PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-8
 or 302/529-1876


Caribbean Birds  

in the West Indies

Guineafowl to 

Noting those found during
Focus On Nature Tours
with an (*)

1990 thru 2015

In Antigua, Barbados, Barbuda, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent.   

During the months of January, February, March, April, May, July, December.

Also noted during this two-part list are birds in the Bahamas and Cuba.   

Photo at upper right: a GREEN-THROATED CARIB, photographed during a FONT tour

PART 1 of a Caribbean Bird List, with some Photos 
compiled by Armas Hill, the leader of most of the FONT tours on those islands

Link to Part #2 of this List of West Indies Birds, Trogons to Buntings

In this list (parts 1 & 2), there are 592 species of birds. 357 have been found during FONT tours in the Caribbean, with 4 notable subspecies also noted here.

In the CAYMAN ISLANDS, there have been 6 FONT birding & nature tours since 1999, during which 97 species of birds have cumulatively been found.   
In the DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, during 19 FONT birding & nature tours, 191 species of birds have cumulatively been found.

In JAMAICA, during 10 FONT birding & nature tours, 155 species of birds have cumulatively been found.

In the LESSER ANTILLES, 140 species of birds have cumulatively been found. 3 subspecies brings that list to 143. The Lesser Antillean tours have included 15 in SAINT LUCIA, 10 in SAINT VINCENT, 7 in DOMINICA, 2 in ANTIGUA, 2 in BARBADOS, 1 in BARBUDA, 1 in GRENADA, & 1 in GUADELOUPE.    
In PUERTO RICO, during 27 FONT birding & nature tours, 186 species of birds have cumulatively been found.


(i):    introduced in the Caribbean, or on the particular island (or in the particular country) 

(t):    a globally threatened or rare species, designated by Birdlife International
          (t1): critical 
          (t2): endangered
          (t3): vulnerable
(nt):  a near-threatened species globally

(e):       endemic to the particular island (or the particular county)
(qe):     quasi (or near) endemic 
(r):        rare on the particular island (or in the particular country)  
(p):       seen pelagically (but not necessarily exclusively so)
(mi):     on Mona Island, off Puerto Rico

(HIe):          endemic to Hispaniola (Dominican Republic & Haiti) 
(LAe):         endemic to the Lesser Antilles
(LAe):         quasi (or nearly) endemic to the Lesser Antilles
(PR&VIe):   endemic to Puerto Rico & the Virgin Islands
(WIr):         rare to very rare in the West Indies 

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website 

In the list that follows, sightings during FONT tours, noting the Caribbean island or country, and the months when found, are noted in blue. 
Other occurrences, relating to various islands, are noted in either maroon or black. 
BH:           Bahama Islands
BU:           Barbuda
CU:           Cuba
CY:           the Cayman Islands
DM:          Dominica
DR:           Dominican Republic (on Hispaniola)
GD          Guadeloupe
GR:           Grenada
HA:           Haiti  (on Hispaniola)
JM:           Jamaica
MN:          Montserrat
NA:           Netherlands Antilles (Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao) 
PR:           Puerto Rico   
SL:           Saint Lucia
SV:           Saint Vincent

Other island codes:

HI:            Hispaniola
VI:            the Virgin Islands

Links within this List to Bird Groupings:

Waterfowl    Pelagic Birds    Grebes    Flamingo, Ibises, Spoonbill    Herons & Egrets

Tropicbirds, Frigatebird, Pelicans, Boobies    Cormorants & Anhinga,    Raptors (including Vultures)

Rails, Crakes, Gallinules, Coots
    Shorebirds    Gulls, Terns, Skimmer, Jaegers    Pigeons & Doves

Parakeets & Parrots    Cuckoos    Owls    Potoo, Nightjars, Nighthawks    Swifts    Hummingbirds

Other Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours:  
in the Caribbean

in 2015   in 2016    by geographic location worldwide

FONT Past Tour Highlights

Birds-Lists for:   Cayman Islands   Dominican Republic   Jamaica  

Lesser Antilles (St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Dominica, and Guadeloupe)      Puerto Rico  

Rare Birds of the Caribbean today & those that have gone extinct

Other Lists & Photo Galleries: 

Butterflies of the Caribbean    Moths of the Caribbean    Mammals of the Caribbean  (Land & Marine)

Fish of the Caribbean   Other Caribbean Marine Life  (including corals, jellyfish, mollusks, arthropods)

Amphibians & Reptiles of the Caribbean

Directory of Photos in this Website


  1. Rufous-vented Chachalaca  ______  GR
    Ortalis ruficauda 

    In the West Indies, the Rufous-vented Chachalaca is an uncommon resident in the Grenadines. In May 1999, the species confirmed again on Union Island and Bequia, the only known localities for the species in the West Indies. 

    The Rufous-vented Chachalaca is common on the island of Tobago in the southern Caribbean off the northern coast of South America.

  2. Helmeted (or Common) Guinea-Fowl  (i) (*) ______  BU:feb  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul  PR:feb
    Numida meleagris

    The introduced Helmeted Guineafowl is locally and commonly feral in the Dominican Republic. It is also feral, but either rarely or less commonly in Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands (on St, Croix), St Martin (on Isle Pinel), and Barbuda.
  3. Northern Bobwhite (i) (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:mar
    Colinus virginianus 

    The introduced Northern Bobwhite is common in the northern Bahamas and uncommon on Hispaniola.  

  4. Crested Bobwhite  (i)  ______
    Colinus cristatus  

    The Crested Bobwhite was introduced in the Grenadines (Mustique), Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands (St. Thomas). 
    On the last two of these, it has been extirpated. Its status on the Grenadines is uncertain.   

  5. (Feral) Red Junglefowl (i) (*)  ______  CY:feb,jun,dec  DR:mar,apr
    Gallus gallus

    The introduced Red Junglefowl is feral locally in the western Dominican Republic. It is feral less commonly in Puerto Rico and the Grenadines. It has become common recently on Grand Cayman Island.    


  6. West Indian Whistling Duck  (t3) (*) (ph)  ______  BH  BU:feb  CU  CY:feb(125 during 1 tour),jun,dec  DR:mar,apr  JM:mar  PR:feb,mar  
    Dendrocygna arborea 

    The West Indian Whistling Duck has also been called the West Indian Tree Duck.

    In Jamaica, a local name for the West Indian Whistling Duck is "Night Duck". 


    Above & below: West Indian Whistling Ducks photographed 
    during the FONT tour in the Dominican Republic in April 2012.
    In the lower photo, in a tree. Formerly, the species was known 
    as the West Indian Tree Duck. 
    (photos by Marie Gardner)

    In this photo, a large number of West Indian Whistling Ducks 
    seen during a FONT tour on Grand Cayman Island
  7. Fulvous Whistling Duck  (*)   ______  BH  CU  PR:feb(rare)  SL(rare)
    Dendrocygna bicolor

  8. Black-bellied Whistling Duck  (ph)  ______  BH  CU  SL(rare)
    Dendrocygna autumnalis

    A flock of 14 Black-bellied Whistling Ducks was in Saint Lucia in April 2009, said to be the fourth record of the species for that island. 

  9. Orinoco Goose  ______
    Neochen jubata

  10. Canada Goose  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)
    Branta canadensis

  11. Snow Goose  (ph)  ______  BH  CU
    Chen caerulescens

  12. Greater White-fronted Goose  ______  CU(rare)
    Anser albifrons

  13. Wood Duck  (ph)  ______  BH  CU  SL(very rare)
    Aix sponsa

  14. White-cheeked Pintail  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  BU:feb  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  HA  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL(rare)
    Anas b. bahamensis (t3)

    White-cheeked Pintail
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet)

  15. Blue-winged Teal  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:feb,dec  DM  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  GD  HA  JM:mar,apr  MN PR:mar,apr  SL
    Anas discors 

    Above & below: 3 Blue-winged Teals
    (photos by Howard Eskin) 

  16. Baikal Teal  (*) (ph)  ______ CY  (see note following list)
    Anas formosa 

  17. American Wigeon  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DM(rare)  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  GD  HA  JM:feb  PR  SL(rare)
    Anas americana 

    An American Wigeon on Dominica (noted in a published report in 2005) was said to be the first record on that island in "at least 10 years".    

  18. Eurasian Wigeon  (ph)  ______  DR(rare)  SL(rare)
    Anas penelope

  19. Northern Shoveler  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,apr  GD  HA  JM:feb  SL(rare)
    Anas clypeata 

  20. Northern Pintail  (ph)  ______  BH  CU  PR  SL(rare)
    Anas acuta

  21. Mallard  (WIr)  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)
    Anas platyrhynchos

  22. American Black Duck  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)
    Anas rubripes

  23. Gadwall  (ph)  ______  BH  CU(rare)
    Anas strepera

  24. (American) Green-winged Teal  (ph)  ______  BH  CU  SL(rare)
    Anas carolinensis

    An American Green-winged Teal, noted in Saint Lucia in January 2009, was said to be the fourth record of the species for that island.  

  25. Common (or Eurasian) Teal  (WIr) (ph)  ______  SL(very rare)
    Anas crecca

  26. Cinnamon Teal  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)
    Anas cyanoptera

    In an article in 2009 in "Caribbean Ornithology", it was noted that there has been a first record for the Cinnamon Teal in Aruba, in the Netherlands Antilles.    

  27. Ring-necked Duck  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  JM:mar  SL(rare)
    Aythya collaris 

  28. Lesser Scaup  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:dec  DR:mar  HA  JM:mar  PR  SL(rare)
    Aythya affinis 

  29. Canvasback  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)
    Aythya valisineria

  30. Redhead  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)
    Aythya americana

  31. Greater Scaup  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)
    Aythya marila

  32. Bufflehead  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)
    Bucephala albeola

  33. Hooded Merganser  (ph)  ______  BD(very rare)  BH(rare)  CU(rare)  SL(very rare)
    Lophodytes cucullatus

    A female Hooded Merganser on Barbados in December 1996 was the first record for that island. 

  34. Red-breasted Merganser  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)
    Mergus serrator  

  35. Ruddy Duck  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:mar,apr  HA  PR:feb,apr  SL(rare)
    Oxyura j. jamaicensis

    A female Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis 

    (photo by Kim Steininger)

  36. Masked Duck  (*)   ______  BH(rare)  CU  DR:feb  GD  JM:feb  PR(rare)  SL
    (formerly Oxyura) dominicus  (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    In 2005, a survey of the Masked Duck in the West Indies, published in the "Caribbean Journal of Science", stated that most recent reports in the area were in Puerto Rico, but that the largest flock was in Guadeloupe.  

  37. Common Loon  (ph)  ______  CU(rare)
    Gavia immer


  38. Black-browed Albatross  (nt)  (ph)  ______  BH(very rare)
    Thalassarches melanophris

    A Black-browed Albatross was reported off Martinique in 1956. About 40 years later, a Black-browed Albatross was reported off Concepcion Island in the Bahamas in December 1997, followed by a report of another (or the same bird) off Exuma Island in the Bahamas in June 1998.      

  39. Black-capped Petrel  (t2) (p) (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU(rare)  DM  DR  PR(rare)
    Pterodroma h. hasitata  

    On the island of Dominica, the endangered Black-capped Petrel has not been confirmed as a nester since 1862.
    But there may soon such confirmation again.
    During a survey that started in January 2015, 968 Black-capped Petrels were found over mountains on Dominica.
    The birds were found by biologists using radar and night-vision scopes. In the future, those biologists plan to continue their research effort, and doing so hopefully confirm that the birds nest on the small, rugged, and mostly forested Lesser Antillean island.

    In the meantime, the only known breeding colonies of Black-capped Petrels are on the larger Caribbean island of Hispaniola, mostly high in the mountains in the area of the Hiati-Dominican Republic border. From 1,000 to 2,000 nesting pairs are estimated to be there.

    Where Black-capped Petrels nest, they are notoriously hard to spot. The otherwise pelagic birds spend only a few months on land each year. and they fly to and from their underground burrows, where the young are born and raised, only in the darkness of night.         

    For more regarding the BLACK-CAPPED PETREL & the JAMAICAN PETREL
    (below), go to:  


    Black-capped Petrel

  40. Jamaican Petrel  (t1)  ______  (presumed extinct)
    Pterodroma caribbaea

  41. Trindade Petrel  (t3)  ______  PR(very rare)
    Pterodroma arminjoniana

    Pterodroma arminjoniana breeds in the South Atlantic Ocean, far off eastern Brazil. 
    But a most unusual sighting occurred in the Caribbean in July 1986, when one was seen at Culebra Island off eastern Puerto Rico. It was said to be "prospecting" on that small island, as it was flushed from a rocky scrape among nesting terns. The petrel was photographed.     

  42. Audubon's Shearwater (p) (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  PR
    Puffinus lherminieri

    The Audubon's Shearwater, Puffinus iherminieri, breeds locally in the Lesser Antilles and the Bahamas.
    Breeding is mainly January to March and May to July, widely in the Bahamas and on islets east of Puerto Rico through the Lesser Antilles, and further south on Tobago and on islets by Isla Providencia.

    There may be two species involved. Further study is needed: 

    In the Bahamas, Puffinus iherminieri auduboni (the Bahama Shearwater) has upperparts that are browner, a face typically with white spectacles, and undertail coverts often with extensive white.  
    It breeds widely in the Bahamas and on islets of east of Puerto Rico to 

    In the Lesser Antilles, Puffinus iherminieri iherminieri (the Antillean Shearwater) has upperparts blacker, a face blackish overall, and undertail coverts blackish.

    The subspecies of the Audubon's Shearwater, Puffinus iherminieri loyemilleri breeds on islets off Panama and Venezuela, including Tobago. 
    Its plumage is similar to that of P. i. auduboni, but on average it is slightly smaller.

    The scientific name "iherminieri" is in honor of the French naturalist Feliz Louis l'Herminier who presumably obtained the type specimen when he was on the French Lesser Antillean island of Guadeloupe. 

    In waters around the Bahamas, Puffinus iherminieri is fairly common, or locally common from March to August. In those waters, it is uncommon in the winter.
    Off Guadeloupe, occurrence is mainly April to July.
    In the southern & western Caribbean, birds, presumably loyemilleri, seem to occur year-round.

    The Audubon's Shearwater (taxa unknown) occurs off the eastern Yucatan Peninsula from March to October, and off Cuba from February to May at least.  

    Audubon's Shearwaters
    (a black-and-white photo by Alan Brady)
  43. Great Shearwater  (ph)  ______  BH  DM  GD
    Puffinus gravis

    The Great Shearwater is apparently an uncommon to fairly common migrant off the Lesser Antilles and the northern West Indies, mainly May to July.    

  44. Sooty Shearwater  (ph)  ______  BH  CU(rare)
    Puffinus griseus

  45. Cory's Shearwater  (ph)  ______  BH  CU(rare)
    Calonectris diomedea

    The Cory's Shearwater is uncommon to fairly common off the Lesser Antilles, May to July, where it found much less commonly November to April. 
    It is rarely found in the southern Caribbean in September & October.

  46. Bulwer's Petrel  (ph)  ______
    Bulweria bulwerii

    The Bulwer's Petrel has been reported casually, from late April to June, since 2003, off the Lesser Antilles.   

  47. Leach's Storm Petrel (p) (*)  ______  BH  CU  JM  PR
    Oceanodroma l. leucorhoa

    A Leach's Storm Petrel was seen off Jamaica in late 2009. 

  48. Band-rumped Storm Petrel  ______  AT(rare)  CU(rare)  JM(rare)
    Oceanodroma castro

    In late 2009, a total of 3 Band-rumped Storm Petrels were seen (on 3 separate days) off Jamaica.
    Prior to that, the species was known in the Caribbean only from sightings off Cuba & Antigua.   

  49. Wilson's Storm Petrel  (ph)  ______  BH  CU  SL(rare)
    Oceanites oceanicus

    A Wilson's Storm Petrel was seen 4 kilometers off Soufriere, Saint Lucia on May 11,2009. It was said to be the first record of the species for that island. 


  50. Least Grebe  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:mar,apr,dec  JM:mar,apr
    (formerly Podiceps) d. dominicus

  51. Pied-billed Grebe  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  BU:feb  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DM  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  GD  HA:apr  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL
    Podilymbus podiceps antillarum

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Pied-billed Grebe is "Duck-and-Teal".


  52. American Flamingo  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  JM(rare)  HA  PR(rare)  SL(very rare) 
    Phoenicopterus ruber

    The American, or Caribbean Flamingo was considered conspecific with Phoenicopterus roseus, the Greater Flamingo of Europe & Africa.

    2 Greater Flamingos were in Jamaica at Falmouth during the winter of 1998/99.  

    Phoenicopterus ruber has been reintroduced in the Virgin Islands.  

    American Flamingo

  53. Wood Stork  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU  DR(very rare, if still there)
    Mycteria americana

    If the Wood Stork still exits on Hispaniola it is very rare there. It is possibly extirpated on the island.  

  54. Glossy Ibis  (*) (ph)  ______  BD(very rare)  BH  CU  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,dec  HA  JM:mar,apr  PR:feb(rare)  SL(rare)
    Plegadis falcinellus 
    (now said to be monotypic)

    A long-staying Glossy Ibis on Barbados in late 2005 was the first record for that island in about 50 years. 
  55. American White Ibis  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:jun  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  JM:apr
    Eudocimus albus 

    Above: An American White Ibis
    (photo by Howard Eskin)
    Below: a group of White Ibises about to roost at the end of the day,
    seen from a boat-trip during the FONT Dominican Republic Tour in April 2012

  56. Scarlet Ibis  (WIr)  ______
    Eudocimus ruber

  57. Roseate Spoonbill  (*) (ph)   ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  SL(very rare)
    Platalea ajaja 

    An immature Roseate Spoonbill was seen on Saint Lucia on June 9 & 18, 2008. It had apparently been present on the island prior to that for about 3 months.  

    Two photographs of Roseate Spoonbills, as seen in the
    Dominican Republic

    (upper photo of adults in breeding plumage, 
     lower photo of a bird in non-breeding plumage by Howard Eskin)

  58. Eurasian Spoonbill  (WIr)  ______  SL(very rare)
    Platalea leucorodia

    A Eurasian Spoonbill, in non-breeding plumage, was photographed on Saint Lucia on June 22, 2008. It was said to be the first record of that Old World species for the island.  
    What was thought to be that same Eurasian Spoonbill was seen later in Saint Lucia from January 1 to 4, 2009, and later still from March 24 to April 21, 2009.  


  59. Great Blue Heron  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DM  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD:feb  HA:feb,apr  JM:mar,apr  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar  SV
    Ardea h. herodias  

  60. Grey Heron  (WIr) (ph)  ______  BD(very rare)  SL(very rare)
    Ardea cinere 

    3 Grey Herons were in Barbados starting in October 1998, and then remaining there that winter, and beyond that until at least May 1999. 

  61. Purple Heron  (WIr)  ______  BD(very rare)
    Ardea purpurea

    A Purple Heron found in Barbados in the autumn of 1998 remained there that winter, and beyond that until April 1999. It was the first record for the West Indies and the second for the Western Hemisphere.  

  62. Great Egret  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  BU:feb  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DM:jan,mar  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD:feb  HA:feb,apr  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV:mar,dec
    Casmerodius (has been Ardea) alba egretta

    Great Egret
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  63. Green Heron  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  BD:jul  BU:feb  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DM:jan,feb,mar  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD:feb  HA:apr  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV:mar,dec  
    Butorides virescens maculata

    The Green Heron was for a time considered conspecific with the nearly-cosmopolitan Striated Heron, and when so it was called the Green-backed Heron.  

    On a postage stamp, the Green Heron

  64. Striated Heron  (WIr) (ph)  ______  SL(very rare)  VI(very rare)
    Butorides striata

    The northernmost record of the Striated Heron was a bird, photographed, on St. John in the US Virgin Islands in May 2003.

  65. Western Cattle Egret  (*) (ph)  ______  AT:feb  BH  BD:jul  BU:feb  CU  CY:feb,dec  DM:jan,mar  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD:feb  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV:mar,jul,dec
    Bubulcus ibis  

    The Western Cattle Egret is in parts of Europe and Africa, and now in much of the Americas. The Eastern Cattle Egret, Bubulcus coromandus, is in eastern Asia.   

    The Western Cattle Egret arrived, apparently on its own, in northern South America from Africa in the 1950s, and soon thereafter it spread rapidly through the West Indies.

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Western Cattle Egret is "Tick Bird".  

    Cattle Egret
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  66. Snowy Egret  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  BD:jul  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DM:jan,mar  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD:feb  HA  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec
    (formerly Leucophoyx) thula brewsteri

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Snowy Egret is "Golden Slippers".

    Snowy Egret, with red lores in breeding plumage
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  67. Little Egret  (*) (ph)   ______  AT(rare)  BD:jul  DM:mar(rare)  GD(rare)  SL:dec(rare)  SV:jul(rare)
    Egretta g. garzetta

    As of 2001, there were 33 records of the Little Egret in Trinidad & Tobago.  

    In a report published in 2009 in "Caribbean Ornithology", it was noted that the Little Egret has become a breeder on a second island in the West Indies, on Antigua (following Barbados).
    In addition to being the second island, Antigua became the second breeding location in the Western Hemisphere for the normally Old World species   

    Little Egret
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  68. Little Blue Heron  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DM:jan,mar  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD:feb  HA:apr  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV:mar,jul,dec
    (formerly Florida) caerulea  (monotypic) 

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Little Blue Heron is "Blue Gaulin".

    An adult Little Blue Heron photographed during a FONT tour

  69. Tricolored Heron  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD  GR(rare)  HA:apr  JM:mar,apr  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar 
    (formerly Hydranassa) tricolor ruficollis

    The Tricolored Heron was called the Louisiana Heron.

    Several Tricolored Herons in Grenada, at Telescope Marsh, in December 2005 were thought to be "new" for that island.

  70. Reddish Egret  (*) (ph)   ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  HA  PR:feb(rare)  SL(very rare)
    (formerly Dichromanassa) r. rufescens

    Reddish Egrets of both the dark & white morphs during the FONT tour
    in the Dominican Republic in April 2012
    (photo by Marie Gardner)
    Most, nearly all, of the Reddish Egrets that have been seen during the FONT tours
    in the Dominican Republic have been white birds.     

  71. Western Reef Heron  (WIr)  ______  BD(rare)  PR(very rare, on Culebra Is.)  SL(very rare)  SV(very rare)
    Egretta gularis

    A dark-morph Western Reef Heron on the island of Mustique on June 24, 2004 was a first record for Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

  72. Black-crowned Night Heron  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul  GD  JM:mar,apr  PR:mar,apr  SL:mar
    Nycticorax nycticorax hoactii

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Black-crowned Night Heron is "Quok".

  73. Yellow-crowned Night Heron  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DM:mar  DR:apr,jul,dec  GD  JM:apr  PR:feb,mar  SL:mar  SV
    Nyctanassa violacea bancrofti 
    (the single member of its genus)

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Yellow-crowned Night Heron is "Crab-catcher". 

    Above: an immature Yellow-crowned Night Heron during the FONT tour in April 2012 
    in the Dominican Republic, not far from the Haitian border 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

    Below, 2 Yellowed-crowned Night Herons even more immature, just out of the nest,
    photographed in the Dominican Republic in 2014  

  74. Least Bittern  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:jun,dec  DR:mar,apr  JM:mar,apr  PR:feb,mar  SL(rare)
    Ixobrychus e. exilis

  75. American Bittern  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  PR(rare)  SL(very rare)
    Botaurus lentiginosus


  76. Red-billed Tropicbird  (*) (ph)   ______  BU:feb  CU(rare)  GD  MN  SL:mar,dec
    Phaethon aethereus mesonauta

    Red-billed Tropicbird
    (a black-and-white photo by Alan Brady)

  77. White-tailed Tropicbird  (p) (*) (ph)  ______ BH  CU  CY:feb  DM:mar  DR:mar,apr  JM:apr  MN  PR:feb,apr  SL(rare)  SV
    Phaethon lepturus catesbyi

    In Jamaica, a local name for the White-tailed Tropicbird is "Bo'sun Bird".

    Above & below: White-tailed Tropicbirds
    Above: a black-and-white photo by Alan Brady
    Below: a White-tailed Tropicbird photographed during the April 2012 FONT tour 
    in the Dominican Republic  

  78. Magnificent Frigatebird  (p) (*) (ph)  ______  AT:feb  BH  BU:feb(a nesting colony)  CU  CY:feb(a nesting colony at Little Cayman Is.),jun,dec  DM:jan,feb,mar  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD  GR  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV:mar,jul,dec
    Fregata magificens 
    (now said to be monotypic)

    A colloquial name for the Magnificent Frigatebird is the "Man o' War Bird".

    All of the photos, in this set of Magnificent Frigatebirds, were taken during FONT tours.
    The first 3 photos were during a tour in 2014.

    Above: an adult male, notice the red throat
    Below: an adult female 
    (all of the photos here of frigatebirds by Marie Gardner)

    Below: a juvenile Magnificent Frigatebird

    And, lastly, below: a lone Magnificent Frigatebird roosting at the end of the day
    on a small island in a lake near the sea.
    Seen from a late-day boat trip during a FONT tour in the Dominican Republic.   

  79. Brown Pelican (p) (*) (ph)  ______  AT:feb  BH  BU:feb  CU  CY:feb,dec  DM:jan,feb,mar  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD:feb  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL
    Pelecanus o. occidentalis   the "Caribbean Brown Pelican"

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Brown Pelican is "Old Joe".

  80. American White Pelican  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)
    Pelecanus erythrorhynchos

  81. Masked Booby  (mi) (*)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)  PR  SL(rare)
    Sula d. dactylatra

  82. Brown Booby  (p) (*) (ph)  ______  BH  BU:feb  CU  DM:mar  DR:mar,apr  GD  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV:jul,dec
    Sula l. leucogaster

  83. Red-footed Booby  (p) (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU(rare)  CY:feb(a nesting colony at Little Cayman Is.)  DM:mar(at sea)   GD  PR  SL  SV:jul
    Sula s. sula

    A pair of white-morph Red-footed Boobies with a single chick were at a small cay off San Salvador Island on April 28, 1995. The birds were photographed and were thus the first confirmed breeding record for the species in the Bahamas during the 20th century. The species had been noted in that same area in 1986.     

    A Red-footed Booby photographed during a FONT pelagic trip off Puerto Rico

  84. Northern Gannet  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)
    Morus bassanus


  85. Neotropic Cormorant  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  JM:jun(rare)  SL(very rare) 
    Phalacrocorax brasilianus mexicanus

    The Neotropic Cormorant was called the Olivaceous Cormorant.

  86. Double-crested Cormorant  (ph)  ______  BH  CU  SL(very rare)
    Phalacrocorax auritus

  87. Anhinga  (ph)  ______  BD(very rare)  BH(rare)  CU  SL(very rare)
    Anhinga anhinga

    An Anhinga in Barbados first found in October 2006 was the first record of the species for that island. The bird stayed several months.    

    RAPTORS  (including VULTURES)

  88. Turkey Vulture  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr  JM:mar,apr  PR:feb,mar,apr
    Cathartes a. aura 

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Turkey Vulture is "John Crow".

  89. Black Vulture  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)
    Coragyps atratus 

  90. Northern Crested Caracara  (ph)  ______  CU
    Caracara cheriway

  91. Merlin  (*) (ph)  ______  AT:feb  BH  BU:feb  CU  CY:dec  DM:jan,mar  DR:feb,mr,apr,dec  GD  JM:mar  PR:mar  SL:mar  SV:mar,dec
    Falco c. columbarius

    A Merlin in flight

  92. American Kestrel  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  BU:feb  CU  CY:dec  DM:mar  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD:feb  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV:mar
    Falco sparverius dominicensis 
    (subspecies endemic to Hispaniola) 
    Falco sparverius sparveroides 
    (subspecies in Jamaica, the Caymans, Cuba, & the southern Bahamas)
    Falco sparverius caribaearum 
    (subspecies in Puerto Rico & in the Lesser Antilles)
    (These Caribbean subspecies are resident.)

    In Jamaica, a local name for the American Kestrel is "Killy-killy". 

    An American Kestrel photographed outside a hotel room window
    in Jamaica in November 2012
    (photo courtesy of Suzanne Bradley) 

  93. Peregrine Falcon  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:dec  DM  DR:feb,mar,apr  GD  MN  PR:mar  SL  SV:mar
    Falco peregrinus anatum
    (from North America)
    Falco peregrinus tundrius
    (from North America, north of  F.p.anatum)

    A Peregrine Falcon that flew about at dusk above a pond filled with ducks.
    It was observed during a boat-trip, late that day, that was part of the 
    FONT Dominican Republic Tour in April 2102.
    An alternate name for the Peregrine Falcon has been "Duck Hawk",
    and that day that name was appropriate.     
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  94. Aplomado Falcon  (WIr) (ph)  ______  PR(very rare)
    Falco femoralis

    A well-documented Aplomado Falcon in southwestern Puerto Rico in January 2008 was a first record for not only Puerto Rico but for anywhere in the West Indies. 

  95. Osprey  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  BU:feb  CU  CY:feb,dec  DM:feb,mar  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,dec  GD:feb  HA:apr  JM:mar  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec
    Pandion haliaetus 
    (2 subspecies occur in the Caribbean)  (the single member of its genus)
    Pandion haliaetus carolinensis 
    (migrant North American breeder)
    Pandion haliaetus ridgwayi  (breeder in Caribbean area) 

    (photo by Kim Steininger)

  96. Hook-billed Kite  (WIr)  ______  GR(very rare)
    Chondrohlerax uncinatus

  97. Cuban Kite  (t1)  ______  CU(rare)  (species endemic to Cuba)
    Chondrohlerax wilsonii

    The very rare Cuban Kite was observed in far-eastern Cuba, in the area of the Alejandro de Humboldt National Park in 2004, and then later in December 2009 when the bird was photographed. 

  98. Swallow-tailed Kite  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU  HA(rare)
    Elanoides forficatus

    Two Swallow-tailed Kites were among a large movement of Osprey in Haiti on August 28, 1999. That was said to be the first record of Swallow-tailed Kite for the island of Hispaniola.    

  99. Snail Kite  (ph)  ______  CU
    Rostrhamus sociabilis

  100. Mississippi Kite  (WIr)  ______  CU(very rare)
    Ictinia mississippiensis

    A Mississippi Kite in Havana province, Cuba on April 17, 1999 was a first for both Cuba and the West Indies. 
    The third Mississippi Kite for Cuba (and the fourth for the Greater Antilles) was seen flying over Zapata on March 30, 2010.   

  101. Sharp-shinned Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul  PR:feb  VI(rare)
    Accipiter s. striatus  (t3) 
    (this subspecies, the nominate, endemic to Hispaniola) 
    Accipiter striatus venator
    (t2)  (subspecies endemic to Puerto Rico) 

    A Sharp-shinned Hawk on Guama Island on October 28, 1998 was said to be the first record for British Virgin Islands.  

    A male Sharp-shinned Hawk of the endemic subspecies in Puerto Rico
  102. Gundlach's Hawk  (t2)  ______  CU  (species endemic to Cuba)
    Accipiter gundlachi

  103. Northern Harrier  (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:dec
    Circus hudsonius

  104. Western Marsh Harrier  (WIr)  ______  GD(very rare)
    Circus aeruginosus

    A Western Marsh Harrier, a bird of the Old World, was in Guadeloupe from November 2002 to April 2003. That occurrence was the first record for the Western Hemisphere.    

  105. Red-tailed Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  JM:mar  MN(rare)  PR:feb,mar,apr
    Buteo j. jamaicensis
      (this subspecies, the nominate, on Hispaniola, Jamaica, & Puerto Rico)

    A Red-tailed Hawk in flight, Buteo jamaicensis
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  106. Ridgway's Hawk  (t1) (*)   ______  DR:mar,apr  (species endemic to the Dominican Republic on Hispaniola)
    Buteo ridgwayi 


  107. Broad-winged Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  AT:feb  CU  DM:jan,feb,mar  GD  GR  PR:feb  SL:mar,dec  SV:mar,dec 
    Buteo platypterus antillarum 
    (subspecies on Barbados, Grenada, St. Vincent, & Tobago) 
    Buteo platypterus brunnescens
    (subspecies endemic to Puerto Rico)
    Buteo platypterus cubanensis 
    (subspecies endemic to Cuba)
    Buteo platypterus insulicola
    (subspecies endemic to Antigua)
    Buteo platypterus rivierei 
    (subspecies on Dominica, St. Lucia, & Martinique)
    (All 5 subspecies in the Caribbean are resident.)

  108. Swainson's Hawk  (ph)  ______  DR(very rare)
    Buteo swainsoni

    A light-morph Swainson's Hawk seen in the Dominican Republic, near Monte Cristi along the north coast, on April 22, 1996, was said to be the first record of the species in the West Indies.  

    What was said to be the first record of a Swainson's Hawk in Trinidad was in May 1998. The following year, there was a Swainson's Hawk at Chacachacare Island (near Trinidad) from October 1999 to January 2000.   

  109. Common Black Hawk  (*) (ph)   ______  CU  SL(rare)  SV:mar,jul,dec 
    Buteogallus a. anthracinus

    In the Caribbean, Buteogallus anthracinus is also known as the "Black Crab Hawk".

    Common Black Hawk


  110. Black Rail  (nt)  ______  BH(rare)  CU
    Laterallus jamaicensis

  111. "Antillean" Clapper Rail  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:apr,jul  GD  JM  PR:mar,apr  SL(rare)
    Rallus crepitans caribaeus

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Clapper Rail is "Mangrove Hen".

    An "Antillean Clapper Rail"  photographed during the FONT tour
    in the Dominican Republic in April 2012
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  112. King Rail  ______  CU  CY:dec
    Rallus elegans

  113. Virginia Rail  (ph)  ______  BH  CU(rare)
    Rallus limicola

  114. Yellow-breasted Crake  (*)  ______  CU  DR:apr  JM,PR
    Porzana flaviventer hendersoni 
    (subspecies in Hispaniola & Puerto Rico) 
    Porzana flaviventor gossi   (subspecies in Jamaica & Cuba)

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Yellow-breasted Crake is the "Twopenny Chick".

  115. Sora  (*)   ______  BH  CU  DR  GD  MN  PR:apr  SL(rare)
    Porzana carolina 

  116. Zapata Rail  (t2)  ______  CU  (species endemic to Cuba)
    Cyanolimnas cerverai

  117. Spotted Rail  (*)  _____  CU  DR:apr  JM
    Pardirallus m. maculatus

    A Spotted Rail heard near Kingston, Jamaica in January 1999 was said to be only the second record for the island in that decade.

  118. Uniform Crake  ______  (species occurred formerly in Jamaica)
    Amaurolimnas concolor

  119. Purple Gallinule  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:jun  DR:mar,apr,dec  GD  GR(rare)  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:apr  SL(rare)
    Porphyrula martinica 

    Rare on Grenada, a Purple Gallinule was on that island in October 2010.

    Purple Gallinule
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  120. Common Gallinule (*) (ph) ______  BD:jul  BH  BU:feb  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DM:mar  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD:feb  HA:feb,apr  JM:mar,apr  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV
    Gallinula galeata cerceris

  121. American Coot  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DR:feb,apr  GD  HA:feb  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:apr  SL(rare)
    Fulica a. americana

  122. "Caribbean Coot" (nt) (*)  ______  CU(rare)  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  GD  HA:feb,apr  JM:mar,apr  MN  NA  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL(rare)  SV(rare)
    Fulica caribaea

    The Caribbean Coot has been considered by some to be conspecific with the American Coot. 

    2 Caribbean Coots were in Saint Lucia from late April to at least mid-May in 2009. 
    The species, a rare visitor to the island, has been seen, in earlier years, during FONT tours on Saint Lucia.   

    The Caribbean Coot occurs on all three islands of the Netherlands Antilles.  

  123. Limpkin  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY  DR:mar,apr  JM:mar,apr
    Aramus guarauna elucus (t3) 
    (subspecies now endemic to Hispaniola, as it has been extirpated in Puerto Rico)
    Aramus guarauna pictus 
    (subspecies in Jamaica, Cuba, & Florida USA)
    (the single member of its genus & family)  

    The first Limpkin ever seen in the Cayman Islands was found there in April 2010 on Grand Cayman by a school off Walkers Road, where it was seen feeding on invasive garden snails and the larvae of the Japanese beetle. 
    Later, in June 2010, there was a Limpkin sighting at the Botanic Park on Grand Cayman.      

  124. Sandhill Crane  (ph)  ______  CU
    Grus canadensis nesiotes 
    (resident subspecies endemic to Isla de la Juventud in Cuba)


  125. Double-striped Thick-knee  (ph)  ______  BH  DR
    Burhinus bistriatus dominicenis 
    (subspecies on Hispaniola, normally the only place for it in the West Indies) 

    In the West Indies, the Double-striped Thick-knee has been thought to be a resident only on Hispaniola. but a pair was found breeding on Great Inagua Island, in the Bahamas, in 2003. 

  126. Northern Jacana  (*) (ph)  ______  CU  DR:mar,apr,dec  GR(rare)  JM:mar,apr
    Jacana spinosa violacea 
    (subspecies in the Caribbean: in Hispaniola, Jamaica, & Cuba)

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Northern Jacana is "River Chink". 

    Single Northern Jacanas were at two different locations on Grenada in October 2010.  

  127. American Oystercatcher  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  GD  PR:mar  SL(rare)
    Haematopus p. palliatus

  128. Black-bellied (or Grey) Plover  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD  JM:mar  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec 
    Pluvialis squatarola cynosurae

  129. American Golden Plover  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR(rare)  GD  MN  SL:dec
    Pluvialis dominica 

    An American Golden Plover was at Lago Enriquillo in the Dominican Republic in September 1999. 

    American Golden Plover
    (photo by Howard Eskin)
  130. Semipalmated Plover  (*) (ph)  ______  BD:jul  BH  CU  CY:feb,jun  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  GD  JM:mar  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:dec
    Charadrius semipalmatus 

  131. Common Ringed Plover  (WIr) (ph)  ______  SL(very rare)
    Charadrius hiaticula  

  132. Snowy Plover  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU(rare)  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  GD(rare)  PR(rare)  SL(rare)  
    Charadrius n. nivosus  (t3)

    The Snowy Plover was conspecific with the Kentish Plover of Eurasia.

    A Snowy Plover was in Guadeloupe on September 30, 2008.

    A Snowy Plover photographed during the FONT tour 
    in the Dominican Republic in February 2012
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  133. Wilson's Plover  (*) (ph)  ______  BD:jul  BH  CU  CY(rare)  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD  HA:apr  JM:mar  MN  PR:feb,apr  SL(rare)
    Charadrius wilsonia rufinucha 
    (resident subspecies in the Caribbean)

    Two Wilson's Plovers during the FONT tour in the Dominican Republic in April 2012
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  134. Piping Plover  (nt) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  NA
    Charadrius melodus

  135. Collared Plover  (WIr)  ______  GD(very rare)  GR  SL(very rare)
    Charadrius collaris

    The Collared Plover is a rare to uncommon breeding resident on Grenada, and possibly in the Grenadines on Mustique. 

    A Collared Plover was in Guadeloupe on September 30, 2008.   

  136. Killdeer  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:feb  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD  HA:apr  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL(rare)
    Charadrius vociferus ternominatus  (resident subspecies in the Caribbean)   
    Charadrius v. vociferus  (North American breeder that occurs in the Caribbean outside the breeding season)

  137. Northern Lapwing  (WIr) (ph)  ______  BH(very rare)  SL(very rare)
    Vanellus vanellus

  138. Southern Lapwing  (WIr) (ph)  ______  BD(very rare)
    Vanellus chilensis

    A Southern Lapwing in Barbados on July 28, 1998 was the first record for the West Indies.  

  139. Black-necked Stilt  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  BU:feb  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD  HA:apr  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:mar,apr  SL(rare)   
    Himantopus mexicanus 

    The Black-necked Stilt has been said by some to be conspecific with the Black-winged Stilt of the Old World, Himantopus himantopus. 

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Black-necked Stilt is "Captain Lewis".

    Black-necked Stilt
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  140. American Avocet  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)  SL(very rare)
    Recurvirostra americana 

  141. Hudsonian Godwit  (*) (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)  DR:apr  (a sighting in April, rare in the Caribbean in the spring)  SL(rare)
    Limosa haemastica

  142. Marbled Godwit  (ph)  ______  CU(rare)  SL(very rare)
    Limosa fedoa

  143. American" Whimbrel  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU(rare)  DR:apr  GD  MN  PR:feb  SL
    Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus

    Historically, Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus was called the "Hudsonian Curlew".

    written by Armas Hill in September 2011:

    Some Whimbrels are being tracked (in 2011) as they do their long migration, with satellite transmitters that they carry as backpacks.
    According to the William & Mary Center for Conservation Biology (CCB), one such Whimbrel, with such a transmitter, left the upper Hudson Bay (in Canada) on Saturday, August 20, 2011.
    That bird flew out over the open ocean and encountered the outer bands of Hurricane/Tropical Storm Irene on Tuesday, August 23. 
    The bird flew through the dangerous northeast quadrant of the storm during the day on Wednesday, August 24. It made it through the storm, and continued its journey over the open ocean to the islands in the Caribbean.
    During the week of September 4, 2011, that bird was shot on the West Indian island of Guadeloupe, where it had landed to feed in a mangrove marsh.
    That same bird, by the way, flew around a storm the previous year (Tropical Storm Colin in 2010), when a second bird flew into that storm and did not survive.

    To give an idea of what flying through a hurricane or tropical storm is a like for such a shorebird:
    Early in August 2011, another Whimbrel survived passage through Tropical Storm Gert, where the storm was strong. It was a rare tropical storm off Nova Scotia, Canada.
    The bird encountered headwinds for 27 hours, averaging, during that time, a flying speed of only 9 miles per hour.
    Once through the storm, her flight speed increased to over 90 miles per hour, and she was pushed by significant tail winds, making it back to shore at Cape Cod, Massachusetts.        

  144. Long-billed Curlew  (nt)  ______ CU(rare)
    Numenius americanus

  145. Eskimo Curlew  (t1)  ______  (species now presumed extinct)
    Numenius borealis


  146. Upland Sandpiper  ______  BH  CU(rare)  GD  MN
    Bartramia longicauda

  147. Spotted Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:feb,dec  DM:jan,mar  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,dec  GD:feb  HA:apr  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV:dec
    Actitis macularia 

    A Spotted Sandpiper in its non-breeding plumage
    (photo by Kim Steininger)

  148. Solitary Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:feb  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,dec  GD  HA:apr  JM:mar  MN  PR:apr  SL:mar,dec  SV
    Tringa s. solitaria

  149. Greater Yellowlegs  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  BU;feb  CU  CY:feb,dec  DM  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD  HA  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec
    Tringa melanoleuca

  150. Lesser Yellowlegs  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  BD:jul  CU  CY:feb,dec  DM:feb  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  GD  HA  JM:mar  MN  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:dec
    Tringa flavipes 

  151. Common Greenshank  (WIr)  ______  BD(very rare)
    Tringa nebularia

    A Common Greenshank was in Barbados in November 1996. 

  152. Spotted Redshank  (WIr)  ______  BD(very rare)  SL(very rare)
    Tringa erythropus

    A Spotted Redshank found on the island of Tobago (of Trinidad & Tobago) on February 13, 1983 was the first record for that island (and considered the first record for South America).
    That Old World wader (or shorebird) has also occurred occasionally further north in the Caribbean on Barbados.     

  153. Wood Sandpiper  (WIr) (*) (ph)   ______ BD:jul(rare)  SL(very rare)
    Tringa glareola

    Single Wood Sandpipers were in Barbados in 1998 in April and in November/December. 

  154. Willet  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:feb  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  GD:feb  JM:mar  MN  PR:apr  SL
    (formerly Catoptrophorus) s. semipalmata

    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  155. Ruddy Turnstone  (*) (ph)  ______  BD:jul  BH  CU  CY:feb,dec  DM:mar  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD  JM:mar  MN  PR:apr  SL:mar,dec
    Arenaria interpres morinella

    On September 16, 2008, a "famous" Ruddy Turnstone, named "Luc", returned to Guadeloupe for its 8th time to winter. 

    A Ruddy Turnstone in non-breeding plumage
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  156. Semipalmated Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______ BD:jul  BH  CU  CY  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD  HA  JM:mar,apr  MN  PR:feb,apr  SL
    Calidris pusilia 

  157. Western Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr  GD  JM:mar  PR  SL:mar
    Calidris mauri 

  158. Least Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  GD  HA  JM:mar  PR:feb,apr  MN  SL
    Calidris minutilla 

  159. White-rumped Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,apr  GD  MN  PR(rare)  SL
    Calidris fuscicollis 

  160. Sanderling  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  GD  JM:mar  MN  PR:apr  SL
    Calidris alba rubida

  161. Dunlin  (*) (ph) ______  BH  CU(rare)  DR:dec(rare)  SL(rare)
    Calidris alpina hudsonia

    The observation of a Dunlin during a FONT Dominican Republic tour in December 1998
    (referred to in a note at the end of this page) was said to be only the second record for the species in the Dominican Republic. 
    The bird was along the south coast at Las Salinas.  

  162. Red Knot  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  MN  PR  SL(rare)
    Calidris canutus rufa

  163. Pectoral Sandpiper  (ph)  ______  BH  CU  GD  MN  SL
    Calidris melanotos

    On September 25, 2008, there was a high count of 185 Pectoral Sandpipers on Guadeloupe.

  164. Baird's Sandpiper  (ph)  ______  CY(rare)  DR(rare)  SL(rare)
    Calidris bairdii

    A Baird's Sandpiper on Grand Cayman Island in May 1999 was said to be the first record of the species for that island, and a rarity in that part of the Caribbean.

    A Baird's Sandpiper was at Cabo Rojo in the Dominican Republic in September 1999. 

  165. Curlew Sandpiper  (WIr)  (ph)  ______  SL(very rare)
    Calidris ferruginea

  166. Little Stint  (WIr)  ______  BD(rare)
    Calidris minuta

    A Little Stint photographed on Barbados in May 1999 was said to be second record of the species for that island.  

  167. Terek Sandpiper  (WIr)  ______  
    Xenus cinereus

    A Terek Sandpiper, seen by multiple observers, in Trinidad on June 28, 1999 was the said to be the first record of that Old World species for Trinidad & Tobago and possibly the Caribbean.
    In the Neotropics, prior to that, there were said to be 3 previous records for the species, with 2 in Argentina and 1 in Brazil.    

  168. Short-billed Dowitcher  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  GD  JM:mar  MN  PR:mar
    Limnodromus griseus 
    (2 subspecies in the West Indies: L. g. grieus & L. g. hendersoni)

    Short-billed Dowitcher
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  169. Long-billed Dowitcher  (*)  ______  CU(rare)  HA
    Limnodromus scolopaceus 

  170. Ruff / Reeve  (WIr) (*) (ph)   ______  BD:jul(rare)  SL(very rare)
    Philomachus pugnax 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    3 Ruffs overwintered in Barbados in 1998/99. 

  171. Stilt Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  GD  PR  SL(rare)
    Calidris (has been Micropalama) himantopus  (monotypic)

    A Stilt Sandpiper in Saint Lucia on September 22, 2001 was said to be the ninth record for the island. 

  172. Buff-breasted Sandpiper  (nt) (ph) ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)  SL(rare)
    Tryngites subruficollis

    A Buff-breasted Sandpiper in Saint Lucia on September 22, 2001 was said to be the second record for the island.

  173. Wilson's Snipe  (*) (ph)   ______  BH  CU  CY  DM  GD  JM:mar  SL 
    Gallinago delicata 

    Until recently, the Wilson's Snipe was conspecific with the Common Snipe of the Palearctic, Gallinago gallinago.

  174. Jack Snipe  (WIr)  ______  SL(very rare)
    Lymnocryptes minimus

  175. Wilson's Phalarope  (*)  ______  BD(rare)  BH(rare)  DR:feb  SL(rare)
    (formerly Steganopus) tricolor  (monotypic)

    A Wilson's Phalarope was in Barbados in November 2005. 

  176. Red-necked Phalarope  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)
    Phalaropus lobatus 

  177. Red Phalarope  (ph)  ______  CU(rare)
    Phalaropus fulicarius

  178. Collared Pratincole  (ph)  ______  BD(very rare)
    Glareola pratincola

    A Collared Pratincole, in Barbados, from October 1996 to January 1997, was the first in the Neotropics.  


  179. "American" Herring Gull  (*)  ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,apr  PR  SL(rare)
    Larus argentatus smithsonianus

  180. Great Black-backed Gull  (*) (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)  DM(rare)  PR(rare)  SL(rare)
    Larus marinus 

    A Great Black-headed Gull at New Providence Island in March 1998 was said to be the fifth record for the Bahamas.

    A Great Black-backed Gull in Barbados in December 1998 was said to be the sixth record for that island.

    A Great Black-backed Gull in Dominica at Mahaut on March 9, 1999 was said to be the first record of the species for that island.   

  181. Ring-billed Gull  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DM:jan  DR:mar,apr  GD(rare)  PR  SL(rare)
    Larus delawarensis 

  182. Lesser Black-backed Gull  (*) (ph)  ______  AT(very rare)  BD(rare)  BH  CU(rare)  DM:mar(during our tours, 2 consecutive years)  DR:apr,jul  GD(rare)  PR  SL(rare)

    One of the first Lesser Black-backed Gulls found in Dominican Republic was at Las Salinas, along the south coast, in November 1997.

    Lesser Black-backed Gulls have been seen during FONT Dominican Republic tours in July 1995 (at Lago Enriquillo) and April 2008 (at Las Salinas)

    A Lesser Black-backed Gull on Cayo Romano in April 2000 was said to be the second record of the species, and the first documented record of it for Cuba. 

    A Lesser Black-backed Gull was on Barbados in November 2005. 
    A Lesser Black-backed Gull was on Guadeloupe in September 2008. 
    A first-summer Lesser Black-backed Gull was on Antigua at St. John's Harbor on March 31, 2009. It was photographed.

  183. Kelp Gull  (ph)  ______
    Larus dominicanus

    Kelp Gulls
    that have been reported on Barbados and Trinidad have been birds from the African population, Larus dominicanus vetula, rather than from South America. 

  184. Laughing Gull  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:jun  DM:feb,mar  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul  GD  JM:apr  MN  PR:apr  SL:mar  SV:jul
    (formerly Larus) a. atricilla

    Laughing Gulls
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  185. Franklin's Gull  (WIr)  (ph)  ______  BD(very rare)  CU(very rare)  DR(very rare)  GD(very rare)  PR(very rare)
    (formerly Larus) pipixan

    The first Franklin's Gull reported in Cuba was at Havana in April 1999.
    The first Franklin's Gull reported in Barbados was on November 9, 2005. 

  186. Black-headed Gull  (WIr)  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)  GD(rare)  PR(rare)  SL(rare)
    (formerly Larus) ridibundus

    An immature Black-headed Gull at New Providence Island in January 1999 was said to be the third record in the Bahamas.  

  187. Bonaparte's Gull  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:mar  SL(rare)
    (formerly Larus) philadelphia

    A Bonaparte's Gull was seen during the FONT Dominican Republic Tour in March 2008 at Las Salinas along the south coast.

  188. Little Gull  (WIr) (ph)  ______  BD(very rare)
    Hydrocoloeus minutus

    A Little Gull in Barbados in December 1998 was thought to be the first record for the West Indies.

  189. Black-legged Kittiwake  (WIr)  (ph)  ______  BD(very rare)  BH(rare)  CU(rare)  DM(very rare)  GD(very rare)  SL(very rare)
    Rissa tridactyla

    A dead Black-legged Kittiwake was washed up on a beach on Dominica in February 2009. There were also records for the species (alive) for Guadeloupe and Barbados around that time. 

  190. Gull-billed Tern  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:dec  DR:mar,apr,dec  GD  JM:apr(rare)  SL(rare)
    (formerly Sterna) nilotica aranea

  191. Common Tern (p) (*)  ______  BH  CU  DR:apr,dec  GD  MN  PR  SL
    Sterna h. hirundo

  192. Roseate Tern (p) (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:mar,apr  GD  PR  SL
    Sterna d. dougallii  (t3)

    Roseate Tern
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  193. Forster's Tern  (ph)  ______  BH  CU
    Sterna forsteri

  194. Arctic Tern  (ph)  ______
    Sterna paradisaea

  195. Bridled Tern (p) (*) (ph)   ______  BH  CU  GD  MN  PR  SL
    (formerly Sterna) anaethetus melanoptera

    Bridled Tern
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  196. Sooty Tern (p) (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DM  GD  PR  SL
    (formerly Sterna) f. fuscata

    Sooty Tern
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  197. Least Tern  (*)  ______  BH  CU  CY:jun  DR:mar,apr,jul  GD  PR  SL
    (formerly Sterna) a. antillarum

  198. Royal Tern  (*) (ph)  ______  AT:feb  BH  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DM:jan,feb,mar  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD:feb  JM:mar,apr  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV:dec
    (formerly Sterna) m. maxima

    A juvenile Royal Tern 
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  199. Cayenne Tern  (*)   ______  PR(rare)  
    Thalasseus (formerly Sterna) eurygnatha

    The Cayenne Tern was conspecific with the Sandwich Tern.

  200. Sandwich Tern  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  GD  JM:mar  PR:mar,apr  SL
    (formerly Sterna) sandvicensis acuflavida

    A Sandwich Tern among Royal Terns during the FONT tour in the Dominican Republic
    in February 2012 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  201. Caspian Tern  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  HA:apr  PR  SL(rare)
    (formerly Sterna) caspia 

  202. Black Tern  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:dec  SL
    Chlidonias niger surinamensis

    As many as 10 Black Terns were at Lago Enriquillo in the Dominican Republic in September 1999.  

  203. White-winged Tern  (ph)  ______  BD(very rare)  BH(very rare)  SL(very rare)
    Chilidonias leucopterus

    2 White-winged Terns were in Barbados in October 1996. 

  204. Whiskered Tern  (WIr) (ph)  ______
    Chilidonias hybrida

  205. Brown Noddy (p) (*)  ______  BH  CU  GD  MN  PR  SL
    Anous s. stolidus

  206. Black Noddy  ______  SL(rare)
    Anous minutus

  207. Black Skimmer  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)  SL(very rare)
    Rynchops niger

  208. Pomarine Jaeger  (p) (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU(rare)  DM:mar(seen at sea & from shore)  GD  JM  SL
    Stercorarius pomarinus 

    In Europe, the Pomarine Jaeger is called the Pomarine Skua. 

    In the Caribbean, Stercorarius pomarinus is uncommon during its non-breeding season, from October to May, particularly off Hispaniola, west of the Lesser Antilles, and in the Bahamas. 

    A Pomarine Jaeger seen off Cuba on January 17, 1997 was said to be the 9th or 10th record of the species for that island. 

    Off Saint Lucia, a Pomarine Jaeger observed during a whale-watching trip on December 29, 2008 was said to be the fifth record of the species for that island.  

    Two Pomarine Jaegers were seen off Jamaica in late 2009.

    Pomarine Jaegers
    (or Pomarine Skuas) have commonly been seen in the winter
    during FONT pelagic trips off Dominica
    (a black-and-white photo by Alan Brady)
  209. Parasitic Jaeger  (ph)  ______  BD  BH  CU(rare)  GD  SL
    Stercorarius parasiticus

    In Europe, the Parasitic Jaeger is called the Arctic Skua.

    In the Caribbean, Stercorarius parasiticus is an uncommon migrant, and a rare resident during its non-breeding season, from August to May.    

    A Parasitic Jaeger was seen off Jamaica in late 2009.

    3 Parasitic Jaegers were seen from land in Barbados on March 5, 1998. 

  210. Long-tailed Jaeger  (ph)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)  SL
    Stercorarius longicaudus

    In Europe, the Long-tailed Jaeger is called the Long-tailed Skua.

    In the Caribbean, Stercorarius longicaudus is a very rare migrant from August to October and from March to May. It is generally well out to sea.   

  211. Great Skua (p) (*) (ph)  ______  DM:mar(at sea)  SL(rare)
    (formerly Catharacta) skua  (monotypic)

    The Great Skua normally occurs in the Caribbean from November to May. 

  212. South Polar Skua  (ph)  ______  SL(at sea)
    Stercorarius maccormicki

  213. Dovekie  (WIr)  ______  BH(rare)  CU(rare)  
    Alle alle


  214. White-crowned Pigeon  (nt)  (*)  ______  AT:feb  BH  CU  CY:feb,jun  DR:mar,apr,jul  JM:mar,apr  PR
    (formerly Columba) leucocephala 

    In Jamaica, a local name for the White-crowned Pigeon is "Baldpate". 

  215. Scaly-naped (or Red-necked) Pigeon  (*) (ph)  ______ BD:jul  CU  DM:jan,feb,mar  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GR  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV:mar,jul,dec
    (formerly Columba) squamosa  (monotypic)

    A Scaly-naped Pigeon photographed in the mountains of the Dominican Republic
    during a FONT tour in April 2012  
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  216. Plain Pigeon  (nt) (*)  ______  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  JM  PR:feb
    (formerly Columba) i. inornata  (subspecies on Hispaniola & Cuba) 
    (formerly Columba) inornata wetmorei 
    (subspecies endemic to Puerto Rico)

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Plain Pigeon is "Blue Pigeon".  

  217. Ring-tailed Pigeon  (t3) (*)   ______ JM:mar,apr  (species endemic to Jamaica)
    (formerly Columba) caribaea  (monotypic)

    A local name for the Ring-tailed Pigeon is "Ringtail".

  218. Common (or Feral) Pigeon (i) (*)  ______  BH  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DM:jan,mar  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD:feb  HA:apr  JM:mar,apr  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV:mar,dec
    Columba livia

  219. Passenger Pigeon  ______  (extinct species; occurred formerly in Cuba)
    Ectopistes migratorius 
    (was the single member of its genus)

  220. African Collared Dove (i) (*)  ______ PR:feb,mar,apr  (What's been called the Ringed Turtle Dove, or the Barbary Dove, historically native to North Africa, is said to be a domesticated form, or recessive mutant of this species that continues in the wild in Africa.)
    Streptopelia roseorisea 

  221. Eurasian Collared Dove (i) (*)  ______  AT:feb  BH  BU:feb  CU  CY:dec  DM:jan,mar  DR(rare)  GD:feb
    Streptopelia decaocto

    The Eurasian Collared Dove, Streptopelia decaocto, was introduced in Guadeloupe in 1976, in the town of Saint-Claude. 
    Subsequently, it had a substantial range expansion. From the original population of 20 birds, the dove spread throughout Guadeloupe, and north to the islands of Montserrat, Nevis, and Barbuda, and south to Martinique.
    The subpopulation that was released in Guadeloupe is different than that released in the Bahamas in the mid-1970s which later colonized first in Florida (and also Cuba), and then across the North American continent.

    The Eurasian Collared Dove has been seen during FONT tours in Guadeloupe and Dominica, as well as in Antigua, Barbuda, and the Cayman Islands. 
    Those in the Lesser Antilles were from the birds released in Guadeloupe.

    The first Eurasian Collared Doves in Dominica were reported in Roseau in 1987. Subsequently, the population of the doves in that city increased considerably.

    In Montserrat, the Eurasian Collared Dove became established in Victoria, where it has bred since 1990.

    In the Dominican Republic, what was said to be the first record of the Eurasian Collared Dove in the country was at Punta Cana in late 2006. 

  222. Mourning Dove  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  HA:feb,apr  JM:mar,apr  PR:mar,apr
    Zenaida m. macroura
    (this subspecies, the nominate, endemic to the West Indies) 

  223. Zenaida Dove  (*) (ph)  ______  AT:feb  BD:jul  BH  BU:feb  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DM:jan,feb,mar  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul  GD:feb  JM:mar,apr  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV
    Zenaida a. aurita 
    (resident subspecies of the Lesser Antilles)
    Zenaida aurita zenaida 
    (resident subspecies of the northern Caribbean)

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Zenaida Dove is "Pea Dove". 


    Zenaida Dove
    (photographed by Marie Gardner in Saint Lucia
     during the Dec 2007 FONT Lesser Antilles Tour)

  224. Eared Dove  (*) (ph)  ______  GD(very rare)  GR  SL:mar,dec  SV:mar,jul,dec
    Zenaida auriculata rubripes 
    (subspecies of the Lesser Antilles & northern South America) 

    On Guadeloupe, a juvenile Eared Dove was seen on September 10, 2008, after a singing adult male had been found earlier in the year at the Petite-Terre Natural Reserve.  


    Eared Dove
    (photographed by Marie Gardner in Saint Vincent
     during the Dec 2007 FONT Lesser Antilles Tour)

  225. White-winged Dove  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DM(rare)  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD  JM:mar,apr  PR:feb,mar,apr
    Zenaida a. asiatica  

    In Jamaica, a local name for the White-winged Dove is "White-wing". 

    In the Lesser Antilles, what is said to have been the first record of the White-winged Dove for Dominica was in January 2005, with the species seen there again in May of that year.
    In Guadeloupe, there have been numerous sightings of White-winged Doves since July 2005, but mainly since April of the following year.     

  226. Caribbean Dove  (*)  ______  BH  CY:feb  JM:mar
    Leptotila jamaicensis collaris 
    (subspecies endemic to the Cayman Islands)
    Leptotila j. jamaicensis 
    (subspecies endemic to Jamaica)

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Caribbean Dove is "White-belly".

  227. Grenada Dove  (t1) (LAe) (*)   ______ GR  (species endemic to Grenada)  
    Leptotila wellsi 

    The Grenada Dove is closely related to the Gray-fronted Dove of Central & South America, Leptotila rufaxilla, and has been said by some to be conspecific with it.
  228. Common Ground Dove  (*) (ph)  ______  AT:feb  BD:jul  BH  CU  BU:feb  CY:feb,jun,dec  DM:jan,feb,mar  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GD:feb  GR  HA:feb,apr  JM:mar,apr  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV:mar,jul,dec
    Columbina passerina antillarum 
    (subspecies on Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, & St. Vincent)
    Columbina passerina nigrirostris 
    (subspecies endemic to Dominica)
    Columbina passerina insularis 
    (subspecies in Hispaniola, Cuba, the Cayman Is., & some other small islands)
    Columbina passerina jamaicensis 
    (subspecies endemic to Jamaica)
    Columbina passerina portoricensis 
    (subspecies in Puerto Rico & the Virgin Islands)

    A Common Ground Dove, not on the ground
    (photographed by Marie Gardner in Saint Lucia
     during the Dec 2007 FONT Lesser Antilles Tour)

  229. Ruddy Quail-Dove  (*)  ______  CU  DM:feb,mar  DR;apr  JM:apr  PR:apr  SL  SV:dec
    Geotrygon m. montana 
    (the same subspecies as in Central & South America)

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Ruddy Quail-Dove is "Partridge".

  230. Bridled Quail-Dove  (*)   ______  PR  SL  SV:mar
    Geotrygon mystacea 

  231. Key West Quail-Dove  (*)  ______  BH  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul  PR:apr
    Geotrygon chrysia 

  232. White-fronted Quail-Dove (t3) (*)  ______ DR:mar,apr  (species endemic to Hispaniola)    
    Geotrygon leucometopia

    The White-fronted Quail-Dove was conspcific with the Gray-fronted Quail-Dove of Cuba (below), Geotrygon caniceps.
    When combined, it was called the Gray-headed Quail-Dove.

  233. Gray-fronted Quail-Dove  (t3)  ______  CU  (species endemic to Cuba)  (see noted with previous species)
    Geotrygon caniceps

  234. Blue-headed Quail-Dove  (t2)  ______  CU (species endemic to Cuba)
    Starnoenas cyanocephala

  235. Crested Quail-Dove (nt) (*)   ______  JM:apr  (species endemic to Jamaica)
    Geotrygon versicolor 

    A local name for the Crested Quail-Dove is "Mountain Witch".


  236. Cuban Red (or Hispaniolan) Macaw  ______  (species extinct)
    Ara tricolor

    Regarding the CUBAN RED, or HISPANIOLAN MACAW, go to:  


  237. Monk Parakeet (i) (*)  ______ CY:feb  PR:feb,mar  (native to south-central South America)
    Myiopsitta monachus

  238. White-winged Parakeet (i) (*)  ______ PR  (native to north-central South America) 
    Brotogeris (v.) versicolurus 

    The White-winged Parakeet was previously considered conspecific with the Canary-winged Parakeet, also of South America.   

  239. Jamaican Parakeet (or Conure)  (*)  ______  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  JM:mar,apr  (species was endemic to Jamaica)  
    (formerly Aratinga) nana

    The Jamaican Parakeet was conspecific with what is now the Aztec Parakeet, or Conure, of Central America, Aratinga astec. When merged, it was known as the Olive-throated Parakeet, or Conure.    

  240. Hispaniolan Parakeet (or Conure) (t3) (*) (ph)  ______  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,dec  (species endemic to Hispaniola)
    (formerly Aratinga) c. chloroptera  (another subspecies on Mona Island, off western Puerto Rico, now extinct)

    A Hispaniolan Parakeet during the FONT Dominican Republic tour in February 2012  
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  241. Cuban Parakeet  (t3)  ______  CU (species endemic to Cuba)
    (formerly Aratinga) euops

  242. Orange-fronted Parakeet (or Conure) (i) (*)  ______  PR:feb  (native to Central America)
    (formerly Aratinga) canicularis

  243. Mitred Parakeet (or Conure) (i) (*)  ______ PR  (native to south-central South America)
    (formerly Aratinga) mitrata

  244. Green-rumped (or Guiana) Parrotlet (i) (*)  ______ JM:mar
    Forpus passerinus

  245. Puerto Rican Amazon (or Parrot (t1) (*)  ______  PR:feb.mar  (species a rare endemic to Puerto Rico)  (see note following list)
    Amazona v. vittata
    (a second subspecies on Culebra Island, A. V. gracilipes, now extinct)


  246. Rose-throated Amazon (or Parrot)  (nt) (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec 
    Amazona leucocephala caymanensis 
    (an endemic subspecies on Grand Cayman Island)
    Amazona leucocephala hesterna  (an endemic subspecies on Cayman Brac Island) 
    Amazona leucocephala leucocephala  (an endemic subspecies in Cuba)
    Amazona leucocephala bahamensis  (an endemic subspecies in the Bahamas, on Great Inagua and Abaco Islands)

    Amazona leucocephala has various names on different islands in its range, including:  
    "Cayman Amazon (or Parrot)", and "Bahama Amazon (or Parrot)". 

    The Cayman, or Rose-throated, Amazon
    In the Caribbean, there are, as noted above, 4 subspecies. 
    2 of them are in the Cayman Islands. The other 2 are in the Bahamas & Cuba.  

  247. Imperial Amazon (or Parrot)  (t2) (LAe) (*)   ______  DM:jan,feb,mar  (species endemic to Dominica)  
    Amazona imperialis 

    A local name for the Imperial Amazon is the "Sisserou". 


  248. Red-necked Amazon (or Parrot) (t3) (LAe) (*)  ______ DM:jan,feb,mar  (species endemic to Dominica)  (species endemic to Dominica) 
    Amazona arausiaca

    Local names for the Red-necked Amazon are "Jaco" or "Perroquet". The species has also been called "Bouquet's Amazon".

  249. Hispaniolan Amazon (or Parrot) (t3) (*) (ph)  ______ DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  (species endemic to Hispaniola)
    Amazona ventralis 

    An orphaned Hispaniolan Amazon that has since bonded with "a friend".
    One of the two creatures in this photo is endemic to Hispaniola.
    The man is from Italy. The parrot is from the area of a national park, near 
    Boca de Yuma, in the eastern Dominican Republic where this photo was taken. 
    (photo by Marie Gardner during the April 2012 Dominican Republic Tour) 

  250. Yellow-billed Amazon (or Parrot)  (nt) (*) (ph)  ______ JM:mar,apr  (species endemic to Jamaica)
    Amazona collaria 

    Yellow-billed Amazon
    (photo by Suzanne Bradley)

  251. Black-billed Amazon (or Parrot (t3) (*)  ______  JM:mar,apr  (species endemic to Jamaica)
    Amazona agilis 

  252. Saint Lucia Amazon (or Parrot (t3) (LAe) (*)  ______  SL:mar,dec  (species endemic to St. Lucia)  (species endemic to St. Lucia) 
    Amazona versicolor 

    A local name for the Saint Lucia Amazon is the "Jacquot". The species has also been called the Versicolored Amazon.
  253. Saint Vincent Amazon (or Parrot (t3) (LAe) (*) (ph)  ______  SV:mar,jul,dec  (species endemic to St, Vincent)  (also called "Guilding's Amazon")
    Amazona guildingii

    Another name for the Saint Vincent Amazon is "Guilding's Amazon". 

    Above: the colorful Saint Vincent Amazon,
    photographed during the FONT tour in December 2007.
    Top photo: a captive bird in the botanical garden.
    Middle photo: in the wild, in the forest.
    (photos by tour participant, Marie Z. Gardner)

    Below: Saint Vincent Amazons on a postage stamp 


  254. Orange-winged Amazon (or Parrot) (i) (*)  ______ PR (native to north-central South America)
    Amazona amazonica

  255. Yellow-headed Amazon (or Parrot) (i) (*)  ______ PR (native to Mexico & Belize)
    Amazona oratrix 

  256. Yellow-shouldered Amazon  ______  NA
    Amazona barbadensis

    In the Netherlands Antilles, the Yellow-shouldered Amazon occurs mainly on Bonaire, where as of 2012 there was a population of over 600 birds.


  257. Mangrove Cuckoo  (*) (ph)  ______  BU:feb  BH  CU  CY:feb,jun  DM:jan,mar  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  GD:feb  GR  JM:apr   PR:mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV:mar
    Coccyzus minor
    (now said to be monotypic, formerly subspecies in the West Indies: Coccyzus minor nesiotes)

    Mangrove Cuckoo
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet)
  258. Yellow-billed Cuckoo  (*)  ______  BH  CU  PR:apr  SL
    Coccyzus americanus 

  259. Black-billed Cuckoo  ______  BH(rare)  CU  DR(rare)
    Coccyzus erythropthalmus

    A Black-billed Cuckoo was at Cabo Rojo in the Dominican Republic in September 1999. 

  260. Hispaniolan Lizard Cuckoo  (*) (ph)  ______ DR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  (species endemic to Hispaniola)
    Coccyzus (formerly Saurothera) l. longirostris  (the other subspecies on the small islands La Mohotiere & Gonave off the Dominican Republic)

    Above & below: Hispaniolan Lizard Cuckoos
    Above: one on a wire during the FONT Dominican Republic Tour in April 2012
    Below: one on the ground during the February 2012 FONT Dominican Republic Tour  
    (photos by Marie Gardner)

  261. Jamaican Lizard Cuckoo  (*) (ph)  ______  JM:mar,apr  (species endemic to Jamaica)
    (formerly Saurothera) vetula  (monotypic)

    A local name for the Jamaican Lizard Cuckoo is "Old Woman Bird".

    A Jamaican Lizard Cuckoo photographed during a FONT tour

  262. Puerto Rican Lizard Cuckoo  (*)  ______  PR:feb,mar,apr  (species endemic to Puerto Rico)
    (formerly Saurothera) vieilloti 
  263. Great Lizard Cuckoo  ______  BH  CU  
    (formerly Saurothera) merlini

  264. Bay-breasted Cuckoo (t2) (*)  ______  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul  (species endemic to the Dominican Republic on Hispaniola)
    (formerly Hyetornis) rufigularis  (monotypic)


  265. Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo  (*)   ______  JM:mar,apr  (species endemic to Jamaica)
    (formerly Hyetornis) pluvialis  (monotypic)

    A local name for the Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo is "Old Man Bird". 

  266. Smooth-billed Ani  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:feb,jun,dec  DM:mar  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GR  JM:mar,apr  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL  SV:mar,dec
    Crotophaga ani 

    A Smooth-billed Ani photographed during a FONT tour

  267. Greater Ani  (WIr)  ______  VI(very rare)
    Crotophaga major

    2 photographed Greater Anis were in Curacao, in the Netherlands Antilles, on October 26, 2010, in mangroves near the island's harbor, as apparently the first record of that normally South American species for the island.   

    That same day, October 26, 2010, further north in the Caribbean, one Greater Ani was photographed in a brackish wetland on St. Croix in the US Virgin Islands. It was a first record for those islands, and way north of the normal range of the species.      


  268. American Barn Owl  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY:dec  DR:mar,apr  JM:mar,apr  PR
    Tyto furcata

    The American Barn Owl has been part of the Barn Owl of Eurasia & Africa, Tyto alba.
    But Tyto furcata is a heavier bird, with a larger and stouter head and body, and with much more powerful talons. 

    Tyto furcata furcata  ______  (subspecies in Jamaica, Cuba, and the Cayman Islands)
    Tyto furcata pratincola  _____ 
    (subspecies in Hispaniola & Puerto Rico, also in North & Central America)

    An American Barn Owl photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Andy Smith)

  269. Lesser Antilles Barn Owl (*)  ______  DM:mar  SL  SV:mar
    Tyto insularis 

    The Lesser Antilles Barn Owl was considered a subspecies of Tyto alba, the Barn Owl of Eurasia & Africa. 
    The taxonomic status of Tyto insularis is still considered uncertain and more DNA work should be done, but it is now separated from Tyto furgata (the American Barn Owl) and Tyto glaucops (the Ashy-faced Owl) on the basis mainly of its isolated distribution and morphological differences.
    Tyto insularis has a rather dark plumage with brownish underparts and a dark grayish veil on the back and wings. 
    Two subspecies are recognized:
    Tyto insularis insularis  ______  (on St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, and a few islands of the Grenadines)
    Tyto insularis nigrescens  ______  (on Dominica, this race having hardly any white spots above)     

  270. Curacao Barn Owl  ______  (species endemic to Curacao, in the Netherlands Antilles)
    Tyto bargei

    The Curacao Barn Owl is considerably smaller than the American Barn Owl. 
    A yet un-named race of the American Barn Owl on the nearby Bonaire Island is bigger and has large unfeathered feet and a long tarsus and bill.      

  271. Ashy-faced Owl  (*)   ______  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  (species endemic to Hispaniola)
    Tyto glaucops 

  272. Puerto Rican Screech Owl  (*) (ph)  ______  PR:feb,mar,apr  (species endemic to Puerto Rico & the Virgin Islands) 
    (formerly Otus) nudipes
    Megascops nudipes nudipes  ______
      (subspecies endemic to Puerto Rico & adjacent islands)
    Megascops nudipes newtoni  ______ 
    (subspecies endemic to the Virgin Islands, on St. Thomas, St. John, & St, Croix; less vermiculated and less streaked below than M. n, nudipes)

    A Puerto Rican Screech Owl photographed during a FONT tour
  273. Bare-legged Owl  ______  CU  (species endemic to Cuba)
    Margarobyas lawrenci 
    (the only member of its genus)

    The Bare-legged Owl has been known as the Cuban Screech Owl.  

  274. Cuban Pygmy Owl  ______  CU  (species endemic to Cuba)
    Glaucidium siju

  275. Burrowing Owl  (*) (ph)  ______  BH  CU  DR:mar,apr,jul,dec
    Athene cunicularia troglodytes 
    (subspecies endemic to Hispaniola; 2 other West Indian subspecies have been extirpated, in Antigua and Guadeloupe)

    Above: A Burrowing Owl, in a burrow in the Dominican Republic
    Below: 2 very young Burrowing Owls during the FONT tour
    in the Dominican Republic in April 2012
    They were in a hole in the ground, and were put back in
    quickly after the photograph. We left promptly so as not to 
    further disturb.        

  276. Stygian Owl  ______  CU  DR
    Asio stygius siguapa 
    (subspecies on Cuba & Hispaniola) 

    Asio stygius siguapa is smaller than the two mainland subspecies of the Stygian Owl in Central & South America. 
    It also has whiter markings.
    Overall, the Stygian Owl is poorly known and needs further study.   

  277. Short-eared Owl  ______  BH(rare)  CU  DR
    Asio flammeus domingensis 
    (subspecies on Cuba, Hispaniola, & Puerto Rico)

    Asio flammeus domingensis is smaller than the nominate Asio flammeus flammeus, and has very fine streaks on the belly and a darker ruff.
    This West Indian subspecies is sometimes considered a full species due to its plumage and vocalizations.  

  278. Jamaican Owl  (*)   ______ JM:mar  (species endemic to Jamaica)
    Pseudoscops grammicus 

    A local name for the Jamaican Owl is "the Patoo, with big eyes".


  279. Northern Potoo  (*) (ph)   ______  CU(rare)  DR:mar,apr  JM:mar,apr
    Nyctibius jamaicensis abbotti 
    (subspecies endemic to Hispaniola)
    Nyctibius j. jamaicensis 
    (subspecies endemic to Jamaica)

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Northern Potoo is  "the Patoo, with a long bill".

    Following findings in western Cuba, the Northern Potoo was found at 2 localities in far-eastern Cuba in January 2001. 

    A Northern Potoo photographed during a FONT tour in Jamaica
    (photo by Howard Lebo)

  280. Chuck-will's-Widow  (*)  ______  BH  CU  DR;feb,apr,dec  PR:feb
    (formerly Caprimulgus) carolinensis 

    A Chuck-will's-Widow found incubating two eggs on Grand Bahama Island on June 1, 1999 was the first breeding record for the West Indies. 
    Since then, it has been learned that the species is more widespread and numerous in the northern islands of the Bahamas than previously thought, not just as a winter visitor but as a breeder in the summer.  

  281. Eastern Whip-poor-will  ______  CU  CY:dec
    (formerly Caprimulgus) vociferus

  282. "Saint Lucia Nightjar"  (*) (ph)  ______  SL 
    (formerly Caprimulgus) rufus otiosus (t2)  (an endemic subspecies on St. Lucia)

    The "Saint Lucia Nightjar" is a subspecies of the Rufous Nightjar, a species that occurs throughout much of South America.

    Rufous Nightjar, photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  283. "Hispaniolan Nightjar"  (*)  ______ DR:mar,apr,jul,dec  (endemic subspecies to Hispaniola)  
    (formerly Caprimulgus) cubanensis ekmani

    The "Hispaniolan Nightjar" is generally considered conspecific with the "Cuban Nightjar" (below), C. c. cubanensis, and is thus properly called the Greater Antillean Nightjar.   

  284. "Cuban Nightjar"  ______  CU  (endemic subspecies in Cuba)
    (formerly Caprimulgus) c. cubanensis

  285. Puerto Rican Nightjar  (t2) (*)  ______ PR:feb,mar,apr  (a rare endemic to Puerto Rico) 
    (formerly Caprimulgus) noctitherus  (monotypic)


    Puerto Rican Nightjar

  286. Least Poorwill  (t3) (*)  ______  DR:mar,apr,jul,dec  (endemic to Hispaniola)  (has been called Least Pauraque)
    Siphonorhis brewsteri 
    (monotypic)  (The only other member of this genus, the Jamaican Pauraque, may be extinct.)

  287. Antillean Nighthawk  (*)  ______  BH  CU  CY:jun  DR:mar,apr,jul  GD(rare)  JM:apr  PR
    Chordeiles g. gundlachii 
    (this subspecies of the Greater Antilles, the other of Florida & the Bahamas)

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Antillean Nighthawk is "Gimme-me'bit", similar to the call made by the bird as it flies often high in the sky.   

    An Antillean Nighthawk on Guadeloupe in June 2000 was said to be the first record of the species for that island. 
    The following month (in July 2000), 2 Antillean Nighthawks were observed there, raising the possibility of the species breeding.  

  288. Common Nighthawk  (*)  ______  BH  CU  DR:apr
    Chordeiles minor 
    (6 subspecies migrate thru the Caribbean between North & South America)


  289. White-collared Swift  (*)  ______  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,dec  JM:mar
    Streptoprocne zonaris pallidifrons 
    (the subspecies of the Caribbean)

  290. American Black Swift  (*)  ______  CU  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul  JM:apr  PR  SL  SV:mar
    Cypseloides n. niger 
    (the subspecies of the Caribbean & Trinidad; present there during its breeding season) 

  291. Chimney Swift  (*)   ______  BD(very rare)  BH  CU(rare)  CY
    Chaetura pelagica 

    A Chimney Swift on Barbados in November 2005 was said to be the third record for that island. 

    Two exhausted Chimney Swifts in Cuba in October 1998 were the first specimens of the species for that island.
    A live Chimney Swift was seen in flight south of Matanzas, Cuba on April 14, 2000.   

  292. Short-tailed Swift  (*)  ______  SL(rare)  SV
    Chaetura brachyura praevelox 
    (this subspecies on St. Vincent, Grenada, & Tobago)

    In April 2009, the Short-tailed Swift was observed for the first time in Saint Lucia. Two flocks were noted that month: 
    one of 4 over Soufriere on April 1, and one of 8 seen above the Aerial Tram in Babbonneau on April 18.   

  293. Lesser Antillean Swift  (LAe) (*)   ______  DM:jan,feb,mar  SL:mar,dec  SV
    Chaetura martinica 

  294. Gray-rumped Swift  ______  GR
    Chaetura cinereiventris

    The Gray-rumped Swift is locally common on Grenada, where it seems to be seasonal. 

  295. Antillean Palm Swift  (*)  ______  CU  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  JM:mar,apr
    Tachornis p. phoenicobia
      (the subspecies of Hispaniola & Jamaica; the other is of Cuba)

  296. Alpine Swift  (WIr)  ______  BD(very rare)
    Apus melba

    Alpine Swifts
    , from the Old World, were seen in Barbados in 2003 from June 21 to July 9 (photographed), and in 2005 on July 31, marking the second and third occurrences for that island, and the 6th & 7th records for the Western Hemisphere. 


  297. Rufous-breasted Hermit  ______  GR
    Glaucis hirsuta

    The Rufous-brested Hermit is a fairly common resident on Grenada, at over 1500 feet above sea level. 

  298. Hispaniolan Emerald  (*) (ph)  ______  DR;feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  (species endemic to Hispaniola)
    Chlorostilbon swainsonii 

    A female Hispaniolan Emerald photographed during 
    a FONT tour in the Dominican Republic in February 2012 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  299. Puerto Rican Emerald  (*)  ______  PR:feb,mar,apr  (species endemic to Puerto Rico)
    Chlorostilbon maugaeus 

  300. Cuban Emerald  ______  BH  CU
    Chlorostilbon ricordii

  301. Antillean Mango  (*) (ph)  ______  DR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  HA:apr  PR:feb,mar,apr
    Anthracothorax d. dominicus 
    (subspecies endemic to Hispaniola)
    Anthracothorax dominicus aurulentus 
    (subspecies endemic to Puerto Rico)

    A juvenile Antillean Mango photographed during a FONT tour
    in the Dominican Republic in February 2012  
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  302. Jamaican Mango  (*)  ______ JM:mar,apr  (species endemic to Jamaica)
    Anthracothorax mango 

  303. Green Mango  (*)  ______  PR:feb,mar,apr  (species endemic to Puerto Rico) 
    Anthracothorax viridis 

  304. Green-breasted Mango  ______
    Anthracothorax prevostii

  305. Blue-headed Hummingbird  (LAe) (*)  ______ DM:jan,feb,mar  (species restricted to the 2 islands of Dominica & Martinique)
    Cyanophaia bicolor 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)
  306. Purple-throated Carib  (LAe) (*) (ph)  ______  DM:jan,feb,mar  SL:mar,dec  SV:mar,jul,dec
    Eulampis jugularis 

    A Purple-throated Carib photographed during a FONT tour

  307. Green-throated Carib  (*) (ph)  ______  AT:feb  DM:jan,mar  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV:mar,jul,dec
    Eulampis h. holosericeus 
    (subspecies in east Puerto Rico & in most of the Lesser Antilles) 


    A Green-throated Carib photographed during a FONT tour in St. Lucia in Dec 2007
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  308. Antillean Crested Hummingbird  (*) (ph)  ______  AT:feb  BU:feb  BD:jul  DM:jan,feb,mar  GD:feb  GR  PR:feb,mar,apr  SL:mar,dec  SV:mar,jul,dec
    Orthorhyncus cristatus exilis
    (subspecies in Puerto Rico & in most of the Lesser Antilles, including Dominica & St. Lucia)
    Orthorhyncus c. cristatus 
    (subspecies endemic to Barbados)
    Orthorhyncus cristatus emigrans 
    (subspecies endemic to Grenada) 
    Orthorhyncus cristatus ornatus 
    (subspecies endemic to St. Vincent)
    (on Grenada blue-crested, on other islands green-crested)

    A female Antillean Crested Hummingbird 
    photographed during a FONT tour in St. Lucia in Dec 2007

    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  309. Red-billed Streamertail  (*) (ph)  ______  JM:mar,apr  (species endemic to Jamaica)  (the two streamertails have been considered conspecific) 
    Trochilus polytmus 

    The Red-billed Streamertail and the Black-billed Streamertail (below) have been considered conspecific. 

    A local name for the streamertails is the "Doctorbird".  

    Above & below: Red-billed Streamertails
    Above a male, below a female
    (photos by Suzanne Bradley)


  310. Black-billed Streamertail  (*)  ______ JM:mar,apr  (species endemic to Jamaica) 
    Trochilus scitulus 

    As noted above, the two streamertails were considered conspecific, with the Black-billed Streamertail as a subspecies of the Red-billed Streamertail.     

  311. Vervain Hummingbird  (*) (ph)  ______  DR:feb,mar,apr,jul  JM:mar,apr
    Mellisuga minima vieillota 
    (subspecies endemic to Hispaniola & nearby small islands)
    Mellisuga m. minima 
    (subspecies endemic to Jamaica)

    In Jamaica, a local name for the Vervain Hummingbird is the "Little Doctorbird".

    Above: Way up high in a tree, sitting and calling, 
    a Vervain Hummingbird, the second smallest hummingbird 
    in the Caribbean after the Bee Hummingbird of Cuba.
    Below: Down low, another Vervain Hummingbird,
    feeding on a flower. Notice the little feet.
    Both photos were taken during the FONT tour
    in the Dominican Republic in April 2012.
    (photos by Marie Gardner)

  312. Bee Hummingbird  (nt)  ______  CU  (species endemic to Cuba)  (This species is reputed to be the smallest bird in the world.) 
    Mellisuga helenae

  313. Bahama Woodstar  ______  BH  CU(very rare)
    Calliphlox evelynae 
    (has been C. e. evelynae as there  have been two subspecies prior to the split of the species that follows, now here as the Inaguan Lyretail)   

    The Bahama Woodstar is a member of the North American branch of the Bee Hummingbird group: MELLISUGINI. 
    It inhabits the islands of the Bahamas, and the Turks and Caicos except on Great and Little Inagua Island. On those Inaguan islands, what is now here as the Inaguan Lyretail (below) has been considered a subspecies of the Bahama Woodstar.     

    An article published in 2008 relates the first known record of the Bahama Woodstar in Cuba, on the Cayo Paredon Grande, off the north coast of the Cuban mainland.   

  314. Inaguan Woodstar  ______  BH
    Calliphlox lyrura

    The Inaguan Woodstar occurs only on the islands of Great and Little Inagua. It has been a subspecies of the Bahama Woodstar.
    Another name, Inaguan Lyretail, relates to the bird's distinctive, lyre-shaped outer tail feathers (of the male).  

  315. Ruby-throated Hummingbird  (ph)  ______  BH  CU  CY
    Archilochus colubris


Our Puerto Rico tour in February 1990 included a trip (by air) to uninhabited Mona Island, off the west coast of Puerto Rico, about mid-way between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Birds found only there noted by an (mi).

A few of our Puerto Rico tours have included a trip by ferry to Culebra Island, off northeastern Puerto Rico, about mid-way between Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

During our Feb 6-11, '96 Puerto Rico tour, we conducted our first Caribbean pelagic trip off the west coast of the island. 
A Black-capped Petrel was seen. (Only 3 records in Raffaele's book: "Birds of Puerto Rico".) Also whales and dolphins. 
During the pelagic trip with our Feb 15-19 tour, about 300 boobies. Over 200 of them, Red-footed (both brown & white morphs). Also a 60-foot Whale Shark by the boat. 
With the pelagic trip during the March '96 tour, 6 species of terns were seen.

Inexplicably, a male Baikal Teal was in a large flock of Blue-winged Teal on Feb 24, 2001 on a pond on Little Cayman Island, a small, remote place with few people. The behavior of the Baikal Teal was the same as that of the Blue-winged Teal (as a wary, wild bird). The Feb 2001 Baikal Teal was not banded. It was photographed. As far as we know, there was no previous record of this species in the West Indies. The species in Asia has been known to wander on occasion to the south beyond its normal range. It has occurred in North America, particularly Alaska, casually. The Feb 2001 Little Cayman bird may have joined with Blue-winged Teal in western North America and migrated south with them. Also it should be noted that Baikal Teals have occurred in North America as escapes.     

12 of the very rare Puerto Rican Amazons were seen during FONT Puerto Rican tour #12, in March 1996. 
Subsequently, the species has become more difficult to see in the wild. 3 were seen during tour #18, in March 1998
The species was seen again during tour #22, in March 2000.. One wild bird was seen during tour #26, in March 2004.

The Dunlin has probably been observed only rarely in the Dominican Republic. The book "A Guide to the Birds of the West Indies" indicates no sightings, although it notes some records to the west in Cuba and to the east in Puerto Rico. 2 birds were seen during the FONT tour on December 28, 1998 at Salinas, along the southern DR coast, west of Santo Domingo.  

Jamaican (formerly Olive-throated) Parakeets were first found during our FONT tours in the Dominican Republic in July 1995, with a substantial number (15-20) in a wild, remote area in the western part of the country, at mid-elevation in the Baoruco Mountains. Also during that tour, 1 was found in a flock of Hispaniolan Parakeets in the city of Santo Domingo.
During all FONT Dominican Republic tours since 1995 in the Baoruco Mountains, the Jamaican Parakeet has been seen.    

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