PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876

during Focus On Nature Tours 

including the Canary Islands
off northwest Africa,
and Gibraltar, Morocco, Andorra, 
and adjacent France and Portugal

1992 thru 2015

during the months of: January, April, May, 
June, July, September, October, December

A List of Spain Birds compiled by Armas Hill.

Upper Right Photo: GREAT BUSTARD

There have been 24 FONT birding tours in Spain, during which 290 species of birds have cumulatively been found.

Spanish bird names follow English names in the first line.
Scientific names in the second line.

Birds found in region of Catalunya (in NE Spain) also have
names in Catalan language.


a: in Southern Spain (Andalusia) & Gibraltar
b: in Extremadura and the Gredos Mountains

c: in NE Spain (the Pyrenees, Steppes, and Ebro Delta)
d: in the Canary Islands
e: in Andorra
g: in Gibraltar
f:  in adjacent France
m: in Morocco
p: in Portugal

(t): a globally threatened or rare species.
  (t1): critical
  (t2): endangered
  (t3): vulnerable
(nt): near-threatened species
(cd): conservation dependent species
(Ee): endangered in Europe
(Ev): vulnerable in Europe

(Er): rare in Europe
(Ed): has declined in Europe
(El): localized in Europe
All of above designations by Birdlife International.

(SPi): an introduced species in Spain

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website


Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in Spain      Upcoming FONT Tours Elsewhere

A List & Photo Gallery of European Birds, in 2 Parts:
Part #1: Grouse to Puffin
     Part #2: Sandgrouse to Buntings

Directory of Photos in this Website


  1. Black-throated Diver  (Colimbo Artico)  (Ev) ______ 
    Gavia a. arctica

    Gavia arctica
    is called Arctic Loon in North America.

  2. Great Crested Grebe  (Somormujo Lavanco) ______  abc
    Podiceps c. cristatus

  3. Black-necked Grebe  (Zampullin Cuellinegro) ______  ac  
    Podiceps n. nigricollis

    Podiceps nigricollis
    is called Eared Grebe in North America.

  4. Little Grebe  (Zampullin Chico)  (ph)  ______  abc
    Tachybaptus r. ruficollis

    Another name for Tachybaptus ruficollis is "Dabchick".

  5. Balearic Shearwater  (Pardela Pichoneta) ______  a  
    Puffinus mauretanicus 

    The Balearic Shearwater was conspecific with the Manx Shearwater and with what is now the more-easterly Yelkouan Shearwater which was also part of the Manx Shearwater.   

  6. Cory's Shearwater  (Pardela Cenicienta)  (Ev) (ph)  ______  adm
    Calonectris d. diomedea 
    "Scoploi's Shearwater"   subspecies offshore in Spain
    Calonectris diomedea borealis  
    subspecies in the Canary Islands

  7. Macaronesian Shearwater  (Pardela Chica)  (Ev)  ______   
    Puffinus baroli 

    The Macaronesian Shearwater was included in what was a more wide-ranging Little Shearwater. It is now, however, said to be more closely related to the Audubon's Shearwater.
    To the south, there is a race of the Audubon's Shearwater in the eastern Atlantic, breeding on Cape Verde Island.
    With recent taxonomy, the Little Shearwater now has a range restricted to the Indian and southwestern Pacific Oceans, near Australia and New Zealand.     

  8. Bulwer's Petrel  (Petrel de Bulwer)  (Ev) (ph)  ______ d
    Bulweria b. bulwerii

  9. Northern Gannet  (Alcatraz Comun)  (El) (ph)  ______  acgm
    (formerly Sula) bassena  (monotypic)

  10. European Shag  (Cormoran Monudo)  (ph)  ______ g
    (formerly Phalacrocorax) a. aristotelis

  11. Great Cormorant  (Cormoran Grande) ______ abc
    Phalacrocorax c. carbo

  12. Grey Heron  (Garza Real)  (ph)  ______  abcdp
    Ardea c. cinerea

  13. Purple Heron  (Garza Imperial (Ev) ______ ac
    Ardea p. purpurea

  14. Great Egret  (Garceta Grande)  ______ c
    Casmerodius (has been Ardea) alba

  15. Little Egret  (Garceta Comun)  (ph)  ______ abcp
    Egretta g. garzetta

  16. Western Cattle Egret  (Garcilla Bueyera)  (ph)  ______  abcp
    Bubulcus ibis

    The Western Cattle Egret is in Europe & Africa. The Eastern Cattle Egret, Bubulcus coromandus, is in eastern Asia.  

  17. Squacco Heron  (Garcilla Cangrejara (Ev) ______ ac
    Ardeola ralloides 

  18. Black-crowned Night-Heron  (Martinete)  (Ed) (ph)  ______ abc
    Nycticorax n. nycticorax

  19. Little Bittern  (Avetorillo Comun)  (Ev)  ______ ac
    Ixobrychus m. minutus

  20. Glossy Ibis  (Morito (Ed) (ph)  ______ a
    Plegadis falcinellus 
    (now monotypic)

  21. Eurasian Spoonbill  (Espatula)  (Ee) (ph)  ______  abd
    Platalea l. leucorodia

  22. White Stork  (Ciguena Comun)  (Ev) (ph)  ______ abc
    Ciconia c. ciconia

  23. Black Stork  (Ciguena Negra)  (Er) (ph)  ______ b
    Ciconia nigra 

  24. Greater Flamingo  (Flamenco)  (El) (ph)  ______ ac  (was conspecific with what's now the American Flamingo)
    Phoenicopterus roseus 

  25. Mute Swan  (Cisne Vulgar) (SPi) (ph)  ______ a
    Cygnus olor 

  26. Greylag Goose  (Ansar Comun)  (ph)  ______ a
    Anser a. anser

  27. Common Shelduck  (Torro Blanco)  ______ ac
    Tadorna tadorna 

  28. Mallard  (Anade Real)  (ph)  ______ abc
    Anas p. platyrhynchos

  29. Gadwall  (Anade Friso)  (Ev) (ph)  ______ ac
    Anas s. stepera 

  30. Eurasian Teal  (Cerceta Comun)  ______ ac  (was considered conspecific with the Green-winged Teal of North America, Anas carolinensis)
    Anas c. crecca

  31. Garganey  (Cerceta Carretona (Ev) ______ c
    Anas querquedula 
    (now monotypic)

  32. Northern Pintail  (Anade Rabudo)  (Ev) (ph)  ______ a
    Anas acuta 

  33. Eurasian Wigeon  (Anade Silbon)  (ph)  ______  a
    Anas penelope 

  34. Northern Shoveler  (Pato Cuchara)  (ph)  ______  ac
    Anas clypeata 

  35. Marbled Duck  (Cerceta Pardilla)  (t3) (Ee)  ______  a
    Marmaronetta angustirostris 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  36. Red-crested Pochard  (Pato Colorado) (Ed) ______ ac
    Netta rufina 

  37. Common Pochard  (Porron Comun)  (ph)  ______ abc
    Aythya ferina 

  38. Tufted Duck  (Porron Monudo)  (ph)   ______ a
    Aythya fuligula 

  39. Ferruginous Duck  (Porron Pardo)  (nt) (Ev)  ______ ac  (has also been called White-eyed Pochard)
    Aythya nyroca 

  40. Common Scoter  (Negron Comun)  ______ c  (was considered conspecific with what's now the Black Scoter, Melanitta americana)
    Melanitta nigra

  41. Red-breasted Merganser  (Serreta Mediana)  (ph)   ______ a
    Mergus serrator 

  42. White-headed Duck  (Malvasia)  (t2) (Ee) ______ a
    Oxyura leucocophala 

  43. Osprey  (Aguila Pescadora)  (Er) (ph)  ______ ac
    Pandion h. haliaetus 
    (the single member of its genus)

  44. Red Kite  (Milano Real(ph)  ______ abcf
    Milvus m. milvus 
    (the other subspecies is in the Cape Verde Islands)

  45. Black Kite  (Milano Negro)  (Ev)  ______ abc
    Milvus m. migrans

  46. Black-winged Kite  (Azor)  (Ev)  ______     
    Elanus c. caeruleus

  47. Egyptian Vulture  (Alimoche)  (Ee)  ______  abcdf
    Neophron p. percnopterus

  48. Bearded Vulture  (Quebrantahuesos (nt) (Ee) ______  ce  (has also been called Lammergeier)
    Gypaetus b. barbatus

  49. Cinereous Vulture  (Buitre negro)  (nt) (Ev)  ______  (has been known as the Eurasian Black Vulture; another name has been Monk Vulture)
    Aegypius monachus 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) 

  50. Griffon Vulture  (Buitre comun)  (Er)  ______  abcef
    Gyps f. fulvus

  51. Eurasian Sparrowhawk  (Gavilan)  (ph)  ______  abd
    Accipiter n. nisus 
    (subspecies in Spain)
    Accipiter nisus granti 
    (in Canary Islands, an endemic subspecies) 

  52. Northern Goshawk  (Elanio Azul)  ______  c
    Accipiter g. gentilis

  53. Common Buzzard  (Ratonero Comun)  (ph)   ______  abcdefp
    Buteo b. buteo
      (subspecies in Spain)
    Buteo buteo insularum 
    (in Canary Islands, an endemic subspecies)

  54. European Honey-Buzzard  (Abejero Europeo)  ______  acf 
    Pernis apivorus 

  55. Short-toed Snake-Eagle  (Aguila Culebrera)  (Er)  ______  abce
    Circaetus gallicus 

  56. Bonelli's Eagle  (Aguila perdicera)  (Ee) ______ acf
    Hieraaetus f. fasciatus

  57. Booted Eagle  (Aguila calzada)  (Er)  ______  abcp
    Hieraaetus pennatus 
    (now monotypic)  

  58. Golden Eagle  (Aguila real)  (Er)  ______  cef
    Aquila chrysaetos homeyeri
      (subspecies in Iberia & N Africa) 

  59. Spanish Imperial Eagle  (Aguila imperial)  (t3) (Ee) ______ ab  (has also been called Adalbert's Eagle)
    Aquila adalberti 

  60. Western Marsh Harrier  (Aguilucho lagunero)  ______ ac  (was conspecific with the Eastern Marsh Harrier of Asia, and when so it was called the Northern Marsh Harrier)
    Circus aeruginosus

  61. Hen Harrier  (Aguilucho palido)  (Ev) ______ a  (considered distinct from the Northern Harrier of North America) 
    Circus cyaneus

  62. Montagu's Harrier  (Aguilucho cenizo______ abcf
    Circus pygargus 

  63. Peregrine Falcon  (Halcon comun)  (Er) (ph) ______  abcf
    Falco peregrinus brookeri 
    (subspecies in Iberia, largely sedentary)
    Falco p. peregrinus 
    (subspecies in much of Europe, some winter in Iberia)
    Falco peregrinus calidus 
    (subspecies that breeds in northern Eurasia, highly migratory in western part of range south to Africa) 

  64. Barbary Falcon  (Halcon de berberia)  (Er) ______ d
    Falco p. pelegrinoides

  65. Northern Hobby  (Alcotan)  ______ abcf
    Falco s. subbuteo

  66. Eleonora's Falcon  (Falcon de Eleonora)  (Er) (ph)  ______ d
    Falco eleonome 

  67. Merlin  (Esmerejon)  (ph)  ______ b
    Falco columbarius aesalon

  68. Lesser Kestrel  (Cernicalo primilla)  (t3) (Ev) ______ ab
    Falco naumanni  (monotypic)

  69. Eurasian Kestrel  (Cernicalo vulgar)  (Ed)  ______ abcdefp
    Falco t. tinnunculus 
    (subspecies in Spain)
    Falco tinnunculus canariensis 
    (subspecies in the western Canary Is., endemic)
    Falco tinnunculus dacotiae 
    (subspecies in the eastern Canary Is. inc. Fuerteventura, endemic)

  70. Grey Partridge  (Perdiz Pardilla)  (Ev) ______ c  (has also been called Hungarian Partridge)
    Perdix perdix

  71. Red-legged Partridge (Perdiz comun)  (Ev) ______ abc
    Alectoris rufa

  72. Barbary Partridge  (Perdiz Moruna)  (Ee)  ______ dg
    Alectoris barbara koenigi

  73. Common Quail  (Codorniz)  (Ev) ______ac
    Coturnix c. coturnix

  74. Common Pheasant  (Faisan Vulgar)  ______ a
    Phasianus colchicus

  75. Water Rail  (Rascon Europeo ______ bc
    Rallus a. aquaticus

  76. Baillon's Crake  (Polluela Chica)  (Er)  ______ a
    Porzana pusilla intermedia

  77. Common Moorhen  (Polla de Agua)  ______  abc  (has been called Common Gallinule in the Americas)
    Gallinula c. chloropus

  78. Purple Swamphen  (Calamon Comun)  (Er)  ______ ac  
    Porphyrio p. porphyrio

  79. Eurasian Coot  (Focha Comun)  ______ abcd
    Fulica a. atra

  80. Red-knobbed Coot ______ (has also been called Crested Coot)
    Fulica cristata 

  81. Common Crane  (Grulla Comun)  (Ev) (ph)   ______ a
    Grus g. grus

  82. Great Bustard  (Avutarda)  (t3) (Ed) (ph)  ______ bc  (IN PHOTO AT TOP OF LIST)
    Otis t. tarda 
    (the single member of its genus)

  83. Little Bustard  (Sison)  (nt) (Ev)  ______ bc
    Tetrax tetrax 
    (now monotypic) (the single member of its genus)

  84. Houbara Bustard  (Hubara)  (nt) (Ee)  ______ d
    Chamydotis undulata fuertaventurae 
    (an endemic subspecies on a single island in the Canaries; the other subspecies in North Africa) 

    The MacQueen's Bustard of southern Asia was formerly considered conspecific with the Houbara Bustard.

  85. Grey Plover  (Chorlito Gris) (ph)  ______ ac  (called Black-bellied Plover in the Americas)
    Pluvialis s. squatarola

  86. European Golden Plover  (Chorlito Dorado Comun)  (ph)  ______  ac
    Pluvialis apricaria 
    (2 subspecies in Spain: P. a. apricaraia & P. a. altifrons)

  87. Eurasian Dotterel  (Chorlito Carambolo)  (ph)   ______ c
    (formerly Eudromias) morinellus  (monotypic) 

  88. Little Ringed Plover  (Chorlitejo Chico) ______ abcd
    Charadrius dubius curonicus

  89. Common Ringed Plover  (Chorlitejo Grande (ph)  ______ abc
    Charadrius hiaticula 
    (3 subspecies occur in Spain)

  90. Kentish Plover  (Chorlitejo Patinegro)  (Ed)  ______ ac  (was conspecific with the Snowy Plover of North & South America)
    Charadrius a. alexandrinus

  91. Northern Lapwing  (Avefria)  (ph)  ______ ab
    Vanellus vanellus 

  92. Eurasian Stone-Curlew  (Alcaravan)  (Ev)  ______ abcd
    Burhinus o. oedicnemus 
    (subspecies in Spain)
    Burhinus oedicnemus distinctus
    (1 of 2 subspecies endemic to the Canary Is.; B. o. distinctus on the western Canaries; B. o. insularum on the eastern Canaries)

  93. Eurasian Oystercatcher  (Ostrero)  (ph)  ______ ac
    Haematopus o. ostralegus

  94. Pied Avocet  (Avoceta) ______ ac
    Recurvirostra avosetta

  95. Black-winged Stilt  (Ciguenuela)  (ph)  ______ abc
    Himantopus h. himantopus

  96. Cream-colored Courser  (Corredor)  (Ev)  ______ d
    Cursorius cursor bannermani 
    (this subspecies of the Canary Islands now said to be merged into the widespread Cursorius c. cursor)

  97. Collared Pratincole  (Canastera)  (Ee)  ______  abc
    Glareola p. pratincola

  98. Ruddy Turnstone  (Vuelvepiedras)  (ph)  ______ ac
    Arenaria i. interpres

  99. Dunlin  (Correlimos Comun)  (Ev) (ph)  ______ ac
    Calidris a. alpina 
    (two other subspecies, schinzii & arctica, may pass through Spain in migration)

  100. Curlew Sandpiper  (Correlimos Zarapitin(ph)  ______ ac
    Calidris ferruginea 

  101. Red Knot (El)  (Correlimos Gordo)  (El) (ph)  ______ a
    Calidris canutus islandica

  102. Sanderling  (Correlimos Tridactilo)  (ph)  ______  ac
    Calidris a. alba

  103. Little Stint  (Correlimos Menudo)  ______  ac
    Calidris minuta 

  104. Temminck's Stint  (Correlimos de Temminck)  ______ a
    Calidris temminckii 

  105. Wood Sandpiper  (Andarrios Bastardo)  (Ed) (ph)  ______ ac
    Tringa glareola 

  106. Common Greenshank  (Archibebe Claro)  ______ ac
    Tringa nebularia 

  107. Common Redshank  (Archibebe Comun(Ed) (ph)  ______  ac
    Tringa t. totanus

  108. Spotted Redshank  (Archibebe Oscuro)  ______ ac
    Tringa erythropus 

  109. Green Sandpiper  (Andarrios Grande)  ______ abc
    Tringa ochropus 

  110. Common Sandpiper  (Andarrios Chico)  ______ ac
    Actitis hypoleucos 

  111. Ruff / Reeve  (Combatiente) (ph)  ______ ac
    Philomachus pugnax 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  112. "Eurasian" Whimbrel  (Zarapito Trinador)  (ph)  ______ ac  (considered conspecific with the "American" Whimbrel, Numenius p. hudsonicus
    Numenius p. phaeopus

  113. Eurasian Curlew  (Zarapito Real)  (Ed)  ______ ac
    Numenius a. arquata

  114. Black-tailed Godwit  (Aguja Colinegra)  (Ev) (ph)  ______ ac
    Limosa l. limosa

  115. Bar-tailed Godwit  (Aguja Colipinta)  (El) (ph)  ______ ac
    Limosa l. lapponica

  116. Common Snipe  (Agachadiza Comun)  (ph)  ______ ab  (was considered conspecific with what's now the Wilson's Snipe of North America, Gallinago delicata)
    Gallinago g. gallinago

  117. Audouin's Gull  (Gaviota de Audouin)  (nt) (El)  ______ ac
    Larus audouinii 

  118. Slender-billed Gull  (Gaviota Picofina)  ______ ac
    (formerly Larus) genei  ) genei  (monotypic)

  119. Black-headed Gull  (Gaviota Reidora)  (ph)  ______ abcgp
    (formerly Larus) ridibundus  (monotypic)

  120. Mediterranean Gull  (Gaviota Cabecinegra)  ______ acg
    Larus melanocephalus 

  121. Little Gull  (Gaviota Enana)  (Ed) (ph)  ______  c
    (formerly Larus) minutus  (monotypic)

  122. "European" Herring Gull  (Gaviota Argentea)  ______ c  (by some considered distinct from the  "American" Herring Gull of North America, Larus argentatus smithsonianus, and the "Vega Gull" of Asia, Larus vegae
    Larus a. argentatus 
    (another subspecies L. a. argenteus winters south to Spain) 

  123. Yellow-legged Gull  (Gaviota Patiamarilla)  (ph)  ______ abcdg
    Larus cachinnans michahellis 
    (subspecies in Spain)
    Larus michahellis atlantis 
    (subspecies in the Canary Islands) 

  124. Lesser Black-backed Gull  (Gaviota Sombria(ph)  ______ acg  
    Larus fuscus graellsii  

  125. Great Black-backed Gull  (Gavion)  (ph)  ______ ac
    Larus marinus 

  126. Mew Gull  (Gaviota Cana)  (Ed)  ______ (has been called Common Gull in Europe)
    Larus c. canus

  127. Gull-billed Tern  (Pagaza Piconegra)  (Ee) (ph)  ______ ac
    (formerly Sterna) n. nilotica

  128. Caspian Tern  (Pagaza Piquirroja)  (Ee) (ph)  ______ ac
    (formerly Sterna) caspia  (monotypic)

  129. Lesser Crested Tern  (EUr) ______  c
    (formerly Sterna) bengalensis emigrata 

  130. Sandwich Tern  (Charran Patinegro)  (Ed) (ph)  ______ ac
    (formerly Sterna) s. sandvicensis

  131. Common Tern  (Charran Comun)  ______ abc
    Sterna h. hirundo

  132. Little Tern  (Charrancito) (Ed)  ______ abc
    (formerly Sterna) a. albifrons

  133. Black Tern  (Fumarel Comun (Ed) (ph)  ______ abc
    Chlidonias n. niger

  134. Whiskered Tern  (Fumarel Cariblanco)  (Ed)  ______ ac
    Chlidonias h. hybridus

  135. Great Skua  (Pagalo Grande(ph)  ______ ad
    (formerly Catharacta) skua  (monotypic)

  136. Razorbill  (Alca Comun)  (ph)  ______ a
    Alca torda islandica

  137. Pin-tailed Sandgrouse  (Ganga Comun)  (Ee)  ______ c
    Pterocles a. alchata

  138. Black-bellied Sandgrouse  (Ortega)  (Ev)  ______ abcd
    Pterocles orientalis aragonica

  139. Rock (& Feral) Pigeon  (Paloma Livia)  ______ abcdegp
    Columba livia 
    (mostly feral, but some wild)
    Columba l. canariensis  
    (in Canary Is., endemic)

  140. Stock Dove (or Stock Pigeon (Paloma Zurita) ______ bc
    Columba o. oenas

  141. Common Wood Pigeon  (Paloma Torcaz)  ______ abc
    Columba p. palumbus

  142. Eurasian Collared Dove  (Tortola Turca)  ______ abcdp
    Streptopelia d. decaocto

  143. African Collared Dove  (i)  (Tortola de Cabeza Rosa)  ______  d
    Streptopelia roseogrosea

  144. European Turtle Dove  (Tortola Comun)  (Ed)  ______ abcde
    Streptopelia t. turtur

  145. Bolle's Pigeon  (Paloma Turque)  (nt) (Ev)  ______ (has also been called Dark-tailed Laurel Pigeon) (endemic to the western Canary Islands: Tenerife, Gomera, & La Palma)
    Columba bolli 

  146. Laurel Pigeon  (Paloma Rabiche)  (t3) (Ev)  ______ d  (has been called White-tailed Laurel Pigeon) (endemic to the western Canary Islands: Tenerife, Gomera, & La Palma) 
    Columba junoniae 

  147. Monk Parakeet (i) ______  cd
    Myiopsitta monachus cotorra

  148. Great Spotted Cuckoo  (Crialo)  ______ ab
    Clamator glandarius 

  149. Common Cuckoo  (Cuco)  ______ abce
    Cuculus canorus bangsi

  150. Barn Owl  (Lechuza Comun)  (Ed) (ph)  ______ abcd
    Tyto a. alba 
    (subspecies in Spain & the western Canary Is.)
    Another subspecies, Tyto a. gracilirostris, occurs (and is endemic) in the eastern Canary Islands.  

  151. Eurasian Eagle-Owl  (Buho Real)  (Ev)  ______ bc
    Bubo b. bubo 
    (subspecies in the Pyrenees Mtns)
    Bubo bubo hispanus 
    (subspecies elsewhere in Spain)

  152. Eurasian Scops Owl  (Autillo)  (Ed)  ______ bcf
    Otus scops mallorcae

  153. Little Owl  (Mochuelo Comun)  (Ed)  ______  abc
    Athene noctua vidalii

  154. Tawny Owl  (Carabo Comun) ______ ab
    Strix aluco sylvtica

  155. European Nightjar  (Chotacabras Gris)  (Ed) ______  ac
    Caprimulgus europaeus meridionalis

  156. Red-necked Nightjar  (Chotacabras Pardo)  ______ ab
    Caprimulgus r. ruficollis

  157. Common Swift   (Vencejo Comun)  ______ abcefgm
    Apus a. apus

  158. Alpine Swift  (Vencejo Real)  ______ abc
    (formerly Apus) m. melba  

  159. Pallid Swift  (Vencejo Palido)  ______ acdm
    Apus pallidus brehmorum 
    (subspecies in Spain & the Canary Is.)

  160. White-rumped Swift  (Vencejo Cafre)  ______ ab
    Apus caffer 

  161. Little Swift ______  m
    Apus affinis galilejensis

  162. Plain Swift  (Vencejo Unicolor)  ______ d  (a Macaronesian endemic breeder)
    Apus unicolor 

  163. Common Kingfisher  (Martin Pescador)  (Ed) (ph)  ______  abc
    Alcedo a. atthis 
    (Another subspecies, A. a. ispida breeds north of Spain, and migrates south to it outside its breeding season)  

  164. European Bee-eater  (Abejaruco)  (Ed) (ph)  ______ abc
    Merops apiaster 

  165. European Roller  (Carraca)  (Ed)  ______ abc
    Coracias g. garrulus

  166. Eurasian Hoopoe  (Abubilla)  ______ abc
    Upupa e. epops

  167. Eurasian Wryneck  (Torcecuello)  (Ed)  ______ a
    Jynx t. torquilla

  168. Black Woodpecker  (Pito Negro)  (ph)  ______ c
    Dryocopus m. martius

  169. "Iberian" Green Woodpecker  (Pito Teal)  (Ed)  ______ abc (a race of the European Green Woodpecker)
    Picus viridis sharpei

  170. Great Spotted Woodpecker  (Pico Picapinos)  (ph)  ______ abce
    Dendrocopos major hispanus

  171. Dupont's Lark  (Alondra de Dupont)  (Ev)  ______ c
    Chersophilus d. duponti 
    (the single member of its genus)

  172. Greater Short-toed Lark  (Terrera Comun)  (Ev)  ______ abc
    Calandrella b. brachydactyla

  173. Lesser Short-toed Lark  (Terrera Marismena)  (Ev)  ______ acd
    Calandrella rufescens apetzii 
    (subspecies in Spain)
    Calandrella rufescens polatzeki 
    (subspecies in the Canary Is., endemic)

  174. Calandra Lark  (Calandria)  (Ed) (ph)  ______ abcp
    Melanocorypha c. calandra

  175. Woodlark  (Totovia)  (Ev)  ______ abf
    Lullula arborea pallida 
    (the single member of its genus)

  176. Eurasian Skylark  (Alondra Comun)  (Ev) ______ bcf
    Alauda arvensis cantarella 
    (subspecies in northeast Spain)
    Alauda arvensis sierrae 
    (subspecies in central & southern Spain)

  177. Crested Lark  (Cogujada Comun)  (Ed)  ______ abcfp
    Galerida cristata pallida

  178. Thekla Lark  (Cogujada Mantesina)  (Ev)  ______ abc
    Galerida t. theklae

  179. Barn Swallow  (Golondrina Comun)  (ph)  ______  abcdefm
    Hirundo r. rustica

  180. Red-rumped Swallow  (Golondrina Daurica)  ______ ab
    (formerly Hirundo) daurica rufula

  181. Eurasian Crag Martin  (Avion Roquero)  ______ abcefp
    Ptyonoprogne rupestris 

  182. Sand Martin  (Avion Zapador)  (Ed)  ______  abcm  (has been called Bank Swallow in North America)
    Riparia r. riparia

  183. Common House Martin  (Avion Comun ______ abcdef
    Delichon u. urbicum

  184. Eurasian Wren  (Chochin)  ______ abc  
    Troglodytes t. troglodytes 
    (subspecies south to central Spain) 
    Troglodytes troglodytes kabylorum 
    (subspecies in southern Spain)

  185. Dunnock  (Accentor Comun)  ______ bcf
    Prunella modularis mabbotti

  186. Alpine Accentor  (Accentor Alpino)  ______ abc
    Prunella c. collaris

  187. White-throated Dipper  (Mirlo Acuatico)  ______ bc
    Cinclus c. cinclus

  188. Tree Pipit  (Bisbita Arboreo)  ______ cf
    Anthus t. trivialis

  189. Meadow Pipit  (Bisbita Comun)  (ph)  ______ a
    Anthus p. pratensis

  190. Berthelot's Pipit  (Bisbita Caminero)  ______ d  (a Macaronesian endemic)
    Anthus b. berthelotii

  191. Water Pipit  (Bisbita Ribereno Alpino)  ______ abcef
    Anthus s. spinoletta

  192. Tawny Pipit  (Bisbita Campestre)  (Ev) ______ abcf
    Anthus c. campestris

  193. White Wagtail  (Lavandera Blanca)  (ph)  ______ abcef  
    Motacilla a. alba

  194. Grey Wagtail  (Lavandera Cascadena)  ______ abcdef
    Motacilla c. cinerea 
    (subspecies in Spain)
    Motacilla cinerea canariensis 
    (in Canary Is., an endemic subspecies)

  195. "Iberian" Western Yellow Wagtail  (Lavandera Boyera)  ______ abc
    Motacilla flava iberiae

  196. Western Yellow Wagtail ______  c
    Motacilla flava flavissima

  197. Spotted Flycatcher  (Papamoscas Gris)  (Ed)  ______ abc
    Muscicapa s. striata

  198. European Pied Flycatcher  (Papamoscas Cerrojillo)  (ph)  ______ abp
    Ficedula hypoleuca iberiae 
    (subspecies in Spain as a breeder)
    Ficedula h. hypoleuca 
    (subspecies in Spain as a migrant)

  199. Whinchat  (Tarabilla Nortena)  ______ abcefp
    Saxicola rubetra 

  200. Eurasian Stonechat  (Tarabilla Comun)  (Ed)  ______ abcp
    Saxicola torquatus rubicola

  201. Canary Islands Bushchat   (Tarabilla Canaria)  (nt) (Ev)  ______ d  (endemic to the Canary Is.) (has also been called Fuerteventura, or Canarian, Chat)  
    Saxicola d. dacotiae

    Another endemic subspecies of Canarian islets, A. d. murielae, is now extinct. 

  202. Northern Wheatear  (Collalba Gris)  (ph)  ______  abcef
    Oenanthe o. oenanthe

  203. "Western" Black-eared Wheatear  (Collalba Rubia)  (Ev)  ______  abcp  
    Oenanthe h. hispanica

  204. Black Wheatear  (Collalba Negra)  (Ee)  ______ ac
    Oenanthe l. leucura

  205. Black Redstart  (Colirrojo Tizon)  (ph)  ______ abcefg
    Phoenicurus ochruros gibraltariensis 
    Phoenicurus ochruros aterrimus 
    (subspecies in central & southern Spain)

  206. Common Redstart  (Colirrojo Real)  (Ev)  ______ bce
    Phoenicurus p. phoenicurus

  207. European Robin  (Petirrojo)  (ph)  ______ abcdef
    Erithacus r. rubecula 
    (subspecies in northern Spain)
    Erithacus rubecula sardus 
    (subspecies in southern Spain)
    Erithacus rubecula superbus 
    (in Canary Is., an endemic subspecies)

  208. Common Nightingale  (Ruisenor Comun)  ______  abcf
    Luscinia m. megarhynchos

  209. Bluethroat  (Pechiazul)  (ph)  ______ ab
    Luscinia svecica nametum

  210. Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin  (Alzacola)  ______  
    Cercotrichas g. galactotes

  211. Blue Rock Thrush  (Roquero Solitario)  (Ev)  ______ abcg
    Monticola s. solitarius

  212. Rufous-tailed Rock Thrush  (Roquero Rojo)  (Ed)  ______ ab
    Monticola saxatilis 

  213. Common Blackbird  (Mirlo Comun)  ______ abcdefg
    Turdus m. merula
    Turdus merula cabrerae
    (in Canary Is., an endemic subspecies)

  214. Redwing  (Zorzal Alirrojo)  (ph)  ______ a
    Turdus i. iliacus

  215. Song Thrush  (Zorzal Comun)  ______ acf
    Turdus philomelos clarkei

  216. Mistle Thrush  (Zorzal Charlo)  ______ abc
    Turdus v. viscivorus

  217. Zitting Cisticola  (Buitron)  ______ abc  (has also been called Fan-tailed Warbler, but a non-related species is so-named in Mexico; additionally the cisticolas are now in a family apart from the Old World Warblers) 
    Cisticola juncidis cisticola

  218. Cetti's Warbler  (Ruisenor Bastardo)  ______ ac
    Cettia c. cetti

  219. Savi's Warbler  (Buscarla Unicolor)  ______ ac
    Locustella luscinioides

  220. Eurasian Reed Warbler  (Carricero Comun)  ______ acp  (the former European Reed Warbler is now considered conspecific with the also former Caspian Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus fuscus  
    Acrocephalus s. scirpaceus

  221. Great Reed Warbler  (Carricero Tordal)  ______ abc
    Acrocephalus a. arundinaceus

  222. Moustached Warbler  (Carricerin Real)  ______ c
    Acrocephalus m. melanopogon

  223. Western Olivaceous Warbler  (Zarcero Palido)  (Ev)  ______ a
    (or Iduna) opaca  (monotypic)

  224. Melodious Warbler  (Zarcero Comun)  ______ abcp
    Hippolais polyglotta 

  225. Common Whitethroat  (Curruca Zarcera)  ______ abcfp
    Sylvia c. communis

  226. Garden Warbler  (Curruca Mosquitera)  ______ bc
    Sylvia b. borin

  227. Eurasian Blackcap  (Curruca Capirotada)  ______ abcdf
    Sylvia atricapilla pauluccii 
    (subspecies in Spain)
    Sylvia atricapilla obscura 
    (in the Canary Is., an endemic subspecies)

  228. Orphean Warbler  (Curruca Mirlona)  ______ ac  
    Sylvia h. hortensis 
    "Western Orphean Warbler"   

  229. Sardinian Warbler  (Curruca Cabecinegra)  ______ abcdg
    Sylvia m. melanocephala 
    Sylvia melanocephala leucogastra
    (in the Canary Is., an endemic subspecies; 1 of 2 subspecies there)

  230. Subalpine Warbler  (Curruca Carrasouena)  ______ abc
    Sylvia c. cantillans

  231. Spectacled Warbler  (Curruca Tomillera)  ______ acd
    Sylvia c. conspicillata
    Sylvia conspicillata orbitalis
    (in the Canary Is., a Macaronesian endemic subspecies)

  232. Dartford Warbler  (Curruca Rabilarga)  (Ev)  ______ abc
    Sylvia undata 
    (3 subspecies in Spain)
    Sylvia undata dartfordiensis 
    (subspecies in northwestern Spain)
    Sylvia u. undata 
    (subspecies in northeastern Spain)
    Sylvia undata toni 
    (subspecies in central & western Spain)

  233. Willow Warbler  (Mosquitero Musical)  ______ bc
    Phylloscopus t. trochilus

  234. Western Bonelli's Warbler  (Mosquitero Papialbo)  ______ ab  (was considered conspecific with what is now the Eastern Bonelli's Warbler, Phylloscopus orientalis)
    Phylloscopus bonelli 

  235. Common Chiffchaff  (Mosquitero Comun)  ______ abcp
    Phylloscopus collybita 
    (2 subspecies overlap in migration) 

  236. Iberian Chiffchaff ______  cef  (has been considered conspecific with Common Chiffchaff
    Phylloscopus brehmii 

  237. Canary Islands Chiffchaff  (Mosquitero Canaria)  ______  d  (was considered conspecific with the Common Chiffchaff; endemic to Canary Is.)
    Phylloscopus c. canariensis 
    (the other Canarian subspecies extinct since the beginning of the 20th Century)  

  238. Goldcrest  (Reyezuelo Sencillo)  (ph)  ______  bc
    Regulus r. regulus

  239. Firecrest  (Reyezuelo Listado)  ______  abc
    Regulus i. ignicpillus

  240. "Canary Islands Goldcrest"  (Reyezuelo Tenerife)  ______ d  (endemic to the western Canary Is.) (this subspecies of the Goldcrest has also been called the "Tenerife, or Canarian, Kinglet")  
    Regulus (regulus) teneriffae  

  241. Great Tit  (Carbonero Comun)  (ph)  ______  abc
    Parus m. major 
    (subspecies in north & central Spain)
    Parus major corsus 
    (subspecies in southern Spain)

  242. Blue Tit  (Herrerillo Comun)  (ph)  ______  abcp
    (formerly Parus) c. caeruleus  (subspecies in northern Spain)
    (formerly Parus) caeruleus ogliastrae 
    (subspecies in southern Spain)

  243. African Blue Tit  (Herrerillo Africano)  ______  d
    (formerly Parus) ultramarinus degener  (subspecies in the eastern Canary Is. inc. Fuerteventura, endemic)
    (formerly Parus) ultramarinus teneriffae  (subspecies in the central Canary Is. inc. Tenerife, endemic)
    Two other endemic subspecies occur in the Canary Islands, both on western islands, C. m. palmensis on La Palma and C.c. ombriosus on Hierro.   

  244. Coal Tit  (Carbonero Garrapinos)  ______  abcef
    (formerly Parus) ater vieirae

  245. Marsh Tit  (Carbonero Palustre)  ______ ef
    (formerly Parus) p. palustris

  246. European Crested Tit  (Herrerillo Capuchino)  ______ abcef
    (formerly Parus) cristatus weigoldi  (subspecies in central & southern Spain, inc. Gredos Mtns)
    (formerly Parus) cristatus mitratus 
    (subspecies in central & northern Spain, inc. Pyrenees Mtns)

  247. Long-tailed Bushtit  (Mito)  ______ abc  (has been called Long-tailed Tit
    Aegithalos caudatus taiti 
    (subspecies in the Pyrenees Mtns)
    Aegithalos caudatus irbii 
    (subspecies in central & southern Spain)

  248. Eurasian Penduline-Tit  (Pajaro Moscon)  ______ a  (was formerly considered conspecific with Black-headed, White-crowned, and Chinese Penduline-Tits)
    Remiz p. pendulinus

  249. Eurasian Nuthatch  (Trepador Azul)  (ph)  ______ bc
    Sitta europaea caesia 
    (subspecies in northern Spain, Pyrenees)
    Sitta europaea hispaniensis 
    (subspecies in central Spain) 

  250. Wallcreeper  (Treparriscos)  (ph)  ______ c
    Tichodroma m. muraria

  251. Eurasian Treecreeper  (Agateador Norteno)  ______ ce
    Certhia familiaris macrodactyla

  252. Short-toed Treecreeper  (Agateador Comun)  ______ abc
    Certhia brachydactyla megahyncha

  253. Southern Grey Shrike  (Alcaudon Real)  (Ed) (ph)  ______ abcdp  (was conspecific with the Northern, or Great, Grey Shrike, that's been called Northern Shrike in North America)
    Lanius m. meridionalis 
    (subspecies in Spain)
    Lanius meridionalis koenigi 
    (in Canary Is., an endemic subspecies)

  254. Woodchat Shrike  (Alcaudon Comun)  (Ev)  ______ abc
    Lanius senator rutilans

  255. Red-backed Shrike  (Alcaudon Dorsirrojo)  (Ed) (ph)   ______ acef
    Lanius c. collurio

  256. Eurasian Jay  (Arrendajo Comun)  ______ abcef
    Garrulus glandarius fasciatus 
    (subspecies in most of Spain)

  257. Iberian Magpie  (Rabilargo)  (i?)  ______ ab  (has been considered conspecific with the Azure-winged Magpie of eastern Asia, Cyanopica cyanus
    Cyanopica cooki

  258. Eurasian Magpie  (Urraca)  ______ abcefp  (was considered conspecific with the Black-billed Magpie of North America, Pica hudsonia)
    Pica pica melanotos 
    (subspecies in most of Spain)

  259. Red-billed Chough  (Chova Piquirroja)  (Ev)  ______ abcf
    Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax erythropthalmus

  260. Alpine Chough  (Chova Piquigualda)  ______ cef
    Pyrrhocorax g. graculus

  261. Northern Raven  (Cuervo)  (ph)  ______ abcdef
    Corvus c. hispanus 
    (subspecies in most of Spain) 
    Corvus corax tingitanus 
    (a rare subspecies in the Canary Is.)

  262. Carrion Crow  (Corneja Negra)  ______ abcef  (no longer considered conspecific with Hooded Crow, Corvus cornix)  
    Corvus c. corone

  263. Western Jackdaw  (Grajilla)  (ph)  ______  abc
    (formerly Corvus) monedula spermologus

  264. Common Starling  (Estornino Pinto)  (ph)  ______ acf
    Sturnus v. vulgaris

  265. Spotless Starling  (Estornino Negro)  ______ abcgp
    Sturnus unicolor 

  266. Common Myna (i) ______  cd
    Acridotheres tristis

  267. Eurasian Golden Oriole  (Oropendola)  ______ abc
    Oriolus o. oriolus

  268. House Sparrow  (Gorrion Comun)  ______ abcefgm
    Passer d. domesticus

  269. Spanish Sparrow  (Gorrion moruno)  ______ bd
    Passer h. hispaniolensis

  270. Eurasian Tree Sparrow  (Gorrion molinero)  (ph)  ______ abc
    Passer m. montanus

  271. Rock Sparrow  (Gorrion chillon)  ______ abcd  (has also been called Rock Petronia)
    Petronia petronia 
    (the single member of its genus)
    Petronia p. petronia 
    (subspecies in Spain)
    Petronia petronia madeirensis 
    (in the Canary Is., an endemic subspecies)

  272. Common Chaffinch  (Pinzon vulgar)  (ph)  ______  abcdef
    Fringilla coelebs balearica 
    (subspecies in Spain)
    Fringilla coelebs canariensis
    (formerly F. c. tintillon) 
    (in the Canary Is., an endemic subspecies)

  273. Blue Chaffinch  (Pinzon azul)  (cd) (Ev)  ______ d  (endemic to Canary Is.)  (has also been called Teydefinch)
    Fringilla t. teydea 
    (1 of 2 subspecies in the Canary Islands)

  274. European Goldfinch  (Jilguero)  ______ abcdf
    Carduelis c. carduelis 
    (subspecies in Spain) (another subspecies, C. c. britannica, also winters in Spain)  
    Carduelis carduelis parva 
    (subspecies in the Canary Islands)

  275. Eurasian Siskin  (Lugano)  (ph)  ______  a
    Carduelis spinus 

  276. European Greenfinch  (Verderon comun)  ______ abcde
    Carduelis chloris auratilyuentris

  277. Common Linnet  (Pardillo comun)  ______ abcdf
    Carduelis c. mediterranea 
    (subspecies in Spain)
    Carduelis cannabina meadewaldoi 
    (in the Canary Is., an endemic subspecies)

  278. Eurasian Bullfinch  (Camachuelo comun)  ______ c
    Pyrrhula pyrrhula iberiae

  279. Hawfinch  (Picogordo)  ______ ab
    Coccothraustes c. coccothraustes

  280. Citril Finch  (Verderon serrano)  ______ bcef  (split from the more-easterly population now called the Corsican Finch, Carduelis  corsicana
    Carduelis (was Serinus) citrinella

  281. European Serin  (Verdecillo)  ______ abc
    Serinus serinus 

  282. Atlantic Canary  (Canario)  ______ (species endemic to Canary Is.)  (has been called Island Canary
    Serinus canaria 

  283. Trumpeter Finch  (Camachuelo trompetero)  (Er)  ______ d
    Bucanetes githagineus amantum 
    (subspecies endemic to Canary Is.)

  284. Red Crossbill  (Piquituerto comun)  (ph)  ______ abcef  
    Loxia c. curvirostra

  285. Corn Bunting  (Triguero)  ______ abcd
    (was monotypic genus Miliaria) calandria
    Emberiza c. calandria 
    (subspecies in Spain)  
    calandria thanneri  (subspecies in the  Canary Is.)

  286. "Western" Rock Bunting  (Escribano montesino)  (Ev)  ______ abcf   
    Emberiza c. cia

  287. Cirl Bunting  (Escribano soteno)  ______ abc
    Emberiza cirlus
    (now monotypic)

  288. Yellowhammer  (Escribano cerillo)  (ph)  ______ ce
    Emberiza c. citrinella

  289. Ortolan Bunting  (Escribano hortelano)  (Ev)  ______ b
    Emberiza hortulana

  290. Common Reed Bunting  (Escribano palustre)  ______ ac
    Emberiza s. schoeniclus