PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876


A List and Photo Gallery 


(including those during 
 Focus On Nature Tours 
 in North Carolina in May-June
 and elsewhere in the East) 


List compiled by Armas Hill

(with some input by the staff from the Howell Woods Environmental Learning Center
 in Four Oaks, North Carolina)

Photo at upper right: a MOURNING CLOAK
(left) & EASTERN COMMA (right)
(photograph courtesy of Doris Potter)



Numbers noted as (PE:xx) refer to plates in the Peterson Field Guide to Eastern Butterflies, by Paul Opler & Vichai Malikul (1998 edition)

Numbers noted as (K:xx) refer to pages in the Kaufman Focus Guide to Butterflies of North America, by Jim Brock & Kenn Kaufman

Numbers noted as (W:xxx) refer to pages in "Caterpillars of Eastern North America"", by David Wagner, 2005 

FL:   occurs in Florida
MD:  occurs in Maryland
ME:  occurs in Maine 
NC:  occurs in North Carolina
NH:  occurs on New Hampshire
NJ:   occurs in New Jersey
PA:  occurs in Pennsylvania
VA:  occurs in Virginia   


(i/E): introduced from Europe

Species classified as GLOBALLY THREATENED:
(t1):  critically endangered
(t2):  endangered
(t3):  vulnerable
(nt):  a near-threatened species globally  

(ph): species with a photo in the FONT website 

A truly superb book about the butterflies of eastern North America is "Butterflies of the East Coast, an Observer's Guide"  by Rick Cech & Guy Tudor, 2005. Books and photographs don't come much better.  

Links to Butterfly Groupings in this List:

Swallowtails     Whites & Sulphurs     Gossamer-wings

Brushfoots     Satyrs & Wood-nymphs     Skippers

Other Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in North America (inc. North Carolina)

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours Elsewhere     FONT Past Tour Highlights

Birds during FONT Tours in North Carolina    Hummingbirds of the Americas

A List & Photo Gallery of North American Birds, in 6 parts  

Other Lists & Photo Galleries: 

Eastern North America Moths
    Eastern North America Dragonflies & Damselflies

Eastern North America Mammals (Land & Sea) noting those during FONT Tours

Eastern North America Amphibians & Reptiles     Eastern North America Marine Life

Other Lists of Butterflies, elsewhere in the World

Directory of Photos in this Website

An Eastern Tailed-Blue
(photo by Marie Gardner)


"Get a guidebook, take a few years, and you'll still make mistakes. Butterfly identification has an initial, deceptive simplicity. 
Individuals in a species vary naturally, an eyespot slightly larger, a color brighter.
Males and females of a species can be strikingly dissimilar.
So can genetic morphs or forms within a gender.
In a single species, butterflies that live in a range of habitats can vary in appearance and produce different populations or geographical races, each better adapted to its environment.
Species can also produce generations of distinct morphs in the same place at different times of the year.

One Tiger Swallowtail is black. On the same flower, another Tiger Swallowtail is yellow.
Another species produces red butterflies in the wet season and blue in the dry. A species darkens in response to air pollution.
A species gains an eyespot. A species loses one."

The above commentary taken from the book, "An Obsession with Butterflies", by Sharman Apt Russell (a wonderful read).



  1. Zebra Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:5) (K:25) (W:82)  MD  NC  NJ   PA  VA
    Eurytides marcellus 

    Zebra Swallowtail
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  2. Pipevine Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:5) (K:27) (W:77)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Battus philenor

    Pipevine Swallowtails photographed during a FONT tour
    (photos by Doris Potter)

  3. Polydamas Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:5) (K:37) (W:76)  FL
    Battus polydamas

    Polydamas Swallowtail

  4. Eastern Tiger Swallowtail  (ph)  ______ (PE:7) (K:21)  (W:79)  FL  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Papilo glaucus

    Above & below: photos of the Eastern Tiger Swallowtail
    Below, two photos of dark females
    (photos by Marie Gardner) 

  5. Canadian Tiger Swallowtail  ______  (PE:7) (K:21)  ME  NH  PA
    Papilo canadensis

  6. Spicebush Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:5) (K:27) (W:81)  FL  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Papilo troilus

    Above & below: Spicebush Swallowtail
    (photos by Howard Eskin)

  7. Black Swallowtail  (ph)  ______ (PE:5) (K:29) (W:80)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Papilo polyxenes

    Black Swallowtail
    Above: the butterfly, below: the caterpillar   
    (upper photo by Howard Eskin; lower photo by Armas Hill)

    There is a similarity in color and pattern of the Black Swallowtail caterpillar with that of the poisonous Monarch and Queen. 
    This Batesian mimicry may given the Black Swallowtail caterpillar some protection from predators that have experienced either or both of the other two species.
  8. Giant Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:6) (W:78)  FL  MD(rare)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  (the caterpillar is called the Orange Dog)
    Papilio cresphontes

    Giant Swallowtail
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  9. Schaus' Swallowtail  ______  (PE:6) (K:41)  FL  (also called Dusky Swallowtail)
    Papilo aristodemus

  10. Palamedes Swallowtail  (ph)  ______ (PE:7) (K:37)  NC  MD(very rare)  NC  NJ  VA(southeast)
    Papilo palamedes


  11. Florida White  ______  (PE:7) (K:53)  FL  (also called Tropical White)
    Appias drusilla

  12. Checkered White  (ph)  ______  (PE:7) (K:49) (W:85)  FL  NC  NH  NJ(rare)  PA  VA
    Pontia protodice

    The Checkered White is classified as threatened in New Jersey.

    A Checkered White photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Rise Hill)

  13. Great Southern White  ______  (PE:8)  (K:53) (W:86)  FL
    Ascia monuste

  14. Cabbage White (or Cabbage Butterfly) (i/E) (ph)  ______ (PE:7) (K:47) (W:84)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Pieris rapae

    The Cabbage White is the most abundant and widespread butterfly in the United States. It was introduced from Europe, perhaps as pupae on a cabbage crate, the Small White (as it is known in England) first appeared in Quebec in 1861. Since then it has spread to almost all of North America, except the Far North and the Deep South. 

    The Cabbage White is remarkably adaptive and resilient. It occurs in places that most butterflies find inhospitable. Often it is the only butterfly around.

    As it is a competitor for cruciferous crops such as Brussels sprouts, it was fought relentlessly with DDT in England. But it became resistant even as its predatory beetles were being knocked out, leading to a net increase in larvae on the poisoned sprouts. 

    While Pieris rapae is considered a pest in cabbage fields and broccoli patches in the United States, its eggs and larvae are easy to remove by hand in the garden.    

    Above & below: Cabbage Whites
    Below, a bit more yellow than white 
    (photos by Marie Gardner)

  15. Mustard White  ______  (PE:8) (K:47)  ME  NH  NJ
    Pieris napi
    (or oleracea)

  16. West Virginia White  ______  (PE:8) (K:47)  MD(rare)  NC(west)  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Pieris virginiensis

  17. Falcate Orangetip ______ (PE:8) (K:57) (W:87)  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Anthocharis midea

  18. Olympia Marble  ______  (PE:8) (K:57)  MD(rare)  VA(local)
    Euchloe olympia

  19. Orange Sulphur  (ph)  ______ (PE:9) (K:61)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Colias eurytheme

    Orange Sulphur
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  20. Clouded Sulphur  ______  (PE:9) (K:1) (W:88)  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Colias philodice

  21. Pink-edged Sulphur  ______  (PE:9) (K:63)  MD(very rare)  ME  NH
    Colias interior

  22. Southern Dogface  (ph)  ______  (PE:10) (K:69) (W:90)  FL  NC  NH  NJ  VA
    (or Zerene) cesonia  

    Southern Dogface
    (photo by Doris Potter)
  23. Black-bordered Orange (or Sleepy Orange) (ph) ______ (PE:11) (K:69) (W:90)  FL  NC  NJ  VA
    (or Abaeis) nicippe

  24. Cloudless Sulphur  (ph)  ______ (PE:10) (K:75) (W:89)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Phoebis sennae

  25. Statira Sulphur  ______  (PE:10) (K:77)   FL  
    (or Aphrissa) statira 

  26. Orange-barred Sulphur  ______  (PE:10) (K:75) (W:90)   FL  NJ
    Phoebis philea

  27. Large Orange Sulphur  ______  (PE:10) (K:75)   FL  NJ
    Phoebis agarithe

  28. Dina Yellow  _______  (PE:11) (K:73)   FL
    (or Pyrisitia) dina

  29. Little Yellow  (or Little Sulphur) (ph)  ______  (PE:11) (K:71) (W:90)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA VA
    (or Pyrisitia) lisa

    A Little Yellow photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  30. Mimosa Yellow  ______   (PE:11) (K:71)  FL
    (or Pyrisitia) nise

  31. Barred Yellow  ______  (PE:11) (K:71)  FL  NC  VA
    Eurema daira

  32. Dainty Sulphur  ______  (PE:10) (K:71)   FL
    Nathalis iole


  33. Harvester  ______  (PE:12) (K:81) (W:92)  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Feniseca tarquinius

  34. American Copper  (ph)  ______  (PE:12) (K:81) (W:93)  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Lycaena phlaeas

    The population of the "American Copper" in eastern North America
    is thought to have been introduced from Europe, where it is known
    as the Small Copper.
    This butterfly was photographed in Europe, in Sweden, 
    during a FONT tour in September 2007.
    (photo by James Scheib)   

  35. Bronze Copper  ______  (PE:12) (K:89) (W:95)  MD  ME  NH  NJ(very rare)  PA
    Lycaena hyllus

    The Bronze Copper is classified as endangered in New Jersey.

    Overall, the Bronze Copper is widespread but exists in small and isolated populations.

    Host plants for Lycaena hyllus include: Curly Dock, Rumex crispus, Water Dock, Rumex orbiculaus, and Knotweeds, Polygonum spp.
    Natural habitats include wet and moist places such as marshes and bogs.       

  36. Bog Copper  ______  (PE:12) (K:85) (W:95)  MD(very rare)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Lycaena epixanthe

  37. Dorcas Copper  ______  (PE:12) (K:85)  ME
    Lycaena dorcas claytoni

  38. Atala  ______   (PE:12) (W:96)  FL
    Eumaeus atala 

  39. Great Purple Hairstreak  ______  (PE:12) (W:97)  FL  MD(rare)  NC  NJ  VA
    Atlides balesus

  40. Coral Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (W:95)  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Satyrium titus

  41. Oak Hairstreak  ______  (PE:13) (W:95)  (has been called Southern Hairstreak)
    Satyrium favonius

    Satyrium favonius ontario  Northern Oak Hairstreak  ______  MD
    (rare)  NC  PA  VA
    Satyrium favonius favonius 
    Southern Oak Hairstreak  ______  FL   

  42. Acadian Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Satyrium acadica

  43. Edwards' Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (W:95)  MD(very rare)  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Satyrium edwardsii

  44. Banded Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (K:95) (W:98)  FL  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Satyrium calanus

  45. Hickory Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (K:95) (W:05)  MD(very rare)  NC  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Satyrium caryaevorum

  46. King's Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (K:95)  FL(north)  MD(very rare)  NC
    Satryium kingi

    The King's Hairstreak is classified as endangered in Delaware and Maryland. 

  47. Striped Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (K:95) (W:99)  FL(north)  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Satyrium liparops

  48. Brown Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:105)  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    (or Deciduphagus) angustinus

  49. Hoary Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:105) (W:95)  MD(very rare)  ME  NJ
    (or Deciduphagus) polios

  50. Frosted Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:105)  MD(very rare)  NC  NH(very rare)  NJ(rare)  PA  VA
    (or Deciduphagus) irus

    The Frosted Elfin is classified as endangered in Delaware, Maryland, and New Hampshire, and as threatened in Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York. 

  51. Henry's Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:105) (W:100)  MD  ME(coastal)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    (or Deciduphagus) henrici

  52. Eastern Pine Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:107) (W:101)  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    (or Incisalia) niphon

  53. Bog Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:107)  ME  NH
    (or Incisalia) lanoraieenis

  54. Juniper Hairstreak  ______  (PE:13) (K:111) (W:102)  FL(north)  MD  NC  NH  PA  VA  
    (or Mitoura) gryneus

  55. Hessel's Hairstreak  ______  (PE:13) (K:111)  MD  NC(east)  NH  NJ  VA(east)
    (or Mitoura) hesseli

    The Hessel's Hairstreak is classified as endangered in Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, and New York.

  56. White M Hairstreak  (ph)  ______  (PE:15) (K:93) (W:95)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Parrhasius m-album

    White M Hairstreak
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  57. Gray Hairstreak ______ (PE:15) (K:93) (W:103)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Strymon melinus

  58. Martial Scrub-Hairstreak  ______   (PE:15) (K:121)  FL
    Strymon martialis

  59. Bartram's (or Caribbean) Scrub-Hairstreak  ______   (PE:15) (K:121)  FL
    Strymon acis

  60. Mallow Scrub-Hairstreak  (ph)  ______ (PE:14) (K:121)  FL
    Strymon istapa

    A Mallow Scrub-Hairstreak 
    photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  61. Fulvous Hairstreak  ______  (PE:13) (K:103)  FL
    Electrostrymon angelica

  62. Red-banded Hairstreak ______ (PE:13) (K:103)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Calycopis cecrops

  63. Gray Ministreak  ______   (PE:13)  (K:119)  FL  (has also been called Azia Hairstreak)
    (or Tmolus) azia

  64. Silver-banded Hairstreak  ______   (P:1`3)  (K:117)  FL  
    Chlorostrymon simaethis 

  65. Early Hairstreak  ______  (PE:15) (K:115)  MD(very rare)  ME  NC  NH  PA  VA(west)
    Erora laeta

  66. Eastern Pygmy Blue  _______  (PE:15) (K:127)  FL
    Brephidium isophthalma  

  67. Cassius Blue  (ph)  ______   (PE:16)  (K:127)  FL  
    Leptotes cassius

    Above & below: A Cassius Blue
    photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photos by Marie Gardner)

  68. Ceraunus Blue  ______   (PE:15)  ((K:129)  FL
    Hemiargus ceraunus

  69. Miami Blue  ______   (PE:15) (K:129)  FL
    (or Cyclargus) thomasi

  70. Acacia Blue  ______   (K:129)  FL  (also called Nickerbean Blue
    (or Cyclargus) ammon  

  71. Eastern Tailed-Blue ______ (PE:16) (K:125) (W:104)  FL(north)  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Everes comyntas

    Above & below: an Eastern Tailed-Blue
    In the upper photo, notice the tails  
    (photos by Marie Gardner)

  72. Spring Azure  (ph)  ______ (PE:16) (K:131) (W:105)  FL(north)  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Celastrina ladon

    A breakdown pertaining to "splits" in this species complex follow. 

    Spring Azures photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photo by Doris Potter)


    Spring (or Edwards') Azure  ______  NJ  PA  (occurs in deciduous woods from central New England to northern Florida)
    Celastrina ladon

    In the above form, the pale "violaceae" morph predominates, but "lucia" and "marginata" sometimes occur in the northern part of the range.

    Northern Azure  ______  NJ 
    (not systematically described)  (occurs south to about New Jersey)
    Celastrina lucia

    Cherry Gall Azure  ______  NJ 
    (a confusing segregate; not yet systematically described)  (has been combined with the next form, the Atlantic, or Holly, Azure (occurs mainly in southern New England and New York, including Long Island, and west into central Pennsylvania; not in the New Jersey Pine Barrens)
    Celastrina sp.

    (or Holly) Azure  ______  NJ  (a distinctive segregate)  (occurs in coastal plain woodlands and pine barrens, often near acid bogs or cedar swamps)  (another name is Pine Barren Azure)
    Celastrina idella

    About 95 per cent of the Atlantic Azures surveyed are of the "violaceae" morph. 

    Summer Azure ______ (K:131)  NC  NJ
    Celastrina (ladon) neglecta

    The Summer Azure has been considered part of the Spring Azure.

  73. Appalachian Azure  ______  (PE:16) (K:131)  NCMD  NC(west)  NJ  PA  VA(west)  (another name is Appalachian Blue
    Celestrina neglectamajor

  74. Dusky Azure  ______  (PE:16) (K:131)  MD  NC(west)  PA  VA(west)
    Celastrina nigra (or ebenina)

  75. Silvery Blue  ______  (PE:16) (K:125) (W:106)  MD(rare)  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Glaucopsyche lygdamus

  76. "Crowberry"  Northern Blue  ______  (K:135)  ME
    Lycaeides idas empetri

  77. "Karner"  Melissa Blue  ______  (K:135)  NH(rare)
    Lycaeides melissa samuelis

    Lycaeides melissa samuelis
    is a US federally endangered species. In the East, small populations exist in New Hampshire and New York. Elsewhere, there are small populations in: Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin.  

  78. Northern Metalmark  ______  (PE:17) (K:143) (W:107)  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Calephelis borealis

  79. Little Metalmark  ______  (PE:17) (K:143)  NC(east)  VA(southeast)
    Calephelis virginiensis


  80. American Snout  ______  (PE:18) (K:223) (W:109)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Libytheana carinenta

  81. Zebra Longwing  (ph)  ______  (PE:19) (K:155) (W:112)  FL  NC
    Heliconius charitonius

    A Zebra Longwing photographed during a FONT tour

  82. Julia  (or Julia Longwing (ph)  ______   (PE:19) (K:157) (W:111)  FL
    Dryas iulia

    A Julia photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  83. Gulf Fritillary  (ph)  ______  (PE:19) (K:157) (W:110)  FL  NC  NJ
    Agraulis vanillae

    Above & below: Gulf Fritillary butterflies
    The lower photo was the first documenting photograph of the species
    in Kent County, Delaware, in August 2012.  
    (both photos by Howard Eskin) 

  84. Variegated Fritillary  (ph)  ______ (PE:20) (K:157) (W:122)  FL  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Euptoieta claudia

    Two photographs of the Variegated Fritillary
    (upper photo by Doris Potter, during a FONT tour:
     lower photo by Howard Eskin)

  85. Diana Fritillary  ______  (PE:20) (K:159) (W:125)  NC(west)  VA(west)
    Speyeria diana

  86. Regal Fritillary  ______  (PE:20) (K:159) (W:125)  NJ  PA(local)  VA(local)
    Speyeria idalia

    The Regal Fritillary is a species of tall-grass prairies and occurs in remnants of that habitat. Its geographic range has been from eastern Montana east across the United States to Maine.
    However, it is now very rare or at best locally common in that range, and now rare or absent from the former range east of the Appalachians.
    it has been recorded in southern Ontario and Manitoba, but seems not to have permanent colonies in Canada.

    The sudden and poorly understood decline of the Regal Fritillary in the eastern United States has been startling. The butterfly was locally common until the 1970s. It simply vanished by about 1988. Presently, only a handful of known colonies remain in the East, now in Pennsylvania and Virginia. The Virginia colony was found only in 1997.

    In Pennsylvania, the Regal Fritillary colony is on the grounds of the Fort Indiantown Gap military facility in the south-central part of the state. That colony is the largest population of the species remaining east of Indiana. That population in Pennsylvania is about 1,000 adults, and it has been secure since monitoring began in 1998.

    The Virginia population, referred to above, is on the grounds of another military facility, the Radford Army Ammunition Plant.

  87. Great Spangled Fritillary  (ph)  _____ (PE:20) (K:159) (W:123)  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(mostly west)
    Speyeria cybele

    Great Spangled Fritillary
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  88. Aphrodite Fritillary  ______  (PE:20) (K:167) (W:125)  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Speyeria aphrodite

  89. Atlantic Fritillary  ______  (PE:20) (K:167) (W:125)  MD(very rare)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Speyeria atlantis

  90. Meadow Fritillary  ______  (PE:18) (K:169) (W:125)  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Boloria bellona

  91. Silver-bordered Fritillary  ______  (PE:18) (K:171) (W:125)  MD  ME  NH  NJ(rare)  PA
    Boloria selene

    The Silver-bordered Fritillary, Bolonia selene myrina, is classified as threatened in New Jersey.

  92. Bog Fritillary  ______  (PE:18) (K:171)  ME
    Boloria eunomia

  93. Purplish Fritillary  _______  (K:175)  NH
    Boloria montinus 
    (or Chariclea montina  

  94. Pearl Crescent  (ph)  ______ (PE:22) (K:177) (W:126)  FL  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Phyciodes tharos

    Pearl Crescent
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  95. Northern Crescent  ______  (PE:22) (K:177)  ME  NH  NJ  PA(northwest)
    Phyciodes selenis 
    (or cocyta)

  96. Tawny Crescent  ______  (PE:22) (K:177)  NC(far-west)  NJ
    Phyciodes batesii

    The Tawny Crescent seems to be extirpated in some eastern states such as Pennsylvania & New York, such that now there is an isolated population in southwestern North Carolina & adjacent Georgia.

    In North Carolina, Phyciodes batesii is common at a few sites in Clay County. The occurrence of the butterfly in the mountains is not known north of Buncombe County, North Carolina. 

  97. Phaon Crescent  ______  (PE:21) (K:181) (W:125)  FL  NC(east)
    Phyciodes phaon

  98. Cuban Crescent  ______   (PE:21) (K:183)  FL
    (or Anthanassa) frisia

  99. "Seminole"  Texan Crescent  ______  (PE:21) (K:183)  FL
    (or Anthanassa) texana seminole

  100. Gorgone Checkerspot  ______  (PE:19) (K:185)
    Chlosyne gorgone

  101. Silvery Checkerspot  (ph)  ______  (PE:19) (K:185) (W:127)  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Chlosyne nycteis 

    Silvery Checkerspot
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  102. Harris' Checkerspot  ______  (PE:19) (K:185) (W:125)  MD(rare)  ME  NH  NJ  PA(north)
    Chlosyne barrisii

  103. Baltimore Checkerspot  ______  (PE:22) (K:195) (W:128)  MD(rare)  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Euphydryas phaeton

  104. Question Mark  (ph)  ______ (PE:22) (K:197) (W:114)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Polygonia interrogationis

    Question Mark
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  105. Eastern Comma  (ph)  ______  (PE:22) (K:197) (W:113)  FL(north)  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Polygonia comma

    Eastern Comma
    (photos by Marie Gardner)

  106. Satyr Comma  ______  (PE:22) (K:197)  ME
    Polygonia satyrus

  107. Green Comma  ______  (PE:22) (K:199)  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ
    Polygonia faunus

  108. Hoary Comma  ______  (PE:23) (K:199)  ME
    Polygonia gracilis

  109. Gray Comma  ______  (PE:22) (K:199) (W:121)  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  
    Polygonia progne

  110. Compton Tortoiseshell  ______  (PE:23) (K:201) (W:121)  MD(very rare as a breeder)  ME  NH  PA
    (or Roddia) vau-album

  111. Mourning Cloak  (ph)  ______  (PE:23) (K:203) (W:115)  FL(north)  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Nymphalis antiopa

    Mourning Cloak
    (left) & Eastern Comma (right)
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  112. Milbert's Tortoiseshell  ______  (PE:23) (K:201) (W:116)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    (or Aglais) milberti

  113. Red Admiral  (ph)  ______ (PE:23) (K:203) (W:117)  FL  MD ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Vanessa atalania

    The name Red Admiral is a latter-day contraction of its older name  "Red Admirable". It is not closely related to the true admirals (in the genus Limenitis), but is instead a lady (in the genus Vanessa).

    A Red Admiral & a Yellow Jacket (a wasp, not a bee)
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

    Red Admiral on Thistle
    (photo by Howard Eskin)
  114. American Lady  (ph)  ______ (PE:23) (K:205) (W:119)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Vanessa virginiensis  

    An very old name for the American Lady was Hunter's Butterfly

    The pink flush at the base of the ventral forewing of the American Lady rivals the brightest pinks in the animal kingdom. It is more intense than the color of any flamingo. (see the third photo below) 

    Above & below: the American Lady
    (photo above by Howard Eskin,
     two photos below by Marie Gardner)

  115. Painted Lady  (ph)  ______ (PE:23) (K:205) (W:118)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Vanessa cardui

    Painted Lady
    (photo by Doris Potter during a FONT tour)

  116. Common (or Northern) Buckeye  (ph)  ______ (PE:23) (K:207) (W:120)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA
    Junonia coenia

    A Common, or Northern Buckeye on Goldenrod
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  117. Tropical Buckeye  ______   (PE:23) (K:207)  FL
    Junonia genovera zonalis

  118. Mangrove Buckeye  ______   (PE:23) (K:207)  FL
    Junonia evarete

  119. White Peacock  (ph)  ______  (PE:24) (K:209) (W:121)  FL  NC(east)
    Anartia jatrophae

    White Peacock

  120. White Admiral  ______  (PE:24) (K:211)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Limenitis arthemis arthemis

  121. Red-spotted Purple  (ph) ______ (PE:24) (K:211) (W:121)  FL(north)  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Limenitis arthemis astyanax 
    (conspecific with the more-northerly White Admiral)

    Red-spotted Purple
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  122. Viceroy  (ph)  ______ (PE:24) (K:211) (W:130)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Limenitis archippus

    The Viceroy is a mimic of the widespread and conspicuous (but distasteful) Monarch. The Viceroy is recognized with its postmedian black line on the hindwing and a SINGLE row of white spots in the black marginal band. 

    Above & below: the Viceroy
    (upper photo by Doris Potter; lower photo by Marie Gardner)

  123. Malachite  (ph)  ______   (PE:26) (K:209) (W:129)  FL
    Siproeta stelenes

    A Malachite photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  124. Dingy Purplewing  (ph)  ______   (PE:25) (K:215)  FL
    Eunica montima

    Dingy Purplewing

  125. Florida Purplewing  (ph)  ______   (PE:25) (K:215)  FL
    Eunica tatila

    Florida Purplewing

  126. Ruddy Daggerwing  (ph)  ______   (PE:25) (K:219) (W:129)  FL
    Marpesia petreus 

    Ruddy Daggerwing

  127. Florida Leafwing  (ph)  ______   (PE:25) (K:221)  FL
    Anaea (troglodyta) floridalis

    Florida Leafwing

  128. Goatweed Leafwing  (ph)  ______   (PE:25) (K:221) (W:129)  FL
    Anaea andria 

    Goatweed Leafwing
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  129. Hackberry Emperor ______ (PE:26) (K:223)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Asterocampa celtis

  130. Tawny Emperor  ______  (PE:26) (K:223) (W:131)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Asterocampa clyton

  131. Monarch ______ (PE:27) (K:227) (W:138)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Danaus plexippus

    Above: The Monarch, stage #1: the Caterpillar
    (this & the following photo by Doris Potter)

    Above: The Monarch, stage #2: the Chyrsalid

    Above: The Monarch, stage #3: the Butterfly
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  132. Queen  ______  (PE:27) (K:229) (W:137)  FL  NC  NJ(rare)  VA
    Danaus gilippus

    Two Photos above of Queens
    (photos by Howard Eskin)

  133. Soldier  (ph)  ______  (PE:27) (K:229)  FL
    Danaus eresimus


  134. Georgia Satyr  ______  (PE:28) (K:233) (W:136)  FL  NC  NJ  VA(southeast)
    Neonympha areolata

  135. Mitchell's Satyr  (t1)  ______  (PE:28) (K:233)  NC(local)  NJ(very rare)  VA(local)  
    Neonympha mitchellii

    The Mitchell's Satyr is classified as endangered in New Jersey.

    Neonympha mitchellii francisci  Saint Francis' Satyr  ______  NC
    (local)  VA(local)

    Neonymoha mitchellii francisci
    occurs in sand hills in North Carolina in Hoke and Cumberland counties.
    Also a population has been found in Virginia.

  136. Carolina Satyr ______ (PE:28) (K:231) (W:136)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  VA
    Hermeuptychia sosybius

  137. Gemmed Satyr ______ (PE:28) (K:235) (W:136)  FL(north)  NC  VA
    Cyllopsis gemma

  138. Little Wood-Satyr  (ph)  ______  (PE:27) (K:231) (W:132)  FL(north)  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Megisto cymela cymela
    Megisto cymela viola 
    "Viola's" Little Wood-Satyr  ______  (PE:27) (K:231)  FL

  139. Common Ringlet  ______  (PE:28) (K:241) (W:134)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Coenonympha tullia

  140. Common Wood-Nymph  (ph)  ______  (PE:28) (K:237) (W:135)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Cercyonis pegala

    Common Wood-Nymph
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  141. Northern Pearly-eye  ______  (PE:27) (K:239) (W:133)  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Enodia anthedon 

  142. Southern Pearly-eye ______ (PE:27) (K:239)  NC  NJ  VA(southeast)
    Enodia portlandia

  143. Creole Pearly Eye ______ (PE:27) (K:239)  NC  VA(south)
    Enodia creola

  144. Eyed Brown  ______  (PE:27) (K:239)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Satyrodes eurydice

  145. Appalachian Brown  ______  (PE:27) (K:239) (W:136)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Satyrodes appalachia

  146. Melissa Arctic  ______  (PE:29) (K:251)  NH
    Oeneis melissa

  147. Polixenes Arctic  ______  (PE:29) (K:251)  ME
    Oeneis polixenes

  148. Jutta Arctic  ______  (PE:29) (K:253)  ME
    Oeneis jutta


  149. Mangrove Skipper  ______  (PE:30) (K:267) (W:67)  FL
    Phocides pigmalion

  150. Hammock Skipper  ______  (PE:30) (K:267) (W:67)  FL
    Polygonus leo

  151. Long-tailed Skipper  ______  (PE:30) (K:269) (W:60)  FL  NC  NJ  VA  (the caterpillar is called Brown Leaf Roller)
    Urbanus proteus

    Above & below: Long-tailed Skipper
    (photos by Rise Hill)

  152. Dorantes Longtail  ______   (PE:text) (K:269)  FL
    Urbanus dorantes

  153. Zestos Skipper  ______   (PE:30) (K:267)  FL
    Epargyreus zestos

  154. Silver-spotted Skipper ______ (P:30) (K:257) (W:59)  FL  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Epargyreus clarus

    Above & below: Silver-spotted Skippers
    (upper photo by Marie Gardner; lower photo by Howard Eskin)

  155. Golden-banded Skipper  ______  (PE:31) (K:257)  NC(west)  NJ  VA(west)
    Autochton cellus

  156. Hoary Edge  ______  (PE:31) (K:259) (W:61)  FL(north)  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Achalarus lyciades

  157. Southern Cloudywing  ______  (PE:31) (K:261)  FL(north)  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Thorybes bathyllus

    The common names given to cloudywings in eastern North America just don't seem right. 
    The Southern Cloudywing could more aptly be called the Eastern Cloudywing.
    The Confused Cloudywing (below) might better be the Southern, or the Southeastern Cloudywing.
    And the Northern Cloudywing (also below) might better be called the Common Cloudywing, as it is the most widespread species in the genus ranging further north into Canada and further south into Mexico than either the other two cloudywings just mentioned. It is also far more common and widespread than any other member of the Thorybes genus. 

  158. Confused Cloudywing  ______  (PE:31) (K:261)  FL(north)  NC  NJ  VA
    Thorybes confusis

  159. Northern Cloudywing  _____  (PE:31) (K:261) (W:62)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Thorybes pylades

    Northern Cloudywing
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  160. Florida Duskywing  ______   (PE:32) (K:287) (W:67)  FL
    Ephyriades brunneus

  161. Dreamy Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:285) (W:63)  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA 
    Erynnis icelus

  162. Sleepy Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:285)  FL  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Erynnis brizo

  163. Juvenal's Duskywing ______ (PE:32) (K:281) (W:64)  FL  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Erynnis juvenalis

  164. Horace's Duskywing ______ (PE:32) (K:281)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  
    Erynnis horatius

  165. Zarucco Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:281)  FL  NC  NJ  VA
    Erynnis zarucco

  166. Wild Indigo Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:287)  FL(north)  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Erynnis baptistae

  167. Persius Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:285)  NJ
    Erynnis persius

  168. Columbine Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:287)  NJ  PA  VA
    Erynnis lucilius

  169. Mottled Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:287)  NC  NJ  VA
    Erynnis martialis

  170. "Appalachian" Grizzled Skipper  ______  (PE:33) (K:291)  NJ(very rare)  VA
    Pyrgus centaureae wyandot

    The "Appalachian" Grizzled Skipper is classified as endangered in New Jersey.

  171. Common Checkered-Skipper ______ (PE:33) (K:289) (W:65)  FL  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Pyrgus communis

  172. Tropical Checkered-Skipper  (ph)  ______   (PE:33) (K:289)  FL
    Pyrgus oileus

  173. Hayhurst's Scallopwing ______ (PE:31) (K:297)  FL  NC  NJ  VA
    Staphyllus hayhurstii

  174. Common Sootywing ______ (PE:33) (K:299) (W:66)  FL(north)  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Pholisora catullus


  175. Arctic Skipper  ______  (PE:33) (K:301)  ME  NH  NJ
    Carterocephalus palaemon

  176. Swarthy Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:311)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Nastra iherminier

  177. Neamathia Skipper  ______   (PE:34) (K:311)  FL
    Nastra neamathia

  178. Three-spotted Skipper  ______  (PE:343) (K:309)  FL
    Cymaenes tripunctus

  179. Eufala Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:353)  FL  NC  NJ  VA
    Lerodea eufala

  180. Clouded Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:309)  FL  NC  NJ  VA
    Lerema accius

  181. European Skipper  (i/E)  ______  (PE:35) (K:305) (W:69)  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Thymelicus lineola

    The European Skipper is native to Eurasia, where it is called the Essex Skipper. It was introduced into Ontario, Canada in the early 20th Century.    

  182. Southern Skipperling  ______  (PE:34) (K:305)  FL  NC
    Copaeodes minimus

  183. Least Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:305) (W:68)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Ancyloxypha numitor

  184. Cobweb Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:317)  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Hesperia metea

  185. Indian Skipper  ______  (PE:35) (K:319) (W:73)  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Hesperia sassacus

  186. Meske's Skipper  ______  (PE:35) (K:319)  FL  NC
    Hesperia meskei

  187. Dotted Skipper  ______  (PE:35) (K:313)  FL  NC  NJ
    Hesperia attalus

    The Dotted Skipper is found in very restricted areas, and is considered threatened throughout its range.
    In eastern North America, it is classified as threatened in Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Virginia.

    Host plants for Hesperia attalus include: Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum and Fall Witchgrass, Leptoloma cognatum.
    Natural habitats include: short grass prairies, woodland meadows, pine barrens, and dry sandy places. 

  188. Common Branded Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:313)  ME
    Hesperia comma

  189. Leonard's Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:317)  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Hesperia leonardus 

  190. Fiery Skipper  (ph)  ______ (PE:35) (K:303) (W:73)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Hylephila phyleus

    Fiery Skipper
    (photo by Rise Hill)

  191. Whirlabout ______ (PE:35) (K:303)  FL  NC  NJ
    Polites vibex

  192. Sachem ______ (PE:37) (K:303) (W:73)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Atalopedes campestris

  193. Peck's Skipper  (ph)  ______  (PE:35) (K:323) (W:70)  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Polites peckius

    Peck's Skipper
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  194. Long Dash  ______  (PE:35) (K:323)  ME  NH  PA  VA(west)
    Polites mystic

  195. Crossline Skipper  ______  (PE:35) (K:325) (W:73)  FL(north)  MD  ME(coastal)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Polites origenes

  196. Tawny-edged Skipper  ______  (PE:35) (K:325)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Polites termistocles

  197. Baracoa Skipper  ______   (PE:36) (K:325)  FL
    Polites baracoa

  198. Little Glassywing  ______  (PE:36) (K:327) (W:73)  FL(north)  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  WA
    Pompeius verna

  199. Northern Broken-Dash  ______  (PE:36) (K:327) (W:73)  FL(north)  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Wallengrenia egeremei

  200. Southern Broken-Dash  ______  (PE:36) (K:327)  FL  NC  VA
    Wallengrenia otho

  201. Arogos Skipper ______ (PE:36) (K:337)  FL(north)  NC(local)  NJ(very rare)
    Atrytone arogos

    The Arogos Skipper, Atrytone arogos arogos is classified as endangered in New Jersey and New York.

  202. Delaware Skipper  (ph)  ______ (PE:36) (K:337) (W:73)  FL  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Anatrytone logan

    Delaware Skipper
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  203. Byssus Skipper ______ (PE:36) (K:337)  FL  NC(east)
    Problema byssus

  204. Rare Skipper ______ (PE:36) (K:337)  NC
    Problema bulenta 

  205. Hobomok Skipper  ______  (PE:36) (K:331) (W:71)  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Poanes hobomok

  206. Zabulon Skipper  (ph)  ______ (PE:36) (K:331)  FL(north)  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Poanes zabulon

    Zabulon Skipper
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  207. Broad-winged Skipper  _____  (PE:37) (K:337)  FL(north)  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA(east)
    Poanes viator

  208. Yehl Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:333)  FL(north)  NC(east)
    Poanes yehl

  209. Mulberry Wing  ______  (PE:text) (K:331)  MD  NH  NJ  PA
    Poanes massasoit

  210. Aaron's Skipper  ______  (PE:36) (K:333)  FL  NC(east)  NJ  VA(east)
    Poanes aaroni

  211. Black Dash  ______  (PE:37) (K:325) (W:73)  NH  NJ  PA
    Euphyes conspicua

  212. Dukes' Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:335)  FL(north)  NC(east)
    Euphyes dukesi

  213. Dion Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:335)  FL(north)  MD  NC(east)  NJ  VA(east)
    Euphytes dion

  214. Berry's Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:335)  FL  NC(east)
    Euphyes berryi

  215. Palmetto Skipper  ______   (PE:370 (K:335)  FL
    Euphyes arpa
  216. Palatka Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:333)  FL  NC(east)
    Euphyes pilatka

  217. Two-spotted Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:333)  ME  NC(east)  NH  NJ  PA
    Euphyes himacula

  218. Dun Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:327) (W:74)  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Euphyes vestris

  219. Dusted Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:339) (W:75)  FL  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Atrytonopsis hianna 

  220. Common Roadside-Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:343) (W:75)  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Amblyscirtes vialis

  221. Pepper-and-Salt Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:343)  MD(rare)  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA(east)
    Amblyscirtes hegon

  222. Dusky Roadside-Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:343)  FL(north)  NC(east)
    Amblyscirtes alternata

  223. Bell's Roadside-Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:345)
    Amblyscirtes belli

  224. Reversed Roadside-Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:345)  NC
    Amblyscirtes reversa

  225. Carolina Roadside-Skipper ______ (PE:38) (K:345)  NC
    Amblyscirtes carolina

  226. Lace-winged Roadside-Skipper ______ (PE:38) (K:345)  FL(north)  NC  VA(southeast)
    Amblyscirtes aesculapius

  227. Twin-spotted Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:353)  FL  NC(east)
    Oligoria maculata

  228. Monk  ______  (PE:text)   FL
    Asbolis capucinus

  229. Brazilian Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:357) (W:75)  FL  NC(east)  NJ
    Calpodes ethlius

  230. Ocola Skipper ______ (PE:39) (K:355) (W:75)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Panoquina ocola

  231. Obscure Skipper  ______   (PE:39) (K:355)  FL
    Panoquina panoquinoides

  232. Salt Marsh Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:355)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  VA
    Panoquina panoquin

  233. Yucca Giant-Skipper ______ (PE:39) (K:359)  FL  NC
    Megathymus yuccae

  234. Cofaqui Giant-Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:359)  FL
    Megathymus cofaqui

    Some selected reference books regarding Butterflies:

    "Butterflies of the East Coast, an Observer's Guide", by Rick Cech & Guy Tudor, 2005 

    "A Field Guide to Eastern Butterflies", by Paul Opler, illustrated by Vichai Malikul, 1998 

    "Butterflies of North America", by Jim Brock & Kenn Kaufmann (with 2,200 images & 70 photographs)

    "Butterflies through Binoculars", by Jeffrey Glassberg, 1993

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