PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876


Birds of EUROPE

from Grouse to Puffin

Noting those found during
Focus On Nature Tours
with an (*)

1992 thru 2015

the Canary Islands off Africa, 
and Turkey, in Asia Minor   

Part 1 of a Europe Bird List compiled by Armas Hill, 
with some photos

Photo at upper right: ATLANTIC PUFFINS, as during FONT tours in the late spring in Iceland 

451 birds have cumulatively been seen during FONT European tours. A few of the birds in the following list are distinctive subspecies.

There have been 58 FONT birding and nature tours in Europe, with 25 in Spain, and 20 in Iceland.  

Part #2 of this list of Birds in Europe:  Sandgrouse to Buntings

Codes (in this list):

In the list that follows, relating to sightings during FONT tours, the country & the months are noted.
BU:  Bulgaria
CI:   Canary Islands (Spain)
HU:  Hungary
IC:   Iceland
PO:  Poland
RM:  Romania (inc. "Transylvania")
SL:  Slovakia
SP:  Spain, 
including nearby Andorra:
AN, France: FR, Gibraltar: GR, Morocco: MR, & Portugal: PG 
SW: Sweden
TU:  Turkey

The following 2 sets of designations by Birdlife International:

(t): a globally threatened or rare species
 (t1): critical 
 (t2): endangered
 (t3): vulnerable
(nt): a near-threatened species globally

(Ee): endangered in Europe
(Ev): vulnerable in Europe

(Er): rare in Europe
(Ed): has recently declined in Europe
(El): localized in Europe

(i): an introduced species

(Vme): vagrant from the Middle East
(Vna): vagrant from North America
(Vsib): vagrant from Siberia

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website 

Other Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in Europe     FONT Past Tour Highlights

A List of European Mammals  (with some photos)

Directory of Photos in this Website

Links to Bird-Lists for particular European countries:

Bulgaria     the Canary Islands     Iceland:  a complete bird-list with some interesting text 

Spain     Sweden



  1. Rock Ptarmigan  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,oct
    Lagopus muta islandorum 
    (one of 24 subspecies worldwide)

    Above & Below: Rock Ptarmigans photographed during FONT tours in Iceland
    Upper & middle photos of males; lower photo a female
    (upper photo by Alan Brady; middle & lower photos by Gabi Hauser)

  2. Hazel Grouse  (*)  ______  PO:apr  SL:may
    Bonasa bonasia styriacus

  3. "Northern" Black Grouse (Ev) (*)  ______  PO:apr,may
    Tetrao t. tetrix

    Black Grouse

  4. Western Capercaille  (*)  ______  RM:may  SW
    Tetrao u. urogallus  (SW)
    Tetrao urogallus rudolfi  (RM) 

  5. Chukar Partridge (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  TU:aug
    Alectoris chukar kleini

  6. Red-legged Partridge (Ev) (*)  ______  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep
    Alectorus rufa
    Alectorus rufa hispanica  ______ 
    subspecies in the northern & western Iberian Peninsula  
    Alectorus rufa intercedens  ______ 
    subspecies in the eastern & southern Iberian Peninsula & the Balearic Islands
    Alectorus rufa rufa  ______ 
    subspecies in France, northwest Italy, Corsica 

  7. Rock Partridge  (nt)  ______
    Alectorus graeca
    Alectorus gracea gracea   ______  Eastern Rock Partridge 
    subspecies in eastern Bosnia, Greece, Bulgaria
    Alectorus gracea saxatilis  ______  Central Rock Partridge 
    subspecies from the southern Alps to western Bosnia
    Alectorus gracea whitakeri  ______  Sicilian Rock Partridge 
    subspecies endemic to Sicily 

  8. Barbary Partridge (Ee) (*)  ______  CI:jun  GR
    Alectoris barbara koenigi

  9. Grey Partridge (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  PO:apr,may  SP  SW:sep 
    Perdix p. perdix 
    (except SP) 
    Perdix p. hispaniensis 

    Perdix perdix
    has also been called Hungarian Partridge.

  10. Common Quail (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:may  SP TU:aug
    Coturnix c. coturnix

  11. Common Pheasant (i) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan  SW:sep
    Phasinus colchicus

    Included here in Phasinus colchicus is the "Ring-necked Pheasant", Phasinus c. torquatus, from China, with a white neck-ring, and Phasinus c. colchicus from Russia, lacking the neck-ring.  

  12. Mute Swan  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:jun  SW:sep
    Cygnus olor 

    Mute Swans are common during FONT tours in Sweden, 
    where they are native residents.

  13. Whooper Swan  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  SW
    Cygnus cygnus 
    (now monotypic, with islandicus merged)


    Above & below: Whooper Swans photographed 
    during the FONT Tour in Iceland in June 2012
    (photos by Gabi Hauser)

  14. "Bewick's" Tundra Swan  (*) ______  SW 
    Cygnus columbianus bewickii

    The "Bewick's" Tundra Swan of Eurasia is conspecific with the "Whistling" Tundra Swan of North America, Cygnus c. columbianus.  

  15. Greylag Goose  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  SP:apr,jun,dec  SW:sep
    Anser a. anser

    Greylag Geese photographed during a FONT tour in Iceland
    (photo by Cheryl Pearce)

  16. Pink-footed Goose  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:jun,sep,oct
    Anser brachyhynchus 

    Above & below: Pink-footed Geese photographed during the June 2012
    FONT tour in Iceland. Above: an adult; below: a gosling.
    (photos by Gabi Hauser)

  17. Bean Goose  (*)  ______  PO:apr  SW
    (includes "Taiga" Bean Goose, Anser f. fabalis, and "Tundra" Bean Goose, Anser fabalis rossicus)

  18. Greater White-fronted Goose  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU  IC:oct  PO:apr  SW:sep
    Anser a. albifrons

  19. Lesser White-fronted Goose (t3) (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU
    Anser erythropus 

  20. Brent Goose  (Ev) (*) (ph)  ______  IC:sep,oct  SW:sep 
    Branta bernicla
    Branta b. bernicla:
    Dark-bellied Brent Goose (in Sweden) 
    Branta benicla hrota:
    Pale-bellied Brent Goose (in Iceland)

    In North America, Branta bernicla is called Brant.

    Brant Geese on Oland Island during the FONT tour on Oland Island
    in September 2007
    (photo by James Scheib)

  21. Barnacle Goose (El) (*) (ph)  ______  IC:jun,sep,oct (rare in IC in jun)  SW:sep
    Branta leucopsis 

    Just one of the many Barnacle Geese seen 
    during the FONT Sweden Tour in September 2007 
    (photo by James Scheib)

  22. Red-breasted Goose (t3) (El) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  SW
    Branta ruficollis 

    Red-breasted Geese

  23. Canada Goose (i) (*)  ______ SW:sep
    Branta canadensis 

  24. Snow Goose  (Vna) (*) (ph)  ______   IC:sep(rare)
    Anser caerulescens atlanticus

  25. Egyptian Goose (i) (*)   ______  SW:sep
    Alopochen aegyptiaca 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) 

  26. Common Shelduck  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:jun  PO:may  SP:jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Tadorna tadorna 

    A Common Shelduck during the 20th FONT Iceland Tour in June 2015.
    This was the first Common Shelduck ever seen during a FONT tour in Iceland.
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  27. Ruddy Shelduck  (Ev) (*)  ______ BU:may  CI:jun  TU:aug
    Tadorna ferruginea 

  28. Mallard  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Anas p. platyrhynchos

  29. American Black Duck  (Vna) (*) (ph)   ______  IC;sep,oct(rare)
    Anas rubripes

    The American Black Duck is one of the vagrants 
    that has been seen in Iceland during a FONT tour.

  30. Gadwall  (Ev) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:jun,oct  PO:apr,may  SP:apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep
    Anas strepera 
    (now monotypic)

  31. Eurasian Teal  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU  IC:may,jun,oct  PO:apr,may  SP:jun,sep,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Anas c. crecca

    The Eurasian Teal has been considered conspecific with the Green-winged Teal of North America, Anas carolinensis.

    Eurasian Teal
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  32. Green-winged Teal  (Vna) (*) (ph)  ______  IC:jun(rare)
    Anas carolinensis 

    A male Green-winged Teal was a vagrant from North America
    that we saw during our Iceland tour in June 2006
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  33. Garganey  (Ev) (*)   ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:jun(rare)  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP  TU:aug
    Anas querquedula 

  34. Northern Pintail  (Ev) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:jun  PO:apr,may  SP:dec  SW:sep
    Anas acuta 

  35. Eurasian Wigeon  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  SP:dec  SW:sep
    Anas penelope 

  36. American Wigeon  (Vna) (*) (ph)  ______  IC:oct(rare) 
    Anas americana

  37. Northern Shoveler  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP;sep,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Anas clypeata 

  38. Marbled Duck  (t3) (Ee) (*)  ______ SP
    Marmaronetta angustirostris 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  39. Red-crested Pochard (Ed) (*)  ______  BU:may  SP:apr,jun,oct
    Netta rufina 

  40. Common Pochard  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:apr,jun,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Aythya ferina 

    A Common Pochard photographed during a FONT tour in Sweden
    (photo by James Scheib)

  41. Tufted Duck  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  SP:dec  SW:sep
    Aythya fuligula 

    Above & below: Tufted Ducks
    Above a male, below a female
    (upper photo by Gabi Hauser during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2012.
     lower photo by Alan Mitchnick during the FONT Iceland Tour in Sep/Oct 2013)

  42. Greater Scaup (El) (*) (ph)   ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:jun,oct  RM:may  SW:sep   
    Aythya m. marila

    In Europe, Aythya marila is simply called Scaup, as the Lesser Scaup is only in North America. 

  43. Ferruginous Duck  (t3) (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  SP:jun,dec  TU:aug 
    Aythya nyroca 

    Another name for Aythya nyroca has been White-eyed Pochard.

  44. Common Goldeneye  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:jun(rare)  PO:apr,may  SW:sep
    Bucephala c. clangula

  45. Barrow's Goldeneye  (Ee) (*) (ph)  ______  IC:jun,sep,oct
    Bucephala islandica 

    Barrow's Goldeneyes during the FONT tour in Iceland in Sep/Oct 2013.
    Iceland is the only place where the Barrow's Goldeneye occurs in Europe.
    (photo by Alan Mitchnick)

  46. Common Eider  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  SW:sep
    Somateria m. mollissima

    Above & below: Common Eiders
    Above a male; below a female.
    (upper photo by Gabi Hauser during the FONT Iceland tour in June 2012) 

    Below: an adult male Common Eider showing 
    the pinkish coloration it has in breeding plumage
    (photo by Alan Mitchnick)

  47. King Eider  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:jun(rare) 
    Somateria spectabilis 

    King Eiders, above: a female; below: an adult male in breeding plumage,
    as seen during FONT tours in Iceland
    (upper photo by Alan Brady; lower photo by Howard Eskin)

  48. Steller's Eider  (*) (ph)  ______ SW:sep
    Polysticta stelleri  
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) 

    Above: an immature male Steller's Eider, photographed on Oland Island
    during the FONT Sweden Tour in September 2006 
    (photo by Claude Bloch)
    Below: a group of adult Steller's Eiders, both males and females, in Estonia. 

  49. Long-tailed Duck  (t3) (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  
    Clangula hyemalis 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    Clangula hyemalis was called Oldsquaw in North America.

    Above & below: Long-tailed Ducks in summer and winter plumages
    Above, in breeding plumage, photographed during the FONT tour
    in Iceland in June 2015  
    (upper photo by Marie Gardner; lower photo by Kim Steininger)

  50. Harlequin Duck (Ev) (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,oct
    Histrionicus histrionicus 
    (now monotypic, with pacificus merged)  (the single member of its genus) 

    Above: a pair of Harlequin Ducks in the rushing water of a river in Iceland 
    Below: a female Harlequin Duck with young
    The only place where this species normally occurs in Europe is Iceland.
    (upper photo by Gabi Hauser; lower photo by Howard Eskin)

  51. Common Scoter  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  SP
    Melanitta nigra 

    The Common Scoter was conspecific with what is now the Black Scoter in North America, Melanitta americana.  

    An adult male Common Scoter during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2015.
    Where this photograph was taken, the species breeds.
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  52. Velvet Scoter  (t2) (El) (*)  ______ SW 
    Melanitta fusca

    The Velvet Scoter was conspecific with the White-winged Scoter of North America, Melanitta deglandi.  

  53. White-winged Scoter  (Vna) (*)  ______  IC:jun(rare)
    Melanitta deglandi

  54. Surf Scoter  (Vna) (*)  ______  IC:jun(rare)
    Melanitta perspicillata

  55. Goosander  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  SW  
    Mergus m. merganser 

    Mergus merganser
    is called Common Merganser in North America.

  56. Red-breasted Merganser  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  SP:dec  SW:sep
    Mergus serrator 

    A pair of Red-breasted Mergansers
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  57. White-headed Duck (t3) (Ee) (*)  ______  SP:apr,jun,dec  TU:aug
    Oxyura leucocophala 

  58. Great Northern Diver  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct 
    Gavia immer 
    (now monotypic) 

    Gavia immer is called Common Loon in North America.

  59. White-billed Diver  (*)  ______  IC:jun(rare) 
    Gavia adamsii 

    Gavia adamsii is called Yellow-billed Loon in North America

  60. Red-throated Diver  (Ev) (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  SW:sep 
    Gavia stellata 

    Gavia stellata is called Red-throated Loon in North America.

    A Red-throated Loon photographed during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2012 
    (photo by Gabi Hauser)

  61. Black-throated Diver  (Ev) (*)  ______  PO:apr,may  SP  SW:sep 
    Gavia a. arctica

    Gavia arctica
    is called Arctic Loon in North America.

  62. Northern Fulmar  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  SW
    Fulmarus glacialis auduboni

    Northern Fulmar

  63. Manx Shearwater  (El) (*)  ______  IC:jun
    Puffinus puffinus 
    (now monotypic)

  64. Balearic Shearwater  (*)  ______  SP:jan 
    Puffinus mauretanicus 

    The Balearic Shearwater was part of the Manx Shearwater (above).

  65. Yelkouan Shearwater  (t3) (*)  ______ TU:aug 
    Puffinus yelkouan  

    Another name for Puffinus yelkouan is Levantine Shearwater. It was part of the Manx Shearwater.  

  66. Cory's Shearwater  (*) (ph)  ______  CI:jun,jul  SP:jan
    Calonectris d. diomedea  (SP)   (
    "Scoploi's Shearwater") (Ev)
    Calonectris diomedea borealis  (CI) 

    Cory's Shearwater
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  67. Barolo Shearwater  (Ev) (*)  ______  CI:jul
    Puffinus baroli 

    Another name for Puffinus baroli is Macaronesian Shearwwater. It was included in what was a more wide-ranging Little Shearwater.
    Now, the Barolo Shearwater, of the Azores and Canary Islands, is said to be more closely related to the Audubon's Shearwater.
    There was a race of the Audubon's Shearwater in the eastern Atlantic, breeding on Cape Verde Island, that is now called the Boyd's Shearwater, Puffinus boydi.
    With new taxonomy, the Little Shearwater now has a range restricted to the Indian and southwestern Pacific Oceans, near Australia and New Zealand.    

  68. Bulwer's Petrel  (Ev) (*) (ph)  ______  CI:jun,jul
    Bulweria b. bulwerii

    The Bulwer's Petrel has been seen from ferries during all FONT tours in the Canary Islands

  69. Great Crested Grebe  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:may(rare)  PO:apr,may  SL:may  SP:apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Podiceps c. cristatus

  70. Red-necked Grebe  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SW
    Podiceps g. grisegena

  71. Black-necked Grebe  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:apr,jun,dec  TU:aug 
    Podiceps n. nigricollis

    Podiceps nigricollis
    is called Eared Grebe in North America.

  72. Slavonian Grebe  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:jun,oct  SW:sep 
    Podiceps a. auritus

    Podiceps auritus
    is called Horned Grebe in North America.

    Above: A Slavonian, or Horned Grebe, in its breeding attire, photographed during a FONT tour in Iceland
    (photo by Cheryl Pearce)
    Below: A Slavonian, or Horned Grebe, in non-breeding plumage, as seen during our tours in September/October.
    (photo by Kim Steininger)

  73. Little Grebe  (*) (ph) ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Tachybaptus r. ruficollis

    Another name for Tachybaptus ruficollis is "Dabchick".

    Little Grebe

  74. Greater Flamingo  (El) (*) (ph)  ______  SP:apr,jun,jul,oct,dec  TU:aug 
    Phoenicopterus roseus 

    The American Flamingo, now Phoenicopterus ruber, was conspecific with the Greater Flamingo, now only in the Old World. 

    Greater Flamingos
    (photo by Jens Bruun)

  75. White Stork  (Ev) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  TU:aug
    Ciconia c. ciconia

    White Storks in Spain photographed during a FONT tour

  76. Black Stork  (Er) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may   SP:apr,jun,sep  TU:aug
    Ciconia nigra 

    Black Storks in Bulgaria

  77. Glossy Ibis  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  SP:jun,dec  TU:aug
    Plegadis falcinellus 
    (now monotypic)

  78. Eurasian Spoonbill  (Ee) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  CI:jul  HU:may  SP:apr,jun,dec  TU:aug
    Platalea l. leucorodia 

    Eurasian Spoonbill

  79. Grey Heron  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  CI:jul  HU:may  IC:jun,sep,oct(rare)  PG:sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Ardea c. cinerea


    Grey Heron
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  80. Purple Heron  (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  SP:jun,jul,oct  TU:aug
    Ardea p. purpurea

  81. Great Egret  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:may  SP:jun,oct  SW  TU:aug
    Ardea alba  (was Casmerodius alba)

  82. Little Egret  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PG:sep  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec  TU:aug
    Egretta g. garzetta

    Little Egret
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  83. Western Cattle Egret  (*) (ph)  ______  CI:jun  PG:sep  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec  TU:aug
    Bubulcus ibis

    The Western Cattle Egret is in parts of Europe, Africa, and the Americas. 
    The Eastern Cattle Egret, Bubulcus coromandus, is in eastern Asia.

    Western Cattle Egret
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  84. Squacco Heron  (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  SP:apr,jun,jul  TU:aug
    Ardeola ralloides 

  85. Black-crowned Night-Heron  (Ed) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  SP:jun,jul,sep,oct  TU:aug
    Nycticorax n. nycticorax

  86. Little Bittern  (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  SP:apr,jun,jul  TU:aug
    Ixobrychus m. minutus

  87. Eurasian Bittern  (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  TU:aug
    Botaurus s. stellaris

  88. Great White Pelican  (Er) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  TU:aug
    Pelecanus onocrotalus 

    Great White Pelicans in eastern Europe
  89. Dalmatian Pelican  (nt) (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  TU:aug
    Pelecanus crispus 

  90. Northern Gannet  (El) (*) (ph)  ______  CI:jun  IC:jun,sep,oct  GR:jun  SP:jan,jun,dec
    Morus bassena 
    (formerly Sula bassena (monotypic)

    A Northern Gannet photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Andy Smith)

  91. European Shag  (*) (ph) ______  BU:may  IC:may,jun,sep  GR  SP
    Phalacrocorax a. aristotelis

    Above & below: European Shags photographed during FONT tours in Iceland.
    In the upper photo, note the green eye.
    (lower photo by Gabi Hauser during our tour in June 2012)   

  92. Great Cormorant  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  SP:jul,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Phalacrocorax c. carbo

  93. Pygmy Cormorant  (nt) (Ev) (*) (ph)   ______  BU:may  HU:may  TU:aug
    Phalacrocorax pygmeus 

    Pygmy Cormorant

  94. Gyrfalcon  (Ev) (*) (ph) ______  IC:may,jun(seen at nest site), oct(as many as 3 during 1 tour) 
    Falco rusticolus  (monotypic, but with a variation in color)

    The "Iceland Falcon" is a pale grey morph of the Gyrfalcon.

    A light-morph Gyrfalcon in Iceland

  95. Saker Falcon  (t2) (Ee) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  TU:aug
    Falco cherrug

  96. Lanner Falcon  (Ee) (*)  ______  TU:aug
    Falco biarmicus 

  97. Peregrine Falcon  (Er) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Falco p. peregrinus

  98. Barbary Falcon  (Er) (*)  ______  CI:jun,jul
    Falco p. pelegrinoides

  99. Northern Hobby  (*)  ______  BU:may  FR  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SL:may  SP:sep  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Falco s. subbuteo

  100. Red-footed Falcon  (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:may  RM:may  TU:aug 
    Falco vespertinus

    The Red-footed Falcon is closely related to, and was considered conspecific with the Amur Falcon of Asia, Falcon amurensis. 

  101. Eleonora's Falcon  (Er) (*) (ph)  ______  CI:jun  TU:aug
    Falco eleonorae

    A close-up of a young Eleonora's Falcon

  102. Lesser Kestrel  (t3) (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  SP:apr,jun,sep  TU:aug
    Falco naumanni

  103. Merlin  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:jun,sep,oct  SP:sep  SW:sep
    Falco columbarius subaesalon 
    (subspecies in Iceland) 
    Falco columbarius aesalon 
    (subspecies in Sweden)

    A Merlin
    photographed during the FONT tour in Iceland
    in September/October 2013
    (photo by Alan Mitchnick)

  104. Eurasian Kestrel  (Ed) (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  CI:jun,jul(both endemic subspecies)  FR:jun  HU:may  IC:sep,oct(rare)  PG:sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Falco t. tinnunculus  (
    except CI)
    Falco tinnunculus canariensis 
    (subspecies endemic in the western Canary Islands)
    Falco tinnunculus dacotiae 
    (subspecies endemic in the eastern Canary Islands) 

  105. Osprey  (Er) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:apr,jun,dec  SW  TU:aug
    Pandion h. haliaetus 
    (the single member of its genus)

  106. Red Kite  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  SP:apr,jun,sep,dec  SW:sep
    Milvus m. milvus 
    (the other subspecies is in the Cape Verde islands)

    Red Kite
    (photo by Jens Bruun)

  107. Black Kite  (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  PO:apr,may  SL:may  SP:apr,jun,dec  SW  TU:aug
    Milvus m. migrans

  108. Black-winged Kite  (Ev) (*)  ______  SP:apr,jun 
    Elanus c. caeruleus 

  109. Egyptian Vulture  (Ee) (*)  ______  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  FR  SP:apr,jun,dec  TU:aug
    Neophron p. percnopterus 
    (the single member of its genus)

  110. Bearded Vulture  (nt) (Ee) (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  SP  TU:aug 
    Gypaetus b. barbatus  (the single member of its genus)

    Another name for Gypaetus barbatus is Lammergeier.

  111. Cinereous Vulture  (nt) (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  SP:apr,jun.sep  TU:aug
    Aegypius monachus 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    Other names for Aegypius monachus have been Eurasian Black Vulture and Monk Vulture.

  112. Griffon Vulture  (Er) (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct   
    Gyps f. fulvus

  113. Levant Sparrowhawk  (Er) (*)  ______  BU:may  TU:aug 
    Accipiter brevipes 

  114. Eurasian Sparrowhawk  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jul,sep,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Accipiter n. nisus
    (except CI)
    Accipiter n. granti (CI)

    Eurasian Sparrowhawk
    (photo by Jens Bruun)

  115. Northern Goshawk  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:may  SL:may  SP  SW:sep
    Accipiter g. gentilis

  116. Rough-legged Buzzard  (*) (ph)  ______ SW 
    Buteo l. lagopus

    Buteo lagopus
    is called Rough-legged Hawk in North America. 
    In Europe, it has no dark morph. 

    A light-morph Rough-legged Buzzard 
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  117. Common Buzzard  (*) (ph)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  FR  HU:may  PG:sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Buteo b. buteo
    (except CI)
    Buteo b. insularum  (CI)

    A dark-morph Common Buzzard photographed in flight over Falsterbo
    during the FONT Sweden Tour in September 2007
    (photo by James Scheib)

  118. Long-legged Buzzard  (Ee) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  TU:aug
    Buteo r. rufinus

  119. European Honey Buzzard  (*)  ______  BU:may  FR  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Pernis apivorus 

  120. White-tailed Eagle  (nt) (Er) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  SW:sep 
    Haliaeetus a. albicilla 
    (the other subspecies is in Greenland)

    Haliaeetus albicilla
    has been called the White-tailed Fish-eagle.  

    Above & below: adult White-tailed Eagles

  121. Short-toed Snake Eagle (Er) (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  HU:may  SP:apr,jun  TU:aug
    Circaetus gallicus 

  122. Bonelli's Eagle (Ee) (*)  ______  BU:may  FR:jun  SP
    Hieraaetus f. fasciatus 

  123. Booted Eagle (Er) (*)  ______  BU:may  PG:sep  SP:jan,apr,jun,dec  (dimorphic, pale & dark)
    Hieraaetus pennatus

  124. Golden Eagle (Er) (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  HU  PO:apr,may  RM  SP:apr,jun,sep  SW  TU:aug
    Aquila c. chrysaetos 
    (except SP)
    Aquila chrysaetos homeyeri

  125. Asian Imperial Eagle (t3) (Ee) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  SL:may  TU:aug  
    Aquila heliaca 

    The Asian Imperial Eagle in eastern Europe

  126. Spanish Imperial Eagle  (t3) (Ee) (*)  ______ SP:jan,jun,sep   
    Aquila adalberti 

    Another name for Aquila adalberti has been Adalbert's Eagle.

  127. Greater Spotted Eagle  (t3) (Ee) (*)  ______  PO:apr,may  SW
    Aquila clanga 

  128. Lesser Spotted Eagle  (Er) (*)  ______  BU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SW:sep
    Aquila p. pomarina 
    (the other subspecies is in India and Burma)

  129. Steppe Eagle  (Ev) (*)  ______  HU:may  TU:aug
    Aquila nipalensis orientalis

    The Steppe Eagle has been said to conspecific with the Tawny Eagle, Aquila rapax.

  130. Western Marsh Harrier  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug  
    Circus aeruginosus

    The Western Marsh Harrier was conspecific with the Eastern Marsh Harrier of Asia, Circus spilonotus. When so, it was called the Northern Marsh Harrier. 

  131. Hen Harrier  (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:jan,apr  SW:sep  TU:aug 
    Circus cyaneus 

    The Hen Harrier has been considered conspecific with the Northern Harrier of North America. 

  132. Pallid Harrier  (Ee) (*)  ______  BU:may  PO:apr  TU:aug
    Circus macrourus 

  133. Montagu's Harrier  (*)  ______  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:apr,jun  TU:aug
    Circus pygargus 

  134. Water Rail  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU  PO:apr  SP:apr,jun  TU:aug
    Rallus aquaticus

    Rallus aquaticus
    was conspecific with what is now the Eastern Water Rail of eastern Asia, Rallus indicus.

  135. Baillon's Crake  (Er) (*)  ______ BU:may  SP:apr,jun
    Porzana pusilla intermedia

  136. Spotted Crake  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr  SW:oct
    Porzana porzana 

    A Spotted Crake, seen during FONT's Sweden tour in October 2000
    (photo by Tommy Holmgren on a video through a telescope.)
    At the time, this was the first Spotted Crake in that part of Sweden since 1985! 

  137. Little Crake  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  TU:aug
    Porzana parva 

  138. Corncrake  (t3) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may
    Crex crex 

    (photo by Przemyslaw Kunysz)

  139. Common Moorhen  (*)   ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec  SW  TU:aug
    Gallinula c. chloropus

  140. Purple Swamphen  (Er) (*)  ______ SP:apr,jun,oct,dec 
    Porphyrio p. porphyrio

  141. Eurasian Coot  (*)  ______  BU:may  CI:jul  HU:may  IC:jun(rare)  PO:apr,may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Fulica a. atra

  142. Red-knobbed Coot  (*)  ______  SP:apr
    Fulica cristata 

    Another name for Fulica cristata is Crested Coot.

  143. Common Crane  (Ev) (*) (ph)  ______  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:jan  SW:sep
    Grus g. grus

    A family of Common Cranes in flight at Oland Island, 
    with a single young bird following the adults
    (photo by James Scheib during the Sept 2007 FONT Sweden tour)

  144. Great Bustard  (t3) (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______  HU:may  SP:apr,jun,sep
    Otis t. tarda

    Great Bustard

  145. Little Bustard  (nt) (Ev) (*)  ______  SP:apr,jun,sep
    Tetrax tetrax 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  146. Houbara Bustard  (Ee) (*)  ______  CI:jun,jul
    Chlamydotis undulata fuerteventurae

  147. Eurasian Stone Curlew  (Ev) (*) ______  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  HU  SP:apr,jun
    Burhinus o. oedicnemus

  148. Eurasian Oystercatcher  (*)  (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  RM:may  SP:jun,jul,dec  SW
    Haematopus o. ostralegus 
    (in western Europe)
    Haematopus ostralegus longipes 
    (in eastern Europe)

    Above & below: Eurasian Oystercatchers
    during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2012
    (photos by Gabi Hauser)  

  149. Pied Avocet  (El) (*) (ph) ______  BU:may  HU:may  SP:jun,jul,oct  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Recurvirostra avosetta 

    Pied Avocet

  150. Black-winged Stilt  (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,oct,dec  TU:aug
    Himantopus h. himantopus

  151. Eurasian Dotterel  (*) (ph)  ______  SP:oct  SW
    Charadrius morinellus 
    (formerly Eudromias morinellus)  (monotypic)

    Eurasian Dotterel
    (photo by Janos Olah, Jr.)

  152. Grey Plover  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:jun,sep(rare)  PO:may  SP:jun,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug 
    Pluvialis s. squatarola

    The Grey Plover is called Black-bellied Plover in the Americas.

  153. European Golden Plover  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  SP:jan  SW:sep
    Pluvialis a. apricaria  (
    except IC)
    Pluvialis apricaria altifrons  (IC) 

    A European Golden Plover photographed during the FONT tour in Iceland in June 2009 
    (photo by Gerin Hood)

  154. Little Ringed Plover  (*)  ______  BU:may  CI:jul  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:apr,jun,sep,oct  TU:aug
    Charadrius dubius curonicus

  155. Common Ringed Plover  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:may,jun,oct(rare in oct)  PO:apr,may  SP:apr,jun(rare),dec  SW  TU:aug
    Charadrius h. hiaticula
    Charadrius hiaticula tundrae
    (these 2 subspecies overlap. with C.h.tundrae most easterly) 

    A Common Ringed Plover photographed during 
    the FONT tour in Iceland in June 2012
    (photo by Gabi Hauser) 

  156. Kentish Plover  (Ed) (*)  ______  BU:may  CI:jun  SP:apr,jun,jul,oct,dec  TU:aug 
    Charadrius a. alexandrinus

    The Kentish Plover was conspecific with the Snowy Plover of the Americas, Charadrius nivosus. 

  157. Northern Lapwing  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Vanellus vanellus 

    Northern Lapwing
    (photo by Matt Orsie)

  158. White-tailed Lapwing  (Vme) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  (was called White-tailed Plover
    Vanellus leucura 
    (formerly Chettusia leucura)  (monotypic)

    A White-tailed Lapwing photographed during a FONT tour in Hungary in 2001
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  159. Spur-winged Lapwing  (Ee) (*)  ______  TU
    Vanellus spinosus 
    (formerly Hoplopterus spinosus)  (monotypic)

    Vanellus spinosus
    has been called Spur-winged Plover. 

  160. Ruddy Turnstone  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:may  SP:jan,oct,dec 
    Arenaria i. interpres

  161. Purple Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct
    Calidris maritima littoralis 
    (endemic subspecies in IC)


    Purple Sandpiper
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  162. Dunlin  (Ev) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:may  SP:apr,oct,dec  SW:sep
    Calidris a. alpina
    Calidris alpina schrinzii 
    (the 2 subspecies overlap in migration)

  163. Curlew Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr  SP:apr,oct  SW  TU:aug
    Calidris ferruginea 

    2 photos of Curlew Sandpipers.
    The upper photo of a male in breeding plumage.
    (photos by Howard Eskin)
  164. Red Knot  (El) (*) (ph)  ______  IC:jun  SP:jun  SW:sep
    Calidris c. canutus

  165. Sanderling  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:may,jun,sep  SP:jan,dec  TU:aug
    Calidris a. alba

  166. White-rumped Sandpiper  (Vna) (*) (ph)  ______  IC:oct(rare)
    Calidris fuscicollis 

  167. Semipalmated Sandpiper  (Vna) (*) (ph)  ______  HU:may
    Calidris pusilla 

  168. Little Stint  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:sep  PO:may  SP:oct  SW  TU:aug
    Calidris minuta 

  169. Temminck's Stint  (*)   ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:jun
    Calidris temminckii 

  170. Pectoral Sandpiper  (Vna) (*) (ph)  ______  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Calidris melanotos 

  171. Wood Sandpiper  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:jun,sep,oct,dec  TU:aug
    Tringa glareola 

    Wood Sandpiper
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  172. Common Greenshank  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr  SP:apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Tringa nebularia 

  173. Common Redshank  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  SP:apr,jun,jul,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Tringa t. totanus  (
    except IC)
    Tringa totanus robusta  (IC) 

    Above: a Common Redshank photographed during 
    the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2012
    Below: a baby Redshank during that same tour 
    (photos by Gabi Huser)

  174. Spotted Redshank  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr  SP:oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Tringa erythropus 

  175. Marsh Sandpiper  (*) ______  BU:may  HU:may  TU:aug
    Tringa stagnatilis 

  176. Green Sandpiper  (*)  ______  BU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  TU:aug
    Tringa ochropus 

  177. Common Sandpiper  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Actitis hypoleucos 

  178. Ruff / Reeve  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:oct  SW:sep
    Philomachus pugnax 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    Above: Two photos of a Reeve, from the back & front
    (both photos above by Howard Eskin)
    Below:  Ruffs displaying in breeding plumage. 
    During FONT tours in Poland in the spring, hundreds have been seen at leks. 

  179. "Eurasian" Whimbrel  (*)  ______  HU:may  IC:may,jun  PO:apr(rare)  SP:jul,oct  SW:sep
    Numenius p. phaeopus

  180. Eurasian Curlew  (Ed) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:sep,oct  PO:apr,may  SP:jan,jul,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Numenius a. arquata

  181. Black-tailed Godwit  (Ev) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  SP:jun,jul,oct,dec  TU:aug
    Limosa l. limosa  (
    except IC) 
    Limosa limosa islandica  (
    endemic breeder in IC

    Limosa limosa
    was conspecific with what is now the Eastern Black-tailed Godwit of eastern Asia, Limosa melanuroides.

    A Black-tailed Godwit photographed during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2012
    (photo by Gabi Hauser)

  182. Bar-tailed Godwit  (El) (*) (ph)  ______  IC:sep,oct  SP:oct,dec  SW
    Limosa l. lapponica

  183. Buff-breasted Sandpiper  (Vna) (*) (ph)  ______  IC:sep(rare)
    Tryngites subruficollis 

  184. Long-billed Dowitcher  (Vna) (*)  ______  IC:sep(rare)
    Limnodromus scolopaceus 

  185. Eurasian Woodcock  (Ev)  (*)  ______  BU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may
    Scolopax rusticola 

  186. Great Snipe  (nt) (Ev) (*)  ______  PO:apr,may
    Gallinago media 

  187. Common Snipe  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  SP:jun,sep,oct,dec  SW  TU:aug  Gallinago g. gallinago  (except IC)
    Gallinago gallinago faeroeensis  (IC)

    The Common Snipe was conspecific with the Wilson's Snipe of North America, Gallinago delicata.


    A Common Snipe photographed during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2012
    (photo by Gabi Hauser) 

  188. Jack Snipe  (Ev) (*)  ______ SW
    Lymnocryptes minimus 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  189. Red-necked Phalarope  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  IC:may,jun  TU:aug
    Phalaropus lobatus 

    A Red-necked Phalarope photographed during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2012
    (photo by Gabi Hauser)

  190. Grey Phalarope  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:jun(at breeding site; uncommon breeder in IC) 
    Phalaropus fulicarius 

    Phalaropus fulicarius is called Red Phalarope in North America. Likewise, in Iceland, the local name translates to "Red Phalarope" as a small number nest there in their red breeding plumage.    

  191. Cream-colored Courser  (Ev) (*) ______  CI:jun,jul
    Cursorius cursor bannermani

  192. Collared Pratincole  (Ee) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  SP:apr,jun,jul
    Glareola p. pratincola

  193. Audouin's Gull  (nt) (El) (*)  ______  SP:jan,jun,jul,oct,dec
    Larus audouinii 

  194. Slender-billed Gull  (*)  ______  BU:may  SP:jun,jul,oct,dec  TU:aug
    Chroicocephalus genei 
    (formerly Larus) genei (monotypic)

  195. Black-headed Gull  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  GR:jun  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PG:sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Chroicocephalus ridibundus 
    (formerly Larus ridibundus (monotypic)

    A Black-headed Gull in non-breeding plumage
    (photo by Armas Hill)

  196. Mediterranean Gull  (*)  ______  BU:may  GR:jun  IC:sep(rare)  SP:jun,oct  TU:aug
    Chroicocephalus melanocephalus 
    (formerly Larus melanocephalus (monotypic)

  197. Little Gull  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:oct  TU:aug
    Hydrocoloeus minutus 
    (formerly Larus minutus (monotypic)

    Little Gull
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  198. "European" Herring Gull  (*)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  SP:jun,oct  SW:sep 
    Larus argentatus 

    By some, the "European" Herring Gull is said to be distinct from the "American" Herring Gull of North America, Larus argentatus smithsonianus, and it is also said to be distinct from the Vega Gull of eastern Asia, Larus vegae.  

  199. Yellow-legged Gull  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  GR:jun  HU:may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Larus cachinnans michahellis  (CI, SP)
    Larus c. cachinnans  (BU, HU, RM, SW, TU)  (
    "Caspian, or Pontic Gull"

    Yellow-legged Gull
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  200. Lesser Black-backed Gull  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU  IC:may,jun,sep  PO:apr  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug  
    Larus f. fuscus  (
    "Baltic Gull"
    Larus fuscus graellsii

    An adult Lesser Black-backed Gull
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  201. Great Black-backed Gull  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:may  SP:oct,dec  SW:sep
    Larus marinus 

  202. Glaucous Gull  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct
    Larus h. hyperboreus

    Glaucous Gull

  203. Iceland Gull  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may(rare),jun,sep,oct  
    Larus g. glaucoides

    By some, Larus glaucoides glaucoides is considered distinct from the subspecies of the Iceland Gull that breeds in northern North America, the "Kumlien's Gull", Larus glaucoides kumlini.  

    Iceland Gull

  204. Common Gull  (Ed) (*)  ______  HU  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  RM  SP  SW;sep 
    Larus c. canus

    Larus canus
    is called Mew Gull in North America. 

  205. Ring-billed Gull  (*)  ______  IC:sep(rare)
    Larus delawarensis

  206. Sabine's Gull  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:sep(rare)  SW
    Xema sabini 
    (formerly Larus sabini (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    A juvenile Sabine's Gull
    (photo by Jens Bruun)

  207. Black-legged Kittiwake  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  SW
    Rissa tridactyla 
    (now said to be monotypic)

    Above: a juvenile Black-legged Kittiwake, with its striking wing pattern
    Below: an adult Black-legged Kittiwake cliffside during 
    the FONT tour in Iceland in June 2012 
    (upper photo by Alan Brady; lower photo by Gabi Hauser) 

  208. Gull-billed Tern  (Ee) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  SP:apr,jun,jul  TU:aug
    Gelochelidon n. nilotica 
    (formerly Sterna n. nilotica)

  209. Caspian Tern  (Ee) (*) (ph) ______  BU:may  SP:jun,oct,dec  TU:aug
    Hydroprogne caspia 
    (formerly Sterna caspia)

    The Caspian Tern, the largest of the terns,
    occurs, in separate populations, in both the Old & New Worlds.  
    (photo by Abram Fleishman)

  210. Lesser Crested Tern  (Er) (*)  ______  SP
    Thalasseus bengalensis 
    (formerly Sterna bengalensis)

  211. Sandwich Tern  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  SP:jan,jun,jul,oct,dec  SW;sep  TU:aug
    Thalasseus s. sandvicensis 
    (formerly Sterna s. sandvicensis)

  212. Common Tern  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:jun,jul,oct  SW  TU:aug
    Sterna h. hirundo

  213. Arctic Tern  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep(rare in sep)  SW
    Sterna paradisaea 

  214. Little Tern (Ed) (*)  ______  BU:may  PO:may  SP:jun,jul
    Sternula a. albifron
      (formerly Sterna a. albifrons)

  215. Black Tern  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:apr,jun,jul,oct
    Childonias n. niger

  216. White-winged Tern  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:jun(rare)  PO:apr,may  TU:aug
    Childonias leucopterus 

    Childonias leucopteus
    was at one time called White-winged Black Tern.

    Two photos of the White-winged Tern
    (both photos by Alan Brady)

  217. Whiskered Tern  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:apr,jun,jul  TU:aug
    Childonias h. hybrida

    Whiskered Tern  
    (photo by Leroy Tabb)

  218. Pomarine Skua  (*) (ph)   ______  IC:jun(rare)  SW   
    Stercorarius pomarinus  (monotypic)

    Stercorarius pomarinus is called Pomarine Jaeger in North America.

  219. Arctic Skua  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  IC:may,jun 
    Stercorarius parasiticus 

    Stercorarius parasiticus is called Parasitic Jaeger in North America.

    Above & below: the Arctic Skua, or Parasitic Jaeger
    Above: a dark morph during the FONT tour in Iceland in June 2012
    Below: an immature bird in Sweden in September 
    (upper photo by Gabi Hauser; lower photo by Jens Bruun)

  220. Great Skua  (*) (ph)  ______   IC:may,jun(many),sep(rare)  SP:jan,dec
    Stercorarius skua 
    (formerly Catharacta skua (monotypic)

    Above & below: Great Skuas where they breed Iceland
    Both photographs during FONT tours 
    (upper photo by Gabi Hauser in June 21012; lower photo during an earlier tour by Cheryl Pearce)

  221. South Polar Skua  (*) (ph)  ______  CI:jul
    Stercorarius maccormicki 
    (formerly Catharacta maccormicki (monotypic)

  222. Black Guillemot  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  SW:sep
    Cepphus g. grylle

    Above & below: Black Guillemots in breeding plumage photographed 
    during FONT tours in Iceland in May & June. 
    In the lower photo, the bird's eggs were among the rocks.
    (upper photo by Gabi Hauser; lower photo by Cheryl Pearce)  

    Below: a Black Guillemot in non-breeding plumage
    photographed during the FONT Iceland Tour in September/October 2013
    (photo by Alan Mitchnick)

  223. Guillemot  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  SW  
    Uria a. aalge 

    Uria aalge
    is called Common Murre in North America.

    Above: Two Guillemots, or Common Murres
    (right) and a Razorbill (left)
    Below: The bridled form of the Guillemot  (or Common Murre)
    These birds in Iceland.

  224. Brunnich's Guillemot  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:jun 
    Uria l. lomvia

    Uria lomvia
    is called Thick-billed Murre in North America.

    A Brunnich's Guillemot, or Thick-billed Murre
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  225. Razorbill  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:jun,oct  SP:jan
    Uria torda islandica 

    Above & below: Razorbill
    This species has been seen during FONT tours in Iceland, as in the lower photo during
    our tour in June 2012.  
    Also it has been seen close to shore during a FONT Dec/Jan tour in southern Spain.
    (upper photo by Kim Steininger; lower photo by Gabi Hauser)


  226. Little Auk  ______  IC:oct
    Alle alle

    Alle alle
    is called Dovekie in North America.

  227. Atlantic Puffin  (Ev) (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep
    Fratercula a. arctica

    Above: an Atlantic Puffin in flight.
    Below: Atlantic Puffins by their burrows, 
    photographed during the FONT tour in Iceland in June 2009
    (lower photo by Gerin Hood)

Excellent reference and guide books for the birds of Europe include:
"Complete Guide to the Birds of Europe", with text by Lars Svensson and Peter Grant, illustrated by Killian Mullarney and Dan Zetterstrom, 1999. Harper Collins & Princeton Univ Press

"Birds of Europe with North Africa & the Middle East", by Lars Jonsson, 1993, Princeton Univ Press

Other related books:

"Raptors of the World", by James Ferguson-Lee & David Christie, 2001, Houghton Mifflin

"Icelandic Bird Guide", by Oli Johann, 2000, Prentsmidjan Oddi hf.

"Owls - A Guide to the Owls of the World", by C. Konig, Friedhelm Weick, & Jan-Hendrik Becking, 1999, Yale University Press

"Owls of Europe", by Heimo Mikkola, 1983, T & A D Poyser

"Guia de las Aves de las Islas Canarias", by Jose Manuel Moreno, 1988, Editorial Interinsular Canaria, S.A.

"La Guia de Incafo de las Aves de la Peninsula Iberica", by Ramon Saez-Royuela, 1980, Incafo.

"Woodpeckers - An Identification Guide to the Woodpeckers of the World", by Hans Winkler, David Christie, & David Nurney, 1995, Houghton Mifflin

To top of page