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E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
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 or 302/529-1876


Amphibians and Reptiles 
North Carolina

Noting those during Focus On Nature Tours
with an (*)

Toads & Frogs (seen or heard)
Skinks, Anoles, and other Lizards

A list compiled by Armas Hill
(with input by the staff from the
Howell Woods Environmental Learning Center
in Four Oaks, North Carolina)

UPPER RIGHT PHOTO: a LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLE photographed off the North Carolina seacoast 
(Photo by Alan Brady)


ARR: area of Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge
CNF: areas of Croatan National Forest & nearby coastal North Carolina  
NRV: (upper) Neuse River Valley (the Piedmont)
OBX: Outer Banks (including Roanoke Island & Ocracoke Island)

Species classified as GLOBALLY THREATENED:
(t1):   critically threatened
(t2):   endangered
(t3):   vulnerable
(nt):   a near-threatened species globally  

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website

Excellent recordings of the sounds of frogs and toads are in the audio CD of "The Calls of Frogs and Toads", by Lang Elliot, 2004.
In this list, numbers noted as (LE:xx) refer to that of the particular frog or toad in the CD. Recordings in the disk referred to here were by Lang Elliot,  

Links to Groupings in this List:

AMPHIBIANS:    Frogs & Toads    Salamanders   

REPTILES:    Alligator    Turtles    Lizards    Snakes  

More about AMPHIBIANS & REPTILES in this list in:
Amphibians & Reptiles in Eastern North America

Other Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in North Carolina    Upcoming FONT Tours Elsewhere

FONT Past Tour Highlights    Photo Galleries & Narratives from past FONT tours

Birds during FONT North Carolina Tours  (with some photos)

Mammals in North Carolina  (with some photos)

Butterflies,  Moths, Dragonflies, & Damselflies in North Carolina  (with some photos) 

Wildflowers & Other Plants of Eastern North America, inc. North Carolina

Other Photo Galleries & Lists of Amphibians & Reptiles   

Directory of Photos in this Website


  Frogs & Toads

          Family RANIDAE: TRUE FROGS 

  1. Green Frog  (ph)   ______ (*) NRV  (LE:3)   Size: grows up to 2 to 3.5 inches
    Rana clamitans

    The Green Frog is primarily aquatic in its habits. It can be abundant, occurring along the edges of ponds, lakes, streams, and other permanent bodies of water.
    When approached, the Green Frog leaps from the shoreline and squeaks an alarm note before hitting the water.     

    Above & below: Green Frogs
    (upper photo by Howard Eskin, lower photo by Marie Gardner)

    Below: a tadpole of the Green Frog  (photo by Marie Gardner)

  2. American Bullfrog  (ph)  ______ (*) ARR,NRV  (LE:1)  Size: 3 to 8 inches
    Rana catesbeiana

    The coloration and pattern of the American Bullfrog is variable. 
    The dorsal color varies from bright leaf green to olive, olive-brown, or brown.
    The dorsal pattern varies with individuals that may include mottling or marbles that are dark brown to black on the back and the sides of the body.     

    The American Bullfrog may be heard, generally, from April to August. It avoids temporary bodies of water.

    Two photographs of Bullfrogs
    (upper photo courtesy of Doris Potter;
     lower photo during a FONT tour) 

  3. River Frog  ______  (LE:14)  occurs in southern North Carolina  Size: 3 to 5.25or 6 inches
    Rana heckscheri

    The River Frog occurs in the coastal plain. It is generally uncommon.

    Unlike the Carolina Gopher Frog (below, in this list), the River Frog generally does not call in choruses, and the calls of lone males (a low, rumbling snore lasting from 1 to 3 seconds) are easily overlooked.

    The breeding of Rana heckscheri is from April through the summer.  

  4. Pickerel Frog  (ph)  ______ (*) ARR,NRV  (LE:11)  Size: 1.25 to 3.5 inches
    Rana palustris

    The Pickerel Frog breeds in lakes, ponds, and streams. It also occurs in grassy areas away from water.
    Males sometimes call while submerged.

    Pickerel Frog
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  5. Carpenter Frog ______ (*) ARR  (LE:6)  in eastern and southern North Carolina   Size: 1.5 to 2.5 inches
    Rana virgatipes

    The name "Carpenter Frog" is because its advertisement call is a distinctive series of sharp, double rapping notes, that sound like two carpenters hammering nails slightly out of synch. It may be heard from spring to late summer.  

    Rana virgatipes
    is also called the Sphagum Frog due to its close association with sphagum bogs. 
    Otherwise, it can also be found at lakes and ponds.

  6. Southern Leopard Frog ______  (*)  ARR  (LE:9)   Size generally 2 to 3.5 inches, but can be up to 5 inches in length
    Rana sphenocephala

    The Southern Leopard Frog often wanders away from water into grassy and weedy places. It may be heard in the spring and, in the southern part of its range, throughout the year. 

  7. Carolina Gopher Frog  ______  (LE:12)   Size: up to 4 inches long 
    Rana capito

    Rana capito
    is found in dry, sandy habitats of the coastal plain. It breeds in nearby ponds and swamps.
    It is a nocturnal species, that is named for its habit of taking shelter during the day in burrows of other animals, particularly the Gopher Tortoise (which occurs in southern South Carolina and south to Florida).    

  8. Wood Frog  ______  (LE:4)  in western North Carolina   Size: 1.5 to 3.25 inches
    Rana sylvatica

    Outside it breeding season, the Wood Frog is terrestrial, preferring moist, wooded areas.  

  9. Crawfish Frog  ______ (*) CNF  (LE:13)   Size: 2.75 to 3.5 inches 
    Rana areolata

    The Crawfish Frog favors moist pastures and meadows, where it takes shelter during the day in crawfish burrows, or the burrows of other animals.

    The northern limit of the range of the Crawfish Frog is east-central North Carolina.  

    In North Carolina, Rana areolata is classified as near, or potentially, threatened.

  10. Southern Chorus Frog ______ (*) CNF  (LE:28)   size: 0.75 to 1.25 inches
    Pseudacris nigrita nigrita

    The range of the Southern Chorus Frog, Pseudacris nigrita, is the coastal plain from North Carolina to Mississippi.
    The northern limit of is range is east-central North Carolina. It frequents a variety of habitats.
    Pseudacris nigrita calls from grass at the edge of water in roadside ditches, temporary pools, and flooded fields.

    The Southern Chorus Frog breeds in the winter, from November to April.  

  11. Upland Chorus Frog  ______  (LE:27)   Size: 0.75 to 1.5 inches
    Pseudacris feriarum

    The Upland Chorus Frog, now Pseudacris feriarum, was long considered to be a subspecies of the Western Chorus Frog, or Striped Chorus Frog, Pseudacris triseriata

    In the eastern US, the Upland Chorus Frog is generally restricted to the Piedmont region.   

    Pseudacris feriarum breeds from winter to spring in roadside ditches and other shallow water, often adjacent to farmland.

  12. Mountain Chorus Frog  ______  (LE:30)   Size: 1 to 1.5 inches
    Pseudacris brachyphona

    The Mountain Chorus Frog ranges in the Appalachian Mountains, south from southwestern Pennsylvania.
    In North Carolina, it is in the far-western part of the state.

    Pseudacris brachyphona breeds from winter to spring in pools, ditches, pongs, or springs in forests or at forest edges.

  13. Brimley's Chorus Frog  ______  (LE:29)   Size: 1 to 1.25 inches
    Pseudacris brimleyi

    The range of the Brimley's Chorus Frog is on the coastal plain from Virginia to Georgia.
    It breeds from November to Marsh, or April in ponds, swamps, and ditches.
    The advertisement call of Pseudacris brimleyi is much like that of the Southern Chorus Frog, but more raspy.  

  14. Ornate Chorus Frog ______ (*) CNF  (LE:24)   Size: 1 to 1.5 inches
    Pseudacris ornata

    The northern limit of the range of the Ornate Chorus Frog is south-central North Carolina.
    It breeds from December through March, usually after rains, calling from temporary pools, ponds, and roadside ditches by open areas.

  15. Pine Barrens Treefrog  ______  (LE:16)   Size: 1 to 2 inches
    Hyla andersonii

    The Pine Barrens Treefrog is one of the most beautiful of the frogs in eastern North America. It is green above with white-bordered lavender stripes on each side.

    Hyla andersonii
    is found only in pine barren habitats. In North Carolina, it occurs in 16 counties in the south-central part of the state.

    The advertisement call of the Pine Barrens Treefrog is rather similar to that of the Green Treefrog (below), but it is somewhat more melodic and usually higher in pitch and repeated more rapidly (with up to 3 calls per second).
    It can be heard from bogs, swamps, and shrubby areas where water seeps to the surface.
  16. Green Treefrog ______ (*)  ARR  (LE:15)   Size: 1.25 to 2.5 inches 
    Hyla cinerea

    Other names for Hyla cinerea are "Cowbell Frog" and "Rain Frog".
    The first of these names is because at a distance the call can sound bell-like. 
    The second name is because huge choruses erupt after warm rains.

    The Green Treefrog breeds in swamps, marshes, and ponds.

  17. Barking Treefrog ______  (*) CNF  (LE:17)    Size: 2 to 2.75 inches
    Hyla gratiosa

    The Barking Treefrog is found mainly in coastal plain habitats from North Carolina to Louisiana.

    From a distance, the Barking Treefrog sounds like the hollow barks of a hound dog. It gives a different call from trees or shrubs, harsh and barking.
    The breeding of Hyla gratiosa is from spring to early autumn in shallow ponds and cypress swamps. 

  18. Pine Woods Treefrog ______  (*)  NRV  (LE:19)   Size: 1 to 1.5 inches
    Hyla femoralis

    The Pine Woods Treefrog spends much of its time high in trees, especially pines, where it feeds on small insects.
    The reddish-brown color of the frog provides camouflage against the pine bark.
    The range of Hyla femoralis is the pine forest habitats in the coastal plain from Virginia to Louisiana.

    The Pine Woods Treefrog breeds from late spring through the summer in ditches, pools, and small ponds.  

  19. Squirrel Treefrog ______  (*)  NRV  (LE:18)   Size: 1 to 1.5 inches
    Hyla squirrela

    The Squirrel Treefrog sometimes feeds in trees, but it is also found on the ground near decaying stumps or logs.
    It breeds in temporary ponds and ditches.  

  20. Gray Treefrog ______  (*)  NRV  (LE:20)   Size: 1.25 to 2.5 inches
    Hyla versicolor 

    Hyla versicolor
    and Hyla chrysoselis (below) are identical in appearance, but they can be distinguished in the field by their vocalizations. The two species do not interbreed. 

    Hyla versicolor, the Gray Treefrog, spends most of its time above ground, looking for insects in trees and shrubs.
    It breeds from the late spring into the summer in ponds and pools surrounded by shrubs and trees.
    In the summer, it may trill. 

  21. Cope's Gray Treefrog  ______  (LE:21)   Size: 1.25 to 2.5 inches
    Hyla chrysoselis

    As noted above (in this list) with Hyla versicolor, it and Hyla chryoselis are virtually identical in appearance.
    But generally there is not an overlap in the occurrence of these two look-alike species.

    What was written above about the Gray Treefrog, regarding habitat, habits, and breeding, also applies to the Cope's Gray Treefrog.    

  22. Northern Cricket Frog ______ NRV  (LE:31)   Size: 0.5 to 1.5 inches
    Acris crepitans

    The Northern Cricket Frog calls from open or grassy edges of ponds, lakes. creeks, and swampy areas.
    It breeds from late winter into the summer. 

  23. Southern Cricket Frog ______ NRV  (LE:32)   Size: 0.5 to 1.5 inches
    Acris gryllus

    The Southern Cricket Frog calls from floating vegetation or from shorelines of lakes, ponds, and streams.
    It breeds primarily from April through the summer. 

  24. Little Grass Frog ______  (LE:26)   Size: 0.5 to 0.75 inches
    Limnaoedus ocularis

    The Little Grass Frog is the smallest frog in North America. it is active during the day in open grassy areas.
    Breeding is from winter to summer, with a spring-time peak. It calls from flooded grassy meadows, roadside pools, and ponds with emergent grassy vegetation.
    The advertisement call of the Little Grass Frog is very high-pitched and insect-like.  

  25. Northern Spring Peeper ______  (*) NRV  (LE:23)   Size: 0.75 to 1.5 inches 
    Pseudacris crucifer crucifer  (formerly Hyla crucifer crucifer)

    The Southern Spring Peeper, Pseudacris crucifer bartramiana, is south of North Carolina in Florida. 

    The Northern Spring Peeper breeds in pools, ditches, and ponds. It is not often seen outside the breeding season when it looks for insects in trees and shrubs, and on the ground.

    Pseudacris crucifer has a "rain call" given periodically in the summer and autumn, from trees and shrubs, that is a repeated series of peeps or squeaks that are harsher and more dissonant than its call in the spring, hence the nickname "Autumn Piper".     


  26. American Toad  (ph)  ______  (LE:33)  in central North Carolina   Size: 2 to 4.5 inches
    Bufo americanus

    The American Toad generally breeds in the spring, from April to June. In the South, it breeds earlier.  

    Above & below: American Toads
    (upper photo by Howard Eskin; lower photo by Marie Gardner)

  27. Oak Toad ______ (*)  CNF,NRV  (LE:38)   Size: 0.75 to 1.25 inches
    Bufo quercicus

    The Oak Toad is the smallest of the true toads in North America. It is abundant in the southeast US, in oak-pine woodlands and upland pine forest on the coastal plain from Virginia to Louisiana.
    It is commonly seen during the day. During dry periods, it burrows into the ground.  

  28. Southern Toad ______ (*)  CNF,NRV  (LE:34)   Size: 1.75 to 4 inches
    Bufo terrestris

    The range of the Southern Toad is on the coastal plain from Virginia to Louisiana. 

  29. Fowler's Toad  (ph)  ______ (*)  ARR,NRV  (LE:36)   Size: 2 to 3.5 inches
    Bufo fowleri  

    The Fowler's Toad was a subspecies of the more-westerly Woodhouse's Toad, Bufo woodhousii. 

    Bufo fowleri breeds mostly from February through May, but it can be heard in the summer from lakes, ponds, rivers, ditches, and pools.  

    The advertisement call of the Fowler's Toad is a buzzy, nasal trill lasting from 1 to 5 seconds. It sounds somewhat like a baby crying.

    Fowler's Toad
    (photo by Howard Eskin)


  30. Eastern Spadefoot Toad ______ (*)  ARR,CNF,NRV  (LE:39)    Size: 1.75 to 3 inches
    Scaphiopus holbrooki

    The Eastern Spadefoot Toad was considered a subspecies of the Hurter's Spadefoot Toad, Scaphiopus hurteri, of Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Arkansas.

    Scaphiopus holbrooki breeds in temporary pools caused by heavy rains. It calls during the summer.  


  31. Eastern Narrowmouth Toad ______ (*)  ARR,CNF,NRV  (LE:41)   Size: 1 to 1.5 inches
    Gastrophryne carolinensis

    The Eastern Narrowmouth Toad occurs in a variety of habitats, but in its habits it is secretive.
    It breeds in ponds, lakes, pools, and ditches.



  32. Eastern Hellbender  ______  (in western North Carolina)  (Length: 12 to 29 inches)
    Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis


  33. Common Mudpuppy  ______  (local in western North Carolina)  (Length: 8 to 9 inches)
    Necturus maculosus maculosus

  34. Carolina Mudpuppy  ______  (has been called Neuse River Waterdog (Length: 6.5 to 11 inches)
    Necturus lewisi

    The Carolina Mudpuppy is endemic to North Carolina, in the Neuse and Tar River basins.  

    Necturus lewisi is classified as near, or potentially, threatened in North Carolina.  

  35. Dwarf Mudpuppy  ______  (has been called Dwarf Waterdog)  (Length: 4.5 to 7.5 inches)
    Necturus punctatus

  36. Two-toed Amphiuma  ______  NRV  (Length: 18 to 46 inches)
    Amphiuma means

  37. Lesser Siren  ______  (Length: 6 to 15 inches)
    Siren intermedia

  38. Greater Siren  ______  (Length: 20 to 37.5 inches)
    Siren lacertina

    Siren lacertina is classified as near, or potentially, threatened in North Carolina.


  39. Mabee's Salamander ______ CNF  (northern limit of range north-east NC)  (Length: 3 to 4.5 inches)
    Ambystoma mabeei

  40. Spotted Salamander ______ NRV  (Length: 6 to 10 inches)
    Ambystoma maculatum

  41. Marbled Salamander ______ NRV  (Length: 3.5 to 5 inches)
    Ambystoma opacum

  42. Mole Salamander  ______  (mostly in western North Carolina)  (Length: 3 to 5 inches)
    Ambystoma talpoideum

  43. Eastern Tiger Salamander  ______  (Length: 7 to 11 inches)
    Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum


  44. Northern Dusky Salamander  ______  (Length: 2.5 to 5.5 inches)
    Desmognathus fuscus fuscus

  45. Southern Dusky Salamander ______ ARR  (Length: 3 to 6.5 inches)
    Desmognathus auriculatus

  46. Santeetiah Dusky Salamander  ______  (in far-western North Carolina)
    Desmognathus santeetiah

  47. Appalachian Seal Salamander  ______  (Length: 3 to 6 inches)
    Desmognathus monticola monticola

  48. Black-bellied Salamander  ______   (in western North Carolina)  (Length: 4 to 8 inches)
    Desmognathus quadramaculatus

  49. Mountain Dusky Salamander  ______  (in western North Carolina)  (Length: nearly 3 to 4.5 inches)
    Desmognathus ochrophaeus

    Desmognathus ochrophaeus has an amazing variation in color, markings, body proportions, and size. the variation is individual, ontogenetic, and geographic.

  50. Imatator Salamander  ______  (in far-western North Carolina)
    Desmognathus imitator

    Desmognathus imitator is a cryptic species that resembles Desmognathus ochrophaeus in size and general appearance but differs in genetic makeup.
    Many populations of Desmognathus imitator vary markedly in color and pattern and can be distinguished from Desmognathus ochrophaeus only be electrophoretic analysis.
    Presently, only certain populations along the main ridge of the Great Smoky Mountains can be distinguished from Desmognathus ochropheus by their color patterns.

  51. Apalachicola Dusky Salamander  ______
    Desmognathus apalchicolae

  52. Pigmy Salamander  ______  (in western North Carolina)  (Length: 1.5 to 2 inches)
    Desmognathus wrighti

  53. Seepage Salamander  ______  (another name is Cherokee Salamander)  (in far-western North Carolina)  (Length: 1.75 to 2.25 inches)
    Desmognathus aeneus

  54. Shovelnose Salamander  ______  (in western North Carolina)  (Length: 3.5 to 5.5 inches)
    Desmognathus (or Leurognathus) marmoratus

  55. Northern Two-lined Salamander  ______  (Length: 2.5 to 5 inches)
    Eurycea bislineata bislineata

  56. Southern Two-lined Salamander  ______  
    Eurycea cirrigera

  57. Blue Ridge Two-lined Salamander  ______
    Eurycea wilderae

  58. Junaluska Salamander  (t3)  ______  (in far-west North Carolina)  (Species described in 1976)  (Length: 3 to 4 inches)
    Eurycea junaluska

    Eurycea juniuska
    is known only to be in Graham County, North Carolina, and the western tip of the Great Smoky Moutnains Park.

  59. Long-tailed Salamander  ______  (Length: 3.5 to 8 inches)
    Eurycea longicauda longicauda  ______  (locally in western North Carolina)
    Eurycea longicauda guttolineata 
    Three-lined Salamander ______

  60. Dwarf Salamander  ______  (Length: 2 to 3.5 inches)
    Eurycea quadridigitata

  61. Eastern Red-backed Salamander  ______  (has been called Redback Salamander)  (Length: 2.25 to 5 inches) 
    Plethodon cinereus

  62. Southern Red-backed Salamander  ______  (in far-western North Carolina)  (Length: 2.25 to 5 inches)
    Plethodon serratus

  63. Ravine Salamander  ______  (in western North Carolina)  (Length: 3 to 5.5 inches)
    Plethodon richmondi

  64. Weller's Salamander  ______  (in far-western North Carolina)  (Length: 2.5 to 3 inches)
    Plethodon welleri

  65. Wehrle's Salamander  ______  (local in North Carolina)  (Length: 4 to 6.5 inches)
    Plethodon wehrlei 

  66. Northern Slimy Salamander ______ NRV  (Length: 4.5 to 8 inches)
    Plethodon glutinous glutinsus 

  67. Yonahlossee Salamander  ______  (in western North Carolina)  (Length: 4.5 to 7.5 inches)
    Plethodon yonahlossee

  68. Jordan's Salamander  ______  (in western North Carolina)  (Length: 3.5 to 7 inches)
    Plethodon jordani

  69. Northern Zigzag Salamander  ______  (Length: 2.5 to 4.5 inches)
    Plethodon dorsalis

    In North Carolina, Plethodon dorsalis is only known to occur in Henderson County.

    It seems as if the known populations of Plethedon dorsalis are relicts of a widespread Pleistocene population.

  70. Four-toed Salamander  ______  (Length: 2 to 3.5 inches)
    Hemidactylium scutatum

  71. Many-lined Salamander  ______  (in eastern North Carolina)  (Length: 2.5 to 4.5 inches)
    Stereochilus marginatus

  72. Green Salamander  ______  (in far-western North Carolina)  (Length: 3 to 5.5 inches)
    Aneides aeneus

  73. Spring Salamander  ______  (Length: nearly 4.5 to 8.5 inches)
    Gyrinophilus porphyriticus danielsi  Blue Ridge Spring Salamander  ______
    Gyrinophilus porphyriticus dunni 
    Carolina Spring Salamander  ______  

  74. Eastern Mud Salamander ______  (Length: 3 to 7.5 inches)
    Pseudotriton montanus montanus

  75. Red Salamander ______  (Length: 3 to 7 inches)
    Pseudotriton ruber riber  Northern Red Salamander  ______
    Pseudotriton ruber schencki 
    Blackchin Red Salamander  ______  


  76. Eastern Newt ______  (Length: 2.5 to 5.5 inches)
    Notophthalmus viridescens
     virdescens  Red-spotted Newt  ______
    Notophthalmus viridescens dorsalis 
    Broken-striped Newt  ______




  77. American Alligator  (ph)  ______ (*) ARR  (in eastern North Carolina)  (Length: 6 to 19 feet) 
    Alligator mississippiensis 

    The American Alligator is classified as endangered on North Carolina.



  78. Snapping Turtle  (ph)  ______ (*) NRV  (Length: 8 to 18.5 inches)
    Chleydra serpentina

    Snapping Turtle
    (photo by Howard Eskin)


  79. Eastern Mud Turtle ______ (*) ARR,NRV  (Length: 3 to 5 inches)
    Kinosternum subrubum subrubum

  80. Eastern (or Common) Musk Turtle  ______ (*) NRV  (another name is Stinkpot)  (Length: 3 to 5.5 inches)
    Sternotherus odoratus

  81. Stripeneck Musk Turtle  ______  (in far-western North Carolina)  (Length: 3 to 4.5 inches)
    Sternotherus minor pelifer


  82. Eastern Box Turtle  (ph)  ______ (*) ARR,CNF,NRV  (Length: 4.5 to 6.5 inches)
    Terrapene carolina carolina

    Above & below: Eastern Box Turtles
    (upper photo by Howard Eskin; lower photo by Rise Hill)
    In the lower photo, the turtle crossing a road. 

  83. Eastern River Cooter ______ (*) NRV   (Length: 5.5 to 12.5 inches)
    (formerly Chrysemys) concinna

  84. Northern Red-bellied Cooter (ph)  ______  (*)  (has also been called Redbelly Turtle)  (in eastern North Carolina)  (Length: 10 to 16 inches) 
    Pseudemys rubriventris

    Above & below: Northern Red-bellied Cooters
    (upper photo by Marie Gardner; lower photo by Howard Eskin)

  85. Florida (or Peninsular) Cooter  ______  (Length: 9 to 15.5 inches)
    Pseudemys floridana

  86. Eastern Painted Turtle  (ph)  ______ (*) ARR,NRV  (Length: 4.5 to 7 inches)
    Chrysemys picta picta

    Painted Turtles
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  87. Yellowbelly (or Pond) Slider  (ph)  ______ (*) NRV  (Length: 5 to 11.5 inches)
    Chrysemys scripta

    The Yellowbelly, or Pond Slider
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  88. Spotted Turtle ______  NRV  (Length: 3.5 to 5 inches)
    Clemmys guttata

  89. Bog Turtle  ______  (in western North Carolina)  (Length: 3 to 4 inches)
    Clemmys muhlenbergii

  90. Chicken Turtle  ______  (Length: 4 to 10 inches)
    Deirochelys reticularis

  91. Northern Diamondback Terrapin  (ph)  ______ (*) OBX  (in eastern North Carolina)  (Length: 6 to 9 inches)
    Malaclemys terrapin terrapin

    Diamondback Terrapin
    (photo by Howard Eskin)


    An excellent book, filled with good information about Sea Turtles, and interesting reading, is "Voyage of the Turtle - in Pursuit of the Earth's Last Dinosaur", by Carl Safina, published in 2007. 

  92. Leatherback (Sea Turtle)  (t1) (ph)  ______ (*) offshore ocean  (Length: 53 to 70 inches)
    Dermochelys coriacea

    The Leatherback Sea Turtle is classified as endangered in North Carolina oceanic waters.  

  93. Loggerhead (Sea Turtle)  (t2) (ph) ______ (*) offshore ocean  (Length: 31 to 47 inches)  
    Caretta caretta

    The Loggerhead Sea Turtle nests on a few undisturbed beaches in North Carolina. It is classified as endangered in the state along the seacoast and offshore.   

    Loggerhead Sea Turtle 
    (photographed by Alan Brady 
    during a FONT North Carolina pelagic trip)

  94. Green Turtle  (t2)  ______  (Length: 30 to 60 inches)
    Chelonia mydas

  95. Atlantic Hawksbill  (t1)  ______  (Length: 29.5 to 36 inches)
    Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata

  96. Kemp's Ridley  (t1)  ______  (Another name is Atlantic Ridley)  (Length: 23 to 30 inches)
    Lepidochelys kempii


  97. Spiny Softshell  (ph)  ______  (Length: 5 to 9 inches)
    (formerly Trionyx) spinifera
    Apalone spinifera spinifera
      Eastern Spiny Softshell  ______  
    Apalone spinifera aspera  Gulf Coast Shiny Softshell  ______  


  98. Carolina Anole  ______  (*)  CNF,NRV  (also called Green Anole)  (Length: 5 to 8 inches)
    Anolis carolinensis


  99. Northern Fence Lizard ______  (*)  CNF,NRV  (Length: 4 to 7.3 inches)
    Scelopus undulatus hyacinthinus


  100. Common Five-lined Skink ______ NRV  (Length: 5 to 8 inches)
    Eumeces fasciatus

  101. Southeastern Five-lined Skink ______ NRV  (Length: 5.5 to 8.5 inches)
    Eumeces inexpectatus

  102. Broadhead Skink ______ NRV  (Length: 6.5 to 13 inches)
    Eumeces laticeps

  103. Northern Coal Skink  ______  (Length: 5 to 7 inches)
    Eumeces anthracinus anthracinus

  104. Little Brown Skink ______ NRV  (Another name is Ground Skink)  (Length: 3 to 5 inches)
    Scincella lateralis 
    (formerly Leiolopisma laterale)

    Family TEIIDAE

  105. Six-lined Racerunner ______ NRV  (conspecific with the more-westerly Prairie Racerunner)  (Length: 6 to 9.5 inches)
    Cnemidophorus sexlineatus sexlineatus

    Family ANGUIDAE

  106. Slender Glass Lizard ______  (Length: 22 to 46.5 inches)
    Ophisaurus attenuatus

  107. Eastern Glass Lizard ______ (*) ARR  (Length: 18 to 42 inches)
    Ophisaurus ventralis

  108. Mimic Glass Lizard  ______  
    Ophisaurus mimicus



  109. Eastern Worm Snake ______ NRV  (Length: 7.5 to 12.5 inches)
    Carphophis amoenus amoenus

  110. Northern Scarlet Snake ______  (Length: 14 to 26 inches)
    Cemophora coccinea copei

  111. Northern Black Racer ______ (*) ARR,NRV  (Length: 36 to 56 inches)
    Coluber constrictor constrictor

    As the English name implies, the Black Racer is a fast-moving snake, but contrary to the scientific name (constrictor), it does not use constriction to subdue its prey.   

  112. Southern Ringneck Snake ______  (Length: 10 to 20 inches)
    Diadophis punctatus punctatus

  113. Corn Snake ______ CNF  (Length: 30 to 72 inches) 
    Elaphe guttata

    The Corn Snake can be confused with several other snakes, notably the Milk Snake, the Black Rat Snake, and the Copperhead.

  114. Rat Snake ______ NRV  (Length: 42 to 85 inches)
    Elaphe obseleta
    Elaphe obseleta obseleta 
    Black Rat Snake  ______
    Elaphe obseleta quadrivitata 
    Yellow Rat Snake  ______ 
    (in southern North Carolina)

  115. Eastern Mud Snake ______ ARR,CNF,NRV  (Length: 40 to 73 inches)
    Farancia abacura abacura

  116. Rainbow Snake ______ ARR  (Length: 36 to 66 inches)
    Farancia erytrogramma

  117. Eastern Hognose Snake ______ NRV  (nicknames have included "Puff Adder", "Hissing Adder", "Spreading Adder")  (Length: 20 to 47 inches)   
    Heterodon platyrhinos

    Heterodon platyrhinos
    is typically found in sandy habitats, occurring in fields, dunes, and on beaches.

    Heterodon platyrhinos has the formidable-sounding nicknames noted above from a behavior that it has of scaring off would-be attackers.
    When disturbed, the Hognose Snake widens its neck to take on a hood-like appearance. It does so by flattening the head and neck, spreading long rib-bones outward. Then, inflating the body with air, hissing and striking out, it suddenly resembles a fearsome-looking creature. But it is harmless, and if awards in various categories were given to snakes, Heterodon platyrhinos would win hands-down for "most dramatic performance".    

  118. Southern Hognose Snake ______ CNF  (the northern limit of its range is in south-central North Carolina)  (Length: 13 to 22 inches)
    Heterodon simus

  119. Mole Kingsnake  ______  (Length: 30 to 46 inches) 
    Lampropeltis calligaster rhombomaculata

  120. Kingsnake  ______  NRV  (Length: 36 to 69 inches)
    Lampropeltis getulus 
    Lampropeltis getulus getulus 
    Eastern Kingsnake  ______
    Lampropeltis getulus sticticeps 
    Outer Banks Kingsnake  ______

  121. Scarlet Kingsnake, Eastern Milk Snake ______  (Length: 24 to 45 inches)
    These 2 forms, that appear so different from each other, were long thought to be 2 species, but are actually conspecific. There's a zone of intergradation, with snakes having intermediate characteristics, in northeastern North Carolina.
    Lampropeltis triangulum
    Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum 
    Eastern Milk Snake  ______ 
    (in western North Carolina)
    Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides 
    Scarlet Kingsnake  ______     

  122. Eastern Coachwhip ______ CNF  (Length: 48 to 94 inches)
    Masticophis flagellum flagellum

    The Eastern Coachwhip is probably the longest snake in North Carolina. 

  123. Red-bellied Water Snake ______ ARR,NRV  (Length: 30 to 60 inches)
    Nerodia erythrogaster

  124. Banded Water Snake ______ ARR,NRV  (Length: 24 to 55 inches)
    Nerodia fasciata fasciata

  125. Brown Water Snake ______ NRV  (Length: 32 to 64 inches)
    Nerodia taxispilota

  126. Common Water Snake  (ph)  ______  ARR  (Length: 24 to 50 inches)
    Nerodia sipedon pleuralis  Midland Water Snake  ______

    The Common Water Snake is a common resident of swamps, marshes, bogs, streams, and pond and lake borders.
    Quiet waters are preferred, but it can occur by swift-flowing streams and in the environs of waterfalls. It can be in any of these wet places where it has not been exterminated by people or pollution.  

  127. Florida Green Water Snake  ______
    Nerodia floridana

  128. Rough Green Snake ______  NRV  (Length: 22 to 36 inches)
    Opheodrys aestivus 

  129. Glossy Crayfish Snake ______  (Length: 14 to 30.5 inches)
    Regina rigida

  130. Queen Snake  ______  (in western North Carolina)  (Length: 15 to 34 inches)
    (formerly Natrix) septemvittata

    Regina septemvittata
    is rarely found far from the water's edge. Its principal food has been said to be crayfish that have already molted.

  131. Pine Woods Snake ______ CNF  (Length: 10 to 15 inches)
    Rhadinaea flavilata

  132. Black Swamp Snake ______ ARR  (Length: 10 to 19 inches)
    Seminatrix pygaea

  133. Northern Brown Snake ______ NRV  (Length: 9 to 18 inches)
    Storeia dekayi dekayi

  134. Red-bellied Snake ______  (Length: 6.5 to 12 inches)
    Storeria occipitomaculata

  135. Southestern Crowned Snake ______ CNF  (Length: 8 to 12 inches)
    Tantilla coronata

  136. Eastern Garter Snake  (ph)  ______ NRV  (Length: 18 to 42 inches)
    Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis


    Two photographs of the Eastern Garter Snake
    (above photo by Doris Potter; lower photo by Howard Eskin)

  137. Eastern Ribbon Snake ______ NRV  (Length: 18 to 38 inches)
    Thamnophis sauritus sauritus

  138. Rough Earth Snake ______  (Length: 7 to 12.5 inches)
    Virginia striatula

  139. Smooth Earth Snake ______  (Length: 7 to 13 inches)
    Virginia valeriae

    Family ELAPIDAE

  140. Eastern Coral Snake  ______  (venomous)  (in southern North Carolina)
    Micrurus fulvius fulvius

    Family VIPERIDAE

  141. Copperhead  ______  ARR,CNF,NRV  (venomous)  (Length: 24 to 45 inches)
    Agkistrodon contortrix
    Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen 
    Northern Copperhead  ______ 
    Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix 
    Southern Copperhead  ______

    Intergrades of the Northern and Southern Copperheads are often lighter-colored (sometimes pinkish) and have narrower crossbands, thus causing some confusion with some nonvenomous snakes with boldly-patterned backs such as the Corn Snake, Eastern Hognose Snake, and Milk Snake,  

  142. Eastern Cottonmouth  (ph)  ______ (*) ARR,CNF,NRV  (venomous)  (Length: 30 to 71 inches)
    Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus

    Eastern Cottonmouth
    (photo courtesy of Michael Christopher)

  143. Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake  ______  (venomous)  (Length: 42 to 78 inches)
    Crotalus adamanteus

    The Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake is classified as endangered in North Carolina.  

  144. Timber Rattlesnake  (ph)  ______  (venomous)  (Length: 36 to 72 inches)
    Crotalus horridus

    In the Carolinas, Crotalus horridus is called the "Canebrake Rattlesnake".

    Timber Rattlesnake
    (photo by Fred Lesser)

  145. Carolina Pygmy Rattlesnake ______ CNF  (venonmous)  (Length:15 to 26 inches)
    Sistrurus miliarius miliarius


A reference book regarding North Carolina Amphibians & Reptiles:

"Amphibians & Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia", by Bernard Martof, William Palmer, Joseph Bailey, & Julian Harrison III, with photographs by Jack Dermid, 1980