PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-8
 or 302/529-1876


and some other plants
in Northern Places
such as Alaska 
and including alpine plants 
Hokkaido in Japan

with those during 
Focus On Nature Tours
noted with an (*) 

1996 thru 2013

during tours in the months of May, June, September, & October

In this list, there are notes relating to MEDICINAL PLANTS.

An excellent book, and a source of some of the information in this list, is "Medicinal Plants of Iceland" by Arnbjorg Linda Johannsdottir.

The compilation of the following list by Armas Hill 

Photo at upper right:  LADY SMOCK  (photograph by Gerin Hood) 

Most of the photos below were taken during the June 2009 FONT tour in Iceland by tour participant, Gerin Hood. And she also took the time to do most of the identifications. Thanks Gerin! 

A fine book about the plant life of Iceland is "A Guide to the Flowering Plants & Ferns of Iceland" by Hordur Kristinsson, published in 1986. There is a version in English.

A fine book about wildflowers and other plant life in Alaska is a "Field Guide to Alaskan Wildflowers", by Verna Pratt, published in 1989. 
Again, this book is a source of some of the information in this list, as are the other books noted here.  

There have been 19, nearly 20 FONT tours in Iceland. And nearly 10 FONT tours in Alaska.        

Among the Plant Families in this list, links to these:

Adder's-tongue    Algae    Arum    Beach-fern    Bellflower (or Bluebell)    Birch    Birchroot

Bladderwort    Bogbean    Borage    Broomrape    Bunchflower    Bur-reed    Buttercup (or Crowfoot) 

Clubmoss    Crowberry    Cypress    Daisy (or Aster)    Diapensia    Dock (or Buckwheat, Knotweed)    

Dogwood    Earthsmoke (or Fumitory)    Eel-grass    Fern & Hard-fern    Figwort (or Snapdragon)    Flax    

Gentian    Geranium    Ginseng    Gooseberry    Goosefoot    Grass    Heath    Honeysuckle    Horsetail    

Iris    Lady-fern   Legume (or Pea)    Lily    Madder    Mare's-tail    Mint    Mountain Parsley    Mustard    

Nettle    Oleaster    Orchid    Parnassus-grass    Parsley (or Celery)    Phlox (or Polemonium)    Pine    

    Plantain    Polypody    Pondweed    Poppy    Primrose    Purslane    Quillwort    Rose    Rush    

Sandlewood    Saxifrage    Sea Lavender    Sedge   Spikemoss    Spleenwort    Starwort    

    Sundew    Teasel    Valerian    Violet    Water Lily    Water-milfoil     Willow   
Willow Herb (or Evening Primrose)
    Wintergreen    Wood-sorrel 


Additional Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in:   Iceland    Alaska    Japan   

Upcoming FONT Tours Elsewhere

Birds during FONT Iceland Tours     Birds during FONT Alaska Tours 

Other Photo Galleries of Plants     Directory of Photos in this Website


AK:  occurs in Alaska
HK:  occurs in Hokkaido, Japan  (as an alpine plant)  
IC:   occurs in Iceland

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website

A List of Northern Wildflowers and some Other Plants:

  Adder's-tongue Family,  

  1. Northern Moonwort  ______  IC
    Botrychium boreale

  2. Lance-leaved Moonwort  ______  IC
    Botrycjium lanceolatum

  3. Common Moonwort  ______  IC
    Botrychium lunaria

  4. Glossy Moonwort  ______  IC
    Botrychium simplex

  5. Small Adder's-tongue  ______  IC(very rare)
    Ophioglossum azoricum  

    Algae Family, FUCACEAE

  6. Bladderwrack (or Black Tang ______  IC
    Fucus vesiculosus

    Bladderwrack grows on rocky beaches. In Iceland, it is common along such coastlines.

    the entire plant
    Kelp tablets are available in health food stores and some pharmacies.
    Active substances are mucrilage, mannitol, fucosterin, fucoxanthin, sisantin, volatile oils and many minerals such as iodine. 

    Bladderwrack is used to treat an underactive thyroid gland (goitre). It is also useful for chronic fatigue and tiredness.

    Bladderwrack poultices are good for swollen joints and muscles.

    Arum Family, ARACEAE

  7. Wild Calla  ______  AK
    Calla palustris

    The entire plant of the Wild Calla is poisonous, especially the berries.  

    Beach-fern Family, 

  8. Beech Fern  ______  IC
    Thelypteris phegopteris


    Bellflower, or Bluebell Family, CAMPANULACEAE

  9. Campanula aurita  ______  AK

  10. Mountain Harebell  ______  AK
    Campanula lasiocarpa

  11. Common Harebell  (or Bluebells of Scotland)  ______  AK  IC    
    Campanula rotundifolia

  12. Arctic Harebell  ______  AK  IC  
    Campanula uniflora  

    Birch Family, BETULACEAE

  13. Dwarf Birch  ______  IC
    Betula nana

  14. Paper Birch  ______  AK
    Betula papyrifera 

  15. Downy Birch  ______  IC
    Betula pubescedns

    Birchroot Family,

  16. Herb-Paris  ______  IC(rare)
    Paris quadrifolia 

    Bladderwort Family, LENTIBULARIACEAE

  17. Common Butterwort  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Pinguicula vulgaris

    In Iceland, the Common Butterwort is common throughout. It grows in peat bogs and marshlands.
    Common Butterwort was used, in the past, for making Icelandic skyr, and therefore has also been called the "curdle herb".
    The plant is carnivorous, catching and digesting small insects.  

    MEDICINAL USE: the leaves. 

    The Common Butterwort has been used successfully to treat whooping cough. Still, the herb can be used for dry, tickling coughs and persistent coughing attacks.
    The leaves are good for placing on bad sores, inflammation or cracked skin, and have been used to kill lice on the scalp.   

    Common Butterwort
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  18. Lesser Bladderwort  ______  IC
    Utricularia minor

    Bogbean Family,

  19. Bogbean  ______  AK  IC
    Menyanthes trifoliata

    Borage Family, BORAGINACEAE

  20. Oysterplant  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Mertensia maritima  

    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  21. Bluebells  ______  AK
    Mertensia paniculata

    Other names for Mertensia paniculata are: Lungwort, Languid Lady, Chiming Bells 

  22. Alpine Forget-me-not  ______  AK
    Myosotis alpestris asiatica

  23. Field Forget-me-not  ______  IC
    Myosotis arvensis

  24. Changing Forget-me-not  ______  IC
    Myosotis discolor

    In Iceland, the Changing Forget-me-not is a rare alien in the south and southwest.

  25. Water Forget-me-not  ______  IC
    Myosotis scorpioides

  26. Strict Forget-me-not  ______  IC
    Myosotis stricta

  27. Brook Forget-me-not  ______  AK
    Myosotis palustris

    In Alaska, the Brook Forget-me-not is an introduced species.

    Broomrape Family, OROBANCHACEAE

  28. Broomrape (or Ground Cone ______  AK
    Boschniakia rossica

    Bunchflower Family,

  29. Scottish Asphodel  ______  IC
    Tofieldia pusilla

    Bur-reed Family,

  30. Floating Bur-reed  ______  IC
    Sparganium angustifolium 

  31. Northern Bur-reed  ______  IC
    Sparganium hyperboreum

  32. Least Bur-reed  ______  IC
    Sparganium minimum  

    Buttercup, or Crowfoot Family, RANUNCULACEAE

  33. Monkshood  ______  AK
    Aconitum delphinifolium delphinifolium
    Aconitum delphinifolium chamissonianum

    is a poisonous plant. It was once called Wolfbane, as it was used in bait for killing wolves. 

  34. Baneberry  (or Snakeberry)  ______  AK
    Actaea rubra

    Baneberry is a very poisonous plant. As many as 6 berries has been known to cause death for a small child.   

  35. Cut-leaf Anemone  ______  AK
    Anemone multifida

  36. Narcissus-flowered Anemone  ______  AK
    Anemone narcissiflora

  37. Windflower  ______  AK
    Anemone parviflora

  38. Yellow Anemone  (or Richardson's Anemone ______  AK
    Anemone richardsonii

    This and other Anemone species are very poisonous, and should not be eaten.

  39. Blue Columbine  ______  AK
    Aquilegia brevistylla

  40. Western Columbine  ______  AK
    Aquilegia formosa

  41. Mountain-marigold  ______  AK
    Caltha leptosepala 

  42. Marsh-marigold  (ph)  ______  AK  IC(*)
    Caltha palustris

    The Marsh-marigold contains a poison when raw. 

    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  43. Larkspur  ______  AK
    Delphinium glaucum

    Larkspur is a poisonous plant.

  44. Pasque Flower  (or Spring Crocus ______  AK
    Pulsatilla patens

  45. Meadow Buttercup  ______  IC
    Ranunculus acris

    The species in the Ranunculus genus (this & the following) are poisonous and should not be eaten. 

  46. Goldilocks Buttercup  ______  IC(rare)
    Ranunculus auricomus

  47. Mountain Buttercup  (or Eschscholtz Buttercup ______  AK
    Ranunculus eschscholtzii

  48. Arctic Buttercup  ______  IC
    Ranunculus hyperboreus

    The Arctic Buttercup is a species characteristic of iron-rich spring-water seeping up through mud in bogs, in Iceland especially in the Central Highlands.
    In such places, in Iceland, it is often accompanied by Water Whorlgrass.  

  49. Glacier Buttercup  ______  IC
    Ranunculus glacialis 

  50. Snow Buttercup  ______  AK(*)
    Ranunculus nivalis

    In Alaska, the Snow Buttercup is in the eastern, central, and northern parts of the state.

  51. Western Buttercup  ______  AK
    Ranunculus occidentalis

  52. Pigmy Buttercup  ______  IC
    Ranunculus pygmaeus

  53. Creeping Buttercup  ______  IC
    Ranunculus repens

    In Iceland, the Creeping Buttercup is a rather common naturalized alien. It is found on cultivated homefields, fertile pastures in villages, near houses and abandoned farms, and in gardens.

  54. Creeping Spearwort  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Ranunculus reptans 

    Creeping Spearwort
    is found in moist soil.

    Creeping Spearwort
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour) 

  55. Thread-leaved Water-crowfoot  ______  IC
    Ranunculus trichophyllus

  56. Alpine Meadow-rue  ______  IC
    Thalictrum alpinum

    Clubmoss Family, LYCOPODIACEAE

  57. Alpine Clubmoss  ______  IC
    Dipharium alpinum

  58. Fir Clubmoss  ______  IC
    Huperzia selago

  59. Interrupted Clubmoss  ______  AK  IC
    Lycopodium annotinum

    Crowberry Family, EMPETRUM

  60. Crowberry  (or Mooseberry ______  AK  IC
    Empetrum nigrum

    AN EDIBLE PLANT: The berries of Crowberry may be used for jelly or pies. They are easy to pick and keep well.      

    Cypress Family,

  61. Juniper  ______  IC
    Juniperas communis

    Daisy, or Aster Family, ASTERACEAE

  62. Achillea alpina camtschatica  ______  HK

  63. Northern Yarrow  ______  AK
    Achillea borealis

  64. Yarrow  ______  IC
    Achillea millefolium

  65. Sneezewort  ______  HK  IC  
    Achillea ptarmica
    Achillea ptarmica macrocephalia (var. yezoensis)  ______  HK

  66. Achillea sibirica  ______  AK

  67. Anaphalis lactea  ______  HK

  68. Anaphalis margaritacea margaritacea  ______  HK
    Anaphalis margaritacea yedoensis  ______  HK

  69. Pussy Toes  ______  AK
    Antennaria sp.

    In Alaska, there are numerous species of Antennaria, separated by minor characteristics. Some are pink, but the following species (the Cat's Paw) is a whit alpine species.    

  70. Alpine Cat's Foot  ______  IC
    Antennaria alpina

  71. Antennaria dioica  ______  HK

  72. Cat's Paw  ______  AK
    Antennaria monocephala 

  73. Alpine Arnica  ______  AK
    Arnica alpina angustifolia

  74. Arnica amplexicaulis  ______  AK

  75. Arnica chamissonis  ______  AK 

  76. Frigid Arnica  ______  AK
    Arnica frigida

  77. Meadow Arnica  ______  AK
    Arnica latifolia

  78. Lessing's Arnica  ______  AK
    Arnica lessingii

  79. Arnica sachalinensis  ______  HK

  80. Arnica unalaschcensis  (var. unalaschcensis)  ______  HK  

  81. Artemisia arctica sachalinensis  ______  HK

  82. Frigid Wormwood (or Prairie Sagebrush ______  AK
    Artemisia frigida

  83. Artemisia schmidtiana  ______  HK

  84. Artesmisia tanacetifolia  ______  HK

  85. Common Wormwood  ______  AK
    Artemisia tilesii

  86. Artemisia trifurcata  ______  HK

  87. Artemisia unalaskensis  ______  HK

  88. Siberian Aster  ______  AK
    Aster sibiricus

  89. Pineappleweed  ______  IC
    Chamomilla suaveolens

  90. Arctic Daisy  ______  AK
    Chrysanthemum arcticum arcticum

  91. Creeping Thistle  ______  IC
    Cirsium arvense

  92. Marsh Hawk's-beard  ______  IC(very rare)
    Crepis paludosa

    In Iceland, Marsh Hawk's-beard is found only in the outer districts on both sides of Eyjafjordur. 

  93. Erigeron acer  (var. acer)  _____  HK
    Erigeron acer  (var. kamtschaticus)  ______  HK

  94. Alpine Fleabane  ______  IC
    Erigeron borealis

    In Iceland, Alpine Fleabane is common throughout. It grows on slopes and grassy moors.

    MEDICINAL USE: the whole plant, with the exception of the root

    Used EXTERNALLY, Alpine Fleabane is very useful to treat burns, inflammation, and melanoma ulcers. 
    Poultices of the herb are also effective in treating rheumatic inflammation and sore muscles. 

    Alpine Fleabane is useful as a gargle for mouth and throat ulcers and inflammation.

    Alpine Fleabane can be dangerous if used internally, It was used that way in the past, but it is now evident that protracted use can cause hepatic toxicity, which could even be fatal.     

  95. Snow Fleabane  ______  IC
    Erigeron humilis

  96. Coastal Fleabane  ______  AK
    Erigeron peregrinus

  97. Erigeron miyabeanis  ______  HK

  98. Erigeron thunbergii glabratus  (var. glabratus)  ______  HK
    Erigeron thunbergii glabratus  (var. angustifolis)  ______  HK 

  99. Dwarf Fleabane  ______  IC
    Erigeron uniflorus

  100. Marsh Cudweed  ______  IC
    Filaginella uliginosa

  101. Hawkweed  ______  IC
    Hieracium spp.

    The Hawkweeds are a very difficult group, having been divided, in Iceland, into about 200 microspecies, or varieties.   

  102. Alpine Hawkweed  ______  IC
    Hieracium alpinum

  103. Autumn Hawkbit  ______  IC
    Leontodon autumnalis

  104. Leontopodium discolor  ______  HK

  105. Leontopodium japonicum  ______  HK

  106. Leotopodium miyabeanum  ______  HK

  107. Oxeye Daisy  ______  IC
    Leucanthemum vulgare

  108. Ligularia hodgsonii  ______  HK  

  109. Pineapple Weed  ______  AK
    Matricaria matricarioides

    Matricaria matricarioides is a different plant than Chamomilla suaveolens. Both have the common name Pineapple Weed.

    In Alaska, Matricaria matricarioides is introduced.

  110. Sea Mayweed  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Matricaria maritima

    Sea Mayweed
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  111. Highland Cudweed  ______  IC
    Omalotheca norvegica

  112. Dwarf Cudweed  ______  IC
    Omalotheca supina

  113. Heath Cudweed  ______  IC
    Omalotheca sylvatica

  114. Parasenecio auriculatus (var. bulbifera)  ______  HK

  115. Frigid Coltsfoot  ______  AK
    Petasites frigidus

  116. Northern Coltsfoot  ______  AK
    Petasites hyperboreus

  117. Arrowleaf Coltsfoot  ______  AK
    Petasites sagitus

  118. Icelandic Hawkweed  ______  IC
    Pilosella islandica

  119. Marsh Fleabane  (or Mastodon Flower ______  AK
    Senecio congestus

  120. Senecio conterminus  ______  AK

  121. Senecio cymbalarioides  ______  AK

  122. Black-tipped Groundsel  ______  AK
    Senecio lugens

  123. Senecio nemorensis  ______  HK

  124. Senecio pauciflorus  ______  AK

  125. Beach Fleabane  ______  AK
    Senecio pseudo-arnica

  126. Triangular-leaved Fleabane  ______  AK
    Senecio triangularis

  127. Groundsel  ______  AK  IC
    Senecio vulgaris

  128. Solidago canadensis  ______  AK

  129. Solidago horicana  ______  HK

  130. Elegant Goldenrod  ______  AK
    Solidago lepida

  131. Northern Goldenrod  ______  AK
    Solidago multiradiata

  132. Solidago virgaurea asiatica  ______  HK
    Solidago virgaurea leiocarpa  ______  HK

  133. Dandelion  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Taraxacum spp.

    are very variable plants and are often separated into different numbers of microspecies. Since they reproduce by agamospermy, the distinction between many of the microspecies is unclear. 

    In Iceland, Dandelions are common "everywhere", growing in grassland, near homes and farms, and in the mountains.  

    MEDICINAL USE: roots and leaves, gathered before flowering

    The Dandelion is a very important medicinal herb. The roots and leaves are mixed to gain the most advantageous effects of both.
    The leaves, which are very nutritious, are diuretic and high in potassium (but have little effect on the liver). They are used, therefore, for oedema, especially if caused by a weak heart.   

    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  134. Tephroseris kawakamii  ______  HK

  135. Colt's-foot  ______  IC
    Tussilago farfara

    Diapensia Family, DIAPENSIACEAE

  136. Diapensia  (or Lapland Diapensia ______  AK  IC
    Diapensia lapponica
    Diapensia lapponica obovata  
    subspecies in Alaska

    Dock, or Buckwheat Family, POLYGONACEAE

  137. Alpine Bistort  ______  IC(*)
    Bistorta vivipara

    Other names for Bistorta vivipara are: Osterick, Snakeweed, Adderwort. 

    In Iceland, Alpine Bistort is very common throughout. It grows in nearly all types of soils, in the highlands as well as in settled areas at lower elevations.

    the root

    Alpine Bistort is used for various types of pain and hemorrhage in the digestive tract (for example, for gastritis and colitis).
    The root is also useful for gingivitis and soreness of the mouth and throat as well as for cervical soreness.
    A decoction of the root can be used to treat sores that are hard to heal.

  138. Iceland-purslane  ______  IC
    Koenigia islandica

  139. Mountain Sorrel  (ph)  ______  AK  IC(*)
    Oxyria digyna

    Oxyria digyna
    occurs commonly in Iceland, at ravines, cliffs, gravelly slopes, and rocky ground.

    Mountain Sorrel
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  140. Amphibious Bistort  ______  IC
    Persicaria amphibia

  141. Wild Rhubarb  ______  AK
    Polygonum alaskanum

    AN EDIBLE PLANT: Young stems and leaves of the Wild Rhubarb may be eaten raw or cooked. 

  142. Knotgrass  ______  IC
    Polygonum aviculare

  143. Pink Plumes  ______  AK
    Polygonum bistorta

    AN EDIBLE PLANT: Leaves of the Pink Plumes may be eaten raw or cooked. 

  144. Alpine Meadow Bistort  ______  AK
    Polygonum viviparum

    The boiled roots of the Alpine Meadow Bistort are a good source of starch , and the leaves of the plant may be eaten raw or cooked. 

  145. Common Sorrel  ______  IC
    Rumex acetosa

  146. Sheep Sorrel  ______  AK  IC
    Rumex acetosella

  147. Arctic Dock  ______  AK
    Rumex arcticus

  148. Curled Dock  ______  IC(rare alien)
    Rumex crispus 

  149. Northern Dock  ______  IC
    Rumex longifolius

    Dogwood Family, CORNACEAE

  150. Dwarf Dogwood  ______  AK
    Cornus canadensis

    Other names for Cornus canadensis are the Canadian Dwarf Cornel, and Bunchberry .

  151. Red Twig Dogwood  ______  AK
    Cornus stolonifera   

  152. Dwarf Cornel  ______  IC
    Cornus suecica

    Another name for Cornus suecica is the Swedish Dwarf Cornel. 

    Earthsmoke Family, FUMARIACEAE

  153. Bolden Corydalis  ______  AK
    Corydalis aurea

  154. Few-flowered Corydalis  ______  AK
    Corydalis pauciflora

  155. Pale Corydalis  (or the Rock Harlequin)  ______  AK
    Corydalis sempervirens

    In Alaska, Corydalis sempervirens is introduced.

    Eel-grass Family,

  156. Eelgrass  ______  IC
    Zostera marina

    Fern & Hardfern Families,

  157. Hard Fern  ______  IC
    Blechnum spicant

  158. Holly Fern  ______  IC
    Polystichum lonchitis

    Figwort Family, SCROPHULAREACEUS

  159. Arctic Bartsia  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Bartsia alpina

    Arctic Bartsia
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  160. Yellow Paintbrush  (or Coastal Paintbrush ______  AK
    Castilleja unalaschensis

  161. Elegant Paintbrush  ______  AK(*)
    Castilleja elegans

    In Alaska, the Elegant Paintbrush grows in interior Alaska and on the North Slope.

  162. Castilleja hyetophia  ______  AK

  163. Red Indian Paintbrush  ______  AK
    Castilleja miniata

  164. Arctic Eyebright  ______  IC
    Euphrasia arctica

  165. Cold Eyebright  ______  IC
    Euphrasia frigida

  166. Mudwort  ______  IC
    Limosella aquatica

  167. Toadflax  (or Butter and Eggs)  ______  AK
    Linaria vulgaris

    In Alaska, Linaria vulgaris has become naturalized. It is not native. 

  168. Small Cow-wheat  ______  IC(rare & localized)
    Melampyrum sylvaticum

  169. Yellow Monkeyflower  (or Wild Snapdragon ______  AK
    Mimulus guttatus

  170. Purple-flowered Monkeyflower  ______  AK
    Mimulus lewisii

  171. Capitate Lousewort  ______  AK
    Pedicularis capitata

  172. Upright Lousewort  ______  IC
    Pedicularis flammea 

  173. Wooly Lousewort  ______  AK
    Pedicularis kanei kanei

  174. Labrador Lousewort  ______  AK
    Pedicularis labradorica

  175. Pedicularis lapponica  ______  AK

  176. Pedicularis oederi  ______  AK 

  177. Yukon Beardtongue  ______  AK
    Penstemon gormanii

  178. Yellow-rattle  (or Rattlebox)  ______  AK  IC
    Rhinanthus minor

    In Iceland, Yellow-rattle is often called Peningagras (translated to "Penny-grass") by children because of the shape of the fruits, that they use as play money.  

    The flowers of the Yellow-rattle, or Rattlebox are small and inconspicuous, protruding from the calyx.
    The rather hairy calyx forms an urn-like structure that rattles when seeds within the ovary are mature, thus the common names for the plant.

  179. Blue Water-speedwell  ______  IC
    Veronica anagallis-aquatica

  180. Alpine Speedwell  ______  IC
    Veronica alpina  

  181. Veronica americana  ______  AK

  182. Germander Speedwell  ______  IC
    Veronica chamaedrys

  183. Rock Speedwell  ______  IC
    Veronica fruticans 

  184. Heath Speedwell  ______  IC
    Veronica officinalis

  185. Common Field-Speedwell  ______  IC
    Veronica persica

  186. Marsh Speedwell  ______  IC
    Veronica scutellata

  187. Thyme-leaved Speedwell  (or Brook Veronica)  ______  AK  IC
    Veronica serpyllifolia

  188. Veronica stelleri  ______  AK

  189. Alpine Veronica  ______  AK
    Veronica wormskjoldii

    Flax Family, LINACEAE

  190. Fairy Flax  ______  IC
    Limun catharticum

  191. Wild Blue Flax  ______  AK
    Limun perenne

    Gentian Family, GENTIANACEAE

  192. Glaucous Gentian  ______  AK
    Gentiana glauca  

  193. Alpine Gentian  ______  IC
    Gentiana nivalis

  194. Autumn Gentian  ______  IC
    Gentianella amarella

  195. Northern Gentian  ______  IC
    Gentianella aurea

  196. Field Gentian  ______  IC
    Gentianella campestris

  197. Serrate Gentian  ______  IC
    Gentianella detonsa

  198. Slender Gentian  ______  IC
    Gentianella tenella

  199. Arctic Felwort  ______  IC
    Lomatogonium rotatus

  200. Star Gentian  ______  AK
    Swetia perennis

    Geranium Family, GERANIACEAE

  201. Cranesbill  (or Wild Geranium______  AK
    Geranium erianthum

  202. Wood Crane's-bill  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Geranium sylvaticum

    Wood Crane's-bill
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour) 

    Ginseng Family, ARALIACEAE

  203. Devil's Club  ______  AK
    Echinopanax horridum

    Gooseberry Family, GROSSULARIACEAE

  204. Northern Black Currant  ______  AK
    Ribes hudsonium

  205. Northern Red Currant  ______  AK
    Ribes iriste

  206. Bristly Black Currant  (or Gooseberry ______  AK
    Ribes lacustre

  207. Trailing Black Currant  ______  AK
    Ribes laxiflorum 

    Goosefoot Family, CHENOPODIUM

  208. Babington's Orache  ______  IC
    Atriplex glabriuscula

  209. Long-stalked Orache  ______  IC
    Atriplex longipes

  210. Fat-hen  ______  IC(an alien)
    Chenopodium album

  211. Strawberry Spinach  (or Strawberry Blite ______  AK
    Chenopodium capitatum

    AN EDIBLE PLANT: The sweet fruit of Strawberry Spinach may be eaten raw or used for jelly and syrup. Its tasty leaves are very similar to those of its close relative, Spinach.  

    Grass Family, POACEAE

  212. Lyme Grass  (or Beach Rye Grass ______  AK
    Elymus arenarius

  213. Squirreltail Grass  ______  AK
    Hordeum jubatum

    Heath Family, ERICACEAE

  214. Bog Rosemary  ______  AK  IC(very rare)
    Andromeda polifolia

    In Iceland, the Bog Rosemary has recently been discovered in the northern part of the eastern fjords. 

    Bog Rosemary is very poisonous plant. It can cause rapid lowering of blood pressure if eaten..   

  215. Alpine Bearberry  ______  AK
    Arctostaphylos alpina

  216. Bearberry  (ph)  ______  AK  IC(*)
    Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

    Another name for Arctostaphylos uva-ursi is Kinnikinnick.

    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)  

  217. Heather  ______  IC
    Calluna vulgaris

  218. Cassiope  ______  IC
    Cassiope hypnoides

  219. Moss Heather  ______  AK
    Cassiope stelleriana

  220. Labrador Tea  ______  AK(*)
    Ledum palustris groenlandicum

  221. Trailing Azalea  (or Alpine Azalea ______  AK  IC
    Loiseleuria procumbens

  222. Rusty Menziesia  ______  AK
    Menziesia ferruginea

    Other names for Menziesia ferruginea are Fool's Huckleberry and False Azalea.

  223. Blue Heath  ______  IC
    Phyllodoce coerulea

  224. Lapland Rosebay  ______  AK
    Rhododendron lapponicum

  225. Small Cranberry  ______  IC
    Vaccinium microcarpum

  226. Bilberry  (ph)  ______  IC(*) 
    Vaccinium myrtillus

    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)  

  227. Bog Bilberry  (ph)  ______  AK  IC(*)
    Vaccinium uliginosum

    Bog Bilberry
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  228. Cowberry  ______  AK  IC(very rare)
    Vaccinium vitis-idaea

    Other names for Vaccinium vitis-idaea are: Low-bush Cranberry, Mountain Cranberry, and Lingonberry. 

    Honeysuckle Family, CAPRIFOLIACEAE

  229. Twin Flower  ______  AK
    Linnea borealis

  230. Red-berried Elder  ______  AK
    Sambucus racemosa 

    All parts of the Red-berried Elder, except for the pulp of the berries and the flowers, are poisonous.   

  231. High-bush Cranberry  ______  AK
    Viburnum edule

    Horsetail Family,

  232. Field Horsetail  ______  AK  IC
    Equisetum arvense

  233. Water Horsetail  ______  IC
    Equisetum fluviatile

  234. Rough Horsetail  ______  IC
    Equisetum hyemale

  235. Marsh Horsetail  ______  IC
    Equisetum palustre

  236. Shady Horsetail  (ph)  ______  IC
    Equisetum pratense

    Shady Horsetail
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)   

  237. Wood Horsetail  ______  IC
    Equisetum sylvaticum

  238. Variegated Horsetail  ______  IC
    Equisetum variegatum

    Iris Family, IRIDACEAE

  239. Wild Iris  (or Blue Flag ______  AK
    Iris setosa

    Lady-fern Family,

    including Shield-ferns

  240. Alpine Lady-fern  ______  IC
    Athyrium ditentifolium

  241. Lady-fern  ______  AK  IC
    Athyrium filix-femina

  242. Brittle Bladder-fern  (or Fragile Fern______  AK  IC
    Cystopteris fragilis

    In Iceland, the Brittle Bladder-fern is by far the most common fern, and the only one that is widespread throughout the country. 

  243. Dickie's Bladder-fern  ______  IC
    Cystopteris dickieana

  244. Northern Buckler-fern  ______  IC
    Dryopteris assimilis

  245. Wood-fern  ______  AK
    Dryopteris dilatata

  246. Male-fern  ______  IC
    Dryopteris filix-mas

  247. Fragrant Shield Fern  ______  AK
    Dryopteris fragans

  248. Oak Fern  ______  IC
    Gymnocarpium dryopteris

  249. Wilson's Filmy-fern  ______  IC
    Hymenophyllum wilsonii

  250. Ostrich Fern  ______  AK
    Matteuccia struthiopteris

  251. Alpine Woodsia  ______  IC
    Woodsia alpina

  252. Oblong Woodsia  ______  IC
    Woodsia ilvensis

    Legume, or Pea Family, LEGUMINOSAE or FABACEAE

  253. Kidney Vetch  ______  IC
    Anthyllis vulneraria

    In Iceland, Kidney Vetch is rather common on the Reykjanes Peninsula, but rather rare elsewhere in the country.  

  254. Alpine Milk Vetch  ______  AK
    Astragalus alpinus

  255. Hairy Arctic Milk Vetch  ______  AK
    Astragalus umbellatus

  256. Eskimo Potato  ______  IC
    Hedysarum alpinum

  257. Wild Sweet Pea  ______  IC
    Hedysarum mackenzii

    The root of the Wild Sweet Pea is said to be poisonous. 

  258. Sea Pea  ______  IC(*)
    Lathyrus japonicus maritimus 

  259. Beach Pea  ______  AK
    Lathyrus maritimus maritimus  

    AN EDIBLE PLANT: the large pods of the Beach Pea are eaten, both raw and cooked

    But caution should be had with the plants of the Pea Family as they readily absorb selenium from the soil causing toxicity.   

  260. Marsh Pea  ______  IC(very rare)
    Lathyrus palustris

  261. Meadow Vetchling  ______  IC
    Lathyrus pratensis

  262. Arctic Lupine  ______  AK
    Lupinus arcticus

  263. Nootka (or Alaska) Lupin  (ph)  ______  AK  IC(*)  
    Lupinus nootkatensis 

    Lupinus nootkatensis
    is introduced in Iceland. 


    Alaska Lupin
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, from during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  264. Yellow Oxytrope  ______  AK
    Oxytropis campestris

    Many of the Oxytropes contain a toxin and are commonly called Loco-weed, as grazing cattle are strangely affected by it causing an uneven gait.
    Oxytropes should not be eaten.  

  265. Blackish (or Purple) Oxytrope  ______  AK
    Oxytropis nigrescens

  266. Oxytropis maydelliana  ______  AK

  267. Oxytropis viscida  ______  AK 

  268. Alsike Clover  ______  IC
    Trifolium hybridum

  269. White Clover  ______  IC
    Trifolium repens

  270. Red Clover  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Trifolium pratense 

    In Iceland, Trifolium pratense is introduced and partly naturalized. It occurs in grassy pastures and cultivated homefields. It is rather rare in Iceland. 

    Red Clover
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  271. Tufted Vetch  ______  IC
    Vicia cracca 

  272. Bush Vetch  ______  IC
    Vicia sepium

    Lily Family, LILIACEAE

  273. Chocolate Lily  ______  AK
    Fritillaria camschatcensis

    Other names for Fritillaria camschatcensis are Kamchatka Fritillary and Rice Lily. 

  274. Alp Lily  ______  AK
    Lloydia serotina 

  275. False Solomon's Seal  ______  AK
    Smilacina stellata

    Smilacina stellata is poisonous.

  276. Watermelon Berry  ______  AK
    Streptopus amplexifolius

    Other names for Streptopus amplexifolius are Twisted Stalk and Wild Cucumber.

    AN EDIBLE PLANT: The sweet juicy berries of the Watermelon Berry are used for jellies and syrups.
    The new shoots, younger leaves and flower buds are tasty additions to salads. 

  277. False Hellebore  ______  AK
    Veratrum viride

    Veratrum viride is very poisonous. If eaten, it can cause vomiting, paralysis, death.  

  278. Death Camas  (or Camas Wand Lily ______  AK
    Zygadenus elegans

    Zygadenus elegans has a highly toxic poison that causes vomiting, a lowered body temperature, and breathing difficulties. 

    Madder Family, RUBIACEAE

  279. Northern Bedstraw  ______   AK  IC
    Galium boreale 

    Northern Bedstraw was used in early times as mattress stuffing because it is sweet scented and its square stems do not crush easily. 

  280. Slender Bedstraw  ______  IC
    Galium normanii

  281. Marsh Bedstraw  ______  IC(very rare)
    Galium palustre

    In Iceland, Marsh Bedstraw is found at only a few localities in the southwest.

  282. Small Bedstraw  ______  IC
    Galium trifidum

  283. Sweet-scented Bedstraw  ______  AK
    Galium triflorum

  284. Fen Bedstraw  ______  IC
    Galium uliginosum

  285. Lady's Bedstraw  ______  IC
    Galium verum

    Mare's-tail Family,

  286. Four-leaved Mare's-tail  ______  IC
    Hippuris tetraphylla

  287. Mare's-tail  ______  IC
    Hippuris vulgaris  

    Mint Family,

  288. Pyramidial Bugle  ______  IC
    Ajuga pyramidalis 

  289. Hemp-nettle  ______  IC
    Galeopsis tetrahit 

  290. White Dead-nettle  ______  IC
    Lamium album

  291. Red Dead-nettle  ______  IC
    Lamium purpureum

  292. Selfheal  ______  IC
    Prunella vulgaris

  293. Wild Thyme  ______  IC
    Thymus praecox arcticus

    Mountain Parsley, or Parsley Fern Family, CRYPTOGRAMMACEAE

  294. Parsley Fern  ______  AK  IC(very rare)
    Cryptogramma crispa

    Mustard Family, BRASSICADEAE, formerly CRUCIFERAE

  295. Alpine Rock-cress  ______  IC
    Arabis alpina

  296. Holboell's Rockcress  ______  AK
    Arabis holboelli  

  297. Kamchatka Rockcress  ______  AK
    Arabis lyrata 

  298. Winter-cress  ______  IC
    Barbarea vulgaris

  299. Bird's Rape  ______  AK
    Brassica rapa

    In Alaska, Brassica rapa is introduced.  

  300. Sea Rocket  ______  IC
    Cakile arctica

  301. Shepherd's Purse  ______  AK  IC
    Capsella bursa-pastoris

    In Alaska, the Shepherd's Purse is an introduced species.

  302. Alpine Bitter-cress  ______  IC
    Cardamine bellidifolia

  303. Hairy Bitter-cress  ______  IC
    Cardamine hirsuta

  304. Lady Smock  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Cardamine nymanii

    Lady Smock
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland Tour)

  305. Purple Cress  ______  AK
    Cardamine purpurea

  306. Northern Rock-cress  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Cardaminopsis petraea

    Northern Rock-cress
    is one of the most common wildflowers in Iceland in both the lowlands and highlands. It occurs in areas of gravel hills, screes, sand and lava fields. 

    Northern Rock-cress
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour) 

  307. Common Scurygrass  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Cochlearia officinalis 

    In Iceland, Common Scurvygrass is found widely on cliffs and rocks on tidal beaches and bird cliffs. It is also in inland areas.

    MEDICINAL USE: the leaves and roots, containing vitamin C and other vitamins, tannins, glycosides and strong oil containing among other things, sulphur

    Long before vitamins became known, common people in Iceland cured scurvy and various other ailments with scurvygrass.
    Today, in Iceland, it is used mainly for rheumatism, oedema, and various skin conditions, due to its purging effect on the blood.
    A strengthening and cleansing tincture of the herb can be prepared for use in the winter.    

    Common Scurvygrass
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  308. Flixweed  ______  IC(rare)
    Descurainia sophia

    In Iceland, Flixweed is a very rare alien.

  309. Alpine Whitlowgrass  ______  IC
    Draba alpina

  310. Draba aurea  ______  AK

  311. Draba borealis  ______  AK

  312. Draba hirta  ______  AK

  313. Hoary Whitlowgrass  ______  IC
    Draba incana

  314. Whitlowgrass  ______  AK
    Draba incerta

  315. Draba maxima  ______  AK

  316. Snow Whitlowgrass  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Draba nivalis

    Snow Whitlowgrass
    is rather rare in Iceland, found at rock outcrops and cairns in the northern and eastern parts of the island.

    Snow Whitlowgrass
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT June 2009 Iceland Tour)
  317. Rock Whitlowgrass  ______  IC
    Draba norvegica

  318. Common Whitlowgrass  ______  IC
    Erophila verna

  319. Hawkweed-leaved Treaclemustard  ______  IC
    Erysimum hieraciifolium

  320. Common Mustard  (or Ball Mustard)  ______  AK
    Leslia paniculata

  321. Parry's Wallflower  ______  AK
    Parrya nudicaulis interior 

  322. Northern Yellowcress  ______  IC
    Rorippa islandica

  323. Awlwort  ______  IC
    Subularia aquatica

  324. Field Penny-cress  ______  IC
    Thlaspi arvense

    In Iceland, Field Penny-cress is a rare alien. 

    Nettle Family,
  325. Common Nettle  ______  IC
    Urtica dioeca

    Oleaster Family, ELAEAGNACEAE

  326. Silverberry  ______  AK
    Elaeagnus commutata

  327. Soapberry  ______  AK
    Shepherdia canadensis

    The berries of Shepherdia canadensis are a favorite food of bears.

    Orchid Family, ORCHIDACEAE

  328. Calypso Orchid  (or Fairy Slipper ______  AK
    Calypso bulbosa

  329. Frog Orchid  ______  IC
    Coeloglossum viride

  330. Coralroot Orchid  ______  IC
    Corallorhiza trifida

  331. Spotted Lady Slipper  ______  AK
    Cypripedium guttatum

  332. White Lady Slipper  ______  AK
    Cypripedium passerinum

    Another species of orchid in the Cypripedium genus is in the photo below. It is Cypripedium passerinum, a Lady Slipper that occurs in northern Europe in Estonia where the photo was taken. 

    Cypripedium passerinum, a Lady Slipper  

  333. Heath Spotted Orchid  ______  IC
    Dactylorhiza maculata

    Another species of orchid in the Dactylorhiza genus is in the photo below. It is Dactylorhiza incarnata, the Early Marsh Orchid, that occurs in northern Europe in Estonia where the photo was taken.   

    Early Marsh Orchid

  334. Lesser Twayblade  ______  IC
    Listera cordata

  335. Common Twayblade  ______  IC
    Listera ovata

  336. Bog Candle  ______  AK
    Platanthera dilatata

  337. Northern Green Orchid  ______  AK  IC
    Platanthera hyperborea

  338. Small-white Orchid  ______  IC
    Pseudorchis albida

  339. Hooded Ladies Tresses  ______  AK
    Spiranthes romanzoffiana  

    Parnassus-grass Family,

    A family related to the Saxifrages. 

  340. Grass of Parnassus  (or Bog Star ______  AK  IC
    Parnassia palustris 

    Parsley or Celery Family, APIACEAE

  341. Garden Angelica  ______  IC(*)
    Angelica archangelica

  342. Wild Celery  ______  AK
    Angelica lucidaq

  343. Wild Angelica  ______  IC
    Angelica sylvestris

  344. Cow Parsley  ______  IC
    Anthriscus sylvestris

  345. Caraway  ______  IC
    Carum carvi

  346. Poison Water Hemlock  ______  AK
    Cicuta mackenzieana

    As indicated in its common name, Cicuta mackenzieana is a poisonous plant.

  347. Cnidium cnidifolium  ______  AK

  348. Hemlock Parsley  ______  AK
    Conioselinum chinense

  349. Cow Parsnip  ______  AK
    Heracleum lanatum

  350. Marsh Pennywort  ______  IC
    Hydrocotyle vulgaris

  351. Scots Lovage  (or Beach Lovage ______  AK  IC
    Ligusticum scoticum

  352. Sweet Cicely  ______  IC
    Myrrhis odorata

    Phlox, or Polemonium Family, POLEMONIACEAE

  353. Tall Jacob's Ladder  ______  AK
    Polemonium acutiflorum

  354. Beautiful Jacob's Ladder  ______  AK
    Polemonium pulcherrimum

    Pine Family, PINACEAE

  355. Larch (or Tamarack ______  AK
    Larix laricina

  356. White Spruce  ______  AK
    Picea glauca

  357. Black Spruce  ______  AK
    Picea mariana 

    The Black Spruce often hybridizes with the White Spruce (above), and occasionally the Sitka Spruce (below).

  358. Sitka Spruce  ______  AK
    Picea sitchensis

  359. Western Hemlock  ______  AK
    Tsuga heerophylla

  360. Mountain Hemlock  ______  AK
    Tsuga mertensiana


  361. Arctic Sandwort  ______  IC  (Note: the same common name as for Minuartia arctica
    Arenaria norvegica

  362. Alpine Mouse-ear  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Cerastrium alpinum

    Alpine Mouse-ear
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland Tour)

  363. Arctic Mouse-ear  ______  IC
    Cerastrium arcticum

  364. Mouse-ear Chickweed  ______  AK
    Cerastrium arvense

  365. Starwort Mouse-ear  ______  IC
    Cerastrium cerastoides

  366. Common Mouse-ear  ______  IC
    Cerastrium fontanum

  367. Smooth Mouse-ear  ______  IC
    Cerastrium glabratum

  368. Sticky Mouse-ear  ______  IC
    Cerastrium glomeratum

  369. Sea Sandwort  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Honckenya peploides

    Sea Sandwort
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  370. Alpine Catchfly  ______  IC
    Lychnis alpina

  371. Ragged Robin ______  IC
    Lychnis flos-cuculi

    In Iceland, the Ragged Robin is in the south. It is rare elsewhere.

  372. Arctic Sandwort  ______  AK  (Note: the same common name as for Arenaria norvegica)
    Minuartia arctica

  373. Two-flowered Sandwort  ______  IC
    Minuartia biflora

  374. Mountain Sandwort  ______  IC
    Minuartia rubella

  375. Teesdale Sandwort  ______  IC
    Minuartia stricta

  376. Grove Sandwort  ______  AK
    Moehringia lateriflora

  377. Tufted Pearlwort  ______  IC
    Sagina caespitosa

  378. Snow Pearlwort  ______  IC
    Sagina nivalis

  379. Knotted Pearlwort  ______  IC
    Sagina nodosa

  380. Procumbent Pearlwort  ______  IC
    Sagina procumbens

  381. Alpine Pearlwort  ______  IC
    Sagina saginoides

  382. Heath Pearlwort  ______  IC
    Sagina subulata  

  383. Moss Campion  (ph)  ______  AK(*)  IC(*)
    Silene acaulis 

    Moss Campion
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour) 

  384. Sea Campion  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Silene uniflora

    Above & below: Two photos of Sea Campion
    (Both taken during FONT Iceland Tours
     upper photo in June 2006 by Cheryl Pearce; lower photo in June 2009 by Gerin Hood)

  385. Corn Spurrey  ______  IC
    Spergula arvensis

  386. Lesser Spurrey  ______  IC
    Spergularia marina

  387. Northern Stitchwort  ______  IC(rare)
    Stellaria calycantha

  388. Fleshy Stichwort  ______  IC
    Stellaria crassifolia

  389. Lesser Stitchwort  ______  IC
    Stellaria graminea

    In Iceland, the Lesser Stitchwort is one of the recent aliens. It has spread quickly through the Icelandic countryside in the last few decades. 

  390. Low Stitchwort  ______  IC
    Stellaria humifusa

  391. Common Chickweed  ______  IC
    Stellaria media

    Plantain Family,

  392. Shoreweed  ______  IC
    Littorella uniflora

  393. Ribwort Plantain  ______  IC
    Plantago lanceolata

  394. Greater Plantain  ______  IC
    Plantago major

  395. Sea Plantain  ______  IC
    Plantago maritima

    Polypody Family,

  396. Common Polypody  ______  IC
    Polypodium vulgare

    Pondweed & Horned Pondweed Familes, 

  397. Red Pondweed  ______  IC
    Potamogeton alpinus

  398. Slender-leaved Pondweed  ______  IC
    Potamogeton filiformis

  399. Various-leaved Pondweed  ______  IC
    Potamogeton gramineus

  400. Broad-leaved Pondweed  ______  IC
    Potamogeton natans

  401. Perfoliate Pondweed  ______  IC
    Potamogeton perfoliatus

  402. Long-stalked Pondweed  ______  IC
    Potamogeton praelongus

  403. Lesser Pondweed  ______  IC
    Potamogeton pusillus

  404. Beaked Tasselweed  ______  IC(very rare)
    Ruppia maritima

  405. Horned Pondweed  ______  IC
    Zannichellia palustris

    Poppy Family, PAPAVERACEAE

  406. Alaska Poppy  ______  AK
    Papaver alaskanum

  407. Papaver alboroseum  ______  AK

  408. Papaver macounii  ______  AK

  409. Iceland Poppy  ______  AK  IC(rare)
    Papaver nudicaule

    In Iceland, Papaver nudicaule is an alien in gardens, waste places, and roadsides. 

    In Alaska, the Iceland Poppy is introduced, where it occurs along roadsides and in waste areas.

  410. Arctic Poppy  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Papaver radicatum

    In Iceland, the Arctic Poppy grows in gravelly areas and scree. It is common in the area of the western fjords and in the southern part of eastern Iceland. It is rarer in other parts of the country.

    MEDICINAL USE: the flower

    The Arctic Poppy is analgesic, astringent, and a sedative. Its flowers have been used for various pains, and were also recommended for internal hemorrhaging, especially in the digestive tract.
    The flower has also been considered useful for insomniacs.

    Arctic Poppy
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

    Primrose Family, PRIMULACEAE

  411. Frigid Shooting Star  ______  AK
    Dodecatheon frigidum 

  412. Shooting Star  ______  AK
    Dodecatheon pulchellum
    Dodecatheon pulchellum alaskanum 
    (subspecies in coastal areas of Alaska that is a shorter plant) 

  413. Sea Milkwort  ______  IC
    Glaux maritima

  414. Northern Primrose  ______  AK
    Primula borealis

  415. Pixie Eye Primrose  ______  AK
    Primula cuncifolia

  416. Greenland Primrose  ______  IC(very rare)
    Primula egaliksensis  

    In Iceland, the Greenland Primrose has been found at only one locality. 

  417. Strict Primrose  ______  IC
    Primula stricta

  418. Starflower  ______  AK  IC
    Trientalis europea arctica

    Another name for Trientalis europea is Chickweed Wintergreen. 

    Purslane Family, PORTULACACEAE

  419. Blinks  ______  IC
    Montia fontana

    Quillwort Family,

  420. Spring Quillwort  ______  IC
    Isoetes echinospara

  421. Quillwort  ______  IC
    Isoetes lacustris

    Rose Family, ROSACEAE

  422. Alpine Lady's-mantle  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Alchemilia alpina

    Alpine Lady's-mantle
    is found in depressions on slopes, and in snowbeds, screes, and erosive soil. 

    Alpine Lady's-mantle 
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  423. Faeroeic Lady's-mantle  ______  IC
    Alchemilla faeroensis

    In Iceland, Alchemilla faeroensis is in far-eastern part of the country. Outside Iceland, it is known only in the Faeroe Islands. 

  424. Common Lady's-mantle  ______  IC
    Alchemilla vulgaris

    The Common Lady's-mantle is divided into several subspecies, sometimes treated as separate species. Some of them are rather easy to distinguish   

  425. Serviceberry  (or Juneberry ______  AK
    Amelanchier florida

  426. Goatsbeard  ______  AK
    Aruncus sylvester

  427. Spring Beauty  ______  AK
    Claytonia sarmentosa

    AN EDIBLE PLANT:  Spring Beauty
    makes a nice addition to salads.

  428. Siberian Spring Beauty  ______  AK
    Claytonia sibirica 

    AN EDIBLE PLANT: Siberian Spring Beauty
    tastes similar to beet greens.

  429. Yellow Dryas  ______  AK
    Dryas drummondii

  430. Mountain Avens  (ph)  ______  AK  IC(*)
    Dryas octopetala 

    Another name for Dryas octopetala is Eight-petaled Avens.

    In Iceland, the leafy shoots of Dryas octopetala, found during all seasons, are called "Rjupnalauf", meaning "ptarmigan leaves". 

    Mountain Avens
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  431. Meadowsweet  ______  IC
    Filipendula ulmaria

  432. Fragaria chiloensis  ______  AK

  433. Wild Strawberry  (ph)  ______  IC
    Fragaria vesca

    In Iceland, Wild Strawberries mature late (in July), and are usually rather small. When favorable conditions occur on fertile, sunny slopes, they ripen fully and are used for human consumption, being tastier than the larger, cultivated strawberries.   

    Wild Strawberry

  434. Wild Strawberry  ______  AK
    Fragaria virginiana 

  435. Caltha Leaf Avens  ______  AK
    Geum calthifolium

  436. Large Leaf Avens  ______  AK
    Geum macropyllum macrophyllum
    Geum macropyllum perincisum 
    (subspecies in eastern & central Alaska)  

  437. Water Avens  ______  IC
    Geum rivale

  438. Ross Avens  ______  AK
    Geum rossii

  439. Alpine Spiraea  ______  AK
    Luetkea pectinata

  440. Silverweed  ______  AK  IC
    Potentilla anserina anserina
    Potentilla anserina egedii  ______  Seaside Silverweed 

    In Alaska, Potentilla anserina is an introduced species.

  441. Alpine Cinquefoil  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Potentilla crantzii

    Alpine Cinquefoil
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour) 

  442. Beach Cinquefoil  (or Pacific Silverweed ______  AK
    Potentilla egedii grandis

  443. Tormentil  ______  IC(very rare)
    Potentilla erecta

  444. Shrubby Cinquefoil  (or Tundra Rose ______  AK
    Potentilla fruiticosa 

  445. Snow Cinquefoil  (or Snow Potentilla)  ______  AK
    Potentilla nivea

  446. Norwegian Cinquefoil  ______  AK
    Potentilla norvegica  

  447. Marsh Cinquefoil  ______  AK  IC
    Potentilla palustris

    Another name for the Marsh Cinquefoil is Marsh Fivefinger.

  448. One-flowered Cinquefoil  ______  AK
    Potentilla uniflora

  449. Prickly Rose  ______  AK
    Rosa acicularis

  450. Glaucous Dog-rose  ______  IC
    Rosa dumalis

  451. Nootka Rose  ______  AK
    Rosa nutlatensis

  452. Burnet Rose  ______  IC
    Rosa pimpinellifolia

  453. Nagoonberry  ______  AK
    Rubus arcticus

  454. Cloudberry  ______  AK
    Rubus chamemorous

    Other names for Rubus chamemorous are Baked Appleberry and Salmonberry. 
    is a name used by Alaska native people for this species, but true Salmonberry is Rubus spectabilus (below). 

    In Alaska, berries of the Cloudberry ripen from August to September.   

  455. Trailing Raspberry  ______  AK
    Rubus pedatus 

  456. Stone Bramble  ______  IC
    Rubus saxatilis

  457. Great Burnet  ______  IC
    Sanguisorba officinalis

  458. Sitka Burnet  ______  AK
    Sanguisorba stipulata

  459. Creeping Sibbaldia  ______  IC
    Sibbaldia procumbens

  460. Rowan  ______  IC
    Sorbus aucuparia

  461. Mountain Ash  ______  AK
    Sorbus sitchensis

  462. Alaska Spiraea  (or Beauverd's Spiraea)  ______  AK
    Spiraea beauverdiana 

    AN EDIBLE PLANT:  The leaves of Alaska Spiraea can be brewed into a tea. 

    Rush Family,

  463. Bulbous Rush  ______  IC
    Juncus bulbosus

    Sandlewood Family, SANTALACEAE

  464. Timberberry  ______  AK
    Geocaulon lividum

    Other names for Geocaulon lividum are Pumpkin Berry and Northern Comandra.

    Saxifrage Family, SAXIFRAGACEAE

    In Alaska, there are many similar Saxifrages that grow in wet areas.
    All have edible leaves.  

  465. Alpine Heuchera  ______  AK
    Heuchera glabra

  466. Yellow Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga aizoides 

  467. Yellow-spotted Saxifrage  ______  AK
    Saxifraga bronchialis

  468. Tufted Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga caespitosa

    The Tufted Saxifrge is often divided into two subspecies:
    Saxifraga caespitosa caespitosa
    Saxifraga caespitosa decipiens

    They are often treated as separate species (Saxifraga caespitosa and Saxifrga rosacea).

    But as a subspecies, Saxifraga caespitosa decipiens has thinner, less compct clsuters of leaf shoots, and large flowers with relatively large petals. 

  469. Drooping Saxifrage  (or Bulblet Saxifrage)  ______  AK  IC
    Saxifraga cernua

  470. Pyramidal Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga cotyledon

  471. Coast Saxifrage  ______  AK
    Saxifraga ferruginea 

  472. Spider Saxifrage  ______  AK
    Saxifraga flagellaris

  473. Meadow Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga granulata

  474. Marsh Saxifrage  (or Bog Saxifrage)  ______  AK  IC
    Saxifraga hirculus

  475. Mossy Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga hypnoides 

  476. Red-stemmed Saxifrage  ______  AK
    Saxifraga lyallii

  477. Alpine Snow Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga nivalis 

  478. Purple Saxifrage  ______  AK  IC
    Saxifraga oppositifolia 
    Saxifraga oppositifolia oppositifolia 
    (subspecies in Alaska)

    Other names for Saxifraga oppositifolia are: Purple Mountain Saxifrage, or the French Knot Plant  

  479. Silver Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga paniculata

  480. Brook Saxifrage  ______  AK
    Saxifraga punctata 

  481. Alpine Brook Saxifrage  ______  AK  IC
    Saxifraga rivularis

    In Iceland, a small reddish mountain variety of the Brook Saxifrage, called the Arctic Brook Saxifrage, Saxifraga hyperborea, is sometimes said to be a separate species. It is rare in Iceland, usually above 2,700 feet above sea level.   

  482. Starry Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga stellaris

  483. Slender Snow Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga tenuis

  484. Prickly Saxifrage  ______  AK
    Saxifraga tricuspidata

    Sea Lavender, or Plumbago Family, PLUMBAGINACEAE

  485. Thrift  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Almeria maritima 

    (photo by Cheryl Pearce during the June 2006 FONT Iceland Tour) 

    Sedge Family, CYPERACEAE

  486. Short-stalk Sedge  ______  AK
    Carex microchaeta

  487. Alaska Cotton  ______  AK(*)
    Eriophorum scheuchzeri

    Spikemoss Family,

  488. Lesser Clubmoss  ______  IC
    Selaginella selaginoides

    Spleenwort Family,

  489. Forked Spleenwort  ______  IC
    Asplenium septentrionale

  490. Maidenhair Spleenwort  ______  IC
    Asplenium trichomanes

  491. Green Spleenwort  ______  IC
    Asplenium viride

    Starwort Family,

  492. Peduncled Water-starwort  ______  IC
    Callitriche brutia

  493. Hook-tipped Water-starwort  ______  IC
    Callitriche hamulata

  494. Autumn Water-starwort  ______  IC
    Callitriche hermaphroditica

  495. Vernal Water-starwort  _______  IC
    Callitriche palustris

  496. Common Water-starwort  ______  IC
    Callitriche stagnalis

    Stonecrop Family, CRASSULACEAE

  497. Pigmyweed  ______  IC(very rare)
    Crassula aquatica

  498. Roseroot  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Rhodiola rosea

    As Roseroot can not survive continuous grazing, in Iceland it is usually found in steep cliffs, gorges, or lake islands not accessible by sheep.
    The plant is very much favored by sheep (so common in Iceland), and so it is easily exterminated from pastures except on inaccessible rock ledges. 
    Where land has been protected from grazing, or has had moderate or discontinuous grazing for several decades, Roseroot may be found in fertile heathland and on slopes.    

    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour) 

  499. Biting Stonecrop  ______  IC
    Sedum acre

  500. Annual Stonecrop  ______  IC
    Sedum annuum 

  501. Roseroot  ______  AK
    Sedum rosea

    Other names for Sedum rosea are Rosewort and King's Crown. 

  502. Hairy Stonecrop  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Sedum villosum

    Hairy Stonecrop
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

    Sundew Family,

  503. Round-leaved Sundew  ______  IC
    Drosera rotundifolia 

    Teasel Family,

  504. Field Scabious  ______  IC
    Knautia arvensis

    In Iceland, Field Scabious is introduced in only a few places.. It is rare.

  505. Devil's-bit Scabious  ______  IC
    Succisa pratensis

    Valerian Family, VALERIANACEAE

  506. Capitate Valerian  ______  AK
    Valeriana capitata

  507. Common Valerian  ______  IC
    Valeriana officinalis

  508. Hill Valerian   ______  IC
    Valeriana sambucifolia

    In Iceland, possibly all natural valerians are Valeriana sambucifolia, but the separation of it from Valeriana officinalis appears "rather vague".   

  509. Sitka Valerian  ______  AK
    Valeriana sitchensis

    Violet Family, VIOLACEAE

  510. Dog Violet  ______  AK
    Viola adunca

  511. Viola biflora  ______  AK

  512. Heath Dog-violet  ______  IC
    Viola canina

  513. Northern Marsh Violet  ______  AK  IC
    Viola epipsila

  514. Stream Violet  ______  AK
    Viola glabella

  515. Alaska Violet  ______  AK
    Viola langsdorfii

  516. Alpine Marsh Violet  ______  IC
    Viola palustris

  517. Wood Violet  ______  AK
    Viola rentifolia

  518. Common Dog-violet  ______  IC
    Viola riviniana

  519. Selkirk's Violet  ______  AK
    Viola selkirkii

  520. Wild Pansy  ______  IC
    Viola tricolor

    Water Lily Family, NYMPHAEACEAE

  521. Yellow Pond Lily  ______  AK
    Nuphar polysepalum

    Water-milfoil Family,

  522. Alternate Water-milfoil  ______  IC
    Myriophyllum alterniflorum

  523. Spiked Water-milfoil  ______  IC(rare)
    Myriophyllum spicatum

    Willow Family, SALICACEAE

    This family includes trees: Aspens, Cottonwoods, Poplars. 

  524. Balsam Poplar  ______  AK
    Populus balsamifera

  525. Aspen  ______  IC
    Populus tremula

  526. Quaking Aspen  ______  AK
    Populus tremuloides

  527. Black Cottonwood  ______  AK
    Populus trichocarpa

    Willows (in the genus Salix) hybridize quite easily making identification difficult.  

  528. Alaska Willow  (or Felt Leaf Willow)  ______  AK
    Salix alaxensis

  529. Arctic Willow  ______  AK
    Salix arctica

  530. Bluish Willow  ______  IC
    Salix callicarpaea

  531. Dwarf Willow  (ph)  ______   IC(*)
    Salix herbeacea

    Dwarf Willow
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  532. Woolly Willow  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Salix lanata

    Wooly Willow
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  533. Skeleton Leaf Willow  ______  AK
    Salix phlebophylla

  534. Tea-leaved Willow  ______  IC
    Salix phylicifolia

  535. Round-leaf Willow  ______  AK
    Salix rotundifolia

    Willowherb, or Evening Primrose Family, ONAGRACEAE

  536. Chickweed Willowherb  ______  IC
    Epilobium alsinifolium

  537. Alpine Willowherb  ______  IC
    Epilobium anagallidifolium

  538. Rosebay Willowherb  (or Common Fireweed ______  AK  IC
    Epilobium angustifolium
    Epilobium angustifolium angustifolium 
    (subspecies in Alaska)

  539. Cliff Willowherb  ______  IC
    Epilobium collinum

  540. Hornemann's Willowherb  ______  IC
    Epilobium hornemanni

  541. Milky Willowherb  ______  IC
    Epilobium lactiflorum

  542. Arctic Riverbeauty  ______  IC
    Epilobium latifolium

    Other names for Epilobium latifolium are Dwarf Fireweed, or simply River Beauty.

  543. Broad-leaved Willowherb  ______  IC
    Epilobium montanum

    In Iceland, the Broad-leaved Willowherb is a very rare alien.

  544. Marsh Willowherb  ______  IC
    Epilobium palustre

  545. American Willowherb  ______  IC
    Epilobium watsonii 

    Wintergreen Family, PYROLACEAE

  546. Single Delight  (or Shy Maiden ______  AK
    Moneses uniflora

  547. Pink Pyrola  (or Wintergreen)  ______  AK
    Pyrola axarifolia

  548. Arctic Wintergreen  ______  AK  IC(*)
    Pyrola grandiflora

    Another name for Pyrola grandiflora is Large-flowered Wintergreen.

    In Iceland, Arctic Wintergreen is widespread in the north and northeast.

    MEDICINAL USE: the leaves

    Wintergreen is considered effective to relieve pain and inflammation in the digestive tract. 
    It has also been used for pain in the urinary tract, especially pain resulting from kidney stones.
    It is thought to have a strengthening effect on the womb.

    Wintergreen is effective on wounds, and a tea or ointment of the herb is used for many types of eczema or sores which are slow to heal.
    A weak infusion of the leaves is considered a good wash for sensitive or swollen eyes.      

  549. Common Wintergreen  ______  IC
    Pyrola minor

  550. Serrated Wintergreen  ______  AK  IC
    Orthilia secunda

    The Serrated Wintergreen is sometimes said to be Pyrola secunda, and is called Sidebells Pyrola.

    Wood-sorrel Family,

  551. Wood-sorrel  ______  IC(very rare)
    Oxalis acetosella 

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