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100 Most Endangered Species
in the World
noting those that have been
during Focus On Nature Tours
List compiled by the International Union
for Conservation of Nature
and the Zoological Society of London
Photo at upper right: a
SPOON-BILLED SANDPIPER (number 10 in the list below)
One was seen once during a FONT tour on Amami Island in Japan.
Photo below: Monkeys called NORTHERN MURIQUIS (number 3 in the list below)
photographed during a FONT tour in 2011 in Minas Gerais, Brazil
Birding & Nature Tours
Photo Galleries & Lists of:
Dragonflies & Damselflies
Reptiles Marine Life
A List of the 100 Most Endangered
compiled in September 2012:
- PLOUGHSHARE TORTOISE
called the Angonoka Tortoise)
The Ploughshare Tortoise, Astrochelys yniphora, lives in Madagascar.
- RIO PESCADO STUBFOOT
The Rio Pescado Stubfoot Toad, Atelopus balios, is endemic to Ecuador,
where it lives in subtropical or tropical moist forests in the southwestern
part of the country.
It was not seen after April 1995 until it was re-found in September
- NORTHERN MURIQUI
been called the Wooly Spider Monkey)
The NORTHERN MURIQUI was seen well during the FONT Southeastern
Brazil Tour in Minas Gerais in May 2011.
The following was written by Armas Hill following the tour:
The Muriqui, with its Tupi Indian name, is the largest of the monkeys
in the New World. The Northern and Southern Muriquis, now considered two
species, are not just the biggest New World monkeys, but they are among the
rarest of mammals worldwide.
The Northern Muriqui has a total population of only about 500 individuals.
It's been said that the Muriqui is large. How large? Well, they measure up
to about 5 feet when they hang suspended with their long arms. And these
agile monkeys have a long, grasping, prehensile tail that is strong enough
to support their entire body weight as they feed or socialize upside down.
Something else can be noted about the Muriqui's anatomy. Due to their diet,
which includes leaves in addition to fruits and seeds, they have large
intestinal tracts that give both the males and females a "pregnant
look". So while we've heard of "pot-bellied pigs", these, in
essence, are "pot-bellied monkeys".
During the May 2011 FONT Brazil Tour, we were fortunate to see and hear well
a group of Northern Muriquis in a fine forest, in eastern Minas
has been preserved because it has been their home.
In that forest, since the 1980s, the Muriquis have been studied. From the
University of Wisconsin, Karen Strier came and spent years doing so. In the
1990s, she wrote a book "Faces in the Forest - The Endangered Muriqui
Monkeys of Brazil", in which she described much of what she learned
about the monkeys over the years. The book is well-written and informative.
The Muriquis are peaceful creatures, almost lacking completely the
belligerence that primates, especially social primates, often have.
Muriquis are social, nearly always in groups, but it is rare for any of them
to act aggressively. During more than 1,200 hours of observation during her
first year with the Muriquis, Karen logged only a very few interactions that
could be considered even remotely aggressive.
The societies of nearly all social primates in the world are based on
dominant relationships. But the Muriquis differ from that typical pattern.
The most striking feature of Muriqui society is the tolerance that males
display toward each other even when relating to females in the group.
Also, unlike so many social primates in the world, Muriquis don't groom each
other. But they do offer friendly reassurances through touch.
They may lightly pat each other on the hand or foot when they pass in a
feeding or resting tree. There's a photo in Karen's book of two wild
Muriquis in a tree giving a handshake signifying a friendly greeting.
Imagine two monkeys shaking hands!
And Muriquis embrace. They have a most impressive full-body embrace, in
which two or more animals walk or swing toward one another and then flip
upside down, so that they are hanging by their tails, face to face, while
they wrap their arms and legs around one another. Such embraces occur in a
variety of contexts.
I mentioned that we were fortunate to see AND HEAR the Muriquis. To me, at
the time, they had a soft vocalization rather like that of a horse.
I read later in "Faces in the Forest" that when the
scientists first went to the forest where we were, they asked the local
people where the Muirquis were, and the locals took them first to the
stables. Listening to the horses whinnying back and forth, they were told to
walk in the forest until they "heard horses".
There are, in all, about a hundred species of monkeys known to be in
But among them, the Muriquis are special. It has been written that, as a
conservation symbol, the Muriquis are for Brazil as the Giant Panda is for
Another photo of a Northern Muriqui in a remnant of
Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais, Brazil,
during the FONT tour in May 2011
(photo by Pat Yoder)
- PYGMY THREE-TOED
The Pygmy Three-toed Sloth, Bradypus pygmaeus, lives only on
the small island of Escudo de Varaguas in Panama.
- TARZAN'S CHAMELEON
The Tarzan's Chameleon, Calumma tarzan, lives in Madagascar.
SHEATH-TAILED BAT ______
The Seychelles Sheath-tailed Bat, Coleura seychellensis,
lives only in two small caves on the islands of Sihouette and Mahe in the Seychelles.
- JAMAICAN IGUANA
The Jamaican Iguana, Cyclura collei, was thought to be extinct from
1948 to 1990. Only in Jamaica, it is confined to dry forests in the
Only about 50 are said to survive in the wild, making it the rarest lizard
in the world.
- CAYMAN ISLANDS GHOST
The Cayman Islands Ghost Orchid, Dendrophylax fawcettii, has been seen
during FONT tours in the Cayman Islands.
is found only on Grand Cayman Island. It flowers for about 2 weeks between
April and June.
It grows mainly on 6 acres in the Ironwood forest in Georgetown. A small
number have been transplanted to the Queen Elizabeth II Botanical Garden,
where we've seen it during our tours.
Cayman Islands Ghost Orchid
- DISCOREA STRYDOMIANA
(a WILD YAM) ______
was recently discovered in South Africa. It is critically endangered
(as is every species in this list) and is one of the most unusual yam
species anywhere in the world.
There are 2 populations of about 200 plants.
It does not look like a typical yam, because it is shrub-like with a huge
tuber that can reach more than a meter in height above the ground.
Discorea strydomiana is used locally with another species of
Discorea, to treat cancer.
The Spoon-billed Sandpiper was seen during one FONT Winter Japan Tour on the
southern Japanese island of Amami.
The following was recently written by Armas Hill:
The Spoon-billed Sandpiper is an overall very rare species, breeding in
far eastern Siberia. It winters coastally in Southeast Asia.
The total population of the species has recently been estimated as under
4,000 birds. The population at the known breeding grounds has recently been
said to be about 1,000 individuals, thus indicating a greater than 50 per
recent reduction in the last decade or so.
In North America, it has occurred very rarely in western and northern
Alaska. Further south, in British Columbia, Canada, there was a record of a
breeding-plumaged adult near Vancouver from July 30 to August 3, 1978.
The Spoon-billed Sandpiper was described by Linnaeus in 1758.
This Spoon-billed Sandpiper with breeding plumage.
The bird in the photo at the top of this page, non-breeding.
- LIBEN LARK
______ (also called Sidamo Lark)
The Liben, or Sidamo Lark, Heteromirafra sidamoensis, is
endemic to Ethiopa.
- SINGAPORE FRESHWATER
The Singapore Freshwater Crab, Johora singaporensis, is endemic to Singapore.
- EDWARD'S PHEASANT ______
The Edward's Pheasant, Lophura edwardsi, is endemic to the
rainforests of Vietnam.
PITCHER PLANT ______
The Attenborough's Pitcher Plant, Nepenthese attenboroughii, is a
montane species of insectivorous pitcher plant in the Philippines.
It was described as new to science in 2009 and named after the well-known
broadcaster and naturalist Sir David Attenborough.
- LURISTAN NEWT ______
(also called the Emperor Spotted Newt, or the Kaiser's
The Luristan Newt, Neurergus kaiseri, is a very colorful salamander
only in the southern Zagros Mountains in Iran.
- VAQUITA ______
(also known as the "Cochito", or the
Gulf of California Porpoise)
The Vaquita, Phocoena sinus, is one of the most endangered (and maybe
THE most endangered) of the world's cetacean. It is also the smallest known
cetacean, and has the most limited range of any marine cetacean, in the
upper portion of the northern Gulf of California in Mexico, mostly
within the Colorado River delta.
The species was described to science in 1958 based on several skulls.
It was just said that the Vaquita is the smallest cetacean. it is 4
to 5 feet in length. Females are generally larger than males.
There have been FONT tours in northwestern Mexico, in Sonora, where we
have been to the Gulf of California, but we have yet to see the Vaquita.
- GREATER BAMBOO LEMUR ______
The Great Bamboo Lemur, Prolemur simus, lives in Madagascar.
- SAOLA ______
(also called the Vu Quong, or Asian Unicorn)
The Saola, Pseudoryx nghetinhensis, is one of the world's rarest
mammals. It occurs only in the Annamite Range in Vietnam and Laos.
The species was described in 1993, following the finding of remains the
previous year in the Vu Quang Nature Reserve during a survey of the
governmental ministry of forestry and World Wide Fund for Nature.
3 skulls with unusual long straight horns were found in hunter's houses.
In August 2012, a Saola was captured by villagers in Laos, but it
died before government conservationists could have it released back into the
Still, to this day, there has been no reported sighting of a Saola in
the wild by a scientist.
- RED RIVER GIANT
SOFTSHELL TURTLE ______ (other names are the
Yangtze Giant Softshell Turtle
or the Swinhoe's Softshell Turtle)
The Red River Giant Softshell Turtle, Rafetus swinhoei, occurs only
- JAVAN RHINOCEROS
______ (another name is the Lesser One-horned Rhinoceros)
The Javan Rhino, Rhinoceros sondaicus, is the most threatened of the
5 species of rhinoceroses. It is quite possibly the rarest large mammal on
It was once the most widespread of the Asian rhinoceroses, ranging on the
islands of Java and Sumatra, throughout Southeast Asia, and into India and
Recently there has been only one known population in the wild, and no
individuals in captivity. Only a few as 40 are in the Ujung Kulon National
Park at the western tip of Java in Indonesia. A second
population in the Cat Tien National Park in Vietnam was confirmed as extinct
- CEBU FRILL-WING ______
The Cebu Frill-wing is a beautiful black damselfly with unusual blue eyes.
It lives only in a very short stretch of a rivulet in Cebu in the
- RED-FINNED BLUE-EYE ______
The Red-finned Blue-eye occurs only in central-western Queensland, in
- ESTUARINE PIPEFISH ______
The Estuarine Pipefish occurs only in the Eastern Cape Province in South
- SUICIDE PALM, DIMAKA ______
The Suicide Palm, or Dimaka, is found only in northwestern Madagascar.
- BULLOCK'S FALSE
The Bullock's False Toad, Telmatobufo bullocki, is close to
extinction. It occurs only in Chile, and there it is only known in
the Nahuelbuta Mountain Range.
In 2011, it was seen for the first time since 2005. It has been sighted less
than 10 times since it was discovered in 1952.
- BAISHAN FIR ______
The Baishan Fir, Abies beshanzuensis, occurs in the Arauco province
- ACTINOTE ZIKANI ______
is a very rare butterfly occurring only in the Atlantic
Forest, near Sao Paulo, in Brazil. Its host plant is Mikania obsoleta.
The butterfly was rediscovered in 1991 in Paranapiacaba 40 years after it
was originally described. The area where it has been found is in the Serra
do Mar coastal range, from about 900 to 1200 meters above sea level.
Actinote is a genus of butterflies mostly in South America in the
subfamily Heliconiinae in the family Nymphalidae.
- LEAF-SCALED SEA-SNAKE ______
The Leaf-scaled Sea-snake, Aipysurus foliosquama,
- AMANI FLATWING
The Amani Flatwing, Amanipodogrion gilliesi, is a
damselfly in Tanzania
- ARARIPE MANAKIN
The Araripe Manakin, Antilophia bokermanni, is found only an area of 28
square kilometers in the Chapado do Araripe in south Ceara, Brazil.
The attractive bird was discovered in 1996 and described in 1998. Its
total population is said to be about 500 pairs.
is a rare plant on Morne Blanc, on Mahe Island in the Seychelles.
- Aci Gol Toothcarp ______
The Aci Gol Toothcarp is a rare fish in Turkey.
- BULMER'S FRUIT BAT ______
The Bulmer's Fruit Bat, Aproteles bulmerae,
occurs in Papua New Guinea.
- WHITE-BELLIED HERON
The White-bellied Heron, Ardea insignis, is a large heron in the
foothills of the eastern Himalayas in India, northeastern Bangladesh,
Burma, and Bhutan.
Population estimates are from as low as 70 to a few
- GREAT INDIAN BUSTARD ______
The Great Indian Bustard, Ardeotis nigiceps, is only in India,
with an estimated population of only from 50 to 250 individuals.
- MADAGASCAR POCHARD ______
The Madagascar Pochard, Aythya innotata, was thought to be extinct in
the mid-1990s, with the last confirmed sighting in 1991.
However, the species was re-discovered in 2006 when 9 adults and 4 young (2
weeks old) were found.
The shy & scarce Madagascar Pochard is now the rarest duck in the
- GALAPAGOS DAMSEL FISH ______
(also called Blackspot Chromis)
The Galapagos Damsel Fish, Azurina eupalama, occurs in waters of the Galapagos
Islands off Ecuador and Cocos Island off Costa
We've done FONT tours in the Galapagos Islands, but to our knowledge
we've never encountered a Galapagos Damsel Fish.
- GIANT YELLOW CROAKER
______ (also called the Croceine Croaker, or the
The Giant Yellow Croaker, Bahaba taipingensis, is a fish of the western
Pacific Ocean. It was once an abundant commercial fish off China,
Korea, and Japan.
It population collapsed in the 1970s due to overfishing. Fishing boats
landed 56,088 of them in 2008.
The species has been aquafarmed in China, where farms have experienced
outbreaks of the Nocardia seriolae infections.
We may have seen Bahaba taipingensis at the fish market in Tokyo, Japan,
during one of the FONT tours in that country.
- FOUR-TOED TERRAPIN
______ (another name is Northern River Terrapin)
The Four-toed Terrapin, Batagur baska, is a riverine turtle in parts
of India (West Bengal & Orissa), Bangladesh, and Burma.
It is thought to be extirpated in Thailand.
The Four-toed Terrapin is said to be the most critically endangered
turtle in the world.
- BAZZANIA BHUTANICA
is a species of liverwort in the Lepidoziaceae family, endemic to Bhutan.
- HIROLA ______
(also called Hunter's Hartebeest)
The Hirola, Beatragus hunteri, is an antelope occurring only locally
along the border of Kenya and Somalia.
- FRANKLIN'S BUMBLEBEE ______
The Franklin's Bumblebee is in Oregon and California,
in the USA. Primary threats to the species are disease from
commercially bred bumblebees and habitat destruction and degradation.
- CALLITRICHE PULCHRA
is a flowering plant in the family Callitrichaceae in only Gavdos in
Greece. The species was described in 1972.
- SANTA CATARINA'S
GUINEA PIG ______ (also called the Moleques
do Sol Guinea Pig, or Cavy)
The Santa Catarina's Guinea Pig, Cavia intermedia, is one of the
rarest species on Earth with its very small population of less than 50
It also has one of the smallest geographic distributions of any mammal -
less than 10 hectares, on an island off the coast of southern Brazil. That
island is named Moleques do Sol.
There have been 50 FONT tours in Brazil, over the years, but we've never
gone to Moleques do Sol island where Cavia intermedia is
- ROLOWAY GUERON
The Roloway Gueron, Cercopithecus roloway, has been considered a
subspecies of the more commonly known Diana Guenon.
It is 1 of the 3 most endangered species of monkeys in Ghana in
West Africa where it also occurs in the Ivory Coast.
- WILLOW BLISTER ______
The Willow Blister, Cryptomyces maximus,
is a fungus only in Pembrokeshire in the United Kingdom.
- NELSON'S SMALL-EARED
The Nelson's Small-eared Shrew, Cryptotis nelsoni, occurs only
in a 100 square-kilometer area of the Volcan San Martin Tuxtla in Veracruz, Mexico.
- SUMATRAN RHINO ______
The Sumatran Rhino, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, occurs Sabah,
Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan and Sumatra in Indonesia.
Its population is said to be less than 250 individuals.
- AMSTERDAM ALBATROSS ______
The Amsterdam Albatross, Diomedea amsterdamensis, has a population
of only about 100 mature birds on Amsterdam Island in the Indian
- DIOSPYROS KATENDEI ______
is a plant in the family Ebenaceae
is a tropical rainforest tree endemic to Borneo.
- HULA PAINTED FROG ______
The Hula Painted Frog, Discoglossus nigriventer,
is only in the Hula Valley in Israel.
- DOMBEYA MAURITANIA
Dombeya mauritania is a very rare plant on Mauritius, an island
in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar.
- ELAEOCARPUS BOJERI ______
is a rare, endemic tree on the island of Mauritius.
- LA HOTTE GLANDED FROG
The La Hotte Glanded Frog, Eleutherodactylus glandulifer, and
the following species, Eleutherodactylus thorectes, are endemic to
Haiti on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola.
Like the following species, Eleutherodactylus glandulifer was
re-discovered in October 2012 after having been last seen in 1991.
The La Hotte Glanded Frog could be called "Old Blue
Eyes" as its most distinctive feature is its pair of striking blue
sapphire-colored eyes, highly unusual among amphibians.
The La Hotte Glanded Frog
- MACAYA BREAST-SPOT
The Macaya Breast-spot Frog, Eleutherodactylus thorectes,
lives only on the Formon and Macaya peaks in the Masif de la Hotte in
It, along with a few other species of frogs, have recently been
"re-discovered". Prior to being re-found in October 2012, the Macaya
Breast-spot Frog was last seen in 1991.
Eleutherodactylus thorectes is one of the smallest frogs in the
world, with adults being about the size of a grape.
For a list & photo gallery with this frog, and amphibians &
reptiles seen during FONT tours in the West Indies:
AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF THE CARIBBEAN
A young Macaya Breast-spot Frog
- CHILENITO ______
The Chilenito, Eriosyce chilensis,
is a rare cactus originally endemic to Chile, where it occurs from
Los Vilos to Punto Los Molles, in the Mediterranean bioclime.
For a list, with some photos, of interesting and endemic plants in Chile,
including those seen during the FONT tour:
THE DIVERSE PLANT LIFE OF CHILE
- CORAL TREE ______
The Coral Tree, Erythrina schliebenii, lives in the
Namatimbili-Ngarama Forest in Tanzania. There are less than 50
- Euphorbia tanaensis ______
- Ficus katendei ______
- NORTHERN BALD IBIS ______
The Northern Bald Ibis, Geronticus eremita, has been a recent breeder
in Morocco, Turkey and Syria. The Syrian population winters in central
The population of the Northern Bald Ibis is between 200 and 250 adult
is a species of legume in the Fabaceae family, found in Kenya and
- GOCEA CHRIDANA ______
is an invertebrate, a gastropod in the Mollusca phylum. It is endemic
to the Macedonian part of the ancient Lake Ohrid in the Balkans.
- TABLE MOUNTAIN GHOST
FROG ______ (another name is the Rose's
The Table Mountain Ghost Frog, Heleophryne rosei,
lives only on Table Mountain in South Africa.
- HEMICYCLA PAETELIANA ______
is a mollusk, a gastropod in the family Helicidae, found only at the
Jandia Peninsula on the island of Fuerteventura in the Canary
- HIBISCADELPHUS WOODII
is a flowering plant in the mallow family. It is endemic to the Hawaiian
island of Kauai.
it was discovered in 1991, and described as new to science in 1995.
Only 4 individuals were found. 3 were crushed by a boulder and died between
1995 and 1998. The last died in 2011.
- SAKHALIN TAIMEN
______ (also called the Japanese Huchen, or
The Sakhalin Taimen, Hucho perryi, is a fish in the salmon
family. It occurs in the area of the northwestern Pacific Ocean, at Sakhalin
Island (part of Russia), and Hokkaido in Japan, and parts of the
An anadromous form lives near the eastern shore of Hokkaido.
The population of Hucho perryi has dwindled in recent years. It is
now classified as "critically endangered".
The Sakhalin Taimen is one of the largest salmonids. It can reach a
length of 7 feet.
There have been many FONT tours in Hokkaido, along the east coast where the
We've seen road signs by bridges over streams near the sea, in both Japanese
and English referring to the fish that at times occur in those waters. In
English, the signs say "Salmon Culture River".
But mostly we have been in that area when the rivers are frozen, as we are
there to see Steller's Sea Eagles and other notable birds in Hokkaido in the
Sakhalin Taimen, or the Japanese Huchen
- BELIN VETCHLING ______
The Belin Vetchling, Lathyrus belinensis, is a flowering plant found
only on the outskirts of the village of Belin in Antalya, Turkey.
- ARCHEY'S FROG ______
The Archey's Frog, Leiopelma archeyi, is a critically endangered,
rapidly declining frog in New Zealand, where it is restricted to the
Coromandel Peninsula and the Whareorino Forest. It is fully
- DUSKY GOPHER FROG ______
(also called the Mississippi Gopher Frog)
The Dusky Gopher Frog, Rana sevosa, was first described as a species
in 1940. Subsequently it was considered a subspecies of the widespread and
common Gopher Frog, Rana capito, until in 2001 it was re-elevated to
Formerly it occurred in the US states of Louisiana, Mississippi, and
Alabama, but now it is known for sure to be in only one body of water in
Harrison County, Mississippi, Glen's Pond, where there is a
population of 100 frogs. Possibly it may exist at several other locations in
- MAGNOLIA WOLFII ______
is a wild magnolia that occurs only in Colombia, at Risaralda. There
are less than 5 individuals.
is a mussel in Morocco. Fewer than 250 survive.
- MOOMINIA WILLII
is a mollusk, a gastropod, on Silhouette Island in the Seychelles in
the Indian Ocean.
- CUBAN GREATER
FUNNEL-EARED BAT ______
The Cuban Greater Funnel-eared Bat, Natalus primus, lives in a cave,
Cueva La Barca, on the Isle of Pines, Cuba.
There are less than 100 individuals.
- HAINAN GIBBON
The Hainan Gibbon, Nomascus hainus, lives only on Hainan Island
in China. The population is less than 20 individuals.
- MULANJE RED DAMSEL ______
The Mulanje Red Damsel, Oreocnemis phoenix,
- PANGASID CATFISH ______
The Pangasid Catfish, Pangasius krempfi, is an anadromous species
that lives in coastal waters of Southeast Asia.
It feeds in those waters, and migrates up rivers to breed. One of only a
very few rivers where the fish goes is the Mekong. A specific spawning area
is unknown, but it is believed to be in the upper part of that
- PARIDES BURCHELLANUS ______
is a rare species of swallowtail butterfly in family Papilionidae. It is endemic to Brazil, where it has been known to occur in
the central part of the country. After it was sighted in 1965 along the
Maranhao River near Brasilia, It "disappeared" and was presumed to
But in 2002, it was re-found, further south in Brazil, near Belo Horizonte
in the state of Minas Gerais, where it was living "secretly" in
the town of Casa Branca.
There have been a number of FONT Brazil Tours in Minas Gerais, in the area of Belo
Horizonte, and some in the area of Brasilia. During our future tours in
those areas we'll certainly be on the lookout for the rare Parides
For lists & photo galleries of butterflies in South America:
SOUTH AMERICAN BUTTERFLIES BUTTERFLIES IN
BRAZIL & ARGENTINA, ESPECIALLY AT IGUAZU
Parides burchellanus, as indicated male and female
- PICEA NEOVEITCHII ______
is a species of conifer in the Pinaceae family, occurring only in the
Qinling Range in China.
- QIAOJIA PINE ______
The Qiaojia Pine, Pinus squamata, is a critically
endangered pine that is native to a single locality in northeast Yunnan,
China. It was discovered in April 1991, and it numbers about 20 known trees.
TARANTULA ______ (other names are the Gooty
Sapphire Ornamental Tree Spider, Metallic Tarantula, Peacock
The Peacock Tarantula, Poecilotheria metallica, is a beautiful
and very rare spider that only occurs in only localized area in India.
Back in 1899, it was first discovered in a town named Gooty, in a railroad
lumber yard. It was rediscovered 102 years later, in 2001, about 15
kilometers to the north.
- FATUHIVA MONARCH
The Fatuhiva Monarch, Pomarea whitneyi, is an Old World Flycatcher
endemic to Fatuhiva in the Marquesas Islands in French Polynesia. It
has recently declined more than 90 per cent in about 20 years, due to the
introduction if the Black Rat. The population may now be as low as 50
- LARGETOOTH SAWFISH
The Largetooth Sawfish, Pristis pristis, occurs very rarely in the tropical
& subtropical Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the eastern
Pacific Ocean, and along the northern Australian coast.
The Largetooth Sawfish has disappeared from 95 per cent of its
To read about the Largetooth Sawfish, in our list of fish off the coast of
MARINE FISH OF BELIZE, HONDURAS,
- SILKY SIFAKA
______ (also called Silky Simpona)
The Silky Sifaka is a large lemur in Madagascar. Its
population may be as low as 100 individuals.
- GEOMETRIC TORTOISE ______
The Geometric Tortoise occurs only in the Cape Province, in South
- PSIADIA CATARACTAE
is a species of flowering plant in the Asteraceae family, occurring
only in Mauritius.
- BEYDAGLARI BUSH
The Beydaglari Bush cricket lives only in the Beydaglari Range in Turkey.
- TONKIN SNUB-NOSED
The Tonkin Snub-nosed Monkey occurs in northeastern Vietnam.
- WEST AUSTRALIAN
Less than 100 individual plants of the West Australian Orchid remain
in the wild.
- BONI GIANT SENGI ______
The Boni Giant Sengi is a shrew in Kenya.
- SINAI ROSE ______
The Sinai Rose, Rosa arabica, has a small range of less than 15
square kilometers in the St. Katherine Mountains in Egypt. There are 10
sub-populations of the plant, but its total population size is
- DURRELL'S VONTSIRA
The Durrell's Vontsira, Salanoia durrelli, is a mammal in Madagascar
in the family Eupleridae. It is most closely related to the
Brown-tailed Mongoose, the only other mammal in its genus.
After an individual (of what would be the Durrell's Vontsira) was
first observed in 2004, the animal became known to science, and it was
described as a new species in 2010.
- RED-CRESTED TREE RAT ______
The Red-crested Tree Rat only occurs in the Sierra Nevada de Santa
Marta in Colombia.
- ANGEL SHARK ______
The Angel Shark formerly occurred in coastal waters of the
northeastern Atlantic Ocean as far north as Norway and into the
Mediterranean Sea. Now, as known, to be restricted to only the Canary
- CHINESE CRESTED TERN
The Chinese Crested Tern breeds only in Zhejiang and Fujian in China.
Outside the breeding season, it travels to Indonesia, Malaysia, the
Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand. Its total population is less
than 50 adult birds.
- OKINAWA SPINY RAT ______
(also called the Muennink's Spiny Rat)
The Okinawa Spiny Rat, Tokudaia muenninki, was thought to be extinct,
after the introduction of Mongoose, and the existence of abandoned
cats in northern Okinawa, the only place where Tokudaia muenninki
lived in the forest.
But in March 2008, the first wild specimen to be seen in 30 years was
observed. The "extinct" species was re-discovered. A local
photographer unexpectedly found an image of a spiny rat on his friend's
automatic camera surveying Okinawa Rail.
A TV crew collaborated with the photographer and installed cameras in the
forest. Amazing images of Okinawa Spiny Rats were captured. Images
included one foraging a sweet acorn that the animals feed upon in the
forest. That forest in the northern part of Okinawa, known as Yambaru,
nurtured these tiny rats secretly.
That forest in Okinawa known as "Yambaru" has been visited during
over a dozen FONT tours over the years.
A number of rare & special species are in that region. Most notable
among the birds are the very rare Pryer's Woodpecker and the Okinawa Rail
just noted above.
We've spent many hours, both during the day and after dark, exploring that
forest, and on one occasion we saw a small mammal that we later concluded
was a Okinawa Spiny Rat.
We were in that forested areas many hours at night in quest of the rail,
owls, and the Amami Woodcock that occurs in northern Okinawa in addition to
Another rare mammal we've seen there during FONT tours is the Okinawa Flying
Fox, Pteropus loochoensis, a "megabat" in the Pteropodidae
It was previously listed as "extinct" by the IUCN, but because the
two known specimens are taxonomically uncertain and of "unknown
provenance", it was changed to "data deficient".
Our two sightings of the Okinawa Flying Fox were both very late in the day,
as it was getting dark.
Some taxonomists treat the Okinawa Flying Fox, Pteropus loochoensis,
as a subspecies of Pteropus mariannus, the Mariana Fruit Bat,
with a range on Pacific islands from the Japanese Ryukyu islands in the
north, south to Guam.
To read about rare wildlife in the Yambaru area of Okinawa, and elsewhere
HIGHLIGHTS FROM PAST FOCUS ON NATURE TOURS IN JAPAN
The Yambaru forest in northern Okinawa that is
the only home on Earth of the
Okinawa Spiny Rat, Okinawa Flying Fox, Okinawa Rail, and Pryer's Woodpecker,
all seen during FONT tours.
- SOMPHONGS'S RASBORA ______
The Somphngs's Rasbora, Trigonostigma somphongsi, is a fish in the
Mae Khlong basin in Thailand.
- CORFU TOOTHCARP
The Corfu Toothcarp, Valencia letourmeuxi, is a species of fish in
the Valenciidae family. In Albania and Greece, it
inhabits fresh waters and coastal saline lagoons.
- FOREST COCONUT ______
The Forest Coconut is a tree of Madagascar. Less than 10
remain in the wild.
ECHIDNA ______ (another name is the Cyclops
The Attenborough's Echidna, Zaglossus attenboroughi, is the
smallest and probably the most threatened of the three long-beaked echidna
species. It is known from a single specimen collected in the Cyclops
Mountains of New Guinea in 1961.
Later, scientists went there again in 2007 searching for it. No individuals
were sighted, but echidna signs were found, and interviews with local people
indicated that the distinctive animals live in the mountains.
Also known as "spiny anteaters", echidnas are in the
monotreme order of egg-laying mammals, in the family Tachyglossidae.