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Birds of EUROPE

Sandgrouse to Buntings

Noting those found during
Focus On Nature Tours
with an (*)

1992 thru 2015

the Canary Islands off Africa, 
and Turkey, in Asia Minor  

Part 2 of a Europe Bird List compiled by Armas Hill,
with some photos

Upper right photo: EUROPEAN ROBIN

451 birds have cumulatively been seen during FONT European tours. A few of the birds in the following list are distinctive subspecies.

There have been 58 FONT birding tours in Europe, with 25 in Spain, and 20 in Iceland.  

Part #1 of this list of Birds in Europe: Grouse to Puffin

Codes (in following list):

In the list that follows, relating to sightings during FONT tours, the country and the months are noted.
CI:    Canary Islands (Spain)
HU:   Hungary
IC:    Iceland
PO:   Poland
RM:   Romania (inc. "Transylvania")
SL:   Slovakia
SP:   Spain, 
including nearby Andorra:
AN, France: FR, Gibraltar: GR, Morocco: MR, & Portugal: PG 
SW:  Sweden
TU:   Turkey

The following 2 sets of designations by Birdlife International:

(t): a globally threatened or rare species
 (t1): critical 
 (t2): endangered
 (t3): vulnerable
(nt): a near-threatened species globally

(Ee): endangered in Europe
(Ev): vulnerable in Europe
(Er): rare in Europe
(Ed): has recently declined in Europe
(El): localized in Europe

(i): an introduced species

(Vme): vagrant from the Middle East
(Vna): vagrant from North America
(Vsib): vagrant from Siberia

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website


Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in Europe     FONT Past Tour Highlights

A List of European Mammals (with some photos)

Directory of Photos in this Website

Links to Bird-Lists for particular European countries:

Bulgaria     Iceland     the Canary Islands     Spain     Sweden



  1. Pin-tailed Sandgrouse (Ee) (*) ______  SP:jun
    Pterocles a. alchata

  2. Black-bellied Sandgrouse (Ev) (*) ______  CI:jul  SP:jan,jun
    Pterocles o. orientalis  (
    except CI)
    Pterocles orientalis aragonica  (CI) 

  3. Rock Pigeon / Feral Pigeon (i) (*)(*) ______  AN:jun  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  FR:jun  GR:jun  HU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PG:sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Columba livia  (
    except CI)
    Columba l. canariensis  (CI) 

  4. Stock Dove (or Stock Pigeon) (*) ______  BU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jun  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Columba o. oenas

  5. Common Wood Pigeon  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may   RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Columba p. palumbus

  6. Bolle's Pigeon  (t3) (Ev) (*) ______ CI:jun,jul 
    Columba bolli 

    Another name for Columba bolli has been Dark-tailed Laurel Pigeon. 

  7. Laurel Pigeon  (t3) (Ev) (*) ______ CI:jun,jul   
    Columba junoniae 

    Another name for Columba junoniae has been White-tailed Laurel Pigeon.

  8. Eurasian Collared Dove  (*) ______  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  HU:may  PG:sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Streptopelia d. decaocto

  9. African Collared Dove  (i) (*) ______  CI:jun
    Streptopelia roseeogrosea

  10. European Turtle Dove  (Ed) (*) ______  AN:jun  BU  CI:jun,jul  HU:may  PO:may  SP:jun,jul  TU:aug
    Streptopelia t. turtur

  11. Laughing Dove  (*) ______  TU:aug
    Streptopelia senegalensis ermanni 

    Another name for Streptopelia senegalensis is Palm Dove.

  12. Monk Parakeet (i) (*) ______  CI:jul  SP:jun
    Myiopsitta monachus cotorra

  13. Rose-ringed Parakeet (i) (*) ______  TU:aug
    Psittacula krameri

  14. Great Spotted Cuckoo  (*)  ______ BU:may  SP:jun,sep
    Clamator glandarius 

  15. Common Cuckoo  (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:apr,jun,jul
    Cuculus c. canorus 
    (except most of SP) 
    Cuculus canorus bangsi  (
    most of SP) 

  16. Barn Owl  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______   CI:jun,jul  HU:may  PO:apr  SP:jan
    Tyto a. alba 
    (1 of 2 subspecies in CI)

    The Barn Owl of the Old World has been said to be distinct from the American Barn Owl, Tyto furcata, which is a heavier bird, with a larger and stouter head and body, and with much more powerful talons.

  17. Eurasian Eagle-Owl  (Ev) (*) ______  BU:may  HU:may  SP:apr,jun,sep
    Bubo b. bubo
    (except SP) 
    Bubo bubo hispanus  (SP)

  18. Northern Long-eared Owl  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:may
    Asio o. otus

  19. Short-eared Owl  (Ev) (*) (ph)  ______  HU:may  IC:jun  SW
    Asio f. flammeus

    Above & below: Short-eared Owls
    (upper photo by Howard Eskin; lower photo by Kim Steininger) 

  20. Eurasian Scops Owl  (Ed) (*)  ______  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  RM:may  SP:apr,jun
    Otus s. scops

  21. Little Owl  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep  TU:aug
    Athene noctua indigena 
    Athene n. noctua  (HU,PO) 
    Athene noctua vidalii  (SP)

    A painting of a Little Owl & a Dupont's Lark on a wall in Spain
  22. Tawny Owl  (*)  ______  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:jan
    Strix a. aluco 
    (except SP) 
    Strix aluco sylvatica  (SP) 

  23. Ural Owl  (*) (ph)  ______  HU:may  PO:apr,may
    Strix uralensis liturata

    It's there, in the crevice - a roosting Ural Owl
  24. Tengmalm's Owl  (*) (ph)  ______  PO:apr  SL:may 
    Aegolius f. funereus 

    Aegolius funereus
    is called Boreal Owl in North America.

  25. Eurasian Pygmy Owl  (*)  ______  PO:may
    Glaucidium p. passerinum

  26. European Nightjar  (Ed) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:may  SP:oct
    Caprimulgus europaeus

    European Nightjar

  27. Red-necked Nightjar  (*)  ______  SP:jun
    Caprimulgus ruficollis

  28. Common Swift  (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  CI:jun  FR:jun  HU:may  PO:may  SL:may  SP:apr,jun,jul  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Apus a. apus

  29. Alpine Swift  (*)  ______  BU:may  RM:may  SP:apr,jun,sep  TU:aug
    Tachymarptis m. melba 
    (formerly Apus m. melba)

  30. Pallid Swift  (*)  ______  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  SP:jun  TU:aug
    Apus pallidus illyricus 
    Apus pallidus brehmorum  (CI,SP) 

  31. White-rumped Swift  (*)  ______  SP:jun
    Apus caffer 

  32. Little Swift  (*)  ______  MR
    Apus affinis galilejensis

  33. Plain Swift  (*)  ______  CI:jun,jul
    Apus unicolor 

  34. Common Kingfisher  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______  HU:may  SP:jun,oct,dec  SW  TU:aug
    Alcedo atthis ispida 
    (except TU) 
    Alcedo a. atthis  (TU) 

    Common Kingfisher

  35. European Bee-eater  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:may  SP:apr,jun  TU:aug
    Merops apiaster 

    European Bee-eater
    (photo by Przemyslaw Kunysz)

  36. European Roller  (Ed) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:may  SP:jun  TU:aug
    Coracias g. garrulus

  37. Eurasian Hoopoe  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:apr,jun,jul,sep,dec  TU:aug
    Upupa e. epops

  38. Eurasian Wryneck  (Ed) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM  SL:may  SP
    Jynx t. torquilla

  39. Black Woodpecker  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP  SW:sep
    Dryocopus martius

    This Black Woodpecker, oddly in flight over the golf course 
    at Falsterbo, the southernmost point in Sweden, where 
    other species fly south during the fall in migration. 
    This bird did not continue across the Baltic, but turned back.
    (photo during the Sept 2007 FONT Sweden tour by James Scheib)      

  40. Grey-headed Woodpecker  (Ed) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may
    Picus c. canus 

  41. European Green Woodpecker  (Ed) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,jun  SW:sep
    Picus viridis 

  42. Iberian Green Woodpecker  ______  SP:janapr,jun
    Picus sharpei

    The Iberian Green Woodpecker has been split from the European Green Woodpecker.

  43. Syrian Woodpecker  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  TU:aug
    Dendrocopos s. syriacus

  44. Great Spotted Woodpecker  (*) (ph)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  CI:jun  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:apr,jun,sep  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Dendrocopos m. major 
    Dendrocopos major pinetorum  (BU,HU,RM,SK,TU)
    Dendrocopos major hispanus
    Dendrocopos major canariensis 
    subspecies endemic to Tenerife Island in the Canaries

  45. Middle Spotted Woodpecker  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  TU:aug
    Dendrocopos m. medius

  46. Lesser Spotted Woodpecker  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Dryobates m. minor 
    (formerly Dendrocopos m. minor (SW) 
    Dryobates minor hortorum 
    (formerly Dendrocopos minor hortorum (BU,HU,PO) 
    Dryobates minor danfordi 
    (formerly Dendrocopos minor danfordi)  (TU)

  47. White-backed Woodpecker  (*)  ______  HU:may  PO:apr,may
    Dendrocopos l. leucotos

  48. Eurasian Three-toed Woodpecker  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may 
    Picoides tridactylus  

    The Eurasian Three-toed Woodpecker was conspecific with the American Three-toed Woodpecker, Picoides dorsalis. 

    Eurasian Three-toed Woodpecker

  49. Northern Grey Shrike  (*) (ph)  ______  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SW:sep 
    Lanius e. excubitor
    Lanius excubitor homeyeri  (PO, RM) 

    Another name for Lanius excubitor has been Great Grey Shrike. In North America, it is called Northern Shrike.  

  50. Southern Grey Shrike  (Ed) (*)  ______  CI:jun,jul  PG:sep  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec 
    Lanius m. meridionalis 
    (except CI)
    Lanius meridionalis koenigi 
    subspecies endemic in the Canary Islands 

    The Southern Grey Shrike was conspecific with the Northern Grey Shrike (above). In the Asian part of its range. Lanius meridionalis is called the "Steppe Shrike".

  51. Lesser Grey Shrike  (Ed) (*) ______  BU:may  HU:may  RM:may  TU:aug
    Lanius minor

  52. Masked Shrike  (Ev) (*) ______  BU:may
    Lanius nubicus

  53. Woodchat Shrike  (Ev) (*) ______  BU:may  SP:apr,jun  TU:aug
    Lanius s. senator  (except SP)
    Lanius senator rutilans  (SP)

  54. Red-backed Shrike  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP  TU:aug
    Lanius c. collurio

    Two photographs of Red-backed Shrikes
    (photo below by Przemyslaw Kunysz)

  55. Eurasian Golden Oriole (*) ______  BU  HU:may  PO:may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jun  TU:aug
    Oriolus o. oriolus

  56. Eurasian Jay  (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Garrulus g. glandarius 
    (except TU and most of SP)
    Garrulus glandarius fasciatus  (
    most of SP)
    Garrulus glandarius ferdinandi  (
    European TU)
    Garrulus glandarius anatoliae  (
    Asian TU)

  57. Spotted Nutcracker  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SW:sep
    Nucifraga c. caryocatactes

  58. Iberian Magpie  (i?) (*)  ______  SP:apr,jun,sep,dec 
    Cyanopica cooki  

    The Iberian Magpie has been considered conspecific with the Azure-winged Magpie of eastern Asia. 

  59. Eurasian Magpie  (*) (ph)  ______   AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  PG:sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU 
    Pica p. pica 
    (except most of SP)
    Pica pica melanotos  (
    most of SP)

    The Eurasian Magpie was conspecific with the Black-billed Magpie of North America, Pica hudsonia. 
    Also split from Pica pica have been the Oriental Magpie, Pica sericea and the Kamchatka Magpie, Pica camtschatica, both in far-eastern Asia. 

  60. Red-billed Chough  (Ev) (*)  ______  FR  SP:jan,apr,oct
    Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax erythrorhamphus

  61. Alpine Chough  (*)  ______  AN:jun  SP  TU:aug
    Pyrrhocorax g. graculus

  62. Northern Raven  (*) (ph)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  FR:jun  HU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Corvus c. corax 
    (except CI, IC, TU, and most of SP)
    Corvus corax canariensis 
    a rare subspecies endemic in the Canary Islands
    Corvus corax varius 
    Corvus corax laurenci  (TU)
    Corvus corax hispanus 
    (most of SP)

  63. Rook  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Corvus f. frugilegus

    A Rook photographed during the September 2007 FONT Sweden tour
    (photo by James Scheib)

  64. Hooded Crow  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Corvus cornix

    2 Corvids at once during the September 2007 FONT Sweden tour:
    the Eurasian Magpie (left); the Hooded Crow (right)
    (photo by James Scheib)

  65. Carrion Crow  (*)  ______  AN:jun  FR:jun  SP:apr,jun,sep,oct,dec
    Corvus corone

  66. Western Jackdaw  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Coloeus m. monedula 
    (formerly Corvus) m. monedula)  (except SP and TU)
    Coloeus monedula spermologus
      (formerly Corvus monedula spermologus)  (SP)
    Coloeus monedula soemmerringii
      (formerly Corvus monedula soemmerringii (TU)

    Western Jackdaw
    (photograph by Andy Ednie)

  67. Bohemian Waxwing  (*)  ______ PO:apr
    Bombycilla g. garrulus 

  68. Northern Great Tit  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Parus m. major 
    (except south SP)
    Parus major corsus  (
    south SP)

    Northern Great Tit
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  69. Blue Tit  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PG:sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Cyanistes c. caeruleus  (formerly Parus c. caeruleus(except central and south SP)
    Cyanistes caeruleus ogliastrae 
    (formerly Parus caeruleus ogliastrae)  (central and south SP) 

    A Blue Tit photographed during a FONT tour in Sweden  
    (photo by James Scheib)

  70. African Blue Tit  (*)  _____  CI:jun,jul
    Cyanistes untramarinus teneriffae 
    (formerly Parus ultramarinus teneriffae)  (endemic subspecies in CI, one of 4 endemic subspecies there)  

  71. Coal Tit  (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:apr,jun,sep,oct  SW  TU:aug
    Periparus a. ater 
    (formerly Parus a. ater(except SP)
    Periparus ater vieirae
      (formerly Parus ater vieirae (SP)  

  72. Marsh Tit  (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Poecile p. palustris 
    (formerly Parus p. palustris)  (except TU)
    Poecile palustris stagnatilis 
    (formerly Parus palustris stagnatilis (TU)

  73. Willow Tit  (*)  ______  BU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may
    Poecile m. montanus 
    (formerly Parus m. montanus)

  74. Sombre Tit  (*)  ______ BU:may  TU:aug
    Poecile lugubris anatoliae 
    (formerly Parus lugubris anatoliae)

  75. European Crested Tit  (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  PO:apr  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep  SW  TU:aug
    Lophophanes c. cristatus 
    (formerly Parus c. cristatus (except SP)
    Lophophanes cristatus mitratus 
    (formerly Parus cristatus mitratus)  (north SP)
    Lophophanes cristatus weigoldi 
    (formerly Parus cristatus weigoldi (central and south SP) 

  76. Eurasian Penduline-Tit  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:jan
    Remiz p. pendulinus

  77. Barn Swallow  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  FR:jun  HU:may  IC:jun(rare)  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Hirundo r. rustica 

    Generally, in Europe, Hirundo rustica is referred to as simply the Swallow.

  78. Red-rumped Swallow  (*)  ______  BU:may  SP:apr,jun,sep  TU:aug
    Cecropis daurica rufula 
    (formerly Hirundo daurica rufula)

  79. Eurasian Crag Martin  (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  PG:sep  RM  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct  TU:aug
    Ptyonoprogne rupestris

  80. Sand Martin (Ed)  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:apr,jun,jul,oct  TU:aug   
    Riparia r. riparia

    Riparia riparia
    is called Bank Swallow in North America.

  81. Northern House Martin  (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  CI:jul  FR:jun  HU:may  IC:jun(rare)  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:apr,jun,jul,sep,oct  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Delichon u. urbicum 

  82. Long-tailed Bushtit  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SL:may  SP:apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug  Aegithalos c. caudatus  (except BU,HU,SK,SP,TU)
    Aegithalos caudatus europaeus  (BU,HU,SK)
    Aegithalos caudatus tephronotus  (TU) 
    Aegithalos caudatus taiti  (
    north SP)
    Aegithalos caudatus irbii  (
    central and south SP) 

    Aegithalos caudatus has been called Long-tailed Tit.

  83. Dupont's Lark  (Ev) (*)  ______ SP
    Chersophilus d. duponti

  84. Greater Short-toed Lark  (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,oct  TU:aug
    Calandrella b. brachydactyla 
    (except HU) 
    Calandrella brachydactyla hungarica  (HU) 

  85. Lesser Short-toed Lark  (Ev) (*)  ______  CI:jun,jul  SP:jun
    Calandrella rufescens apetzii 
    Calandrella rufescens polatzeki  (
    1 of 2 subspecies in CI)  

  86. Calandra Lark  (Ed) (*) (ph)  ______ BU:may  PG:sep  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct  TU:aug
    Melanocorypha c. calandra

    Calandra Lark

  87. Woodlark  (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  FR:jun  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:apr,jun  SW;sep  TU:aug
    Lullula a. arborea 
    (except SP and TU) 
    Lullula arborea pallida 

  88. Eurasian Skylark  (Ev) (*)  ______ BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:apr,jun,sep  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Alauda a. arvensis 
    (except TU and central SP)
    Alauda arvensis cantarella  (TU) 
    Alauda arvensis sierrae 
    (central SP) 

  89. Crested Lark  (Ed) (*)  ______  BU:may  FR  HU:may  PG:sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec  TU:aug
    Galerida c. cristata 
    (except SP and TU) 
    Galerida cristata pallida  (SP)
    Galerida cristata caucasica

  90. Thekla Lark  (Ev) (*)  ______  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep
    Galerida t. theklae

  91. Shore Lark  (*) (ph)  ______  PO:may  TU:aug   
    Eremophila alpestris flava 
    Eremophila alpestris penicillata 

    Eremophila alpestris is called Horned Lark in North America. 

  92. Zitting Cisticola  (*)  ______  BU:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,oct,dec  TU:aug   
    Cisticola j. juncidis 
    (except SP)
    Cisticola juncidis cisticola  (SP) 

    Cisticola juncidis
    has also been called Fan-tailed Warbler, but a non-related species is so-named in Mexico.
    Additionally, the cisticolas are now in a family apart from the Old World Warblers. 

  93. Common Grasshopper Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may
    Locustella n. naevia

  94. Cetti's Warbler  (*)  ______  SP:jan,apr,jun  TU:aug
    Cettia c. cetti 
    (except TU)
    Cettia cetti sericea  (TU)

  95. Savi's Warbler  (*)  ______  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:apr,jun
    Locustella l. luscinioides

  96. River Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may
    Locustella fluviatilis

  97. Marsh Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may
    Acrocephalus palustris

  98. Eurasian Reed Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PG:sep  PO:may  SP:apr,jun,sep,oct  TU:aug   Acrocephalus scirpaceus

    The former European Reed Warbler is now considered conspecific with the also former Caspian Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus fuscus.  

  99. Great Reed Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:apr,jun,jul  TU:aug
    Acrocephalus a. arundinaceus

  100. Aquatic Warbler  (t3) (Ee) (*)  ______   HU:may  PO:may
    Acrocephalus paludicola

  101. Sedge Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  TU:aug
    Acrocephalus schoenobaenus

  102. Moustached Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU  SP:jun  TU:aug
    Acrocephalus m. melanopogon

  103. Paddyfield Warbler  (*)  ______ BU:may
    Acrocephalus agricola septimus

  104. Western Olivaceous Warbler  (Ev) (*)  ______ SP:apr,jun
    Iduna opaca 
    (formerly Hippolais opaca

    Another name for Iduna opaca is Isabelline Warbler.

    The Western Olivaceous Warbler and the Eastern Olivaceous Warbler (below) have been considered conspecific.

  105. Eastern Olivaceous Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may  TU:aug
    Iduna pallida elaeica 
    (formerly Hippolais pallida elaeica)

  106. Olive-tree Warbler  (Er) (*)  ______  BU:may
    Hippolais olivetorum

  107. Melodious Warbler  (*)  ______  PG:sep  SP:jun,sep
    Hippolais polyglotta

  108. Icterine Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:may
    Hippolais icterina

  109. Common Whitethroat  (*)  ______  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  PG;sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:apr,jun  TU:aug
    Sylvia c. communis

  110. Lesser Whitethroat  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  TU:aug
    Sylvia c. curruca

  111. Garden Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may  PO:may  SP:jun
    Sylvia b. borin

  112. Barred Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:may
    Sylvia n. nisoria

  113. Eurasian Blackcap  (*)  ______  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  FR:jun  HU:may  IC:oct  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SW;sep  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  TU:aug
    Sylvia a. atricapilla 
    (except CI and SP) 
    Sylvia atricapilla obscura  
    subspecies endemic in the Canary Islands 
    Sylvia atricapilla pauluccii  (SP) 

  114. Orphean Warbler  (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  SP:jun 
    Sylvia hortensis crassirostris  (BU) 
    ("Eastern Orphean Warbler")
    Sylvia h. hortensis 
    (SP)  ("Western Orphean Warbler") 

  115. Sardinian Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,dec  TU:aug
    Sylvia m. melanocephala 
    (except CI)
    Sylvia melanocephala leucogastra  
    subspecies endemic in the Canary Islands, one of 2 subspecies there

  116. Subalpine Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may  SP:apr,jun,sep  TU:aug
    Sylvia cantillans

  117. Spectacled Warbler  (*)  ______  CI:jun,jul  SP
    Sylvia conspicillata

  118. Dartford Warbler  (Ev) (*)  ______  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep
    Sylvia undata

  119. Willow Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may  PO:apr,may  SL  SP  SW  TU:aug
    Phylloscopus t. trochilus  (in western Europe)
    Phylloscopus trochilus acredula 
    (in north, central, eastern Europe)

  120. Western Bonelli's Warbler  (*)  ______  SP;apr,jun 
    Phylloscopus bonelli

  121. Eastern Bonelli's Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may
    Phylloscopus orientalis

  122. Wood Warbler  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SW
    Phylloscopus sibilatrix

  123. Common Chiffchaff  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PG:sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Phylloscopus c. collybita
    Phylloscopus collybita abietinus 
    (these 2 subspecies overlap in migration)

  124. Iberian Chiffchaff  (*)  ______  AN:jun  FR:jun  SP:jun   
    Phylloscopus brehmii

    The Iberian Chiffchaff was conspecific with the Common Chiffchaff (above). 

  125. Canary Islands Chiffchaff  (*)  ______  CI:jun,jul 
    Phylloscopus c. canariensis  (the other Canarian subspecies extinct since the beginning of the 20th Century) 

    The Canary Islands Chiffchaff was conspecific with the Common Chiffchaff (above). 

  126. Yellow-browed Warbler (Vsib) (*) (ph)  ______  SW:sep   
    Phylloscopus inornatus

    Yellow-browed Warbler
    (photo by Tommy Holmgren)
    This bird, from Siberia & rare in western Europe, was seen
    during FONT tours in Sweden in Oct 1999 & Sep 2006.   

  127. Green Warbler  (*)  ______ TU:aug 
    Phylloscopus nitidus

    Phylloscopus nitidus
    was conspecific with the Greenish Warbler, Phylloscopus trochiloides.

  128. Bearded Reedling  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  SP:jun 
    Panurus b. biarmicus

    Panurus biarmicus
    has been called Bearded Tit.

  129. Firecrest  (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr
    Regulus i. ignicapillus

  130. Goldcrest  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  IC:jun,oct  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:apr,jun,sep  SW;sep  TU:aug
    Regulus r. regulus 
    (except TU) 
    Regulus regulus buturlini  (TU) 

    A Goldcrest photographed during a FONT tour in Sweden.
    This species, along with the Firecrest, shares the distinction of being Europe's smallest bird. 
    (photo by James Scheib)

  131. "Canary Islands Goldcrest"  (*)  ______ CI:jun,jul   
    Regulus regulus teneriffae  

    Other names for the subspecies of the Goldcrest, Regulus regulus teneriffae, endemic to the Canary Islands, are Tenerife Kinglet, or Canarian Kinglet.

  132. Eurasian Wren  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  IC:jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:apr,jun,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    (or Nannus) t. troglodytes  (except IC,TU and south SP)
    Troglodytes troglodytes islandicus 
    subspecies endemic in Iceland, the "Icelandic Wren"
    Troglodytes troglodytes cypriotes  (TU) 
    Troglodytes troglodytes kabylorum  (
    south SP) 

  133. Eurasian Nuthatch  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:apr,jun,sep  SW  TU:aug
    Sitta e. europaea 
    Sitta europaea caesia  (BU,HU,RM,SW,
    north SP)
    Sitta europaea hispaniensis  (
    central SP) 
    Sitta europaea levantina  (
    west TU)
    Sitta europaea caucasica  (
    north and east TU)

    Eurasian Nuthatch
    Sitta europaea caesia
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  134. Kruper's Nuthatch  (*)  ______  TU:aug  a species nearly endemic to Turkey
    Sitta krueperi

  135. Western Rock Nuthatch  (*)  ______  BU:may  TU:aug
    Sitta n. neumayer

  136. Wallcreeper  (*) (ph)  ______  RM:may  SP
    Tichodroma m. muraria

    The Wallcreeper

  137. Eurasian Treecreeper  (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP  SW
    Certhia f. familiaris 
    (except SP)
    Certhia familiaris macrodactyla  (SP) 

  138. Short-toed Treecreeper  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr  SP:jan,apr,sep  TU:aug
    Certhia b. brachydactyla 
    (except SP and TU)
    Certhia brachydactyla megarhyncha  (SP)
    Certhia brachydactyla harteri 

  139. Common Starling  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  CI:jun  FR:jun  HU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan  SW;sep  TU:aug
    Sturnus vulgaris

    Common Starling
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  140. Spotless Starling  (*)  ______  FR:jun  GR:jun  PG:sep  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec
    Sturnus unicolor

  141. Rosy Starling  (*)  ______  BU:may  IC:oct  SW:sep 
    Pastor roseus 
    (formerly Sturnus roseus)  

    Another name for Pastor roseus has been Rose-colored Starling.

  142. Common Myna (i) (*)  ______  CI:jul(rare)  SP   
    Acridotheres tristis

    Another name for Acridotheres tristis is Indian Myna.

  143. Spotted Flycatcher  (Ed) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:jun,sep  TU:aug
    Muscicapa s. striata

  144. European Pied Flycatcher  (*) (ph)  ______  HU  PG:sep  PO:apr,may  SL:may  SP:apr,jun,sep,oct  SW:sep
    Ficedula h. hypoleuca 
    (except SP) 
    Ficedula hypoleuca iberiae  (SP) 

    A female European Pied Flycatcher, a migrant photographed during the Sept 07 FONT Sweden tour
    (photo by James Scheib)   

  145. Collared Flycatcher  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may
    Ficedula albicollis

  146. Semicollared Flycatcher  (Ee) (*)  ______ BU:may
    Ficedula semitorquata

  147. Red-breasted Flycatcher  (*)  ______  BU:may  PO:apr,may  SW:sep   
    Ficedula parva

    The Red-breasted Flycatcher was conspecific with what is now the Taiga Flycatcher of eastern Asia, Ficedula albicilla.

  148. Whinchat  (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  PG:sep  PO:apr,may  RM  SP:sep  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Saxicola rubetra

  149. Eurasian Stonechat  (Ed) (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PG;sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  TU:aug
    Saxicola torquatus rubicola

  150. Canary Islands Bush Chat  (nt) (Ev) (*)  ______ CI:jun,jul 
    Saxicola d. dacotiae 
    (the other Canarian subspecies, S.d.murielae, is now extinct)  

    Other names for Saxicola dacotiae are Fuerteventura Chat or Canarian Chat. 

  151. Northern Wheatear  (*) (ph)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:apr,jun,sep  SW;sep  TU:aug
    Oenanthe o. oenanthe 
    (except IC & TU) 
    Oenanthe oenanthe leucorrha 
    Oenanthe oenanthe libanotica 

    Above & below: the Northern Wheatear, in flight & on the ground
    (photos by Howard Eskin)

    Below: A male Northern Wheatear during its breeding season in Iceland,
    photographed there during the FONT tour in June 2015
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  152. Pied Wheatear (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may
    Oenanthe pleschanka

    A Pied Wheatear in Bulgaria

  153. "Western" Black-eared Wheatear  (Ev) (*)  ______  PG:sep  SP:apr,sep,oct
    Oenanthe h. hispanica

  154. "Eastern" Black-eared Wheatear  (*)  ______  BU:may  TU:aug
    Oenanthe hispanica melanoleuca

  155. Isabelline Wheatear  (*)  ______  BU:may  TU:aug
    Oenanthe isabellina

  156. Finch's Wheatear  (*)  ______  TU:aug
    Oenanthe f. finschii

  157. Black Wheatear (Ee) (*)  ______  SP:jan,jun
    Oenanthe l. leucura

  158. Black Redstart  (*) (ph)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Phoenicurus ochruros gibraltariensis 
    (except TU and most of SP)
    Phoenicurus o. ochruros 
    Phoenicurus ochruros aterrimus  (
    central and south SP)

    Black Redstarts. Above a male, below a female.
    (upper photo by Przemyslaw Kunysz in Poland; 
     lower photo by James Scheib during a FONT tour in Sweden) 

  159. Common Redstart  (Ev) (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP  SW  TU:aug
    Phoenicurus p. phoenicurus 
    (except TU) 
    Phoenicurus phoenicurus samamisicus  (TU) 

  160. European Robin  (*) (ph)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  FR:jun  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct.dec  SW:sep  TU:aug  
    Erithacus r. rubecula 
    (except CI and south SP)
    Erithacus rubecula superbus 
    subspecies endemic in the Canary Islands
    Erithacus rubecula sardus 
    (south SP)

    A European Robin photographed during a FONT tour 
    in Sweden in September 2007
    (photo by James Scheib; 
     the other photo of the European Robin at the top of this list by Jens Bruun)

  161. Common Nightingale  (*)  ______  BU:may  FR  HU:may  PO:may  RM:may  SP:apr,jun  TU:aug
    Luscinia megarhynchos bachrmanni 
    (except SP)
    Luscinia m. megarhynchos 

  162. Thrush Nightingale (or "Sprosser"(*)  ______  BU:may  PO:apr,may
    Luscinia luscinia

  163. Bluethroat  (*) (ph)  ______  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:apr,jun,dec
    Luscinia svecica cyanecula 
    (except SP) 
    Luscinia svecica nametum  (SP) 

    A Bluethroat photographed during a FONT tour

  164. Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin  (*)  ______ SP
    Cercotrichas g. galactotes

  165. Blue Rock Thrush  (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  GR:jun  SP:apr,jun,sep,oct  TU:aug
    Monticola s. solitarius

  166. Rufous-tailed Rock Thrush  (Ed) (*)  ______  BU:may  RM:may  SP:jun
    Monticola saxatilis

  167. Common Blackbird  (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  FR  HU:may  IC:jun,sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Turdus m. merula 
    (except CI and TU)
    Turdus merula cabrerae  
    subspecies endemic in the Canary Islands
    Turdus merula aterrimus  (TU) 

  168. Ring Ouzel  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  PO  RM:may
    Turdus torquatus alpestris

    Ring Ouzel
    (photo by Przemyslaw Kunysz)

  169. Fieldfare  (*)  ______  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SW:sep
    Turdus pilaris

  170. Redwing  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr  SP:dec  SW
    Turdus i. iliacus 
    (except IC)
    Turdus iliacus coburni  (IC) 

    The Redwing is one of the most common landbirds in Iceland,
    during FONT tours in May & June and in September and October.

  171. Song Thrush  (*)  ______  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,dec  SW;sep  TU:aug
    Turdus p. philomelos 
    (in eastern Europe)
    Turdus philomelos clarkei 
    (in western Europe) 

  172. Mistle Thrush  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jun,sep  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Turdus v. viscivorus  

  173. White-throated Dipper  (*)  ______  BU:may  RM:may  PO:may  SP:apr,jun,sep  TU:aug
    Cinclus cinclus aquaticus 
    (except TU and north SP)
    Cinclus c. cinclus 
    (north SP) 
    Cinclus cinclus caucasicus  (TU) 

  174. House Sparrow  (i) (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  IC:may  PG:sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Passer d. domesticus

  175. Spanish Sparrow  (*)  ______  BU:may CI:jun,jul  SP:apr,jun  TU:aug
    Passer h. hispaniolensis

  176. Eurasian Tree Sparrow  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jun,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Passer m. montanus

  177. Rock Sparrow  (*)   ______ CI:jul  SP:apr,jun  TU:aug 
    Petronia petronia  (the single member of its genus)
    Petronia p. petronia 
    (except CI)
    Petronia petronia madeirensis 
    subspecies endemic in the Canary Islands

    The Rock Sparrow is also called Rock Petronia. 

  178. Dunnock  (*)  ______  BU:may  FR:jun  PO:apr,may  RM  SL  SP:apr,jun,sep  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Prunella m. modularis 
    (except SPf and TU)
    Prunella modularis mabbotti
    Prunella modularis euxima  (TU)

  179. Alpine Accentor  (*)  ______  SP:jan  TU:aug
    Prunella c. collaris 
    Prunella collaris subalpina  (TU) 

  180. Tree Pipit  (*)  ______  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:apr  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Anthus t. trivialis

  181. Meadow Pipit  (*)  ______  BU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  SP:jan,apr,dec  SW:sep
    Anthus p. pratensis 

    A Meadow Pipit photographed during 
    the FONT tour in Iceland in June 2012
    (photo by Gabi Hauser) 

  182. Berthelot's Pipit  (*)  ______ CI:jun,jul   a Macaronesian endemic
    Anthus b. berthelotii

  183. Water Pipit  (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  PO:may  SP:jan,jun,sep  TU:aug
    Anthus s. spinoletta 
    (except TU) 
    Anthus spinoletta coutellii 

  184. Eurasian Rock Pipit  (*)   ______  SW:sep 
    Anthus petrosus littoralis

    The Eurasian Rock Pipit was conspecific with the Water Pipit (above).

  185. Buff-bellied Pipit  (Vna) (*)   ______  IC:sep(rare) 
    Anthus rubescens

    The 3 subspecies of Anthus rubescens in North America are called the American Pipit. 
    By current taxonomy, another subspecies in eastern Asia, Anthus rubescens japonicus, is called by its Old World name, Buff-bellied Pipit.
    It can assumed that this species, seen during a FONT tour in Iceland, was a bird of American origin.     

  186. Red-throated Pipit  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  TU:aug
    Anthus cervinus rufogularis

  187. Tawny Pipit  (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  PO:apr  RM:may  SP:apr,jun,sep  TU:aug
    Anthus c. campestris

  188. Richard's Pipit  (*)   ______  SW:sep
    Anthus richardi

  189. White Wagtail  (*) (ph)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug 
    Motacilla a. alba

    White Wagtails photographed during FONT tour in Europe
    Above in Sweden, below in Iceland
    (upper photo by James Scheib; lower photo by Gabi Hauser)

  190. Grey Wagtail  (*)  ______   AN:jun  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  FR:jun  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,jul,sep  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Motacilla c. cinerea 
    (except CI) 
    Motacilla cinerea canaraiensis  
    subspecies endemic in the Canary Islands 

  191. Western Yellow Wagtail  (*)  ______  SP
    Motacilla flava flavissima

    The Western Yellow Wagtail has been split from the Eastern Yellow Wagtail in eastern Asia and Alaska, Motacilla tschutschensis. 
    The following 4 birds are forms, or subspecies, of the Western Yellow Wagail.

  192. ""Blue-headed" Western Yellow Wagtail  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may 
    Motacilla flava flava  

  193. "Grey-headed" Western Yellow Wagtail  (*)  ______  BU:may  PO:may  SW:sep
    Motacilla flava thunbergi

  194. "Black-headed"  Western Yellow Wagtail  (*)  ______  BU:may  RM:may  TU:aug
    Motacilla flava feldegg

  195. "Iberian" Western Yellow Wagtail  (*)  ______  PG:sep  SP:apr,jun,jul,sep,oct
    Motacilla flava iberiae

  196. Citrine Wagtail  (*)  ______  PO:may 
    Motacilla citreola werae

    Another name for Motacilla citreola has been Yellow-hooded Wagtail

  197. Common Chaffinch  (*) (ph)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  FR:jun  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Fringilla c. coelebs 
    (except CI and SP)
    Fringilla coelebs canariensis 
    (formerly F. c. tintillon
    subspecies endemic in the Canary Islands
    Fringilla coelebs balearica  (SP)

    Two photos of the Common Chaffinch
    (photos by Howard Eskin)

  198. Blue Chaffinch  (nt) (Ev) (*)  ______  CI:jun,jul   an endemic species in the Canary Islands   
    Fringilla t. teydea 
    1 of the 2 subspecies in the Canaries

    Another name for Fringilla teydea is "Teydefinch".

  199. Brambling  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:jun(rare)  PO:apr  SW;sep
    Fringilla montifringilla 

  200. European Goldfinch  (*)  ______  BU:may  CI:jul  FR:jun  HU:may  PG;sep  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Spinus c. carduelis
      (formerly Carduelis c. carduelis(except CI,TU, and some in SP in the winter)
    Spinus carduelis parva 
    Spinus carduelis niediecki  (TU)
    Spinus carduelis britannica 
    (some in SP in the winter

  201. Eurasian Siskin  (*) (ph)  ______  CI:jun  IC:jun,sep,oct  PO:apr,may  RM  SP:jan,apr  SW:sep
    Spinus spinus 
    (formerly Carduelis spinus)

    A female Eurasian Siskin photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photo by Paul West)

  202. Common Redpoll  (*) (ph)  ______ SW:sep  
    Acanthis flammea cabaret 
    (formerly Carduelis flammea cabaret)  (
    "Lesser Redpoll")

  203. "Icelandic" Common Redpoll  (*)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct   
    Acanthis flammea islandica 
    (formerly Carduelis flammea islandica 
    a subspecies of the Common Redpoll

  204. Arctic Redpoll  (*)  ______  IC:sep(rare)
    Acanthis hornemanni 
    (formerly Carduelis hornemanni)
    Acanthis hornemanni hornemanni 
    (*)  ______  Hornemann's Arctic Redpoll  IC:sep(rare)

    Another name for the Hornemann's Arctic Redpoll is Greenland Arctic Redpoll. 
    There is another subspecies called the Coues' Arctic Redpoll, Acanthis hornemanni exilipes. It breeds on the tundra of Eurasia and North America. 
    Acanthis hornemanni hornemanni is paler than Acanthis hornemanni exilipes.

    The Arctic Redpoll is called the Hoary Redpoll in North America.   

  205. European Greenfinch  (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Carduelis c. chloris 
    (except CI,SP,TU)
    Carduelis chloris aurantilventris  (CI,SP)
    Carduelis chloris muehlei 

  206. Common Linnet  (*)  ______  BU:may  CI:jun,jul  FR:jun  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Carduelis c. cannabina
      (except CI,SP,TU)
    Carduelis cannabina meadewaldoi 
    1 of 2 subspecies endemic in the Canary Islands
    Carduelis cannabina mediterranea  (SP,TU)

  207. Eurasian Bullfinch  (*)  ______  BU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP  SW
    Pyrrhula p. pyrrhula 
    (except SP)
    Pyrrhula pyrrhula iberiae  (SP)

  208. Hawfinch  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,jun  SW  TU:aug
    Coccothraustes c. coccothraustes

  209. Citril Finch  (*)  ______  FR  SP:jun    
    Carduelis citrinella 

    The Citril Finch was conspecific with what is now the Corsican Finch, Carduelis corsicana, endemic to that island in the Mediterranean.

  210. European Serin  (*)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Serinus serinus 

  211. Atlantic Canary  (*)  ______  CI:jun,jul   endemic species in the Canary Islands  
    Serinus canaria 

    Another name for Serinus canaria is Island Canary.

  212. Trumpeter Finch  (Er) (*)  ______  CI:jun,jul
    Bucanetes githagineus amantum 
    endemic subspecies in CI

  213. Common Rosefinch  (*) (ph)  ______  PO:may 
    Carpodacus e. erythrinus

    Another name for Carpodacus erythrinus is Scarlet Rosefinch.

    Common Rosefinch
    (photo by Przemyslaw Kunysz)

  214. Red Crossbill  (*) (ph)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  FR:jun  IC:oct(rare)  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,sep  SW 
    Loxia c. curvirostra

    Another name for Loxia curvirostra is Common Crossbill.

  215. Parrot Crossbill  (*)  ______ SW
    Loxia pytyopsittacus

  216. Two-barred Crossbill  (*) (ph)  ______ SW 
    Loxia leucoptera bifasciata

    Loxia leucoptera
    is called White-winged Crossbill in North America.

    Two-barred, or White-winged Crossbills 
    Male, above; female, below.

    (photos by Howard Eskin

  217. Corn Bunting  (*)  ______  BU:may  CI:jul  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SL:may  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,dec  SW:sep  TU:aug
    Emberiza c. calandria 
    (formerly Miliaria c. calandria (except CI)
    Emberiza calandria thanneri
      (formerly Miliaria calandria thanneri)  (CI)

  218. "Western" Rock Bunting  (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  FR  RM  SP:jan,apr,jun,sep,oct  TU:aug
    Emberiza c. cia

  219. Cirl Bunting  (*)  ______  BU:may  SP:jan,apr,jun  TU:aug
    Emberiza cirlus 

  220. Yellowhammer  (*) (ph)  ______  AN:jun  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:sep  SW:sep
    Emberiza c. citrinella

    A Yellowhammer & an Eurasian Tree Sparrow on Oland Island 
    during the September 2007 FONT Sweden Tour 
    (photo by James Scheib)

  221. Ortolan Bunting  (Ev) (*)  ______  BU:may  PO:apr,may  RM:may  SP:apr,jun,sep
    Emberiza hortulana 

  222. Black-headed Bunting  (Ev) (*)  ______ BU:may
    Emberiza melanocephala 

  223. Common Reed Bunting  (*)  ______  BU:may  HU:may  PO:apr,may  SP:jun,dec  SW:sep
    Emberiza s. schoeniclus 
    (except HU and SP)
    Emberiza schoeniclus stresmanni 
    Emberiza schoeniclus witherbyi  (SP)

  224. Snow Bunting  (*) (ph)  ______  IC:may,jun,sep,oct  SW:sep
    Calcarius n. nivalis 
    (formerly Plectrophenax n. nivalis)  (SW)
    Calcarius nivalis insulae 
    (formerly Plectrophenax nivalis insulae)  (IC)

    Snow Buntings are seen in Iceland during FONT tours 
    in both the late spring and the fall.  
    (upper photo by Marie Gardner, during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2015, 
     lower photo by Howard Eskin)

Excellent reference and guide books for the birds of Europe include:
"Complete Guide to the Birds of Europe", with text by Lars Svensson and Peter Grant, illustrated by Killian Mullarney and Dan Zetterstrom, 1999. Harper Collins & Princeton Univ Press

"Birds of Europe with North Africa & the Middle East", by Lars Jonsson, 1993, Princeton Univ Press

Other related books:

"Raptors of the World", by James Ferguson-Lee & David Christie, 2001, Houghton Mifflin

"Icelandic Bird Guide", by Oli Johann, 2000, Prentsmidjan Oddi hf.

"Owls - A Guide to the Owls of the World", by C. Konig, Friedhelm Weick, & Jan-Hendrik Becking, 1999, Yale University Press

"Owls of Europe", by Heimo Mikkola, 1983, T & A D Poyser

"Guia de las Aves de las Islas Canarias", by Jose manuel Moreno, 1988, Editorial Interinsular Canaria, S.A.

"La Guia de Incafo de las Aves de la Peninsula Iberica", by Ramon Saez-Royuela, 1980, Incafo.

"Woodpeckers - An Identification Guide to the Woodpeckers of the World", by Hans Winkler, David Christie, & David Nurney, 1995, Houghton Mifflin

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