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A List of Some 
of  South America

including those during 
 Focus On Nature Tours

This List of South American Moths 
compiled by Armas Hill



Photo at upper right: a SILKMOTH in the ROTHCHILDIA genus in the SATURNIIDAE family
(photo by Marie Gardner, in July 2013 during the FONT birding and nature tour in southern Ecuador)


M#xxxx: MONA
(Moths of North America) Numbers
These generally were Hodge's Numbers, from the "Check List of the Lepidoptera North of Mexico" by R.W. Hodges et al.
That 1983 list (actually compiled thru 1978) is outdated, but the numbers have long been used (and continue to be in the MONA listing). 

Numbers noted as (BMCR:xxx) refer to plates with an illustration in the book "Butterflies & Moths of Costa Rica"" by Isidro Chacon & Jose Montero, 2007 (followed by -c: caterpillar, -co: caterpillar only)
Numbers noted as (EBE:xxx) refer to pages with a photograph in the book "Ecuador's Butterfly Ecology" by Xavier Silva (followed by -c: caterpillar, -co: caterpillar only)
Numbers noted as (W:xx) refer to pages  with a photograph in the book "Caterpillars of Eastern North America" by David Wagner, 2005. 
Numbers noted as (WC:xx) refer to pages with an illustration in the book "A Wildlife Guide to Chile" by Sharon Chester, 2008 

An excellent source of information is the new book (published in 2011): "A Guide to the Hawkmoths of the Serra dos Orgaos (in south-eastern Brazil)" by Alan Martin, Alexandre Soares, Jorge Bizarro. That book has been a good reference for us here. 
There is a section in the book with photographs of hawkmoths.
Numbers in this list noted as (HSB:xxx) refer to the number of the photo in the book with the particular species.  
HSB = Hawkmoths Southeast Brazil 

Countries and Regions where the species occur:

AR:   in Argentina
BL:   in Bolivia 
BR:   in Brazil
 se:    in southeast Brazil 
CH:   in Chile
CL:   in Colombia
EC:   in Ecuador
PE:   in Peru

(*) following the two-letter code indicates a species seen during a FONT tour in that country

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website

In this listing, there is some updated taxonomy with the family EREBIDAE containing moths that were formerly classified in the family NOCTUIDAE, plus all of the former members of the families ARCTIIDAE and LYMANTRIIDAE.
This re-classification has not yet met with general consensus, and many resources and publications still follow the older classification scheme. 

As of now, there are about 605 species of moths in this list.   

Among the Moth Groupings in the following list, links to these families:

Uraniidae:  Scoopwings    Adelidae: Fairy Longhorn Moths    Thyrididae: Window-winged Leaf Moths   

Cossidae: Cossid Millers    Pterophoridae: Plume Moths    Megalopygidae: Flannel Moths    

Gracillaridae: Leaf Blotch Miner Moths    Tortricidae: Leafroller Moths    Aididae    Limacodidae: Cupmoths   

Dalceridae   Lacturidae    Zygaenidae    Mimallonidae    Lasiocampidae    Eupterotidae   

Bombycidae    Pyralidae: Pyralid, or Snout Moths (includes what has been Crambidae)  

Hedylidae: American Moth-Butterflies    Castniidae: Giant Butterfly Moths 

Geometridae:  Geometer Moths  (Loopers, Inchworms, Spanworms)   Saturniidae: Giant Silkmoths   

Sphingidae:  Sphinx Moths    Lymantriidae: Tussock Moths    Sematuridae: American Swallowtail Moths

Dioptinae    Doidae    Notodontidae:  Prominents    

    Erebidae: subfamily Herminiinae: Litter Moths

Erebidae: subfamily Erebinae (formerly Catocalinae)

Erebidae: subfamilies Hypeninae, Calpinae. Ophiderinae, Eulepidotinae 

Arctiinae: Tiger Moths, Ctenuchini: Wasp Moths, Lithosiini: Lichen Moths, & Pericopini    

    Nolidae   Noctuidae:  Owlet Moths & Miller Moths 

Other Links:

Upcoming Birding & Nature Tours in the Cemtral America   Upcoming FONT Tours Elsewhere 

Alphabetical Directory of Moths by Genus with Photos in the FONT Website

Other Photo Galleries & Lists of:   Butterflies, Moths, Dragonflies & Damselflies

Birds    Mammals    Amphibians, Reptiles    Marine Life    Plants  

This large moth is known as the White Witch.
Large it is, up to 12 inches across.
Two more photos of this moth, and another of the Black Witch,
are in the list below, in the family Erebidae.
(above photo by James Audlin)

The following is from the book "Butterfly People. An American Encounter with the Beauty of the World", by William Leach, published in 2013, comparing moths to butterflies:

"Moths and butterflies both belong to the same order, Lepidoptera. Each undergo a complete metamorphosis and each are with wings covered by scales, shingled one upon another, and stamped with color that contributes to the total "tiled mosaic" of the wing.
Both have a proboscis, or a long, slender, coiled-up tube attached to the head, which the insects uncoil to suck nectar from many kinds of flowers, pollinating as they go. As caterpillars, however, they are much more choosy, with some dependent on only one food plant, others on a few, and still others on many different species of plants.
Both moths and butterflies are cold-blooded, requiring an infusion from the heat of an ambient atmosphere. 
But even with their similarities, the differences between moths and butterflies abound.
In the most general terms, the majority of moths have feathery, tapered antennae. These, like radar, guide them through the dark, and the males rely on them to pick up the scent of females.
Butterflies generally have clubbed or hooked antennae, used to smell and track down nectar, and for sexual purposes.
Moths have thick, commonly hairy bodies and large multifaceted, compound eyes and usually inhabit the night, while the majority of butterflies fly by day and have smaller eyes and thinner, relatively hairless bodies.
The classic exception for moths are those belong to the URANIIDAE family. They look like butterflies in nearly every respect and are among the most stunning diurnal lepidoptera in the world."

Our list of moths here begins with those in the Family URANIIDAE.         



A List of selected Moths in Central America:


          URANIIDAE is a widely distributed family in the world. 
          Worldwide, there are about 700 species in some 90 genera.

  1. Urania leilus  ______  EC  (EBE:216)

    Urania leilus
    is undoubtedly one of the most spectacular of the day-flying moths in South America. It could be misidentified as a swallowtail butterfly, but actually its wing pattern is unlike any swallowtail in the region where the moth occurs. 

  2. Urania sp.  ______  EC    

    A Urania moth photographed on an outside wall after dark 
    during the FONT Tour in Ecuador in July 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


  3. Calledapteryx  sp.  ______  EC

  4. Crypsicoela subocellata  ______  EC   


    Some moths in the ADELIDAE family occur in the Neotropics including Ecuador.


  5. Siculodes aurorula  ______  BR 

    The Buddha Moth has only been seen rarely (a handful of times), in either Brazil, Guyana, or Trinidad.

    Family COSSIDAE, Subfamily COSSULINAE: 

    is a cosmopolitan family. Worldwide, about 700 species have been identified.


    Some moths in the PTEROPHORIDAE family occur in the Neotropics, including Ecuador.

    A plume moth in the family Pterophoridae


    is restricted to the New World. It greatest diversity is found in the Neotropics. 242 species have been described, mainly in Central & South America. Some are in North America. 

  6. Macara  sp.  ______  EC

  7. Megalopyge zilli  ______  EC

  8. Trosia sp.  ______  EC 


    Some moths in the GRACILLARIDAE family occur in the Neotropics, including Ecuador.


  9. Gorytvesica derelicta  ______  EC  endemic to Ecuador, in Loja province

    Gorytvesica derelicta is easily distinguished by the white, dark-edged hindwings in the females.

  10. Sparganothia sp.  ______  EC   

    Family AIDIDAE

    Moths of medium size. The forewings often have a grayish coloration that contrasts with the hindwings, which are reddish.
    Only 2 genera are known in the family, with 6 known species. 


    Called SLUGMOTHS because the caterpillars resemble slugs, or CUPMOTHS because of the shape of the cocoons. Mostly tropical, but occur worldwide, with about 1,000 described species. 

    LIMACODIDAE is a very common family in the tropics, but it does occur in all of the world's zoogeographical regions. Worldwide, about 1,000 species have been identified. 

  11. Parasa sp.  ______  EC 


    Small to medium-sized moths. Orange, white, or yellow. Stout with a hairy body. Abdomen very scaly, with wide and rounded wings. Flight is weak, erratic and undulated, with tremulous flapping.
    A Neotropical family. About 85 species are known. 


    Mostly attractively-colored moths. In a tropical or subtropical family, in Central America and South America.


    Moths of diurnal habits, with aposematic coloration. Only a few species are attracted to light.
    A cosmopolitan family, with about a thousand species. 



    Small to medium-sized moths, with wide scaly wings. Bodies are stout and thick, very scaly.
    The species in this family are in the Neotropics, with 4 species found in the Nearctic.
    About 200 species in 27 genera have been described. 

  12. Mimallo amilia  ______  

    Mimallo amilia is a pest to the guava fruit, Psidium guajaba.


    Mostly small, but a few large moths, with wide wings and stout bodies. The adult moths are tan to brown in color.
    The males of some species with diurnal habits have small compound eyes with long intermmatidial setae.
    Diurnal males fly quickly. Otherwise, generally, adults are attracted to light. 
    The larvae are often called tent caterpillars. They rest in silky webs that they spin in tree crotches. They emerge from the tents to feed on the leaves of their host tree.  
    LASIOCAMPIDAE is a cosmopolitan family, better represented in tropical countries. About 1,500 species in 150 genera.

    In Chile, there are about 15 native species of LASIOCAMPIDAE, in addition to non-native species in the genera Bombyx and Porthetria (the Gypsy Moth).   

  13. Euglyphis lignosa  ______  CH

  14. Macromphlia affinis  ______  CH

  15. Macromphila ancilla  ______  CH

  16. Macromphila dedecora  ______  CH

  17. Macromphila felispardalis  ______  CH   species described in 1957 

  18. Macromphila hypoleuca  ______  CH

  19. Macromphila nigrofasciata  ______  CH   species described in 1957

  20. Macromphila nitida  ______  CH

  21. Macromphila oehrensi  ______  CH   species described in 1957

  22. Macromphila purissima  ______  CH

  23. Macromphila rivularis  ______  CH

  24. Macromphila rubiginea   ______  CH   species described in 1957
    Macromphila rubiginea rubiginea  ______  CH
    Macromphila rubiginea rufa  ______  CH

  25. Macromphila spadix  ______  CH


    Small to large wide-winged moths, with some females having diurnal habits.
    A cosmopolitan family with about 300 species described in about 30 genera.


    Small to large moths, wide-winged. At rest, they tend to let the forewings hang and keep the hindwings away from the thorax. The abdomen tends to be folded upward or to the sides.
    The family is well represented in the Neotropical region. Close to 350 species in 40 genera are known.

    Small to large moths, wide-winged. At rest, they tend to let the forewings hang and keep the hindwings away from the thorax. The abdomen tends to be folded upward or to the sides.
    The family is well represented in the Neotropical region. Close to 350 species in 40 genera are known.

  26. Apatelodes sp.  ______  EC  (EBE:215co)   (by some said to be in their own family, APATELODIDAE)

    Moths in the Quentalia genus (below) have a strange resting posture. They habitually balance on their heads and the leading edge of their forewings, with their abdomens raised upward and tilted to one side.   

  27. Quentalia ojeda  ______  EC

  28. Quentalia roseilinea  ______  occurs in Peru

  29. Quentalia sp.  ______  EC


    Included in this grouping is what has been CRAMBIDAE, the subfamily PYRAUSTINAE (including SPILOMELINAE) 

    Subfamily PYRALINAE follows after this list.  

  30. Agathodes designalis  (ph)  ______  M#5240  

    Sky-pointing Moth
    (photo by Lisa Johnson)

  31. Argyria sp.  ______  EC

  32. Compacta  sp.  ______  EC

  33. Diaphania sp.  (ph)  ______  EC  

    a Melonworm Moth

  34. Incarcha argentilinea  ______  EC  occurs in Ecuador and Peru

  35. Polygrammodes elevata  ______   occurs in South America, and Central America

  36. Polygrammodes sp.  ______  EC  (EBE:211) 

  37. Pyrausta tyralis  (ph)  ______  M#5069  occurs from Venezuela north to Mexico and the southern US, also in the West Indies

    Coffee-loving Pyrausta Moth
    (photo by Lisa Johnson)

  38. Sparagmia sp.  ______  EC

    Family PYRALIDAE, Subfamily PYRALINAE

    Family PYRALIDAE, Subfamily PHYCITINAE

  39. Cactoblastis cactorum  ______  BR   occurs in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, southern Brazil
    (or Nopal Moth)

    Host plants:
    various Prickly Pears (Opuntia cacti).


    The HEDYLIDAE is an extant sister group of the butterfly sister families PAPILIONOIDES (the SWALLOWTAILS) and HESPERIOIDES (the SKIPPERS).
    They have previously been treated as a tribe of GEOMETRIDAE (below, in this list).
    They have also been thought to be an unrecognized group of butterflies, and in 2005 a study actually placed them with the butterflies based upon molecular data.

    The 35 currently recognized species in HEDYLIDAE, all in the genus Macrosoma, are entirely Neotropical, ranging from central Mexico south to southwestern Brazil. They also occur in the Caribbean region in Jamaica, Cuba, and Trinidad.

  40. Macrosoma subornata  ______  EC


    Medium to large-sized moths. The adults have diurnal habits.
    There are about 150 species in the family, living in temperate or warm environments, tropical and subtrapical.
    Most are Neotropical. 

    Species in this family of diurnal moths, in the genus Zegara, are members of a color pattern mimicry system with the following butterflies:
    Heliconius ismenius
    Hypothyris euclesia,
    Melinaea lilis (or ethra), in NYMPHAIDAE
    Eresia mechanitis, in NYMPHAIDAE
    and the Tiger Mimic-Whites, Dismorphia amphione and the Eunoe Mimic-White, Dismorphia eunoe.
    Other Zegara species are mimetic with regard to moths in the genera Chetone and Dysschema, in ARCTIINAE.  

    The larvae of CASTNIIDAE are endophagous, that is they mine inside the stems of their host plants or dig tunnels in the ground for feeding on the roots.

  41. Castnia psittachus  ______  CH
    Chilean name: Mariposa del Chagual 

  42. Castniomera humboldti  ______  EC  (EBE:206)


    Adult GEOMETER MOTHS are from small to large, but mostly medium-sized.
    They generally have elongated bodies with wide wings, and many are stout.
    GEOMETER MOTHS come in a variety of colors, especially cryptic colors such as creamy-white, brown, and green.
    Most are nocturnal, but diurnal species can be very common.

    The GEOMETRIDAE is a cosmopolitan family and one of the three largest among the LEPIDOPTERA. It is estimated that as many as at least 25,000, up to 35,000 species have been described.

    Most GEOMETRIDAE have delicate wings that are open when sitting.

    The caterpillars are called LOOPERS, or INCHWORMS for the way they move.
    A photo of a GEOMETRIDAE caterpillar is in the book "Ecuador's Butterfly Ecology"  (EBE:215co). 

    Above and in the 2 photos below:  Moths in the Geometridae family
    photographed during FONT birding and nature tours in Ecuador
    (photos by Marie Gardner)

  43. Aconcagua fessa  ______  CH

  44. Apicia valdiviana  ______  CH

  45. Cambogia sp.  ______  EC

  46. Chloropteryx opalaria  ______  EC

  47. Chlorotimandra viridis  ______  CH

  48. Coironalia cruciferaria  ______  CH

  49. Coironalla denticulata  ______  CH

  50. Dyspteris sp.  ______  EC

  51. Epimecis anonaria  ______  EC

  52. Epimecis sp.  ______  EC  (EBE:161)

  53. Erateina leptocircata  ______  EC  (EBE:209)

  54. Erateina staudingeri  (ph)  ______  (BMCR:205)

    Erateina staudingeri
    ranges from Mexico to southeastern Brazil.

    Above & below: Erateina staudingeri

  55. Erateina sp.  ______  EC  (EBE:161)

  56. Eutomopepla rogenhoferi  ______  EC

  57. Ira sp.   ______  EC

  58. Lobopalta sp.  ______  EC

  59. Melanchroia chephise  (ph)  ______  M#6616  BR  (BMCR:192c,194)

    Melanchroia chephise
    ranges from Texas (and Florida) south to Paraguay.

    White-tipped Black Moth

  60. Monarcha magicaria  ______  EC  endemic to Ecuador   

  61. Nemoria erima  ______  EC

  62. Oospila venezuelata  (ph)  ______  EC  (BMCR:201)

    In South America, Oospila venezuelata occurs in Venezuela, Ecuador, and Peru, between 1,500 and 4,500 feet above sea level.  

    Oospila venezuelata, the Blistered Emerald

  63. Oxydia platypterata  ______  EC

  64. Oxydia trychiata  ______  EC

  65. Oxydia sp.  ______  EC  (EBE:161)

  66. Pantherodes pardalaria  ______  EC  (EBE:161) 

    Pantherodes pardalaria
    has yellow spots as that of a jaguar.

  67. Pero sp.  ______  EC

  68. Phrygionis polita  ______  EC  (EBE:161)

  69. Phyle sp.  ______  EC  (EBE:161)

  70. Physocleora  sp.  ______  EC  

  71. Pityeja histrionaria (ph)  ______  EC  (EBE:161)   

    Pityeja histrionaria ranges extensively in much of South America. It occurs from Mexico to southern Brazil.  

    Pityeja histrionaria

  72. Pseudasellodes fenestraria  ______  BR  EC  occurs from Costa Rica to Bolivia and southeast Brazil

    The Window-winged Moth inhabits cloud forest at elevations from about 2,400 to 5,400 feet above sea level.

    In Pseudasellodes fenestraria, the hyaline windows in the wings perfectly simulate the nibblings of insect larvae from leaves.
    The adult male may well rest during the day among leaves on the forest floor. 

  73. Racheospila astraeoides  ______  EC

  74. Racheospila sp.  ______  EC  (EBE:161)

  75. Rhodochlora brunneipalpis  ______  EC

  76. Sericoptera mahometaria  ______  EC  (EBE:161)

  77. Sicya sp.  ______  EC

  78. Smicropus eucyrta  (ph)  ______  EC  (EBE:161)

    See the similar Xanthyris flaveolata (below).

    Smicropus eucyrta photographed during the FONT birding and nature tour
    in southern Ecuador in April 2014
    (photo by Marie Gardner)   

  79. Sphacelodes sp.  ______  EC

  80. Synchlora  sp.  ______  EC

  81. Tricentra sp.  ______  EC

  82. Xanthyris flaveolata  (ph)  ______  BR  EC  (EBE:161)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

    Xanthyris flaveolata
    occurs in tropical South America, and especially in Amazonia.

    The bright yellow and black color theme of Xanthyris flaveolata is common among the day-flying moths in the Neotropics.
    The species is aposematic, that is it is either itself poisonous to birds, or it mimics another species that is toxic and thus gets immunity from attack.
    The adult moths are day-flying and often gather in small groups to imbibe mineralized moisture from wet soil along riverbanks or at puddles.

    A Saffron Playboy, Xanthyris flaveolata, 
    photographed during a FONT tour in Amazonian Brazil
    (photo by Armas Hill) 


    has a wide distribution throughout the world, but especially in the Neotropics. 
    Worldwide, about 1,480 species are known in 165 genera. 

    Adult moths in SATURNIIDAE are spectacular because of their size, colors, and design.   
    Some, such as many in the genus AUTOMERIS, have large ocelli on the hindwings.
    Those in the genus ROTHCHILDIA be very large, and with "windows" on their wings (with portions not covered by scales).
    Some adults have reduced mouthparts and do not feed during their adult stage.
    Caterpillars generally are big and spiny, and can be poisonous (see note with the genus LONOMIA).
    Silky cocoons by those in SATURNIIDAE tend to be large, as with the famous silkworm.  
    A photo of a SATURNIIDAE caterpillar is in the book "Ecuador's Butterfly Ecology"  (EBE:215co).

    SATURNIIDAE in the genera Adetomeris, Cinommata, Ormiscodes, and Polythysana are day-flying relatively small moths whose larvae have branched spines.   

    In Chile, there are about 20 species in SATURNIIDAE. Those in the subfamily CERCOPHANINAE are endemic to Chile.  

    A moth in the Saturniidae family photographed during the
    FONT birding and nature tour in Ecuador in July 2013,
    a Copaxa species, in the list below, in the Saturniinae subfamily.  
    (photo by Marie Gardner)  


  83. Arsenura armida  ______  (BMCR:46,49c)  occurs in Central America and South America 

  84. Arsenura orbignyana  ______  occurs in neotropical South America

  85. Copiopteryx jehovah  ______  occurs in South America

  86. Copiopteryx semiramis  ______  (BMCR:47)   occurs from Mexico to South America.

  87. Dysdaemonia boreas  ______  (BMCR:48)   occurs in tropical America

  88. Dysdaemonia fosteri  ______   occurs in Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina

  89. Rhescyntis hippodamia  ______  EC  (BMCR:48,50c) (EBE:162)   occurs from Mexico to Brazil

  90. Titaea lemoulti  ______  occurs in Amazonia

  91. Titaea tamerlan  ______  EC  (BMCR:48,49c)
    Titaea tamerian guayaquilensis  ______  EC 
    subspecies in southwest Ecuador and northwest Peru
    Titaea tamerian nobilis  ______  EC 
    subspecies from Mexico to Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador


  92. Adeloneivaia acuta   __ ___  (BMCR:51)  occurs in South America

  93. Adeloneivaia diluta  ______  occurs in Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina 

  94. Adeloneivaia jason  ______  EC  (BMCR:51,56c) (EBE:165)  occurs in South America and Central America
  95. Adeloneivaia sabulosa sabulosa  ______  occurs in Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina   

  96. Citheronia andina  ______  EC  (EBE:165)

  97. Citheronia aroa  ______  occurs in South America

  98. Citheronia bellavista  ______  (BMCR:52)  occurs Central America and northern South America.

  99. Citheronia guayaquila  ______  occurs in Ecuador and Peru

  100. Citheronia laocoon  ______  occurs in southern South America

  101. Citheronia maureillei  ______  occurs in Bolivia

  102. Citheronia phoronea  ______  occurs in South America

  103. Cithronia vogleri  ______  occurs in southern South America 

  104. Citioica anthonilis  ______  (BMCR:52)  occurs in Central America and South America. 

  105. Eacles barnesi  ______  occurs in South America

  106. Eacles imperialis  (ph)   ______  M#7704  (BMCR:53)
    Eacles imperialis cacicus  ______ 
    subspecies in South America

    An Imperial Moth, Eacles imperialis 

  107. Eacles masoni  ______  (BMCR:53)   occurs in Central America and South America

  108. Eacles penelope  ______  occurs in South America

  109. Psilopygida walkeri  ______  occurs in South America

  110. Rachesa breteuili  ______  EC  (EBE:165)

  111. Syssphinx bidens  ______  occurs in South America

  112. Syssphinx molina  ______  (BMCR:55)   occurs from Mexico to Argentina


    An Automeris moth in the family Saturniidae 
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

    A photo of an Automeris caterpillar is in the book "Ecuador's Butterfly Ecology"  (EBE:215co).

  113. Adetomeris erythrops  ______  CH  (WC:105)   occurs in Chile

  114. Adetomeris microphtalma  ______  CH   occurs in Chile

  115. Automrina (or Automerula) auletes  ______  occurs in tropical South America

  116. Automeris abdominalis  ______  EC  (EBE:164)

  117. Automeris amanda tucumana  ______  occurs in southern Bolivia and Argentina

  118. Automeris amoena  ______  occurs in South America

  119. Automeris atrolimbata  ______  occurs in eastern South America

  120. Automeris banus  ______  EC  (BMCR:57) (EBE:164)  occurs in Central America and northern South America 

  121. Automeris belti zaruma  (ph)  ______  (BMCR:57,70c)  occurs southwest Colombia, western Ecuador

    Automeris belti, photographed during 
    the FONT tour in Ecuador in July 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  122. Automeris complicata  ______  (BMCR:57)  occurs in Venezuela

  123. Automeris curvilinea  ______  EC  (EBE:163)  occurs in Amazonia

  124. Automeris denticulata  ______  occurs in South America

  125. Automeris gabriellae  ______  occurs in the upper Amazon of Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil

  126. Automeris grammodes  ______  occurs in the Andes of South America

  127. Automeris hamata  ______  (BMCR:58)  occurs in tropical America

  128. Automeris harrisorum  ______  occurs in the eastern Andes from Ecuador to Bolivia  

  129. Automeris jivaros  ______  occurs in South America

  130. Automeris jucunda  ______  occurs in Panama and northern South America.

  131. Automeris larra  ______  occurs in South America

  132. Automeris liberia  ______  occurs in South America

  133. Automeris melanops  ______  occurs in Brazil

  134. Automeris metzli  ______  EC  (BMCR:58,59) (EBE:164)  occurs from Mexico to Venezuela, and in Colombia, Ecuador.

  135. Automeris moresca  ______  occurs in South America

  136. Automeris pomifera  ______  occurs in South America

  137. Automeris postalbida  ______  EC  (EBE:163)

  138. Automeris styx  ______  occurs in Ecuador. 

  139. Automeris umbrosa  ______  occurs in southern South America 

  140. Automeris vomona pichinchensis  ______  EC  (EBE:163)

  141. Cerodirphia cutteri  ______  EC  occurs in Ecuador, at high altitude

  142. Cerodirphia harrisae  ______  occurs in central Peru, in the eastern Andes 

  143. Cinommata bistrigata  ______  CH   occurs in Chile

  144. Dirphia avia  ______  (BMCR:61,70c)  occurs in Central America and South America 

  145. Dirphia cadioui  ______  occurs in Bolivia

  146. Dirphia centralis  ______  occurs in Peru, in the eastern Andes 

  147. Dirphia crassifurca  ______  occurs in Colombia

  148. Dirphia panamensis  ______  occurs in Central America and northern South America.

  149. Dirphia somniculosa  ______  occurs in South America

  150. Dirphia tarquinia  ______  occurs in Amazonia

  151. Dirphiopsis cochabambensis  ______  occurs in Bolivia

  152. Dirphiopsis flora  ______  occurs from Honduras to Bolivia

  153. Dirphiopsis schreiteri  ______  occurs in Bolivia

  154. Gamelia abasia  ______   occurs in South America

  155. Gamelia rindgei  ______   occurs in South America

  156. Hylesia gigantex  ______  (BMCR:63)
    Hylesia gigantex orbana  ______ 
    subspecies in eastern South America

  157. Hyperchiria incisa  ______  occurs in South America

  158. Hyperchiria nausica  ______  (BMCR:64)   occurs from Mexico to South America

  159. Leucanella contempta  ______  EC  (EBE:164)

  160. Leucanella flammans  ______  EC  (EBE:163)

  161. Leucanella lynx  ______   occurs in South America, in the Andes 

  162. Leucanella memusae  ______  occurs in southern South America

  163. Leucanella stuarti  ______  occurs in Bolivia, Peru, Argentina.

  164. Leucanella viettei  ______   occurs in western Peru

  165. Leucanella viridescens  ______  occurs in southern South America

    Moths in the Lonomia genus (below) are known for their highly venomous caterpillars, which are responsible for a few human deaths each year, especially in southern Brazil.
    A typical incident involves a person unknowingly leaning against, placing their hand on, or rubbing their arm against a group of the caterpillars gathered on the trunk of a tree. The effects can be dramatic and severe, with massive internal hemorrhaging, renal failure, and hemolysis.
    This medical syndrome is sometimes called Lonomiasis.
    With only a small amount of venom, however, in the bristles of the caterpillar, the rate of human fatality is only between 1 and 2 per cent.

    Adult Lonomia moths are fairly cryptic.           

  166. Lonomia achelous  ______  occurs in South America

  167. Molippa cruenta  ______  occurs in southeast Brazil

  168. Molippa latemedia  ______  occurs in South America, at low altitudes, east of the Andes and in the Amazon basin

  169. Molippa nibasa  ______  (BMCR:66,70c)  occurs in tropical America.

  170. Molippa wittmeri  ______   occurs in Peru

  171. Ormiscodes amphinome  ______  CH  occurs in Chile 

  172. Ormiscodes cinnamomea  ______  CH  (WC:105)   occurs in Chile

  173. Ormiscodes cognata  ______  CH   occurs in Chile

  174. Ormiscodes joiceyi  ______  CH  occurs in Chile

  175. Ormiscodes nigrosignata  ______  CH   occurs in Chile

  176. Ormiscodes penai  ______  CH   occurs in Chile, species described in 1995

  177. Ormiscodes rufosignata  ______  CH   occurs in Chile

  178. Ormiscodes socialis  ______  CH   occurs in Chile 
    Ormiscodes socialis socialis  ______  CH
    Ormiscodes socialis grisea  ______  CH  
    subspecies described in 1957

  179. Periga parvibulbaceae  ______   occurs in South America

  180. Periphoba hircia  ______  occurs in South America

  181. Periphoba tarapoto  ______  occurs in eastern Peru 

  182. Polythysana apollina  ______  CH  (WC:105)

    The adults of Polythysana apollina and other species in that genus are beautiful with striking patterns.  

  183. Polythysana cinerascens  ______  CH   occurs in Chile

  184. Polythysana rubrescens  ______  CH  (WC:105)   occurs in Chile

  185. Pseudautomeris lata  ______  occurs in South America

  186. Pseudautomeris pohli  ______  EC  occurs in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia

  187. Pseudautomeris salmonea  ______  occurs in South America

  188. Pseudodirphia agis  ______  occurs in South America

  189. Pseudodirphia menander  ______  EC  (EBE:165)

  190. Pseudodirphia regia  ______  (BMCR:68)   occurs in Central America and northwest South America


  191. Antheraea godmani  ______  (BMCR:71)  occurs from Mexico to Colombia

  192. Copaxa andensis  ______  occurs in South America

  193. Copaxa bella  ______  occurs in Peru, species described in 2005

  194. Copaxa cineracea  ______  occurs in Ecuador, Peru

  195. Copaxa decrescens  ______  occurs in South America 

  196. Copaxa denhezi  ______  occurs in Colombia

  197. Copaxa flavina miranda  ______  occurs in Peru, Bolivia, Argentina

  198. Copaxa herbuloti  ______  occurs in east-central Peru, on cloud-forest mountaintops

  199. Copaxa intermediata  ______  occurs in Ecuador, species described in 2005

  200. Copaxa litensis  ______  occurs from northwest Ecuador

  201. Copaxa lunula  ______  occurs from central Peru to Bolivia, in cloud forest

  202. Copaxa medea  ______  occurs from Ecuador to Bolivia, in high altitude open country

  203. Copaxa sapatoza  ______  occurs in Colombia, in the Bogota valley   

  204. Copaxa simson  ______  (BMCR:72)  occurs in South America and Central America

    A large moth, in the Rothschildia genus photographed during
    the FONT birding and nature tour in Ecuador in July 2013

  205. Rothschildia amoena  ______  occurs in western Peru, in semi-arid canyons

  206. Rothschildia arethusa  ______  occurs in South America
    Rothschildia arethusa rhodinia  ______ 
    subspecies at rather high altitudes in the Andes

  207. Rothschildia aricia  ______  EC
    Rothschildia aricia xanthina  ______  EC 
    subspecies in Ecuador, Peru

  208. Rothschildia aurota  ______  occurs in South America 

  209. Rothschildia erycina  ______  EC  (BMCR:74)  occurs from Mexico to Paraguay
    Rothschildia erycina nigrescens  ______  EC 
    subspecies from Costa Rica to Ecuador

  210. Rothschildia hesperus  ______
    Rothschildia hesperus hesperus  ______ 
    subspecies in South America

  211. Rothschildia hopfferi  ______  occurs in southern Brazil

  212. Rothschildia jacobeae  ______  occurs in southern South America

  213. Rothschildia jorulloides  ______  occurs in southwest Ecuador and northwest Peru

  214. Rothschildia lebeau  ______  M#7761.1  EC  (BMCR:74,75c) (EBE:162)

  215. Rothschildia schreiteriana  ______  occurs in southern South America  

  216. Rothschildia tucumani  ______  occurs in Argentina, Bolivia

  217. Rothschildia zacateca  ______  occurs in Colombia


  218. Oxytenis sp.  ______   EC  (EBE:214co)

  219. Therinia transversaria  (ph)  ______  EC  (BMCR:76)  (formerly Asthenidia transversaria)  Wingspread 2.8 inches

    Therinia transversaria photographed during 
    a FONT tour in Ecuador in July 2013
    (photo by Fred Lesser, taken after dark with his i-phone)

    until recently, often treated as a
    separate family: CERCOPHANIDAE

    The species in CERCOPHANINAE are all endemic to Chile. These are very beautiful moths that spend the day in the foliage of woodland trees and shrubs that are host plants for their larvae.

  220. Cercophana frauenfeldi  ______  CH  occurs in Chile

  221. Cercophana venusta  ______  CH  (WC:105)  occurs in Chile 

  222. Microdulia mirabilis  ______  CH  occurs in Chile

  223. Neocercophana philippi  ______  CH  occurs in Chile


    SPHINGIDAE is distributed throughout the world, and is well represented in the tropics. 
    Worldwide, there are about 1,200 species in 200 genera.   

    Moths in the family SPHINGIDAE are generally very strong flyers. 

    The sizes of the sphinx moths (or hawk moths) vary widely. In southeast Brazil, for example, they range from the smallest having a forewing length of 19mm (0.75 inches) to the largest with 92mm (3.6 inches).

    Sphinx Moths photographed during two FONT tours in southern Ecuador
    Above: in July 2013.  Below: in April 2014.
    (photos by Marie Gardner)  

  224. Adhemarius daphne  ______  BR  (BMCR:78)  (in subfamily SMERINTHINAE)
    Adhemarius daphne daphne  ______  BR se  (HSB:6a,6b) 
    subspecies that occurs widely in South America

    Other subspecies are: Adhemarius daphne interrupta that occurs in Mexico and Central America. 
    And A. d. cubanus occurring in Cuba.    

  225. Adhemarius eurysthenes  ______  BR se

    Adhemarius eurysthenes
    occurs only in South America, from Colombia to southern Brazil.

  226. Adhemarius gagarini  ______  BR se  EC  (HSB:8)

    Only occurring in South America, Adhemarius gagarini has been found in French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, and Brazil.

  227. Adhemarius gannascus  ______  BR se  (BMCR:78) (EBE:167)  (in subfamily SMERINTHINAE)

    Adhemarius gannascus
    is found from Mexico to extreme southeast Brazil.

  228. Adhemarius palmeri  ______  BR se  (BMCR:78) (HSB:10a,10b)  (in subfamily SMERINTHINAE) 

    Adhemarius palmeri
    occurs in Costa Rica and Panama and widely across South America.

  229. Aellopos ceculus  ______  BR se  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)

    Aellopos ceculus is found widely across the Neotropics.

  230. Aellopos fadus  ______  M#7850  BR se  (BMCR:84co)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)

    Aellopos fadus occurs from Mexico to Argentina. In the US, it has been found in Florida, Texas, Arkansas, and Washington State. 

  231. Aellopos tantalus  (ph)  ______  M#7847  BR se  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

    Aellopos tantalus
    is widely distributed across South America.

    Similar to a small hummingbird, Aellopos tantalus is a mostly brown-winged moth with a conspicuous silvery white band on the dorsal surface of its lower back. The moth hovers, like a hummingbird, with its wings a blur as it probes for nectar with its long proboscis. 

    Aellopos tantalus is similar Aellopos titan and Aellopos fadus, but it is smaller and with only 3 white triangular marks in a line on the forewing, and a 4th above the outermost mark. 

    Tantalus Sphinx Moth

  232. Aellopos titan titan  ______  M#7849  (BMCR:81)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)

    Aellopos titan titan titan occurs in Mexico, Central America, and across most of South America. That subspecies is also in the West Indies. It is replaced in Cuba by A. t. cubana.
    The species is a strong flier, and has been found across the eastern United States, and even into southern Canada. Breeding has been confirmed in the US in Texas.
    Overall, Aellopos titan is a common species. In Brazil, it is common.       

  233. Agrius cingulata  (ph)  ______  M#7771  BR se  (BMCR:79) (HSB:32a,32b)  (in subfamily SPHINGINAE)

    Agrius cingulata is primarily Neotropical, but it also breeds in the southern US, and strays have been recorded as far north as eastern Canada and even in western Europe.   

    Agrius cingulata is very common in Brazil where it is usually found during the hotter months of the year. In southeastern Brazil, there are no records from June or July, and only a few records from August.  

    Pink-spotted Hawk Moth

  234. Aleuron chloroptera  ______  BR se  EC  (EBE:166) 

    Aleuron chloroptera
    can be found throughout the Neotropical region. It is uncommon in southern Brazil. 

  235. Aleuron iphis  ______  BR se  (HSB:38a,38b)

    Aleuron iphis
    can be found across the Neotropics. In southern Brazil it is uncommon. 

  236. Aleuron neglectum  ______  BR se  (BMCR:81)  (in subfamily MACROGLOSSINAE)

    Aleuron neglectum is a Neotropical species with a similar range, characteristics and behavior as Aleuron chloroptera and Aleuron iphis.

  237. Amphimoea walkeri  ______  BR se  (BMCR:79)  (in subfamily SPHINGINAE)

    Amphimoea walkeri occurs widely in Central America and South America. 

  238. Callionima calliomenae  ______

    Callionima calliomenae
    is known to occur in Venezuela and on Hispaniola in the West Indies.

  239. Callionima denticulata  ______

    Callionima denticulata
    occurs from Mexico and Central America to South America in Bolivia and western Venezuela.  

  240. Callionima falcifera  ______  M#7845  BR   
    Callionima falcifera falcifera  ______  BR se  (HSB:41)

    Callionima falcifera occurs from Central America south to central South America.

  241. Callionima grisescens  ______  BR
    Callionima grisescens elegans  ______  BR 
    subspecies in northeast Brazil 
    Callionima grisescens grisescens  ______  BR se 
    subspecies across most of South America

  242. Callionima inuus  ______  BR se  (HSB:43)

    Callionima inuus
    occurs throughout the Neotropics.

  243. Callionima nomius  ______  BR se  (BMCR:81) (HSB:44)  (in subfamily MACROGLOSSINAE)

    Callionima nomius is found throughout the Neotropics. It is very common in Brazil.

  244. Callionima pan  ______  BR
    Callionima pan pan  ______  BR 
    subspecies in northern South America
    Callionima pan neivai  ______  BR se 
    subspecies in southern Brazil, where it is very rare  

    Callionima pan is found from Central America south to Amazonia. It is replaced by C. p. neivai in southern Brazil.

  245. Callionima parce  ______  BR se  (HSB:46a,46b)

    Callionima parce occurs widely from Mexico to Argentina.

  246. Cocytius antaeus  ______  M#7772  BR se  (W:255)

    Cocytius antaeus occurs throughout the Neotropics. In the US. it occurs in Florida, Texas, Arizona, Mississippi.
    There are populations in the West Indies but no subspecies.

  247. Cocytius beelzebuth  ______  BR se  (HSB:29)

    Cocytius beelzebuth
    occurs in the Neotropics from Brazil and Bolivia north to Costa Rica.

    The taxonomy of Cocytius beelzebuth may be changed to the genus Amphonyx.  

  248. Cocytius duponchel  ______  M#7773  BR se  (HSB:30a,30b,30c,30d,30e,30f,30g)

    Cocytius duponchel
    ranges in Central America, and in northern and central South America. as well as in the Antilles. 

    The taxonomy of Cocytius duponchel may be changed to the genus Amphonyx.

  249. Cocytius lucifer  ______  BR se  (BMCR:79) (HSB:31a,31b)  (in subfamily SPHINGINAE)

    Cocytius lucifer
    ranges in Central America and in northern and central South America. 

    The taxonomy of Cocytius lucifer may be changed to the genus Amphonyx.

  250. Enyo cavifer  ______  BR se

    Enyo cavifer
    is a Neotropical species, in Central America and south to Brazil. In Brazil, it is rare.  

  251. Enyo gorgon  ______  BR se  (BMCR:81) (HSB:34a:female,34b:male)  (in subfamily MACROGLOSSINAE)

    Enyo gorgon
    is a Neotropical species, in Central America and in most of South America. In Brazil, it is relatively common.

  252. Enyo lugubris  (ph)  ______  M#7851  BR  EC  (EBE:166)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1771)
    Enyo lugubris delanoi  ______  subspecies in the Galapagos Islands, described in 1962
    Enyo lugubris lugubris  ______  BR se  EC  (HSB:35a:
    female,35b:male)  the widespread subspecies in South America

    In southeast Brazil, Enyo lugubris can be found all year, but the best months to see it are October and November. 

    Mournful Sphinx Moth
    (photo by Lisa Johnson)

  253. Enyo ocypete  ______  M#7852  BR se  (HSB:36a:female,36b:male,36c:male)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

    Enyo ocypete
    is a widespread species occurring in most of the Neotropics. In Brazil, it is very common. 

  254. Enyon taedium  ______  EC  (EBE:166)

  255. Erinnyis alope  ______  M#7832  BR  (BMCR:81) (W:278)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)
    Erinnyis alope alope  ______  BR se  (HSB:74a,74b) 
    subspecies across much of South America, and in Central America
    Erinnyis alope dispersa  ______ 
    subspecies in the Galapagos Islands 

    Erinnyis alope alope
    occurs from Caribbean islands and south through Central America and into South America to northern Argentina. In occurs in various southern US states, including Florida where it regularly breeds.  Strays have occurred as far north as Massachusetts in the US and Saskatchewan in Canada.
    As with other Erinnyis species, there is a separate subspecies in the Galapagos Islands, E. a. dispersa.    

  256. Erinnyis crameri  ______  M#7836  BR se  (BMCR:85co) (HSB:75a,75b)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)

    Erinnyis crameri
    occurs in the Neotropics from Mexico to Paraguay and southern Brazil, and in the West Indies and in the southern states of the US.  

  257. Erinnyis ello  ______  M#7834  BR  EC  (W:266)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Erinnyis ello ello  ______  BR se  EC  (HSB:76a,76b,76c,76d)
      subspecies on mainland South America 
    Erinnyis ello encantada  ______  (EBE:166) 
    subspecies on the Galapagos Islands

    Erinnyis ello ello
    occurs in the Neotropics as far south as northern Argentina. It also breeds in some southern US states: Florida, Texas, Arizona, California. 
    The subspecies E. e. encantada is found in the Galapagos Islands.

  258. Erinnyis lassauxi  ______  M#7833  BR  se  (HSB:77a,77b,77c)

    Erinnyis lassauxi occurs from Mexico to northern Argentina. It is also found on some Caribbean islands, and in the southern US in Texas and possibly Arizona and Florida. 

  259. Erinnyis obscura  ______  M#7837  BR
    Erinnyis obscura conformis  ______ 
    subspecies in the Galapagos Islands
    Erinnyis obscura obscura  ______  BR se  (HSB:78a,78b) 
    subspecies on mainland South America  

    Erinnyis obscura occurs from Mexico to Argentina, and in the southern states of the US.
    The subspecies E. o. conformis is in the Galapagos Islands. 

  260. Erinnyis oenotrus  ______  M#7835  BR se  (HSB:79a,79b)

    Erinnyis oenotrus
    occurs from Mexico and the West Indies south to northern Argentina. The species also strays into the southern US states of Florida and Texas.

  261. Eumorpha analis  ______  BR se

    Eumorpha analis
    occurs in central South America, in northern Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay.
    In Brazil, it is very common.  

  262. Eumorpha anchemolus  ______  M#7857  BR se  (HSB:82)

    Eumorpha anchemolus
    occurs from southern Mexico to northern Argentina.

  263. Eumorpha fasciatus  ______  M#7865  BR se  (BMCR:81) (HSB:83a,83b)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)

    Eumorpha fasciatus
    occurs from Mexico to Argentina, and on Caribbean islands. It breeds in the southern US in the Carolinas, Florida, and west along the Gulf of Mexico and eastern Texas, and north to Missouri.
    Adults migrate long distances in the late summer in the Northern Hemisphere and have been found as far north as Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Ontario.
    A second subspecies, E. f. tupaci, is found only in the Galapagos Islands.       

  264. Eumorpha labruscae  (ph)  ______  M#7866  BR se  (BMCR:84co)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

    Eumorpha labruscae
    is a widespread species, ranging from Mexico to Argentina, and on Caribbean islands and also in the Nearctic region, where it has occurred as far north as Michigan in the US and Saskatchewan.
    A second subspecies, E. l. yupanquii, occurs in the Galapagos Islands.      

    Eumorpha labruscae can grow up to the size of a human hand. This migrating moth is commonly found in the West Indies and in Central and South America. It occasionally occurs in the United States and as far north as Canada.

    It is known as the Gaudy Sphinx Moth due to its remarkable markings and the amazing array of colors on its wings. 
    It has a combination of green, blue, red, and yellow on the wings which explains the flamboyant common name. 

    Above: two photographs of the caterpillar of the Gaudy Sphinx Moth
    (photos by Cade Johnson) 
    Below: Two photographs of the adult Gaudy Sphinx Moth,
    one with the colorful wings open 
    (photos by Helene Kyrk)


  265. Eumorpha megaeacus  ______  M#7862  BR se

    Eumorpha megaeacus occurs from Mexico to Brazil.

  266. Eumorpha obliquus  ______  BR
    Eumorpha obliquus orientis  ______  BR se 

    The nominate, Eumorpha obliqiuus obliquus, occurs from Mexico to Bolivia. It is replaced in eastern Brazil by E. o. orientis.   

  267. Eumorpha phorbas  ______  BR se  

    Eumorpha phorbas occurs from Mexico to southern Brazil.

  268. Eumorpha translineatus  ______  BR se  (HSB:88)

    Eumorpha translineatus
    has been found only in Brazil, Bolivia, and Argentina.

  269. Eumorpha vitis vitis  ______  M#7864  BR se  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

    Eumorpha vitis vitis ranges from Mexico to Argentina. It also breeds in the US in southern Florida and much of Texas.
    Two subspecies occur on Caribbean islands. E. v. fuscatus is on Saint Lucia, Guadeloupe, and Martinique.
    E. v. hesperidum is on Jamaica.

  270. Eumorpha sp.  ______  EC  (EBE:167)

  271. Eupyrrhoglossum sagra  ______  M#7846.1  BRse

    Eupyrrhoglossum sagra
    can be found across the Neotropics, including on Caribbean islands and in Cuba. It has recently been found breeding in southern Florida.

  272. Euryglotis aper  ______  EC  (EBE:168)

  273. Hemeroplanes longistriga  ______  BR se

    Hemeroplanes longistriga
    seems to have a restricted range in central South America.

  274. Hemeroplanes ornatus  ______  BR se  (BMCR:82) (HSB:54a,54b,54c,54d)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)

    Hemeroplanes ornatus occurs widely from Mexico to southern Brazil. 

  275. Hemeroplanes triptolemus  ______  BR se  (BMCR:82)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)

    Hemeroplanes triptolemus occurs widely from Mexico to Brazil.

  276. Hyles annei  ______  CH  (WC:105)

    Hyles annei
    occurs in central and northern Chile and Bolivia. In Chile, it is found from Atacama to Maule.

    The Monroy is most active at dusk and dawn. But on some moonlit nights, hundreds of the adult moths will gather to feed at flowers.

  277. Hyles euphorbiarum  ______  BR se  (HSB:110a,110b)

    Hyles euphorbiarum
    occurs from northeast Brazil to southern Argentina. It is common in Brazil. 

  278. Isognathus allamandae  ______  BR se

    The range of Isognathus allamandae is in South America from Venezuela to southeast Brazil.

  279. Isognathus australis  ______  BR se  (HSB:70)

    Isognathus australis
    is found only in northeast and southeast Brazil. It was thought previously to be a subspecies of Isognathus rimosa (below).
    Generally, Isognathus australis is common.  

  280. Isognathus caricae  ______  BR
    Isognathus caricae caricae  ______  BR se 
    subspecies in central and eastern South America
    Isognathus caricae rainermarxi  ______ 
    subspecies in Peru, on the west side of the Andes 

    The nominate, Isognathus caricae caricae, occurs from Mexico to southeast South America. A second subspecies, I. c. rainermarxi, was described in 1999 in Peru on the west side of the Andes Mountains.  

  281. Isognatus leachii  ______  BR se  (HSB:72a,72b,72c)

    Isognatus leachii occurs from Central America to Argentina.

  282. Isognathus menechus  ______  BR se

    Isognathus menechus
    is widely distributed across South America south to southern Brazil and northern Argentina. 

  283. Isognathus swainsonii  ______  BR se

    Isognathus swainsonii
    can be found from southern Central America to Brazil. 

  284. Lintneria justiciae  ______  BR se  (recently in the genus Sphinx)

    Lintneria justiciae
    occurs in eastern Brazil, Uruguay, and northern Argentina. It is an uncommon species.

  285. Madoryx bubastus  ______  BR
    Madoryx bubastus bubastus  ______  BR se 
    subspecies from Venezuela to southern Brazil

  286. Madoryx oictus oictus  ______  BR se

    Madoryx oictus oictus occurs widely from Mexico to southern Brazil. It is replaced in Jamaica by M. o. jamicensis. 

  287. Madoryx plutonius plutonius  ______  BR se  (BMCR:82) (HSB:48)  (in subfamily MACROGLOSSINAE)

    Madoryx plutonius plutonius occurs widely in South America. It is replaced in Central America by M. p. dentatus.    

  288. Manduca albiplaga  ______  M#7779  BR se

    Manduca albiplaga occurs from Mexico to northern Argentina.

  289. Manduca brasiliensis  ______  BR se  (HSB:14/21)

    Manduca brasiliensis
    only occurs in southern Brazil, where it is very common.

  290. Manduca contracta  ______  BR se  (HSB:15a,15b)

    Manduca contracta
    occurs from eastern Bolivia and Paraguay to southern Brazil, and south to Uruguay and northern Argentina.      

  291. Manduca dalica  ______  BR 
    Manduca dalica dalica  ______ 
    subspecies in northern South America and Central America
    Manduca dalica anthina  ______  BR se 
    subspecies in southern Brazil 

  292. Manduca diffissa  ______  BR
    Manduca diffissa diffissa  ______ 
    subspecies in eastern Argentina and Uruguay
    Manduca diffissa mesosa  ______ 
    subspecies in northern Argentina 
    Manduca diffissa petuniae  ______  BR se  (HSB:17a,17b,17c) 
    subspecies in southern Brazil
    Manduca diffissa tropicalis  ______  BR 
    subspecies from Minas Gerais, in Brazil, north to Colombia
    Manduca diffissa zischkai  ______ 
    subspecies in Bolivia, described in 1952   

  293. Manduca florestan  ______  M#7782  BR se  (BMCR:79,80c) (HSB:18)  (in subfamily SPHINGINAE)

    Manduca florestan occurs from southeast Arizona and southwest New Mexico in the US south through Central America to northern Argentina.   

  294. Manduca hannibal  ______  BR
    Manduca hannibal hamilcar  ______  BR se  (HSB:19a,19b,19c) 
    subspecies in eastern Brazil

    Two subspecies of Manduca hannibal occur from southern Central America south into Bolivia and Brazil.
    M. h. hamilcar occurs in northeast, southeast, and parts of southern Brazil.
    M. h. mayeri occurs in Mexico.    

  295. Manduca incisa  ______  BR se  (HSB:20)

    Manduca incisa
    is found across central South America, including southern Brazil.

  296. Manduca janira  ______  BR se  (HSB:14/21)

    Manduca janira
    has only been found in southeast Brazil. The type specimen was from Rio de Janeiro in 1911. 
    There is one unconfirmed record from Bolivia.   

  297. Manduca lefeburei  ______  BR
    Manduca lefeburei lefeburei  ______  BR se  (HSB:22)

    The nominate Manduca lefeburei lefeburei occurs widely across Central America and South America, while it is replaced in Mexico by M. l. bossardi.

  298. Manduca leucospila  ______  BR se  (HSB:23)

    Manduca leucospila
    is found only in South America.

  299. Manduca lichenea  ______  BR se

  300. Manduca neglecta  ______  EC  (EBE:167)

  301. Manduca rustica  (ph)  ______  M#7778  BR  (W:249)
    Manduca rustica calapagensis  ______ 
    subspecies in the Galapagos Islands 
    Manduca rustica rustica  ______  BR se  (HSB:24) 
    subspecies across South America, and further north

    Manduca rustica rustica has a broad distribution across South America, and further north in the West Indies, Central America. and to the mid-Atlantic states of the US.   
    Other subspecies are in: Mexico, Cuba, the Lesser Antilles, and the Galapagos islands,  

    Rustic Sphinx Moth

  302. Manduca sexta  (ph)  ______  M#7775  BR  (W:248)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1763)
    Manduca sexta leucoptera  ______ 
    subspecies in the Galapagos Islands
    Manduca sexta paphus  ______  BR se  (HSB:25) 
    subspecies from Venezuela to part of Argentina
    Manduca sexta saliensis  ______ 
    subspecies in part of Argentina

    Manduca sexta sexta occurs widely across the USA and in Central America. It is replaced across much of South America from Venezuela to Argentina by M. s. paphus.
    Other subspecies are in: Argentina, Chile, the Galapagos Islands, and Jamaica, the Dominican Republic. and Saint Lucia.     

    Carolina Sphinx
    (photo by Stephen Kloiber) 

  303. Neococytius cluentius  ______  M#7774  BR se  (BMCR:79) (HSB:27a,27b,27c)  (in subfamily Sphinginae)

    Neococytius cluentius
    occurs throughout Central America, and in most of South America, as well as in the West Indies and Cuba. It occasionally strays into the US as far north as Michigan.    

  304. Neogene dynacus  ______  BR se

    Neogene dynacus
    occurs in northeast, southeast, and central Brazil including Amazonia. But in far-southern Brazil it is replaced by the similar but larger Neogene reevei (below).

  305. Neogene reevei  ______  BR 

  306. Nyceryx alophus  ______  BR
    Nyceryx alophus alophus  ______  BR se 
    subspecies across much of South America
    Nyceryx alophus ixion  ______ 
    subspecies in southern South America, in Argentina

  307. Nyceryx coffaeae  ______  (BMCR:85co) (HSB:57a,57b)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)

    Nyceryx coffaeae
    occurs widely in the Neotropics.

  308. Nyceryx continua  ______  BR  
    Nyceryx continua continua  ______  BR se 
    subspecies in Brazil
    Nyceryx continua cratera  ______ 
    subspecies in Bolivia and Peru

    In Brazil, Nyceryx continua is uncommon.

  309. Nyceryx nictitans  ______  BR
    Nyceryx nictitans nictitans  ______  BR se 
    subspecies from northern South America to southern Brazil
    Nyceryx nicitans saturata  ______ 
    subspecies in western South America, including Peru

    Nyceryx nicititans
    is a rare species in much of its range.  

  310. Nyceryx riscus  ______  BR se  (HSB:60a,60b)

    Nyceryx riscus occurs from Mexico to Argentina.

  311. Orecta lycidas  ______  BR
    Orecta lycidas lycidas  ______  BR se  
    subspecies across much of South America
    Orecta lycidas eos  ______ 
    subspecies in Argentina and Uruguay

    Orecta lycidas
    is a very rare species in Brazil.

  312. Oryba kadeni  ______  BRse  (BMCR:82)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)

    Oryba kadeni has been reported from Central America south to southern Brazil.  In Brazil, it is uncommon.

  313. Pachylia darceta  ______  EC  (BMCR:83) (EBE:167)  (in subfamily MACROGLOSSINAE)

  314. Pachylia ficus  (ph)  ______  M#7841  BR se  (HSB:49)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

    Pachylia ficus can be found throughout Central America and South America. In the US, it breeds in south Florida, and also occurs in Texas, Louisiana, and Arizona.   

    Fig Sphinx Moth

  315. Pachylia syces syces  ______  BR se  (HSB:50)

    The nominate, Pachylia syces syces, occurs from Mexico to southern Brazil and Uruguay. It is replaced by P. s. insularis in the Caribbean islands of the West Indies.

  316. Pachylioides resumens  ______  M#7842  BR se   (BMCR:83) (HSB:51a,51b)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)

    Pachylioides resumens
    occurs throughout the Neotropics, including in Caribbean islands. Strays have been reported in the US in Florida and Texas.  
    In southern Brazil, it is very common.

  317. Perigonia lusca lusca  (ph)  ______  M#7846  BR se  (BMCR:83) (HSB:61a,61b)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)

    Perigonia lusca lusca occurs from Mexico to Brazil. In the US, it is locally common in parts of Florida.
    In Brazil, P. l. lusca is very common.
    The other subspecies, P. l. continua, is found on two islands off the Pacific coast of Mexico.     

    Half-blind Sphinx Moth

  318. Perigonia pallida  ______  BR se

    Perigonia pallida
    occurs widely across South America.

  319. Perigonia stulta  ______  BR se

    Perigonia stulta is found across the Neotropics as far north as Guatemala.

  320. Phryxus caicus  ______  M#7840  BR se  (BMCR:83)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)

    Phryxus caicus occurs in the Neotropics from Mexico to South America. It also breeds in Florida in the US, and strays north to South Carolina. 

  321. Protambulyx astygonus  ______  BR se  (HSB:1a,1b)

    Protambulyx astygonus
    has a restricted range in central South America.

  322. Protambulyx eurycles  ______  BR se  (BMCR:78) (HSB:2)  (in subfamily SMERINTHINAE)

    Protambulyx eurycles is found in South America from Colombia to southern Brazil.   

  323. Protambulyx strigilis  ______  M#7818  BR se  (BMCR:78) (HSB:3) (W:255)  (in subfamily Smerinthinae)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1771)

    Protambulyx strigilis occurs in Central America and south to northern Argentina. 
  324. Protambulyx sulphurea  ______  BR se

    Protambulyx sulphurea
    has been found in Venezuela, Bolivia, and Brazil. 

  325. Pseudosphinx tetrio  (ph)  ______  M#7830  BR se  (BMCR:83) (HSB:68a:female,68b:male,68c:male(in subfamily Macroglossinae)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1771)

    Pseudosphinx tetrio occurs widely from Mexico and the West Indies to Central America and South America south to Brazil. 
    In the US, breeding populations occur in Florida, and occasionally in Texas. Strays have wandered in the US as far north as New Jersey and Connecticut.   

    The caterpillar of Pseudosphinx tetrio is large, with a distinctive yellow and black body and a red head. These caterpillars are commonly seen feeding on Wild Jasmine Trees, Plumeria obtusa, and they can strip the tree bare of leaves in just a matter of days. The caterpillar's feeding does not cause any damage as the tree soon leafs out again.  

    Above: The large, colorful caterpillar of the Tetrio Sphinx Moth. 
    It has been seen during FONT tours in the Cayman Islands.
    Below: the adult moth. 

  326. Unzela japix  ______  BR
    Unzela japix japix  ______ 
    subspecies in northern South America
    Unzela japix discrepans  ______  BR se  (HSB:40) 
    subspecies in southern Brazil 

    The nominate, Unzela japix japix. occurs from Mexico to Amazonia. It is replaced by U. j. discrepans in southern Brazil. 

  327. Xylophanes aglaor  ______  BR se  (HSB:90)

    Xylophanes aglaor
    has been found only in Brazil, and possibly Bolivia. 

  328. Xylophanes anubus  ______  BR se  (HSB:91a,91b,91c)

    Xylophanes anubus occurs from widely from Mexico to Argentina. 

  329. Xylophanes ceratomioides  ______  M#7891.1  BR se  EC  (EBE:168) (HSB:92)

    Xylophanes ceratomioides occurs from central Mexico to northern Argentina.

  330. Xylophanes chiron nechus  ______  BR se  (BMCR:84,85co) (HSB:93a,93b)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)

    Xylophanes chiron nechus
    is found across most of Central America and South America.
    Other subspecies are:
    X. c. chiron in Jamaica,
    X. c. cubanus in Cuba,
    X. c. lucianus on Saint Lucia, Martinique, and on nearby islands. 

  331. Xylophanes depuiseti  ______  BR se

    Xylophanes depuiseti
    is found only in southern and southeastern Brazil. It is a rare species.

  332. Xylophanes epaphus  ______  BR se

    Xylophanes epaphus
    ranges in the Neotropics. It seems to be uncommon in Brazil.

  333. Xylophanes hydrata  ______  BR se  (HSB:96)

    Xylophanes hydrata
    occurs in South America. It is common in Brazil.

  334. Xylophanes indistincta  ______  BR se

    Xylophanes indistincta
    is found only in southern and southeastern Brazil, where it is common.

  335. Xylophanes isaon  ______ BR se

    Xylophanes isaon
    occurs in Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina. It is common.   

  336. Xylophanes kiefferii  ______  EC  (EBE:168)    

  337. Xylophanes loelia  ______  BR se  (HSB:99)

    Xylophanes loelia occurs from Central America south to northern Argentina.  

  338. Xylophanes marginalis  ______  BR se  (HSB:100)

    Xylophanes marginalis
    is known to occur in southern and southeastern Brazil, Uruguay, and northern Argentina.
    Seemingly, outside that region, there are 3 specimens of it in a museum in Amazonian Brazil.
    Xylophanes marginalis was originally described as a subspecies of Xylophanes tyndarus.  

  339. Xylophanes pistacina  ______  BR se

    Xylophanes pistacina
    occurs from Mexico to southern Brazil. It is common in Brazil.

  340. Xylophanes pluto  ______  M#7857  BR se  (BMCR:83) (HSB:102a,102b) (W:278)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)

    Xylophanes pluto has a wide range from Mexico to northern Argentina, including also the West Indies and in the US southern Texas and Florida. 

  341. Xylophanes porcus continentalis  ______  M#7888  BR se  (HSB:103)

    Xylophanes porcus continentalis is found across Central America and South America. It is replaced in Cuba by the nominate X. p. porcus.

  342. Xylophanes schausi  ______  BR
    Xylophanes schausi schausi  ______  BR se  (HSB:104) 
    subspecies in southeast Brazil
    Xylophanes schausi serenus  ______  BR 
    subspecies western and northern Brazil  

  343. Xylophanes tersa tersa  (ph)  ______  M#7890  BR se  (BMCR:84co) (HSB:105a,105b,105c) (W:278)  (in subfamily Macroglossinae)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1771)

    Xylophanes tersa tersa occurs widely from southern Canada to Argentina. The most northerly breeding record is in New Jersey.
    The nominate is replaced by the much darker newly-described subspecies X. t. chaconi in Venezuela, described in 1996. 

    Tersa Sphinx Moth
    (photo by Lisa Johnson)

  344. Xylophanes thyelia thyelia  ______  BR se  (HSB:106)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

    Xylophanes thyelia thyelia occurs across most of South America. It is replaced by X. t. salvini in Central America.

  345. Xylophanes titana  ______  BR se  (HSB:107)

    Xylophanes titana occurs from Mexico to Argentina.

  346. Xylophanes tyndarus  ______  BR se  (HSB:108)

    Xylophanes tyndarus occurs from Mexico to Argentina.

  347. Xylophanes xylobotes  ______  BR se

    Xylophanes xylobotes
    has a restricted range in southern Brazil, where it is generally common. 


    Most of LYMANTRIIDAE are found in the tropics of the Old World, but some occur in the Neotropics. 
    There are about 2,000 species worldwide.

  348. Desmoloma sp.  ______  EC


    Large day-flying or night-flying moths, usually tailed and similar to URANIIDAE (at the beginning of this list).
    The position of the family is not certain, but is usually considered related to the superfamily GEOMETROIDEA (above, in this list, prior to the Giant Silk Moths).

    In the SEMATURIDAE, there are about 30 species in the Neotropics, and a single species in South Africa.


    Medium to large moths. A few of them small.

    The family is nearly cosmopolitan, with more than 2,800 species having been described.     

  349. Cerura bratteata  ______  EC

  350. Disphragis sp.  ______  EC

  351. Nystalea sp.  ______  EC  (EBE:214co)

    In the family NOTODONTIDAE (above),  the Subfamily DIOPTINAE

    DIOPTINAE are confined to the New World, particularly in the tropics. About 500 species have been described to date.

    They are brightly colored, and could be confused with ARCTIIDS.

    A moth in the subfamily Dioptinae photographed
    during the FONT tour in Ecuador in July 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

    Family DOIDAE

    Sometimes considered a subfamily of NOTODONTIDAE
    Some moths in DOIDAE have been placed in ARCTIIDAE (later in this list, now, as ARCTIINAE

    A Neotropical family from western North America to northern South America.
    Between 7 and 9 species have been described in 2 or 3 genera.


    Some now in EREBIDAE were in NOCTUIDAE.

    NOCTUID MOTHS can be small, or large. Most have gray or opaque colors, although some can be striking.
    Generally they have a stout body.
    They are broadly distributed throughout the world and very diverse in tropical regions.

    Above, and in the 2 photos below, some Noctuid Moths photographed 
    during the FONT birding and nature tour in southern Ecuador in July 2013.
    Now in either Erebidae (previously in Noctuidae) or still in Noctuidae.
    (photos by Marie Gardner)    


    Those in HERMINIINAE are delta-shaped, flat-winged noctuid moths found in woodlands, fields, and gardens.
    Although the group may initially be confusing, subtle differences in pattern and form give clues to identification.
    Most are nocturnal and will come to lights in small numbers.

    Family EREBIDAE, Subfamily EREBINAE  (previously the subfamily CATOCALINAE)

    The subfamily EREBINAE is a large group of medium to large woodland moths that typically rest with their wings held flat.
    They come to light in small numbers. 

  352. Achaea janata  ______  CH  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

  353. Anticarsia gemmatalis  ______  H#8574  CH

  354. Ascalapha odorata  (ph)  ______  M#8649  CH  EC  (BMCR:228) (EBE:169)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

    Ascalapha odorata
    is a huge moth, with a wing span of about 150mm. It is not brightly patterned, being mostly various shades of brown with dark bands and lines. It sometimes flies in the day, but mostly at night. At a distance, a day-flying Black Witch could be mistaken for a butterfly, the Gold Rim Swallowtail.

    Above: a male Black Witch; below a female.

    (upper photo courtesy of David MacDonald; lower photo by Sherry Nelson) 

  355. Euclidia runica  ______  CH

  356. Euclidia vittata  ______  CH

  357. Melipotis cellaris  ______  M#8601  CH  occurs from Mexico to Argentina and Chile; also in the West Indies and the US

  358. Melipotis paracellaris  ______  CH  species described in 1984

  359. Melipotis trujillensis  ______  CH

  360. Melipotis walkeri  ______  CH

  361. Mocis disseverans  ______  CH

  362. Mocis latipes  ______  M#8743  CH

  363. Mocis megas  ______  CH

  364. Ophideres apta  ______  CH

  365. Thysania agrippina  (ph)  ______  (BMCR:234)
    the WHITE WITCH 
    (other names are: Birdwing Moth, Ghost Moth, Great Gray Witch, Great Owlet Moth

    Thysania agrippina has a wingspan of up to 12 inches. This very large moth occurs in South America, Central America, Mexico, and it strays north into Texas in the US.

    Above and below: the White Witch

  366. Thysania zenobia  (ph)  ______  M#8647  BR  EC  (EBE:169)   

    The Owl Moth occurs in Central America and South America as far south at least to the southernmost Brazilian state, Rio Grande do Sul. It is also found in the Galapagos Islands, and on occasion in North America.    

    Cryptically blending in on the side of a tree,
    an Owl Moth
    (photo by Lisa Johnson)

  367. Zale lunata  (ph)  ______  M#8689  CH

    Lunate Zale
    (photo by Rise Hill)


    Moths known as SNOUTS are deltoid noctuids characterized by their ample, strikingly patterned forewing.
    Long labial palps give them a snout-like appearance.
    These woodland moths are mostly nocturnal and are attracted to lights in small numbers.    

  368. Hypena sp.  ______  EC  among places in Ecuador, at and near Tandavapa Lodge  

    Family EREBIDAE, Subfamily CALPINAE

  369. Baecula gallopavo  ______

    Baecula gallopavo was previously Lepidodes gallpavo or Lepidodes limbulata.
    Its range is in northern South America and Central America.

  370. Ceroctena amynta  ______

  371. Epitausa perseverans  ______

  372. Gorgone sp.  ______

  373. Letis caligula  ______

  374. Helia subjugua  ______

  375. Herminodes tessellata  ______

  376. Letis herilia  ______  BR  range includes Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil; also Central America

  377. Letis macuilicollis  ______  EC

  378. Letis scops  ______  BR  CH  EC   range includes Venezuela, Guyana, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Chile

  379. Sosxetra grata  (ph)  ______  EC   occurs from Costa Rica to Peru

    Sosxetra grata
    is found in cloud forest from 1,200 to 5,400 feet above sea level.

    The adult Sosxetra grata, or Walker's Moth, is painted in cryptic colors that match bark, dead leaves, and twigs, as do many of noctuid moths.
    It does particularly well at looking like a rotten or fungus-ridden fragment of a dead leaf, no matter where it sits during the day.   

    Walker's Moth, Sosxetra grata,
    photographed during a FONT tour in Ecuador
    (photo by Marie Gardner)  

  380. Tautobriga euspila  ______

    Family EREBIDAE, Subfamily OPHIDERINAE

  381. Ascalapha odorata  ______  CH  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

  382. Anticarsia gemmatalis  ______  CH

  383. Gonodonta pyrgo  ______  CH

  384. Ophideres apta  ______  CH


  385. Eulepidotis ilyrias  ______

  386. Eulepidotis perlata  ______


    The name ARCTIINAE is from the Latin for "bear", Arctos, due to the furry larvae.

    TIGER MOTHS (in the tribe ARCTIINI) are spectacular in a number of ways. Not only are they numerous, and there are many species (as many 11,000 species worldwide), they also often have brilliant coloration, due to their toxicity (aposematism). Their attractive colors include red, black, and yellow.
    For their defense, they can detect sounds and ultrasounds (as against bats). And they have other defense mechanisms, such as cataleptic states (simulating death), and the ability to produce various repulsive substances.
    ARCTID MOTHS (in ARCTIINI) are large and wide-winged. 
    They feed on a large variety of plants, especially herbs. Some species feed on algae. They are often poliphagous.
    Host plants that the caterpillars feed on include those in: Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Rutaceae, and Ulmaceae.   
    Some photos of ARCTIINAE caterpillars are in the book "Ecuador's Butterfly Ecology" (EBE:215co).  

    WASP MOTHS (in the tribe CTENUCHINI)  imitate wasps almost perfectly (except for the wasp's abdominal constriction).
    Caterpillars are mostly furry and brilliantly colored, to show their toxicity. Some species can cause skin irritations in humans. 
    WASP MOTHS are diurnal, and abundant in the Neotropics. They have narrow wings, often metallic. 

    Another tribe in ARCTIINAE is PERICOPINI. They are diurnal, fragile and delicate. Some are large. The adults have attractive colors and are sexually dimorphic. Some species are aposematic or mimetic of other lepidoptera.
    PERICOPINI are restricted to the New World, and occur especially in the Neotropics. 

    Above and below: moths in the subfamily Arctiinae photographed 
    during the FONT tour in southern and western Ecuador in July 2013 
    (photos by Marie Gardner)

    Notice how the moth in the upper photo goes to where it blends in, or nearly so.
    Both photos were taken in an outside porch area after dark.    

  387. Agylla hermanilla  ______

  388. Amastus albipuncta  ______

  389. Amastus coccinator  ______  EC  (EBE:171)

  390. Amastus epicostosia  ______  EC  (BMCR:247) (EBE:171)

  391. Amaxia flavicollis  ______

  392. Amaxia lepida  ______

  393. Antichloris eriphia  ______

  394. Bertholdia flavidorsata  ______

  395. Cacostatia flaviventralis  ______

  396. Calodesma sp.  ______

  397. Carales astur  ______

  398. Chetone angulosa  (ph)  ______  (BMCR:251)  occurs in northern South America including Venezuela, and Central America

    Chetone angulosa

  399. Chetone histria  ______

  400. Chlorhoda thoracica  ______

  401. Chrysocale regalis  ______  EC

  402. Cissura unilineata  ______

  403. Coreura sp.  ______  EC  (EBE:170)

  404. Correbia lycoides  ______

    In the genus below, COSMOSOMA, there are said to be about 185 known species, occurring in the Neotropics and the southern limits of the Nearctic, with the greatest diversity and abundance in the rain forests and cloud forests of Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru.

  405. Cosmosoma auge  ______

  406. Cosmosoma demantria  ______  (in CTENUCHINI)   occurs from Mexico to Peru

  407. Cosmosoma entella  ______

  408. Cosmosoma flavothorax  ______

  409. Cosmosoma galatea  ______

  410. Cosmosoma neleum  ______

  411. Cosmosoma ockendeni  ______

  412. Cosmosoma sectinota  ______

  413. Cosmosoma teuthras  ______

  414. Cosmosoma sp.  ______  EC

  415. Cratoplastis diluta  ______

  416. Cresera optimus  ______

  417. Crocomela colorata  ______

  418. Ctenuchiini sp.  ______  EC  (EBE:171) 

  419. Dinia aeagrus  ______  EC  (EBE:171)

  420. Disopage splendens  ______

  421. Dysschema joiceyi  ______  EC  (EBE:170)

  422. Echeta grandis  ______

  423. Elysius sebrus  ______

  424. Epimolis haemastica  ______

  425. Ernassa justina  ______

  426. Eucereon davidi  ______

  427. Eucereon sp.  ______  EC

  428. Eupseudosoma involuta  ______  (has previously been Eupseudosoma nivea and Eupseudosoma immaculata)

    Eupseudosoma involuta
    occurs in the Guyanas and Brazil, also in Central America and in the US in Florida.

  429. Halysidota orientalis  (ph)  ______  EC  occurs in South America from Colombia to Bolivia and Brazil, also in Central America and Mexico

    Halysidota orientalis

  430. Halysidota schausi  ______  (in ARCTIINI, subtribe PHAEGOPTERINA)

    Halysidota schausi
    occurs in South America south to Peru. Also Central America, Mexico, and Texas. 

  431. Himerarctica griseipennis  ______

  432. Homoeocera crassa  ______

  433. Horama panthalon  ______  M#8287  
    H. p. panthalon  ______ 
    subspecies in Colombia and Venezuela, also Panama and the Antilles
    H. p. viridifusca  ______  BR 
    subspecies in southern Brazil, northern Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay

  434. Hypercompe cunigunda  ______

  435. Hypercombe ocularia  ______

  436. Hypercompe theophila  ______  EC  (EBE:171)

  437. Hypocrita aletta  ______

  438. Hypocrita calida  ______  EC  (EBE:170)

  439. Hypocrita plagifera  ______

  440. Hypocrita sp.  ______  EC  (EBE:170)

  441. Idalus intermedia  ______

  442. Idalus sp.  ______  EC  (EBE:171)

  443. Lophocampa distincta  ______  AR  BR  CL  EC  PE
    L. d. binominata  ______ 
    subspecies in Argentina
    L. d. brasilibia  ______ 
    subspecies in Brazil and Peru
    L. d. brunnescens  ______ 
    subspecies in Peru
    L. d. distincta  ______ 
    subspecies in Ecuador and Peru
    L. d. obsolescens  ______ 
    subspecies in Colombia, Ecuador 

  444. Lophocampa dognini  ______

  445. Lophocampa sp.  (ph)  ______  EC

    This caterpillar in the Lophcampa genus was photographed 
    during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  446. Loxophlebia flavipicta  ______

  447. Loxophlebia nomia  ______  EC  (EBE:171) 

  448. Malla toulgoetae  ______  EC  (EBE:170) 

  449. Melese intensa  ______  EC  (EBE:170)  

  450. Nodozana boudinoti  ______  (in subfamily Lithosiinae)

    The Red-barred Footman is known from Peru and Guyana, but it undoubtedly must occur in between in Brazil.

    Nodozana boudinoti inhabits rainforest at elevations between about 600 and 2,400 feet above sea level.   

  451. Ochrodota sp.  ______  EC  (EBE:215co)

  452. Onythes pallidicosta  ______  EC

  453. Ormetica ameoidas  ______

  454. Ormetica packardi  ______

  455. Ormetica sypilus  ______

  456. Pachydota nervosa  ______

  457. Phaeo sp.  ______  EC  (EBE:171)

  458. Pheia sp.  ______

  459. Phoenicoprocta vacillans  ______

  460. Solaris nervosa  ______  EC  (EBE:171)

  461. Symphlebia sp.  ______  EC 

  462. Theages decoram  ______

  463. Thysanoprymna superba  ______

  464. Viviennea griseonitens  ______

  465. Viviennea moma  ______

  466. Utetheisa ornatrix  (ph)  ______

    Above & below: the Ornate Moth
    (lower copyrighted photo by Lisa Johnson)

  467. Xenosoma sp.  ______

    Family EUTELIIDAE 
    (has been in the family NOCTUIDAE)

    Those in the EUTELIIDAE family are small to medium-sized moths, with most having spectacularly acrobatic resting positions.
    They occur in a variety of habitats, and even in urban areas.
    All are nocturnal and come to lights in low numbers.

    EUTELIIDAE is a tropical family typically inhabiting in savannas and semidesert habitats.


    NOLIDS are small deltoid noctuid moths that rest with their rounded wings in a flat position.
    They are predominantly gray or white with patterns of dotted or broken lines.
    Many have raised tufts of hair-like scales on the forewing.
    They occur mostly in woodlands and old fields, and they are nocturnal , attracted to lights in small numbers.

    NOLIDAE is a cosmopolitan family. In it, about 1,400 species are known.


    The PLUSIINAE is a distinctive group of moths that occur mostly in open habitats such as old fields and barrens.
    Many have diagnostic silvery stigmas on the forewing.
    Several have tall thoracic crests and tufts of scales at the anal angle of the forewing.
    Most are nocturnal and come to lights in small numbers. 


    Those in BAGISARINAE are small moths, light yellow, brown and golden wth undulated bands in the forewings. 


    Those in ACONTIINAE are small moths, most of which are accomplished bird-dropping mimics. 
    They are commonly encountered at woodland edges and in old fields, and sometimes in the daytime.
    But most are nocturnal and come to lights.


    ACRONICTINAE is a cosmopolitan subfamily, with many of the species in it found in temperate regions. 
    They are generally grayish or cryptic. 

  468. Spodoptera albula  ______  CH

  469. Spodoptera eridania  ______  CH

  470. Spodoptera frugiperda  ______  CH

  471. Spodoptera mauritia  ______  CH

  472. Spodoptera ochrea  ______  CH


  473. Athetis nigrifrons  ______  CH

  474. Crimona nana  ______  CH

  475. Elaphria bucephalina  ______  CH

    Family NOCTUIDAE, Subfamily PLUSIINAE

  476. Argyrogramma basigera  ______  CH

  477. Autographa biloba  ______  CH

  478. Autographa bonaerensis  ______  CH

  479. Autoplusia egena  ______  CH

  480. Ctenoplusia albostriata  ______  CH

  481. Chrysodeixis chalcites  ______  CH

  482. Pseudoplusia includens  ______  CH

  483. Rachiplusia nu  ______  CH

  484. Rachiplusia virgula  ______  CH

  485. Syngrapha gammoides  ______  CH

  486. Trichoplusia ni  ______  CH

  487. Trichoplusia oxygramma  ______  CH  


    The CUCULLIINAE is a distinctive group of moths that rest their wings and their forelegs outstretched.
    A thick thoracic crest typically curls forward over the head to create a "hooded" appearance. 
    They are found in woodlands and larger gardens, and they are nocturnal and visit lights in small numbers.

    CUCULLIINAE are found predominantly in temperate zones. 

  488. Albirenia araucanica  ______  CH

  489. Albirenia minense  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  490. Albirenia transversalis  ______  CH  species described in 2000

  491. Andesia lesa  ______  CH  species described in 1979

  492. Copitarsia anatunca  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  493. Copitarsia anguloi  ______  CH  species described in 1991

  494. Copitarsia basilinea  ______  CH  species described in 1958

  495. Copitarsia clavata  ______  CH  species described in 1952

  496. Copitarsia humilis  ______  CH  

  497. Copitarsia murina  ______  CH  species described in 2001

  498. Copitarsia naenoides  ______  CH

  499. Copitarsia paraturbata  ______  CH  species described in 1991

  500. Copitarsia patagonica  ______  CH

  501. Copitarsia turbata  ______  CH

  502. Pseudocerura thoracica  ______  CH

  503. Tenera andina  ______  CH  species described in 1979

  504. Tenera purpuracea  ______  CH  species described in 2000 


    Moths in AGARISTINAE are in general attractively colored. In some, the antennae end in a club.
    Those in this subfamily are predominantly tropical. Worldwide, about 300 species are known. 


    The CONDICINAE is a group of mostly small to medium-sized deltoid moths that rest with their wings flat of slightly tented.
    They are found in woodlands and larger gardens. They are nocturnal and come to light in low numbers.

    In CONDICINAE, there are a large number of tropical species.


    The HELIOTHINAE are small to medium-sized, often beautifully patterned noctuids of woodlands and fields.
    Many are regularly encountered during the daytime taking nectar from flowers.  

    Moths in this group include some agricultural pests, for example the Helicoverpa zea (the Corn Caterpillar) and Helicoverpa armigera, which feeds on the pods of green peas, and also mine the stems of tobacco, corn, cotton.

    Although most HELIOTHINAE are diurnal, as just noted, many are also nocturnal and are attracted to lights in small numbers.  

  505. Helicoverpa zea  ______  M#11068  CH

  506. Heliothis atacamae  ______  CH

  507. Heliothis gelotopoeon  ______  CH

  508. Heliothis virescens  (ph)  ______  M#11071  CH

    Tobacco Budworm Moth
    (photo by Lisa Johnson)

  509. Schinia chilensis  ______  CH

  510. Schinia gabrielae  ______  CH  species described in 1998

    Family NOCTUIDAE, Subfamily HADENINAE

  511. Chabuata carneago  ______  CH

  512. Dargida confundibilis  ______  CH  species described in 1989

  513. Dargida permira  ______  CH

  514. Dargida tetragona  ______  CH

  515. Eriopyga perfusca  ______  CH

  516. Helicocervix ommatoblonga  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  517. Helicocervix penai  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  518. Leucania impuncta  ______  CH  

  519. Mythimna loreyi  ______  CH

  520. Pehuenquenia minuta  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  521. Pseudaletia punctulata  ______  CH

  522. Scriptania badillai  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  523. Scriptania chuzmiza  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  524. Scriptania cinerea  ______  CH  species described in 2001

  525. Scriptania cuculloides  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  526. Scriptania fallax  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  527. Scriptania fasciata  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  528. Scriptania godoyi  ______  CH  species described in 1993

  529. Scriptania inexpectata  ______  CH  species described in 1998

  530. Scriptania leucofasciata  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  531. Scriptania marcelae  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  532. Scriptania maulina  ______  CH  species described in 2001

  533. Scriptania paragodoyi  ______  CH  species described in 2001

  534. Scriptania plumbica  ______  CH  species described in 1959 

  535. Scriptania rubroides  ______  CH  species described in 2001

  536. Scriptania viridipennis  ______  CH  species described in 2001

  537. Scriptania yajminense  ______  CH  species described in 2001

  538. Strigania albilinea  ______  CH

    Family NOCTUIDAE, Subfamily NOCTUINAE

    The NOCTUINAE is a varied assortment of small to medium-sized noctuid moths, commonly found in woodlands, gardens, and fields.
    Some are delta-shaped and rest with their wings flat. Others, however, have long, narrow wings that they hold tight to their body. When they are at rest, they place their wings in a horizontal position over the body, forming a roof.
    All are nocturnal and will come to lights. 

  539. Agrotis araucaria  ______  CH

  540. Agrotis andina  ______  CH  species described in 1945

  541. Agrotis bilitura  ______  CH

  542. Agrotis coquimbensis  ______  CH

  543. Agrotis dissociata  ______  CH

  544. Agrotis edmondsi  ______  CH

  545. Agrotis experta  ______  CH

  546. Agrotis hispidula  ______  CH

  547. Agrotis ipsilon  ______  CH

  548. Agrotis malefida  ______  CH

  549. Agrotis subterranea  ______  CH

  550. Atlantagrotis aethes  ______  CH

  551. Atlantagrotis nelida  ______  CH  species described in 1945

  552. Beriotisia copahuensis  ______  CH

  553. Beriotisia cuculliformis  ______  CH  species described in 1945

  554. Beriotisia fueguensis  ______  CH

  555. Beriotisia taniae  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  556. Beriotisia typhlina  ______  CH

  557. Blepharoa mamestrina  ______  CH

  558. Boursinidia atrimedia  ______  CH

  559. Boursinidia darwini  ______  CH

  560. Euxoamorpha ceciliae  ______  CH

  561. Euxoamorpha eschata  ______  CH  species described in 1950

  562. Euxoamorpha ingoufii  ______  CH

  563. Euxoamorpha mendosica  ______  CH

  564. Euxoamorpha molibdoida  ______  CH

  565. Janaesia antarctica  ______  CH

  566. Janaesia carnea  ______  CH

  567. Janaesia exclusiva  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  568. Janaesia hibernans  ______  CH  species described in 1968

  569. Magnagrotis oorti  ______  CH  species described in 1945

  570. Noctubourgognea bicolor  ______  CH

  571. Noctubourgognea coppingeri  ______  CH

  572. Noctubourgognea glottuloides  ______  CH

  573. Pareuxoa flavicosta  ______  CH

  574. Pareuxoa fuscata  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  575. Pareuxoa gravida  ______  CH

  576. Pareuxoa janae  ______  CH  species described in 1990

  577. Pareuxoa koehleri  ______  CH  species described in 1992

  578. Pareuxoa lineifera  ______  CH  

  579. Pareuxoa luteicosta  ______  CH  species described in 1999

  580. Pareuxoa meditata  ______  CH  species described in 1967

  581. Pareuxoa nigrolineata  ______  CH  species described in 1989

  582. Pareuxoa parajanae  ______  CH  species described in 1992

  583. Pareuxoa perdita  ______  CH

  584. Pareuxoa sanctisbastian  ______  CH  species described in 1954

  585. Peridroma ambrosioides  ______  CH

  586. Peridroma chilenaria  ______  CH  species described in 1984

  587. Peridroma clerica  ______  CH

  588. Peridroma saucia  ______  CH

  589. Phaenagrotis hecataia  ______  CH  species described in 1953

  590. Pseudoleucania brosii  ______  CH  species described in 1959

  591. Pseudoleucania diana  ______  CH

  592. Pseudoleucania ferruginescens  ______  CH

  593. Pseudoleucania leucaniiformis  ______  CH

  594. Pseudoleucania lutemaculata  ______  CH  species described in 2001

  595. Pseudoleucania marii  ______  CH  species described in 1979

  596. Pseudoleucania onerosa  ______  CH  species described in 1959

  597. Scania anelluspinata  ______  CH  species described in 1994

  598. Scania aspersa  ______  CH  

  599. Scania messia  ______  CH

  600. Scania neuquensis  ______  CH  species described in 1959

  601. Scania odontoclasper  ______  CH  species described in 1994

  602. Scania perlucida  ______  CH  species described in 1967

  603. Scania perornata  ______  CH  species described in 1959

  604. Scania simillima  ______  CH  species described in 1959

  605. Scania strigigrapha  ______  CH

  606. Scania tephra  ______  CH  species described in 1945

  607. Tisagronia pexa  ______  CH 

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