PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876



noting those during
Focus On Nature Tours

1991 thru 2015

including the Canary Islands, 
off the northwest coast of Africa 

A List of European Mammals compiled by Armas Hill 

a SPANISH IBEX photographed during a FONT tour in the Gredos Mountains of Spain  


CI:   Canary Islands
FR:  France
HU:  Hungary
RM:  Romania
Spain, with those in Gibraltar (g) & nearby Morocco (m)

(i): introduced
(p): seen offshore 

(ph): with a photo in the FONT web-site

(*):  species found during a FONT tour, following the 2-letter country code above  

(t1):  critically endangered 
(t2):  endangered 
(t3):  vulnerable
(nt):  near-threatened

(Ece):  critically endangered
(Een):  endangered
(Evu):  vulnerable
(Ent):   near-threatened 

In this list of European Mammals, there are over 200 species.

Among the groupings of mammals in this list, links to:

Hedgehogs    Rabbits     Rodents (inc Squirrels & Beaver)     Porcupine

Carnivores     Bats     Even-toed Ungulates     Marine Mammals  

Other Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in Europe   

A List & Photo Gallery of European Birds, in 2 parts: 
Part #1: Grouse to Puffin     Part #2: Sandgrouse to Buntings

European Butterflies & Moths

Directory of Photos in this Website

A Brown Bear in Estonia

List of European Mammals:

  MOONRATS & HEDGEHOGS (Family Erinaceidae) 
(21 species worldwide)

  1. Western Hedgehog  ______ SP(*)  SW(*)
    Erinaceus europaeus

  2. Eastern Hedgehog  ______ HU(*)  PO(*)
    Erinaceus concolor

  3. Algerian Hedgehog  ______  CI(*)
    (formerly Atelerix) algirus

    RABBITS & HARES (in the Order Lagomorpha, Family Leporidae) 
    (57 species worldwide) 

  4. European Hare  ______ PO(*)  SP(*)  SW(*)  
    Lepus europaeus

  5. Mountain Hare  ______ 
    Lepus timidus

  6. Iberian Hare  ______
    Lepus granatensis

  7. Corsican Hare  (vu)  ______
    Lepus corsicanus

  8. Broom Hare  (vu)  ______
    Lepus castroviejoi

  9. European Rabbit  ______ CI(*)  SP(*)  SW(*)   (Note Eastern Cottontail of North America has been introduced to northern Spain & France. Eastern Cottontail immune to myxomatosis)
    Oryctolagus cuniculus 
    (the single member of its genus)

    RODENTS: gnawing mammals (order Rodentia -
    the largest order of mammals with nearly 2,000 species worldwide)
    Families include:
    Squirrels  (Family Sciuridae)
    Beavers  (Family Castoridae)
    Hamsters  (Subfamily Cricetinae)
    Voles & Lemmings  (Subfamily Arvicolinae)  
    True Mice & Rats  (Subfamily Murinae)
    Dormice  (Family Gliridae)
    Old World Porcupine  (Family Hystricidae)

  10. Red Squirrel  ______ FR(*)  PO(*)  SP(*)  SW(*)
    Sciurus vulgaris

  11. Persian Squirrel  _______  
    Sciurus anomalus 

  12. Alpine Marmot   ______ SP(*)
    Marmota marmota

    The Alpine Marmot has been successfully introduced in the Pyrenees, Carpathians, and the eastern Alps.    

  13. Spotted Souslik   ______ PO(*)

  14. European Souslik  (vu)  ______
    Spermophilus citellus

  15. Siberian Chipmunk  ______
    Tamias sibiricus

  16. Siberian Flying Squirrel  (Evu)  ______
    Pteromys volans

  17. European Beaver  ______ PO(*)
    Castor fiber

  18. Common Hamster  ______
    Cricetus cricetus

  19. Grey Hamster  ______
    Cricetulus migratorius

  20. Romanian Hamster  ______
    Mesocricetus newtoni

  21. Greater Mole Rat  ______
    Spalax microphthalmus (polonicus)

  22. Sandy Mole Rat  (en)  ______
    Spalax arenarius

  23. Giant Mole Rat  (vu)  ______
    Spalax giganteus

  24. Podolsk Mole Rat  (vu)  ______
    Spalax zemni

  25. Lesser Mole Rat  ______
    Nanospalax leucodon

  26. Wood Lemming  ______
    Myopus schisticolor

  27. Norway Lemming  (ph)  ______
    Lemmus lemmus

    Norway Lemming
    (photo courtesy of a FONT tour participant from Norway, Karl Frafjord)  

  28. Ruddy Vole  ______
    Clethrionomys rutilus

  29. Grey-sided Vole  ______
    Clethrionomys rufocanus

  30. Bank Vole  ______
    Clethrionomys glareolus

  31. Balkan Snow Vole  ______
    Dinaromys bogdanovi (Dolomys milleri)

  32. Southern Water Vole  ______
    Arvicola sapidus 

  33. Northern Water Vole  ______ PO(*)
    Arvicola terrestris

  34. Alpine Pine Vole  ______
    Pitymys (Microtus) multiplex

  35. Common Pine Vole  ______
    Pitymys subterraneus

  36. Mediterranean Pine Vole  ______
    Pitymys duodecimcostatus

  37. Iberian Pine Vole  ______
    Pitymys lusitanicus

  38. Yugoslavian (or Greek) Pine Vole  ______
    Pitymys thomasi

  39. Savi's Pine Vole  ______
    Pitymys savii

  40. Bavarian Pine Vole  (ce)  ______
    Microtus bavaricus  

  41. Root Vole  ______
    Microtus oeconomus (ratticeps)

  42. Field Vole  ______
    Microtus agrestis

  43. Snow Vole  ______
    Microtus nivalis

  44. Cabrera's Vole  (vu)  ______ SP(*)
    (formerly Agricola) cabrerae

  45. Gunther's Vole  ______
    Microtus socialis (guentheri)

  46. Common Vole  ______
    Microtus arvalis

  47. Sibling Vole  ______
    Microtus rossiaemeridionalis (epiroticus)

  48. Harvest Mouse  ______
    Micromys minutus

  49. Rock Mouse  ______
    Apodemus mystacinus

  50. Pygmy Field Mouse  ______
    Apodemus microps

  51. Long-tailed Field Mouse (has been called Wood Mouse)  ______ PO(*)  SP(*)
    Apodemus sylvaticus

  52. Yellow-necked Mouse  ______
    Apodemus flavicollis

  53. Striped Field Mouse  ______
    Apodemus agrarius

  54. Brown Rat (i)  ______  (has also been known as Common Rat or Norway Rat)
    Rattus norvegicus

  55. Black Rat (i)  ______  (has also been known as Ship Rat or Roof Rat)
    Rattus rattus

  56. Steppe Mouse  _______
    Mus apicilegus (hortulans)

  57. Algerian Mouse  ______
    Mus spretus

  58. Western House Mouse  ______
    Mus domesticus

  59. Eastern House Mouse  ______
    Mus musculus

  60. Spiny Mouse  ______
    Acomys minous (cahirinus)

  61. Roach's Mouse-tailed Dormouse  (en)  ______
    Myomimus roachi

  62. Edible Dormouse  ______
    Glis glis

  63. Forest Dormouse  _______
    Dryomys nitedula

  64. Garden Dormouse  ______
    Eliomys quercinus

  65. Common Dormouse  ______
    Muscardinus avellanarius

  66. Northern Birch Mouse  ______
    Sicista betulina

  67. Southern (or Severtzov's) Birch Mouse  (nt)  ______
    Sicista subtilis
    (Range: from Romania eastward)

    Old World Porcupines  (Family Hystricidae)

  68. Crested Porcupine  ______
    Hystrix cristata 

    CARNIVORES (Order Carnivora)
    Families include:
    Canines: Dogs & Foxes (Canidae)
    Felines: Cats (Felicae)
    Bears: (Ursidae)
    Mustelids: Weasels & allies (Mustelidae) 

    CANINES, Dogs & Foxes  (Family Canidae) 
    (35 species worldwide)

  69. Arctic Fox  ______  IC(*)
    (formerly Alopex) lagopus

  70. Red Fox (*) (ph)  ______  HU(*)  PO(*)  SP(*)  (now considered conspecific with Red Fox of North America) (NOTE AT END OF LIST)
    Vulpes vulpes 

    Red Fox
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  71. Gray Wolf  (ph)   ______ 
    Canis lupus

    In the distance, there's a Gray Wolf. 
    An indication that this is a wild area in Estonia.  

  72. Golden Jackal  ______
    Canis aureus 

  73. Raccoon Dog  (ph)  ______
    Nyctereutes proctonoides

    Raccoon Dogs in Estonia

    FELINES, Cats  (Family Felidae)  (39 species worldwide) 

  74. Eurasian Lynx  (ph)  ______ PO(*)
    (formerly Lynx) lynx

    A young Eurasian Lynx
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  75. Iberian Lynx (has also been called Pardel Lynx) (Ece)  ______ SP(*)  (a relict population of the Eurasian Lynx - a smaller-sized animal) (restricted to southwest Spain & nearby Portugal, critically endangered)  
    (formerly Lynx) pardina

  76. Wildcat  ______
    Felis silvestris 

    BEARS (Family Ursiodae) 
    (8 species worldwide)

  77. Brown Bear  (ph)  ______ RM(*)  (considered conspecific with Grizzly Bear of North America; the Brown Bear in Eurasia & North America has a number of subspecies.)
    Ursus arctos

    A Brown Bear photographed during a FONT tour in Romania
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  78. Polar Bear  (Evu)  ______
    Ursus maritimus

    MUSTELIDS, Otters, Weasels, & Badgers  (Family Mustelidae) 
    (68 species worldwide) 

  79. Stoat  ______ PO(*)  SW(*)  (considered conspecific with the Ermine, of North America, where it was formerly called Short-tailed Weasel)
    Mustela erminea

  80. Least Weasel  ______ SP(*)  (also occurs in North America)
    Mustela nivalis

  81. European Mink  (en)  ______
    Mustela lutreola

  82. American Mink  ______ IC(*) (i)
    Mustela vison

  83. Western Polecat  ______ SP(*)
    Mustela putorius

  84. Steppe Polecat  ______
    Mustela eversmanni

  85. Marbled Polecat  (vu)  ______
    Vormela peneguena

  86. Pine Marten  ______ PO(*)
    Martes martes

  87. Beech Marten  ______
    Martes foina

  88. Sable  ______
    Martes zibellina

  89. Wolverine  (vu)  ______
    Gulo gulo

  90. European Badger  ______
    Meles meles 

  91. Eurasian Otter  ______ PO(*)
    Lutra lutra

  92. Common Genet  ______
    Genetta genetta

    SHREWS (in the Order Soricodae, Family Soricidae) 
    (335 species worldwide)

  93. Least Shrew  ______
    Sorex minutissimus

  94. Appenine Shrew  ______
    Sorex samniticus

  95. Common Shrew  ______
    Sorex araneus

  96. Pygmy Shrew  ______
    Sorex minutus

  97. Dusky Shrew  ______
    Sorex isodon

  98. Masked Shrew  ______
    Sorex caecutiens

  99. Alpine Shrew  ______
    Sorex alpinus

  100. Millet's Shrew  ______
    Sorex coronatus

  101. Spanish Shrew  ______
    Sorex granarius

  102. Water Shrew  ______
    Neomys fodiens

  103. Miller's Water Shrew  ______
    Neomys anomatus

  104. Canary Shrew  (en)   ______  CI(*)   (on Lanzarote & Fuerteventura Islands; endemic to the eastern Canaries) 
    Crocidura canariensis

  105. Bicolored White-toothed Shrew  ______
    Crocidura leucodon

  106. Lesser White-toothed Shrew  ______
    Crocidiura suaveotens

  107. Greater White-toothed Shrew  ______
    Crocidura russula

  108. Cretan White-toothed Shew  (vu)  ______
    Crocidura zimmermanni

  109. Pygmy White-toothed Shrew  ______
    Suncus etruscus

    DESMANS. MOLES  (Family Talpidae) 
    (42 species worldwide)

  110. Pyrenean Desman  ______
    Galemys pyrenaicus

  111. Russian Desman  (vu)  ______
    Desmana moschata

  112. Blind Mole  ______
    Talpa caeca

  113. Common Mole  ______
    Talpa europaea

  114. Roman Mole  ______
    Talpa romana   

    BATS (order Chiroptera -
    with about 950 species worldwide, the diversity of bats is second only to that of rodents)

  115. Egyptian Slit-faced Bat  ______
    Nycteris thebaica

  116. Lesser Horseshoe Bat  ______
    Rhinolophus hipposideros

  117. Mediterranean Horseshoe Bat  (vu)  ______
    Rhinolophus euryale

  118. Blasius' Horseshoe Bat  (vu)  ______
    Rhinolophus blasii

  119. Greater Horseshoe Bat  ______ 
    Rhinolophus ferrumequinum

  120. Mehely's Horseshoe Bat  (vu)  ______
    Rhinolophus mehelyi

  121. Whiskered Bat  ______
    Myotis mystacinus

  122. Brandt's Bat  ______
    Myotis brandtii

  123. Daubenton's Bat  ______
    Myotis daubentonii

  124. Long-fingered Bat  (vu)  ______
    Myotis capaccinii

  125. Pond Bat  ______
    Myotis dasycneme

  126. Natterer's Bat  ______ SP(*)
    Myotis nattereri

  127. Geoffrey's Bat  ______
    Myotis emarginatus

  128. Bechstein's Bat (or Myotis) (vu)  ______
    Myotis bechsteinii

  129. Nathalina Bat  ______
    Myotis nathalinae

  130. Greater Mouse-eared Bat  ______
    Myotis myotis

  131. Lesser Mouse-eared Bat  ______
    Myotis blythi (oxtgnathus)

  132. Common Pipistrelle  ______ HU(*)  SP(*)  SW(*)
    Pipistrellus pipistrellus

  133. Nathusius Pipistrelle  ______
    Pipistrellus nathusii

  134. Kuhl's Pipistrelle  ______ SP(*)
    Pipistrellus kuhlii

  135. Savi's Pipistrelle  ______
    Pipistrellus savii

  136. Madeira Pipistrelle  (en)  ______
    Pipistrellus maderensis

  137. Leisler's Bat  ______
    Nyctalus leisleri

  138. Noctule  ______
    Nyctalus noctula

  139. Greater Noctule  ______
    Nyctalus lasiopterus

  140. Azores Noctule  (en)  ______
    Nyctalus azoreum

  141. Serotine Bat  ______
    Eptesicus serotinus

  142. Northern Bat  ______
    Eptesicus nilssoni

  143. Parti-colored Bat  ______
    Vespertilio murinus

  144. Hoary Bat  ______
    Lasiurus cinereus

  145. Barbastelle Bat  (now Western Barbastelle) (vu)  ______
    Barbastella barbastellus

  146. Gray Long-eared Bat  ______
    Plecotus austriacus

  147. Brown Long-eared Bat  ______
    Plecotus auritus

  148. Canary Long-eared Bat  (en)  ______
    Plecotus teneriffae

  149. Sardinian Long-eared Bat  (vu)  ______
    Plecotus sardus

  150. Mountain Long-eared Bat  (nt)  ______
    Plecotus macrobullaris

  151. Schreiber's Bat  ______
    Miniopterus schreibersii

  152. European Free-tailed Bat  ______
    Tadarida teniotis 

    OLD WORLD MONKEYS (in the Order Primates, the Family Cercopithecidae) 
    (132 species in the Old World) 

  153. Barbary Macaque  ______ SP(g)(*) (i) (native range: in mountains of Morocco & Algeria, formerly Libya) (NOTE AT END OF LIST) 
    Macaca sylvanus

    EVEN-TOED UNGULATES  (Order Artiodactyla)

    This order, worldwide, is diverse, including: pigs, hippopotamuses, camels, deer, antelope, and cattle.

    PIGS (Family Sulidae) 
    (17 species in the Old World)

    EVEN-TOED UNGULATES  (Order Artiodactyla)

    This order, worldwide, is diverse, including: pigs, hippopotamuses, camels, deer, antelope, and cattle.

    PIGS (Family Sulidae) 
    (17 species in the Old World)

  154. Wild Boar  ______ PO(*)  RM(*)  SP(*)
    Sus scrofa

    CAMELS  (Family Camelidae) 
    (7 species worldwide)

  155. Dromedary  ______  CI(*)  (introduced on Lanzarote Island)
    Camelus dromedarius

    DEER  (Family Cervidae) 
    (47 species worldwide)

  156. Red Deer / European Stag  ______ PO(*)  RM(*)  SP(*)  SW(*)  (conspecific with the Elk of North America)
    Cervus elaphus

  157. Fallow Deer  (ph)  ______ SP(*)  SW(*) (i) (native range: the woods of southern Turkey) (NOTE AT END OF LIST)
    Dama dama

    Fallow Deer
    (photo during the FONT Sept 2007 Sweden Tour by James Scheib)
  158. Elk  (ph)  ______ PO(*)  SW(*)  (conspecific with the Moose of North America)
    Alces alces

    (called Moose in North America)
    (photo during FONT Sept 2007 Sweden Tour by James Scheib)

  159. Reindeer  (ph)  ______ IC(*) (i) (NOTE AT END OF LIST)
    Rangifer tarandus 
    (the single member of its genus)

    Above: a male Reindeer, photographed during a FONT October Iceland Tour
    (photo by Claude Bloch) 
    Below: During another FONT tour in Iceland, in June 2012, more Reinbeer
    (photo by Gabriel Hauser)


  160. Western Roe Deer  ______ HU(*)  PO(*)  SP(*)  SW(*)
    Capreolus capreolus

    SHEEP, GOATS, BISON, & MUSKOX  (Family Bovidae) 
    (141 species worldwide)

    SHEEP, GOATS, BISON, & MUSKOX  (Family Bovidae)  (141 species worldwide)

  161. European Bison (or Wisent) (vu)  ______ PO(*)  (reintroduced in Poland) (formerly widely in forests of Europe & Russia) (endangered) (NOTE AT END OF LIST)
    Bison bonasus

  162. Chamois  ______  
    Rupicapra rupicapra

  163. Pyrenean Chamois (has also been called Isard) ______ FR(*)  SP(*)
    Rupicapra pyrenaica
    (formerly part of Rupicapra rupicapra, Chamois)

  164. Alpine Ibex  ______
    Capra ibex

  165. Spanish Ibex  (ph)  ______ SP(*)  (endemic to Spain) (IN PHOTOGRAPH AT BEGINNING OF LIST)
    Capra pyrenaica

  166. Cretan Wild Goat  ______  
    Capra aegagrus

  167. Mouflon  ______  CI(*)
    Ovis orientalis musimon  ("Sardinian Mouflon")  (vu)
    Ovis orientalis ophion  ("Cyprus Mouflon")  (vu)  

  168. Saiga  (ce)  ______  
    Saiga tatarica 

    MARINE MAMMALS I - SEALS & SEA LIONS (order Pinnidedia, "fin-footed")

    EARLESS SEALS  (Family Phocidae) 
    (20 species worldwide)  

  169. Walrus  ______  IC
    Odobenus rosmanus rosmarus 
    (subspecies in North Atlantic)

  170. Harbor Seal  (*) (ph)  ______ IC(*)  SW(*)
    Phoca v. vitulina  ("Eastern Atlantic" Harbor Seal)

    Harbor Seal
    (photo during FONT Sept 2007 Sweden Tour by James Scheib)

  171. Harp Seal  ______  IC
    Phoca groelandicus

  172. Ringed Seal  ______  IC
    Phoca hispada

  173. Grey Seal (*) ______ IC(*)  SW(*)
    Halichoerus grypus 
    (the single member of its genus)

  174. Bearded Seal  ______  IC
    Erignathus barbatus

  175. Mediterranean Monk Seal  (t1) (Ece)  ______
    Monachus monachus

  176. Hooded Seal  ______  IC
    Cystophora cristata


    TOOTHED WHALES (Suborder Odontoceti) includes: Dolphins & Porpoises, the Beaked Whales, Sperm Whales, the Beluga and Narwhal)

    MARINE DOLPHINS (Family Delphinidae) 
    (34 species worldwide)

  177. Rough-toothed Dolphin  ______
    Steno bredanensis

  178. Striped Dolphin  ______ SP (p)(*)
    Stenella coeruleoalba

  179. Atlantic Spotted Dolphin  ______
    Stenella frontalis (attenuata)

  180. Short-beaked Common Dolphin  (ph)  ______  CI(*)  IC  SP (p)(*)  (also called "Saddleback Dolphin")
    Delphinus delphis

  181. Common Bottle-nosed Dolphin  (ph)  ______ SP (p)(*)
    Tursiops truncatus

    A Common Bottle-nosed Dolphin photographed during a FONT tour 

  182. White-beaked Dolphin  ______  IC(*)
    Lagenorhynchus albirostris

  183. Atlantic White-sided Dolphin  ______  IC
    Lagenorhynchus acutus

  184. False Killer Whale  ______
    Pseudorca crassidens

  185. Killer Whale (or Orca (ph)  ______  IC
    Orcinus orca

  186. Risso's Dolphin  ______  (also called Gray Grampus)
    Grampus griseus 

  187. Long-finned Pilot Whale  (ph)   ______ IC SP(m)(p)(*)  (has also been called "Blackfish")
    Globicephala melas
    (formerly melaena)

    A Long-finned Pilot Whale photographed during a FONT tour

  188. Short-finned Pilot Whale  (ph)  ______ CI (p)(*)  (has also been called "Blackfish")
    Globicephala macrorhynchus

  189. Harbor Porpoise  (t3) (Evu)  ______  IC
    Phocoena phocoena

  190. Beluga  (t3)  ______  IC
    Delphinapterus leucas

  191. Narwhal  ______  IC
    Monodon monoceros

  192. Pygmy Sperm Whale  (ph)  ______
    Kogia breviceps

  193. Dwarf Sperm Whale  (ph)  ______
    Kogia simus

    GREAT SPERM WHALE (Family Physeteridae) 
    (1 species worldwide)

  194. Great Sperm Whale  (t3) (Evu) (ph)  ______ IC SP(m)(p)(*)  (has also been called Cachalot)
    Physeter catadon
    (formerly Physeter macrocephalus)  (the single member of its genus & family) 

    A Great Sperm Whale during a FONT tour.
    Note the characteristic angled spout.
    This species has been seen during the FONT Spain Tour, 
    offshore between Spain & Morocco.   

  195. Gervais' Beaked Whale  ______
    Mesoplodon europaeu

  196. Blainsville's Beaked Whale  ______
    Mesoplodon densirostris

  197. True's Beaked Whale  ______
    Mesoplodon mirus

  198. Sowerby's Beaked Whale  ______
    Mesoplodon bidens

  199. Gray's Beaked Whale  ______
    Mesoplodon grayi

  200. Cuvier's Beaked Whale  (ph)  ______
    Ziphius cavirostris

  201. Northern Bottle-nosed Whale  ______  IC
    Hyperoodon ampullatus

  202. Blue Whale  (t2) (Een) (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Balaenoptera m. musculus 
    (subspecies in the North Atlantic & North Pacific Oceans; 2 others subspecies in the Southern Hemisphere) 

    Blue Whales are up to 100 feet in length, and weigh up to 150 tons, or 300,000 pounds.
    It is the largest creature on Earth.
    Only 1,500 are estimated to be in the North Atlantic Ocean. 

    The Blue Whale is a globally endangered species, but fortunately it continues to survive. 

    A Blue Whale photographed during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2012
    1 of 2 Blue Whales seen during that tour.
    Actually, in this photo, a small portion of a very large whale. With most of the tail,
    the very rear portion of the back, and part of the fin still above the water,
    as the whale began a deep dive.    

  203. Fin Whale  (t2) (ph)  ______  IC
    Balaenoptera physalus

  204. Sei Whale  (t2) (Een)  ______  IC
    Balaenoptera borealis

  205. Northern Minke Whale  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Balaenoptera acutorostrata

  206. Humpback Whale  (t3) (ph)  ______  IC
    Megaptera novaeangliae

  207. Bowhead Whale  (t1/t2) (Een)  ______  IC
    Balaena mysticetus

  208. North Atlantic Right Whale  (t2) (Ece) (ph)  ______  IC
    (formerly Balaena) glacialis  


Barbary Macaque: There's a naturalized population (of 30-40 animals) on the Rock of Gibraltar that originated from North African stock.
Fossils indicate the animal was widespread through Europe during the Pleistocene. Claims that some may have survived in southern Spain until the 1890's are unlikely to be correct. 

Red Fox: The most widespread, and abundant, wild carnivore in the world.

Fallow Deer: Extinct in Europe following the last glaciation, except for pockets around the Mediterranean. Now abundant following widespread introductions.

Reindeer: First introduced into Iceland in 1771 - 13 from northern Norway. There were further introductions. Numbers increased and peaked in the mid-19th Century. The population then declined rapidly, until less than 200 were left in 1940. Now, only in eastern Iceland, numbers have increased again, and are stabilized at about 3,000. 

(European) Bison: Extinct in the wild in 1919. (In Roman times, found in Germany and Belgium, with records of herds of many thousands on migration.) Reintroduced to the wild from zoos, particularly in the Bialowiecza Forest in Poland. Total population now 1500-2000.  

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