder in northwestern Alaska. It occurs rarely along the West Coast of North America in the fall.

    The Eurasian Dotterel was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    Outside North America, the Eurasian Dotterel has been seen during FONT tours in Spain, Sweden. 

  76. Lesser Sand Plover  (*) (ph)  ______  (r/US)  CA:sep   
    Charadrius mongolus stegmanni

    Another name for Charadrius mongolus has been the Mongolian Plover.

    By whatever common name, Charadrius mongolus is an Asian species. In North America, it occurs rarely in the Aleutians and on other islands off western Alaska. It is also rare in the summer in western and northwestern Alaska where it has bred. 
    Further south in North America, it occurs rarely along the West Coast, and more rarely in the East.    

    A single Lesser Sandplover was seen in California during the FONT West Coast Tour in September 1992. 

    Outside North America, the Lesser Sand Plover has been seen during FONT tours in Japan.



    A photograph of the Lesser Sandplover in California in September 1992.
    At that time, it was called a Mongolian Plover. 
    (photo during the September 1992 FONT West Coast Tour by BJ Rose) 

  77. Greater Sand Plover  ______  (r/US)
    Charadrius leschenaultii

    The Greater Sand Plover is an Old World species, mostly Asian. 
    One was in North America at the Bolinas Lagoon, in Marin County, California, from January 29 to April 8, 2001. 

    Outside North America, the Greater Sand Plover has been seen during FONT tours in Japan, where it is rare.

  78. Common Ringed Plover  (*) (ph)  ______  (r/NA)   AK:jun
    Charadrius hiaticula

    The Common Ringed Plover is primarily an Old World species, but it does breed in North America, not only in Greenland, but also in eastern Canada on Ellesmere, Bylor, and eastern Baffin Islands, and occasionally on St. Lawrence Island in Alaska. It occurs rarely, but regularly, in the spring in western Alaska. 
    It has rarely occurred along the East Coast of North America as far south as Massachusetts. 

    Outside North America, the Common Ringed Plover has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Iceland, Japan, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Turkey.

  79. Little Ringed Plover ______  (r/US)
    Charadrius dubius

    The Little Ringed Plover is an Old World species. it occurs rarely in the spring in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    Outside North America, the Little Ringed Plover has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, the Canary Islands, Hungary, Japan, Poland, Spain, Turkey.

  80. Collared Plover ______  (r/US)
    Charadrius collaris 
    (monotypic)

    The Collared Plover is a resident species from Mexico south through much of South America. In North America, 1 was at Uvalde, Texas, May 9-11, 1992.  
    The 2nd Collared Plover in the US was also found in Texas, near Hargill, on August 2, 2014.

    South of the US, the Collared Plover has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela.

  81. American Oystercatcher  (*) (ph)  ______  DE:may  NC:may,jun,jul,aug  TX:may
    Haematopus palliatus

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Haematopus palliatus palliatus  ______ 
    (subspecies along coasts in North America & South America; also in the West Indies; the other subspecies is in the Galapagos Islands) 

    South of the US, the American Oystercatcher has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico.
     
  82. American Black Oystercatcher  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun  BC:sep  CA:sep  WA:sep
    Haematopus bachmani 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Black Oystercatcher has been seen during a FONT tour in Mexico (Sonora).
     
  83. Eurasian Oystercatcher  (ph)  ______  (r/NA)
    Haematopus ostralegus

    The Eurasian Oystercatcher is an Old World (Palearctic) species, occurring normally as far west as Iceland. 
    It has traveled, rarely, west to Greenland, and more rarely, west to North America, particularly Newfoundland, Canada.
    In Newfoundland, in the spring, records have been May 22 to 25, 1994 and April 3 to May 2, 1999.

    The Eurasian Oystercatcher was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    Outside North America, the Eurasian Oystercatcher has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Iceland, Japan, Romania, Spain, Sweden. The Eurasian Oystercatcher is often seen away from the sea.

  84. Black-necked Stilt  (*) (ph) ______ AZ:jul,aug,sep  CA:sep  CO:apr  DE:may  FL:apr  NC:may,jun,jul,aug  TX:mar,apr,may  
    Himantopus mexicanus 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Black-necked Stilt has been found during FONT tours in Argentina, the Cayman Islands, Chile (far-north), Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, the Galapagos Islands, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Venezuela. 

    The Black-necked Stilt has been considered by some as conspecific with the nearly-cosmopolitan Black-winged Stilt, Himantopus himantopus (below)
     

  85. Black-winged Stilt  (ph) ______  (r/NA)
    Himantopus himantopus

    The Black-winged Stilt is a widespread Old World species. 
    There are two Alaskan records from the western Aleutians: Nizki Island from May 24 to June 3, 1983 and on Shemya Island, June 1 to 9, 2003. And there is a specimen from St. George Island, in the Pribilofs, Alaska, on May 15, 2003. 

    The Black-winged Stilt was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Outside North America, the Black-winged Stilt has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Japan, Spain, Turkey. 

  86. American Avocet (*) (ph) ______ AZ:jul,aug,sep  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  KS:apr  NC:may,aug,sep  NE:apr  TX:apr,may  WY:apr
    Recurvirostra americana
      (monotypic)

    South of the US, the American Avocet has been found during FONT tours in Mexico.

  87. Northern Jacana  (ph) ______  (r/US)
    Jacana spinosa

    The Northern Jacana is a species mostly of Mexico and Central America, but it does occur rarely in south Texas, where it most likely has bred. It occurs as a vagrant in west Texas and in southern Arizona.

    The Northern Jacana was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    South of the US, the Northern Jacana has been seen during FONT tours in Belize, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama. 
      
     
  88. Greater Yellowlegs  (*)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  AZ:aug,sep  BC:sep  CA:sep,jul  CO:apr  DE:may  IA:mar  KS:apr  NC:may,jun,aug  NE:mar,apr  NF:jul  OK:apr  TX:mar,apr,may  WA:sep  WY:apr 
    Tringa melanoleuca 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Greater Yellowlegs has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, the Cayman Islands, Chile, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Venezuela.

  89. Lesser Yellowlegs  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  AZ:jul,aug,sep  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  DE:may  KS:apr  NC:may,aug  NCP:aug  TX:mar,apr,may  WA:sep
    Tringa flavipes 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Lesser Yellowlegs has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, the Cayman Islands, Chile, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Venezuela.

  90. Solitary Sandpiper  (*)  ______  AZ:jul,aug,sep  CO:apr  DE:may  KS:apr  NC:may  TX:mar,may  WA:sep
    Tringa solitaria 

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Tringa solitaria cinnamomea  ______ 
    (subspecies from Alaska to northern Manitoba, Canada, migrating to South America)
    Tringa solitria solitaria  ______ 
    (subspecies from British Colombia to Labrador in Canada, migrating to the West Indies and Central America & South America)

    South of the US, the Solitary Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, the Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, Venezuela.
      
  91. Willet  (*) (ph)  ______  AZ:aug  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  DE:may  FL:apr  NC:may,jun,jul,aug  TX:mar,apr,may  WA:sep
    Tringa
    (formerly Catoptrophorus) semipalmatus 

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Tringa semipalmatus inornatus:  Western Willet   ______ 
    (subspecies in south-central Canada & the north-central US, migrating to the southern US and further to South America) 
    Tringa semipalmatus semipalmatus: 
    Eastern Willet   ______
      (subspecies in southeastern Canada, the eastern & southern US, and the West Indies, migrating to the southern US, the West Indies, Central America, & South America as far as Brazil)     

    South of the US, the Willet has been seen during FONT tours in the Cayman Islands, Chile (far-north), Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Venezuela.

  92. Common Greenshank  (*) ______  (r/NA)   AK:may (PI)  
    Tringa nebularia 
    (monotypic)

    The Common Greenshank is a common Eurasian species. 
    It visits western Alaska annually, as a rarity, in the spring. It occurs on the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands, and on St. Lawrence Island. It also occurs rarely in western Alaska in the fall. Further south, it has occurred rarely as far as coastal northwest California, and in eastern North America, as a rarity, in northeast Canada.

    Outside North America, the Common Greenshank has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Japan, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Turkey..  
           
  93. Marsh Sandpiper  ______  (r/NA)
    Tringa stagnatilis 
    (monotypic)

    The Marsh Sandpiper is an Old World species, more common in Asia. 
    It has occurred rarely, in the fall, on the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.  

    Outside North America, the Marsh Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Japan, Turkey.

  94. Wood Sandpiper (*) (ph)  ______  (r/NA)   AK:may,jun (PI)  
    Tringa glareola 
    (monotypic)

    The Wood Sandpiper is a Eurasian species. 
    Normally, it occurs probably the most commonly of any Eurasian shorebird, or "wader", in western Alaska in the spring. It has occasionally bred on western Aleutian Islands in Alaska. It also occurs in that state on the Pribilof Islands and on St. Lawrence Island. 
    It has occurred more rarely in western North America south to British Columbia, as well as in eastern North America. 

    The Wood Sandpiper was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    Outside North America, the Wood Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Japan, Poland, Spain, Turkey.

    South of the US, the Wood Sandpiper has been seen during a FONT tour in Barbados (a Caribbean island where European strays are found rather regularly). 

  95. Green Sandpiper  (*)  ______  (r/US)   AK:may (PI)  
    Tringa ochropus 
    (monotypic)

    The Green Sandpiper is a Eurasian species. 
    It occurs rarely in the spring in Alaska in the western Aleutian Islands, the Priblof Islands, and on St. Lawrence Island. 

    The Green Sandpiper was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Outside North America, the Green Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Japan, Poland, Spain, Turkey..  

  96. Common Redshank  (ph) ______  (r/NA)
    Tringa totanus
     

    The Common Redshank is a Eurasian species that breeds as far west as Iceland. It occurs on occasion in Greenland.
    Elsewhere in North America, it is rare in Newfoundland, Canada in the spring, and more so there in the winter.

    The Common Redshank was described by Linnaeus in 1758.  

    Outside North America, the Common Redshank has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Iceland, Japan, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Turkey.  In Iceland, there is an endemic subspecies.

  97. Spotted Redshank  ______  (r/NA)
    Tringa erythropus 
    (monotypic)

    The Spotted Redshank is a Eurasian species. 
    It occurs rarely, in the spring and the fall, on the Aleutian Islands and the Pribilof Islands in Alaska. 
    More rarely, it occurs in North America along both the West Coast & the East Coast and at times, as a vagrant, in between.

    Outside North America, the Spotted Redshank has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Japan, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Turkey.  
      
  98. Wandering Tattler (*)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  CA:sep  WA:sep
    Heteroscelus
    (or said to be Tringa) incanus  (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Wandering Tattler has been seen during FONT tours in the Galapagos Islands of Ecuador.



    A Wandering Tattler in Alaska
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

     
  99. Grey-tailed Tattler  (ph)  ______  (r/NA)
    Heteroscelus
    (or said to be Tringa) brevipes  (monotypic)

    The Grey-tailed Tattler is an Asian species. 
    It occurs rarely, but regularly, in the spring and fall in Alaska on the western Aleutian Islands, the Pribilof Islands, and on St. Lawrence Island. More rarely, it is found in northern Alaska. 
    It has occurred as a vagrant in the fall in Washington State and California.  

    Outside North America, the Grey-tailed Tattler has been seen during FONT tours in Japan.

  100. Terek Sandpiper  (*)  ______  (r/NA)   AK:jun  
    Xenus cinereus 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    The Terek Sandpiper is a Eurasian species. 
    It occurs rarely in Alaska on the western Aleutian Islands, and more rarely in that state on the Pribilof Islands, St. Lawrence Island, and in the Anchorage area. 
    It has also occurred as a vagrant in the fall in British Columbia, Canada, and in California and Massachusetts in the US.

    Outside North America, the Terek Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Japan.
     
  101. Spotted Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun  AZ:jul,aug  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  DE:may  FL:apr (DT)  KS:apr  NC:may,aug  NF:jul  NM:apr  TX:mar,apr,may  WA:sep
    Actitis macularia 
    (monotypic)

    The Spotted Sandpiper was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    South of the US, the Spotted Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, the Cayman Islands, Chile (far-north), Costa Rica, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, Venezuela. 



    Above: A Spotted Sandpiper with spots
    Below: An unspotted Spotted Sandpiper 
    (photo by Howard Eskin)




  102. Common Sandpiper  (*) ______  (r/NA)  AK:jun (PI) 
    Actitis hypoleucos 
    (monotypic)

    The Common Sandpiper is a Eurasian species. 
    It is rare, but regular, usually in the spring, in Alaska on the western Aleutian Islands, the Pribilof Islands, and on St. Lawrence Island. It occurs more rarely in Alaska to the Seward Peninsula.

    The Common Sandpiper was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Outside North America, the Common Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Japan, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Turkey.  

  103. Upland Sandpiper  (*)  ______  FL:apr  (DT)  NC:aug
    Bartramia longicauda 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Upland Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Brazil.

  104. Whimbrel  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  AZ:aug  BC:sep  CA:sep  FL:apr (DT)  NC:may,aug  TX:mar  WA:sep
    Numenius phaeopus

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus  ______ 
    (subspecies breeding from the Hudson Bay area to northeastern Canada, migrating to the Caribbean and South America)
    Numenius phaeopus rufiventris  ______ 
    (subspecies breeding from Alaska to northwestern Canada, migrating south to western North America, Central America, South America)

    The pale-backed Siberian subspecies, Numenius phaeopus variegatus, is a rare migrant in the Bering Strait area of western Alaska, as it is on the islands in the Bering Sea.  

    The Whimbrel was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Outside North America, the Whimbrel has been during FONT tours in Hungary, Iceland, Japan (the race N. p. variegatus), Poland, Spain, Sweden. 

    South of the US, the Whimbrel has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Chile, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Venezuela.
     
  105. Long-billed Curlew  (nt) (*) (ph) ______  AZ:aug,sep  CA:sep  CO:apr  KS:apr  NC:aug (r/NC)  NE:apr  TX:apr,may  WA:sep
    Numenius americanus 

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Numenius americanus americanus  ______ 
    (subspecies in the west-central US, migrating to the southwestern US, with some further south into Central America) 
    Numenius americanus parvus  ______ 
    (subspecies from southwest & south-central Canada to the southwestern US, migrating to the southwestern US & Mexico)  

    Unusual was a Long-billed Curlew, along with numerous other shorebirds, at the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge along the North Carolina Outer Banks, during the FONT tour three in August 1993.

    South of the US, the Long-billed Curlew has been seen during FONT tours in Mexico, Panama.
     
  106. Bristle-thighed Curlew  (t3) (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)
    Numenius tahitiensis 
    (monotypic)

    In 1769, the Bristle-thighed Curlew was discovered wintering on South Pacific islands, first collected by Captain Cook's voyagers in Tahiti. The species was described to science 20 year later. Its nesting grounds in Alaska were not discovered until almost 180 years later, in 1948. Just prior to that, it was the only bird species in North America whose nesting area was still a mystery.  

      

    Bristle-thighed Curlew
    (photo courtesy of Cameron Rutt)

  107. Eastern Curlew  (nt) (*)  ______  (r/NA)   AK:may (PI) 
    Numenius madagascariensis 
    (monotypic)

    The Eastern Curlew breeds in the Russian Far East, and winters mostly in Australia, New Zealand, and New Guinea, with some in southeast Asia. Despite its scientific name, it is not found in or near Madagascar.
    It is rare in the spring & early-summer in the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands of Alaska. It also occurred in September 1984 along the coast of British Columbia, Canada.

    The Eastern Curlew was described by Linnaeus in 1766.

    Outside North America, the Eastern Curlew has been seen during FONT tours in Japan.

    Numenius madagascariensis has also been called the Far Eastern Curlew.
     
  108. Eurasian Curlew  ______  (r/NA)
    Numenius arquata

    The Eurasian Curlew is a widespread species in Eurasia. 
    It has been a rarity along the east coast of North America in the fall & winter, with at least 6 records from Newfoundland, Canada south to Long Island, New York.
    There has been another record in western Canada of 1 bird at Middle Cheyne Lake, in Nunavit.

    The Eurasian Curlew was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    Outside North America, the Eurasian Curlew has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Iceland, Japan, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Turkey.  The Eurasian Curlew does not breed on Iceland, where it occurs in the winter, coming from Norway.   

  109. Little Curlew  (*)  ______  (r/US)  CA:sep  (r/NA)
    Numenius minutus 
    (monotypic)

    A single Little Curlew was seen in California during the FONT West Coast Tour in September 1994. 

    The Little Curlew breeds in the Russian Far East and winters mainly in northern Australia. 
    In North America, it has been a fall vagrant along coastal California (where there have been 4 fall records including both adult & juvenile birds). 
    Also there is one well-documented record for the late-spring for Gambell, St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  

  110. Eskimo Curlew  (t1)  ______  (assumed now to be extinct)
    Numenius borealis

    Another name for the Eskimo Curlew was the "Doe-bird", sometimes spelled "Dough-bird". That name was due to the bird's acquiring of fatness for its long journey south.  

    As North America was being settled by the Europeans, the Eskimo Curlew was one of the most abundant birds on the continent.
    It bred on the Barren Grounds of northern Canada. It wintered in far-southern South America. It migrated in between.
    It was said, during its southbound migration, to have visited Newfoundland "in millions" darkening the sky.
    John James Audubon, Elliot Coues, and other ornithologists of the early 1800s told of immense flights.
    In the Prairie States, the numbers of Eskimo Curlews so resembled the tremendous flights of Passenger Pigeons that they were called "Prairie Pigeons".
    A single flock alighting in Nebraska was said to have covered 40 to 50 acres of ground.

    The Eskimo Curlew migrated south in August southeast to Labrador and Newfoundland, where they fed on "curlew berries" (Empetrum nigrum) and snails, gaining the weight needed for their long journey out over the sea to South America.
    Easterly storms, such as hurricanes that time of year, sometimes brought them onto the coasts of New England and Long Island, New York. They often touched down on Lesser Antillean islands, such as Barbados, before continuing on to to the coast of Brazil, and then further to Argentina.

    During their northbound spring route, after crossing the Gulf of Mexico, they arrived in March in southern Texas, and then continued up the western Mississippi Valley, and thence further north to where they would nest.

    But from being abundant, the status of the Eskimo Curlew in the 19th Century certainly changed.

    Incredibly, the Eskimo Curlew was not seen anywhere at its known breeding grounds for years after 1865. 
    Just over a century later, in 1987, a small nesting colony was said to be found in the Canadian Arctic, that was maybe the last.
    The last breeding grounds of the Eskimo Curlew in northern Canada are said to have been in either Ungava or Franklin.  
        
    The last Eskimo Curlews were either seen or shot at these places as follows:
    in Illinois in 1872
    in Ontario in 1873
    in Ohio in 1878
    in Arkansas and Michigan in 1883
    in South Dakota and Oklahoma in 1884
    in Minnesota in 1885
    in Louisiana, Pennsylvania, and Newfoundland in 1889
    in Indiana in 1890
    in Iowa in 1893
    in Prince Edward Island in 1901
    in Kansas, Missouri, and Nova Scotia in 1902
    in Quebec in 1906  (fair-sized flocks in the fall were in Quebec until 1891)
    in Wisconsin in 1912
    in Maryland, and Bermuda in 1913  (fair-sized flocks were in Bermuda until 1874)
    in Massachusetts in 1916  (fair-sized flocks were in Massachusetts until 1883)
    in Nebraska in 1926  (there was a more-recent report in Nebraska in 1987)    
    in Maine in 1929  (fair-sized flocks were in Maine until 1879)
    in Labrador and Long Island, New York in 1932 (fair-sized flocks in the fall were in Labrador until 1892) 
    in South Carolina in 1956
    in New Jersey in 1959
    in the Bahamas in 1963
    in Barbados in the Lesser Antilles in 1964, when one was shot.

    No spring migrant was seen anywhere other than Texas since 1926. 
    Along the Gulf coast of Texas, the last confirmed sighting, with a photograph, was at Galveston in 1962. A flock of 23 birds was reported there in 1981.    

    There were additional, but unconfirmed records of Eskimo Curlews:
    in Texas and Canada in 1987 (the Canadian "breeding site" noted above), in Nova Scotia in 2006, and in Argentina in 1990.  

    The last Eskimo Curlews seen and confirmed at wintering grounds in South America, were in Argentina back in n 1939.   

    With prevailing westerlies or strong storms, Eskimo Curlews were at times seen across the Atlantic Ocean:
    Sighted or shot:
    in England in 1852 (2 birds) and 1887.
    in Scotland in 1855, 1878, 1880.
    in Ireland in 1870.   

      

    A painting of an Eskimo Curlew by Archibald Thorbum


    The following is an excerpt of the account written by John James Audubon relating to his first encounter with the Eskimo Curlew, in Labrador:

    "On the 29th of July, 1833, during a thick fog, the Esquimaux Curlews made their first appearance (for me) in Labrador, near the harbor of Brag d'Or. They evidently came from the north, and arrived in such dense flocks as to remind me of the Passenger Pigeons. The weather was extremely cold as well as foggy.
    For more than a week we had been looking for them, as was every fisherman in the harbour, these birds being considered there, as indeed they are, delicacies.
    The birds at length came, flock after flock, passed close to our vessel, and directed their course toward the sterile mountainous tracts in the neighborhood, and as soon as the sun's rays had dispersed the fogs that hung over the land, our whole party went off in search of them.

    I was not long in discovering that their stay on this coast was occasional solely by the density of the mists and the heavy gales that already gave intimation of the approaching close of the summer, for whenever the weather cleared up a little, thousands of them (the curlews) set off and steered in a straight course across the broad Gulf of St, Lawrence.
    On the contrary, when the wind was high, and the fogs thick, they flew swiftly and low over the rocky surface of the country, as if bewildered. Wherever there was a spot that seemed likely to afford a supply of food, there the Curlews abounded, and were easily approached. By the 12th of August, they had all left the country."                

  111. Slender-billed Curlew  (t1)  ______  (possibly now extinct)
    Numernius tenurostris

    In North America, there is a specimen of the now either very rare, or extinct, Slender-billed Curlew from Crescent Beach, Ontario in "about 1925". 

  112. Hudsonian Godwit  (nt) (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun
    Limosa haemastica 
    (monotypic)

    The Hudsonian Godwit was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    South of the US, the Hudsonian Godwit has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Chile (including Chiloe Island where a large proportion of the species' total population is present during its non-breeding season), and the Dominican Republic.






    Above, two photos of Hudsonian Godwits in Alaska
    (photos by Howard Eskin)

  113. Marbled Godwit  (*) (ph)  ______  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr  NC:aug  TX:apr  WA:sep  WY:apr
    Limosa fedoa

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Limosa fedoa beringiae  ______ 
    (subspecies breeding in Alaska, migrating to the western US)  (subspecies described in 1989)
    Limosa fedoa fedoa  ______ 
    (subspecies from central Canada & the northwestern US, migrating to the southern US, with some further south into Central America & northwestern South America)

    The Marbled Godwit was described by Linnaeus in 1758.  

    South of the US, the Marbled Godwit has been seen during FONT tours in Chile (where rare), Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama.
      
  114. Bar-tailed Godwit  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  CA:sep  WA:sep
    Limosa lapponica 

    Two subspecies of this mostly-Eurasian Bar-tailed Godwit occur in North America. 
    The subspecies Limosa lapponica baueri breeds in western Alaska. It is a famous long-distance migrant, traveling as far south over the Pacific Ocean as New Zealand. This Alaska-breeding subspecies occurs rarely along the West Coast of North America, and there is also a record of it, as a vagrant, along the East Coast in Massachusetts.
    The European subspecies, Limosa lapponica lapponica, occurs very rarely along the Atlantic Coast of North America.  

    Bar-tailed Godwits have been seen in California & Washington State during 5 FONT West Coast Tours in September. 

    In 2007, a satellite-tagged Bar-tailed Godwit was tracked making the longest known non-stop migratory flight of any bird. Its journey was from its non-breeding grounds in New Zealand to is nesting site in western Alaska's Yukon Delta, and back again. The bird was a female.
    On the way north, she flew 6,340 miles non-stop to Yalu Jiang in China. She then flew another 3,000 miles to Alaska. On her way back to New Zealand from Alaska, with her tag still operative, she set the record with 7,145 miles non-stop, landing in New Zealand in early September.
    Such birds, it may be safe to say, have been making such journeys for a long time. 

    The Bar-tailed Godwit was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Outside North America, the Bar-tailed Godwit has been seen during FONT tours in Iceland, Japan, Spain, Sweden.  

     

    Bar-tailed Godwits photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Paul West)

  115. Black-tailed Godwit  ______  (r/NA)
    Limosa limosa

    The Black-tailed Godwit is a western Old World species. 
    It has occurred as a rarity in eastern North America, with records from eastern Ontario to Louisiana.

    The Black-tailed Godwit was described by Linnaeus in 1758.    

    Outside North America, the Black-tailed Godwit has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Iceland, Poland, Spain, Turkey. In Iceland, there is an endemic breeding subspecies, L. l. islandica.

  116. Eastern Black-tailed Godwit  (nt) (*) ______  (r/US)   AK:may (PI)  
    Limosa melanuroides 

    The Eastern Black-tailed Godwit is an east Asian species. 
    In Alaska, it is a rare, but regular, spring visitor in the western Aleutian Islands, and it has occurred more rarely also in the spring in the Pribilof Islands.

    Outside North America, the Eastern Black-tailed Godwit has been seen during FONT tours in Japan

  117. Ruddy Turnstone  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  AZ:aug (r/AZ)  BC:sep  CA:sep  DE:may  FL:apr (DT)  NC:may,jun,jul,aug  NCP:aug  TX:mar,apr,may  WA:sep 
    Arenaria interpres

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Arenaria interpres interpres  ______ 
    (subspecies breeding in northeastern Canada, Greenland, and northern Europe east to northeastern Siberia & western Alaska, migrating to Europe, Africa, Asia, Australasia, Pacific islands, and in North America from the western US to western Mexico)
    Arenaria interpres morinella  ______
      (subspecies breeding in northeastern Alaska & northern Canada, migrating to the southern US and further south to South America)

    The Ruddy Turnstone was described by Linnaeus in 1758 (the nominate) and 1766 (A. i. morinella).     

    Outside North America, the Ruddy Turnstone has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Iceland, Japan, Poland, Spain, and south of the US in Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, the Cayman Islands, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, the Galapagos Islands, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Venezuela. 



    Ruddy Turnstone
    (photo by Howard Eskin)
     
  118. Black Turnstone  (*)  ______  AK:may,jun  BC:sep  CA:sep  WA:sep
    Arenaria melanocephala 
    (monotypic)

  119. Surfbird  (*)  ______  AK:may,jun  BC:sep  CA:sep  WA:sep
    Aphriza virgata 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    In 1926, a nest of Surfbirds was found for the first time in mountains of Alaska. The species was described to science back in 1789.  

    South of the US, the Surfbird has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Chile, Panama. 

  120. Red Knot  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:jun  CA:sep  DE:may  NC:may,aug  TX:may  WA:sep 
    Calidris canutus

    SUBSPECIES THAT OCCUR IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Calidris canutus islandica  ______ 
    (subspecies breeding on islands of far-northern Canada & in Greenland, migrating to western Europe)  
    Calidris canutus roselaari  ______ 
    (subspecies breeding in northwestern Alaska & northeastern Siberia, migrating to the coast of the Gulf of Mexico)  (subspecies described in 1990)
    Calidris canutus rufa  ______ 
    (subspecies breeding in northern Canada, migrating to South America as far south as Tierra del Fuego)   

    The Red Knot was described by Linnaeus in 1758, the nominate that breeds in Siberia, winters in Africa, and passes through Europe in migration. 
    The subspecies Calidris canutus islandica, that winters in Europe, was described by Linnaeus in 1767. 

    In 1909, during his journey home from his discovery of the North Pole, Admiral Peary found the first nest of the Red Knot ever seen by man, in Grinnell Land, on northern Ellesmere Island.
    Previous arctic explorers, having observed Knots feeding by tundra pools, mistakenly assumed the nests to be in the nearby grass. Rather, Knots usually nest on high rock shale far from water, affording an ideal camouflage. 

    Outside North America, the Red Knot has been seen during FONT tours in Iceland, Japan (the race C. c. rogersi), Spain, Sweden.
    The subspecies in Iceland is C. c. islandica although it does not breed there. That subspecies does nest on islands of northern Canada and in northern Greenland, and occurs, during the non-breeding season, in Spain. Otherwise in Europe, the subspecies is C. c. canutus.  

    South of the US, the Red Knot has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), the Galapagos Islands, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico (where uncommon at best).



    Above & below: Red Knots
    Above in breeding plumage, below non-breeding plumage
    (both photos by Howard Eskin)




  121. Sanderling  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may  CA:sep  DE:may  FL:apr (DT)  NC:may,aug,sep  TX:mar,apr,may  WA:sep
    Calidris alba

    SUBSPECIES THAT OCCUR IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Calidris alba alba  ______
      (subspecies that breeds in northern Canada on Ellesmere Island & in Greenland, and east into Europe, migrating to Europe, Africa, Asia, Australasia)
    Calidris alba rubida  ______
      (subspecies breeding in northern Canada, Alaska, & northeastern Siberia, migrating to the Americas, with some in coastal eastern Asia)      

    Outside North America, the Sanderling has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Iceland, Japan, Spain, Turkey, and south of the US in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, the Galapagos Islands, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Venezuela.
     
  122. Semipalmated Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun  AZ:aug (r/AZ)  CA:sep (r/CA)  CO:apr  DE:may  FL:apr  NC:may,aug,sep  NCP:aug  TX:mar,may
    Calidris pusilla 
    (monotypic)

    The Semipalmated Sandpiper was described by Linnaeus in 1766. 

    Outside North America, the Semipalmated Sandpiper has been seen, as a rarity, during a FONT tour in Hungary, and south of the US in Barbados, Belize, the Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Venezuela.



    Above & below: A flock of Semipalmated Sandpipers
    (photos by Howard Eskin)


     

  123. Western Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (ac) (PI)  AZ:jul,aug,sep  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr  FL:apr  NC:may,aug  TX:apr  WA:sep
    Calidris mauri 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Western Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Venezuela.



    Western Sandpiper
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  124. Least Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  AZ:jan,jul,aug,sep  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr  DE:may  FL:apr  NC:may,aug  TX:mar,apr  WA:sep
    Calidris minutilla 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Least Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Belize, Brazil (Amazonian), the Cayman Islands, Chile (far-north), Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, the Galapagos Islands, Haiti, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Venezuela.



    Least Sandpiper
    (photo by Howard Eskin)
     
  125. White-rumped Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  NC:may,aug  WA:sep
    Calidris fuscicollis 
    (monotypic)

    Regarding WA in September, the White-rumped Sandpiper is uncommon in the Northwest US.  

    Outside North America, the White-rumped Sandpiper has been seen, as a rarity, during a FONT tour in Iceland.   

    South of the US, the White-rumped Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Chile (where it is common in its non-breeding season in Patagonia), the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama, Puerto Rico (where rare).

  126. Baird's Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun  AZ:jul,aug,sep  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  NE:mar  KS:apr  TX:apr,may  WA:sep
    Calidris bairdii 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Baird's Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Chile (where it is common in its non-breeding season in the Andes Mountains), Ecuador.



    Baird's Sandpipers 
    (photo by Howard Eskin)


      
  127. Pectoral Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  AZ:aug  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr  NC:aug  TX:may  WA:sep
    Calidris melanotos 
    (monotypic)

    Outside North America, the Pectoral Sandpiper has been seen, as a rarity, in Sweden, Turkey, and south of the US in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela.
      
  128. Sharp-tailed Sandpiper  (ph) _____  (r/NA)
    Calidris acuminata 
    (monotypic)

    The Sharp-tailed Sandpiper is an Old World species that breeds in the Russian Far East. 
    It is rare in the spring and fairly common in the fall in western Alaska. 
    It occurs rarely in the fall along the West Coast of North America, and more rarely across the rest of the continent.

    Outside North America, the Sharp-tailed Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Japan.

  129. Dunlin  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  CA:sep  CO:apr  DE:may  NC:may  TX:apr,may  WA:sep
    Calidris alpina

    SUBSPECIES THAT OCCUR IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Calidris alpina arctica  ______ 
    (subspecies breeding in northeastern Greenland, migrating to northwestern Africa)
    Calidris alpina schinzii  ______ 
    (subspecies in southeastern Greenland, and in Iceland, the British Isles, & northern Europe, migrating to southern Europe & northwestern Africa)    
    Calidris alpina arcticola  ______ 
    (subspecies breeding in northern Alaska & northwestern Canada, migrating to Asia in eastern China, Korea, & Japan)  (subspecies described in 1953)
    Calidris alpina hudsonia  ______ 
    (subspecies breeding in north-central Canada east of the Hudson Bay, migrating to the southeastern US)  (subspecies described in 1953)
    Calidris alpina pacifica  ______ 
    (subspecies breeding in western & southern Alaska, migrating to the western US & western Mexico)    

    The Dunlin was described by Linnaeus in 1758, the nominate of Europe & Asia, into Africa. 

    Outside North America, the Dunlin has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Iceland, Japan, Spain, and south of the US in the Dominican Republic (where rare), Mexico. 

    An old name for Calidris alpina was "Red-backed Sandpiper".



    A Dunlin surrounded by Semipalmated Sandpipers
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  130. Curlew Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  (r/NA)  NC:aug  (r/NC)
    Calidris ferruginea 
    (monotypic)

    The Curlew Sandpiper is a Eurasian species. 
    In North America, it occurs rarely, but annually, along the East Coast, and more rarely elsewhere. 
    In northern Alaska, it has bred.

    Curlew Sandpipers were seen during FONT North Carolina Tours, along the Outer Banks, in Augusts of 1993, 1994, & 1995. 

    Outside North America, the Curlew Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Japan, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Turkey.



    A Curlew Sandpiper with only part of its breeding plumage
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  131. Stilt Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  _______  AK:jun  AZ:aug  BC:sep  FL:apr  NC:aug  TX:apr,may
    Calidris
    (has been Micropama) himantopus  (monotypic)

    A Stilt Sandpiper during a FONT tour in British Columbia in September 2000 was unusual there.

    South of the US, the Stilt Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Brazil, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Venezuela.



    Stilt Sandpiper
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  132. Long-toed Stint  (*) (ph)  ______  (r/US)   AK:may (PI)  CA:sep  
    Calidris subminuta 
    (monotypic)

    The Long-toed Stint is an Asian species. 
    In Alaska, in the spring, it can be fairly common in the western Aleutian Islands and rare in the Pribilof Islands and on St. Lawrence Island. 
    More rarely, it occurs in the fall in coastal Oregon and California.

    A single Long-toed Stint was seen in California during the FONT West Coast Tour in September 1992.

    Outside North America, the Long-toed Stint has been seen during FONT tours in Japan.



    Long-toed Stint
    (photo taken during a FONT Tour in Japan)

  133. Red-necked Stint  (*) (ph)  ______  (r/NA)   AK:jun (PI)
    Calidris ruficollis 
    (monotypic)

    The Red-necked Stint is an east Asian species. 
    It occurs, regularly, along the west Alaska coast, and on offshore Alaskan islands. Breeding has been documented along the coast of the Seward Peninsula in Alaska. Elsewhere in North America, the species occurs rarely along both the West & East Coasts, and, as a vagrant, in between. 

    Outside North America, the Red-necked Stint has been seen during FONT tours in Japan. 

    Calidris ruficollis has also been called Rufous-necked Stint.
     
  134. Temminck's Stint  (*)  ______  (r/NA)   AK:jun  
    Calidris temminckii 
    (monotypic)

    The Temminck's Stint is a Eurasian species. 
    It occurs rarely in the spring and the fall in Alaska in the Pribilof Islands, the Aleutian Islands, and on St. Lawrence Island.
    More rarely, it occurs in northern Alaska and in the coastal Pacific Northwest of the US.   

    Outside North America, the Temminck's Stint has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Japan, Poland, Spain. 

  135. Little Stint  ______  (r/NA)
    Calidris minuta 
    (monotypic)

    The Little Stint is a Eurasian species. 
    It occurs very rarely on western Alaskan islands in the spring and fall, and as a rarity elsewhere in North America along both the West & East Coasts, and , as a vagrant, in between. 

    Outside North America, the Little Stint has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Japan (rare there), Poland, Spain, Sweden, Turkey. 

  136. Rock Sandpiper (*)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)
    Calidris ptilocnemis

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Calidris ptilocnemis cousei  ______ 
    (subspecies in Alaska in the Aleutian Islands & on the Alaska Peninsula) 
    Calidris ptilocnemis ptilocnemis  ______ 
    (subspecies nesting in the Pribilof Islands of Alaska, wintering on the Alaska Peninsula)
    Calidris ptilocnemis tschuktschorum  ______ 
    (subspecies nesting in far-eastern Siberia & western Alaska, including on St Lawrence & Nunivak islands, wintering in northwestern North America) 

    A 4th subspecies of the Rock Sandpiper occurs in far-eastern Siberia, migrating south to Japan, where it is rare.

  137. Purple Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    Calidris maritima

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Calidris maritima belkcheri  ______ 
    (subspecies breeding in Canada east of the Hudson Bay & at James Bay, migrating to eastern North America)  (subspecies described in 1998)
    Calidris maritima maritima  ______ 
    (subspecies breeding in northern Canada & Greenland, and east into Scandinavia & Siberia, migrating to eastern North America and western & northern Europe)

    Another subspecies, Calidris maritima littoralis, breeds in Iceland, where it is a resident.     

    Outside North America, the Purple Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Iceland, where it is an endemic subspecies. During May & June FONT tours in Iceland, it has been seen where it nests. 



    Purple Sandpiper
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  138. Great Knot  ______  (r/US)
    Calidris tenuirostris 
    (monotypic)

    The Great Knot is an Asian species. 
    It occurs rarely in western Alaska in the spring.

    Outside North America, the Great Knot has been see during FONT tours in Japan

  139. Spoon-billed Sandpiper (t1)  ______  (r/NA)
    Eurynorhynchus pygmeus 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    The Spoon-billed Sandpiper is an overall very rare species, breeding in far eastern Siberia. It winters coastally in Southeast Asia. 
    The total population of the species has recently been estimated as under 4,000 birds. The population at the known breeding grounds has recently been said to be about 1,000 individuals, thus indicating a greater than 50 per recent reduction in the last decade or so. 
    In North America, it has occurred very rarely in western and northern Alaska. Further south, in British Columbia, Canada, there was a record of a breeding-plumaged adult near Vancouver from July 30 to August 3, 1978.

    The Spoon-billed Sandpiper was described by Linnaeus in 1758.



    Spoon-billed Sandpiper
      
  140. Broad-billed Sandpiper  ______  (r/NA)
    Limicola falcinellus 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) (Said by British Ornithologists Union in September 2012 to be in the genus Calidris)  

    The Broad-billed Sandpiper is a Eurasian species. 
    It has occurred rarely in the fall in the western & central Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Elsewhere in North America, there has been a record of a fall vagrant in coastal New York. Birds in North America (so far) have been juveniles.   

    Outside North America, the Broad-billed Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Japan (rarely).  

  141. Ruff / Reeve  (*) (ph)  ______  (r/NA)   AK:may (PI)  BC:sep  NC:aug (r/NC) 
    Philomachus pugnax 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) (Said by the British Ornithologists Union in September 2012 to be in the genus Calidris)  

    The Ruff (male) and Reeve (female) is an Old World species. 
    In North America, it occurs rarely in western Alaska, and along the West Coast, the East Coast, and in the Great Lakes area. It has occurred more rarely elsewhere in North America, including, in the winter, in California. The species has bred in Alaska. 

    The Ruff was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Unusual was a Ruff, along with other shorebirds, at the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge on the North Carolina Outer Banks, during the FONT tour there in August 1994.
    Another Ruff was seen during the FONT Pacific Coast Tour in British Columbia in 2000.  

    Outside North America, the Ruff has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Japan, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden. 
    During an April FONT tour in Poland, as many as 5,000 Ruffs were seen, with most in breeding plumage with various colorations, and with many performing, or lekking, on mounds.  

    South of the US, the Ruff has been seen during a FONT tour in Barbados (a Caribbean island where European strays are found rather regularly).



    This photo is of a Ruff in eastern North America in April
    (photo by Marie Gardner)
     

  142. Buff-breasted Sandpiper  (nt) (ph)  ______  NC:sep
    Tryngites subruficollis 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) (Said by the British Ornithologists Union in September 2012 to be in the genus Calidris)

    South of the US, the Buff-breasted Sandpiper has been seen during FONT tours in Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul).



    Buff-breasted Sandpiper
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  143. Short-billed Dowitcher  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  BC:sep  CA:sep  DE:may  FL:apr  NC:may,aug  TX:mar,may  WA:sep
    Limnodromus griseus

    SUBSPECIES IN NORTH AMERICA:
    Limnodromus griseus caurinus  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Alaska & the Yukon, migrating to the central US and further south to Peru)  (species described in 1950)
    Limnodromus griseus griseus  ______ 
    (subspecies in northeast Canada, migrating to southern US and further south to Brazil)   
    Limnodromus griseus hendersoni  ______ 
    (subspecies in central Canada, migrating to the southeastern US and further south to Panama)  

    South of the US, the Short-billed Dowitcher has been seen during FONT tours in Belize, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Venezuela.

  144. Long-billed Dowitcher  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:jun  AZ:jul,aug  BC:sep  CA:sep  CO:apr  NC:aug  TX:apr,may  WA:sep
    Limnodromus scolopaceus 
    (monotypic)

    First described in 1823 from an expedition in western North America, the Long-billed Dowitcher remained a "good" species until 1921. 
    This was despite the contempt in which it was held by such naturalists as the sharp-tongued Dr. Elliot Coues, who declared that it was "supposed to be rare or casual on the Atlantic Coast and declared to be only representative of the genus in the west - which would be important if it were a fact".
    Later authorities were also suspicious of the bird as a species, and in 1921 the AOU (American Ornithologists Union)  demoted it to a subspecies, having been persuaded that a population of dowitchers breeding in Alberta, Canada was intermediate between griseus (the Short-billed Dowitcher) and scolopaceus, and that all three were therefore races of a single species.
    But in 1957 the Long-billed Dowitcher was restored to the rank of a species. Research established to the satisfaction of the AOU that the bill and legs of scolopaceus are longer than those of griseus due to the habit of preferred feeding in fresh-water pools rather than shallow tidal flats, and that scolopaceus is a tundra bird breeding north & west of griseus.     
          

    Outside North America, the Long-billed Dowitcher has been seen, as a rarity, during a FONT tour in Iceland, and south of the US during FONT tours in Haiti, Mexico.



    Long-billed Dowitcher
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  145. Wilson's Snipe  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  AZ:aug  CO:apr,jul  DE:may  KS:apr  NE:mar  WA:sep  WY:apr
    Gallinago delicata 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Wilson's Snipe has been seen during FONT tours in the Cayman Islands, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Saint Lucia.

    The Wilson's Snipe was conspecific with the Common Snipe, Gallinago gallinago, of Eurasia (the next bird in this list).



    Above & below: Wilson's Snipes
    (upper photo by Armas Hill; lower photo by Howard Eskin)


     

  146. Common Snipe  (ph)  ______  (r/US)
    Gallinago gallinago

    The Common Snipe is a Eurasian species. 
    It occurs regularly in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, where it has bred and is found rarely in the winter. it occurs more rarely in the central Aleutians, the Pribilof Islands, and on St. Lawrence Island. 

    The Common Snipe was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Outside North America, the Common Snipe has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Hungary, Iceland, Japan, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Turkey.  The subspecies in Iceland is G. g. faeroeensis.

  147. Pin-tailed Snipe  ______  (r/NA)
    Gallinago stenura 
    (monotypic)

    The Pin-tailed Snipe is an Old World species that breeds in Siberia and winters mostly in Southeast Asia. 
    There are at least 2 certain records in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    Outside North America, the Pin-tailed Snipe has been seen during FONT tours in Japan.

  148. Solitary Snipe  ______  (r/US)
    Gallinago solitaria

    The Solitary Snipe is an east Asian bird. 
    One is said to have been on the Pribilof Islands, in Alaska, on September 10, 2008.

    Outside North America, the Solitary Snipe has been seen during FONT tours in Japan, in the winter.
     
  149. Jack Snipe  ______  (r/NA)
    Lymnocryptes minimus 
    (monotypic, the single member of its genus)

    The Jack Snipe is an Old World species. It is small, with thus a nickname, the "half-snipe". 
    There have been just a few North American occurrences: in the spring on the Pribilof Islands in Alaska, and in the fall in Labrador, Canada, and in California.

    Outside North America, the Jack Snipe has been seen during FONT tours in Japan (on Hegura Island), Sweden.

  150. American Woodcock  (*) (ph)  ______  DE:may  IA:mar  NJP:dec
    Scolopax minor 
    (monotypic)



    American Woodcock
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  151. Eurasian Woodcock  ______  (r/NA)
    Scolopax rusticola 
    (monotypic)

    The Eurasian Woodcock is a widespread Old World species. 
    Most North American records are old and from the northeast US & eastern Canada.
    Old records include: Newfoundland in 1862, Quebec twice in 1862, Pennsylvania in 1886 & 1890, New Jersey in 1859, and one as far south as Alabama in 1889.
    The only accepted North American record in the 20th Century was one near Cape May, New Jersey, from January 2 to 5, 1956, although a lost specimen from Ohio, from 1935, may have been this species.

    The Eurasian Woodcock was described by Linnaeus in 1758.   

    Outside North America, the Eurasian Woodcock has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Japan, Poland, Romania. 

  152. Wilson's Phalarope  (*)  ______  AZ:jul,aug,sep  CA:sep  CO:apr,jul  DE:may  KS:apr  NC:aug  TX:apr,may
    Phalaropus tricolor 
    (monotypic)

    South of the US, the Wilson's Phalarope has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Chile, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico.

  153. Red-necked Phalarope  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (ac) (PI)  BC:sep  CA:sep  CAP:sep  DE:may  DEP:may,sep  NC:aug  NCP:may,jun,jul,aug  NJP:may,jul,aug,sep  WAP:sep
    Phalaropus lobatus 
    (monotypic)

    The Red-necked Phalarope was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Outside North America, the Red-necked Phalarope has been seen during FONT tours in Bulgaria, Ecuador, Iceland (as a nester), Japan (at sea), Turkey, and south of the US in Chile (at sea), Mexico.



    Red-necked Phalarope
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  154. Red Phalarope  (*) (ph)  ______  AK:may,jun (PI)  BC:sep  CAP:sep  DEP:may  NJP:may,aug,nov,dec  WAP:sep   
    Phalaropus fulicaria  (monotypic)

    Phalaropus fulicaria
    has been called the Grey Phalarope in the Old World, except in Iceland where because a few breed it is called Red Phalarope. 

    The Red Phalarope was described by Linnaeus in 1758.  

    Outside North America, the Red Phalarope has been seen during FONT tours in Chile (at sea), Ecuador (at sea), Iceland (as a nester), Japan (at sea). 

  155. Oriental Pratincole ______  (r/US)
    Glareola maldivarum 
    (monotypic)

    The Oriental Pratincole is an Asian species that winters south to Australia. 
    It has occurred in Alaska: a specimen from Attu Island, in the Aleutians, May 19-20, 1985 and 1 at Gambell, on St. Lawrence Island on June 5, 1986.

    The Collared Pratincole, Glareola pratincola, of Europe & Africa, has occurred (once) on the island of Barbados in the West Indies, and so could occur in eastern North America.

    Outside North America, the Oriental Pratincole has been seen during FONT tours in Japan.  

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