PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876

Website:  www.focusonnature.com


and some

Noting those found during 
Focus On Nature Tours
1991 thru 2015 
noted with an (*)

Tours during the months of January, February, 
March, April, July, December.


There have been 32 FONT tours in Costa Rica. 

The following list of Costa Rica Mammals 
compiled by Armas Hill



Threatened Species, designated in CITES: 
(t1): critical
(t2): endangered
(t3): vulnerable
(ti):  threatened (but with status indeterminate)
(i):   introduced in Costa Rica

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website

CR(N): during tours in northern Costa Rica 
CR(S): during tours in southern Costa Rica

Some excellent books about Central American Mammals include: 
"A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America & Southeast Mexico" by Fiona Reid, 1997.
"The Natural History of Costa Rican Mammals" by Mark Wainwright, 2002.


Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in Central America      

Costa Rica Bird-List     Panama Bird-List

A List & Photo Gallery of Central America Birds, in 4 Parts

A List & Photo Gallery of Central America Butterflies & Moths, in 5 parts

Amphibians & Reptiles of Costa Rica & Panama  (with some photos)

Miscellaneous Other Wildlife after the Mammal-List below

Directory of Photos in this Website


List of Mammals:

         AMERICAN OPOSSUMS, in the Order Didelphimorphia, Family Didelphidae:

    All Marsupials were formerly classified in the Order Marsupialia. 
         However, this large group has recently been split into 7 orders. 
         NEW WORLD OPOSSUMS consist of 3 orders, Australian marsupials by 4 orders.

The Order Didelphimorphia includes all of the Central American opossums - 13 species

  1. Common Opossum ______ (*) CR(N)   
    Didelphis marsupialis

  2. Virginia Opossum  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N)
    Didelphis virginiana

  3. Gray Four-eyed Opossum ______
    Philander opossum

  4. Water Opossum ______  (also called Yapok
    Chironectes minimus

  5. Brown Four-eyed Opossum ______
    Metachirus nudicaudatus

  6. Mexican Mouse Opossum ______
    Marmosa mexicana

  7. Alston's Mouse Opossum ______
    Micoureus alstoni

  8. Central American Woolly Opossum ______
    Caluromys derbianus 

    in the Order Xenarthra, formerly Edentata 
    in the Family Myrmecophagidae 
    in the Families Bradypodidae (3-toed) & Megalonychidae (2-toed) 
    in the Family Dasypodidae

  9. Giant Anteater ______ (If it still exists in Central America, it is very rare there. There are a few recent sight records in southern Costa Rica and Panama. This species may be the most endangered mammal in Central America. It is common in parts of South America.)
    Myrmecophaga tridactyla   

  10. Northern Tamandua  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N,S)  (also called Banded or Vested Anteater) (IN PHOTO AT TOP OF THIS LIST)
    Tamandua mexicana

  11. Silky  Anteater ______  
    Cyclopes didactylus

  12. Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N,S)
    Bradypus variegatus 

    Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth

  13. Hoffmann's Two-toed Sloth  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N,S)
    Choloepus hoffmanni

    Hoffmann's Two-toed Sloth

  14. Nine-banded Long-nosed Armadillo  (ph)  ______  (*) CR(N)
    Dasypus novemcinctus

    Nine-banded Long-nosed Armadillo

  15. Northern Naked-tailed Armadillo ______
    Cabassous centralis

    , in the Order Insectivora

    , in the Family Soricidae

  16. American Least Shrew ______
    Cryptotis parva

  17. Blackish Small-eared Shrew ______
    Cryptotis nigrescens

  18. Merriam's Small-eared Shrew ______  (in northwest Costa Rica)
    Cryptotis merriami

  19. Talamancan Small-eared Shrew ______ (highlands, mostly in Costa Rica)
    Cryptotis gracilis


    , in the Order Chiroptera

    , in the Family Emballonuridae

  20. Long-nosed Bat  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N)
    Rhynchonycteris naso 
    (the single member of its genus)
    (Common in lowland forest near water: streams, rivers, mangroves, and lakes)

    Long-nosed Bat
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  21. Greater White-lined Bat (or White-lined Sac-winged Bat) ______ (*) CR(N,S)
    Saccopteryx bilineata

  22. Lesser White-lined Bat ______ 
    Saccopteryx leptura 

  23. Shaggy Bat ______ (rare, known only from a few specimens)
    Centronycteris maximiliani

  24. Lesser Doglike Bat ______
    Peropteryx macrotis

  25. Greater Doglike Bat ______
    Peropteryx kappleri

  26. Chestnut Sac-winged Bat ______ 
    Cormura brevirostris
    (In Central America, uncommon & local, usually in lowland evergreen forest)

  27. Gray Sac-winged Bat ______ (*) CR(N)
    Balantiopteryx plicata

  28. Smoky Sheath-tailed Bat ______ (rare & local, in eastern Costa Rica; known from a few specimens taken in humid lowland areas)
    Cyttarops alecto 

  29. Northern Ghost Bat ______ 
    Diclidurus albus

    (or BULLDOG) BATS, in the Family Noctilionidae  

  30. Greater Fishing Bat ______ (*) CR(N,S)
    Noctilio leporinus

  31. Lesser Fishing Bat ______ (*) CR(N,S)
    Noctilio albiventris

    , in the Family Mormoopidae

  32. Common Mustached Bat ______ (*) CR(N,S)
    Pteronatus parnellii

  33. Lesser Mustached Bat ______
    Pteronatus personatus

  34. Davy's Naked-backed Bat ______
    Pteronatus davyi

  35. Big Naked-backed Bat ______
    Pteronatus gymnonotus 

    , in the Family Phyllostomidae 

  36. Common Big-eared Bat ______
    Micronycteris microtis

  37. White-bellied Big-eared Bat ______
    Micronycteris minuta

  38. Schmidt's Big-eared Bat ______ (apparently rare & local)
    Micronycteris schmidtorum

  39. Hairy Big-eared Bat ______ (apparently rare & local)
    Micronycteris hirsuta

  40. Orange-throated Big-eared Bat ______ (uncommon & local)
    Micronycteris brachyotis

  41. Niceforo's Big-eared Bat ______ (In Central America, rare & local; more common in South America)
    Micronycteris nicefori

  42. Tricolored Big-eared  Bat ______ (rare & local)
    Micronycteris sylvestris

  43. Davies' Big-eared Bat  (also called Bartica Bat) ______ (apparently very rare & local; restricted to mature, evergreen forest)
    Micronycteris daviesi

  44. Common Sword-nosed Bat ______
    Lonchorhina aurita

  45. Long-legged Bat ______ 
    Macrophyllum macrophyllum

  46. Stripe-headed Round-eared Bat ______ (Uncommon to rare; usually in mature evergreen forest)
    Tonatia saurophils

  47. Pygmy Round-eared Bat ______  (lowland forest & regrowth areas)
    Tonatia brasiliense

  48. White-throated Round-eared Bat ______
    Tonatia silvicola

  49. Golden Bat ______ 
    Mimon bennettii

  50. Striped Hairy-nosed Bat ______ (rare & local) 
    Mimon crenulatum

  51. Pale Spear-nosed Bat ______
    Phyllostomus discolor

  52. Greater Spear-nosed Bat ______
    Phyllostomus hastatus

  53. Pale-faced Bat ______ (rare & local)
    Phyllostomus stenops

  54. Fringe-lipped Bat ______
    Trachops cirrhosus

  55. Big-eared Woolly Bat  (also called Woolly False Vampire Bat) ______ (uncommon to rare, but widespread)
    Chrotopterus auritus

  56. Spectral Bat (also called Great False Vampire Bat) ______ (rare & local)
    Vampyrum spectrum

    , in the Subfamilies Glossophaginae & Lonchophyllinae 

  57. Common Long-tongued Bat ______ (*) CR(N,S) (in forests & clearings)
    Glossophaga soricina

  58. Gray's Long-tongued Bat ______ (in dry forest s & scrub on the Pacific slope)
    Glossophaga leachii

  59. Brown Long-tongued Bat ______
    Glossophaga commissarisi

  60. Geoffrey's Tailless Bat ______
    Anoura geoffroyi

  61. Handley's Tailless Bat ______
    Anoura cultrata

  62. Dark Long-tongued Bat ______ (rare)
    Lichonycteris obscura

  63. Underwood's Long-tongued Bat ______
    Hylonycteris underwoodi

  64. Godman's Whiskered Long-nosed Bat ______ (rare to uncommon)
    Choeronycteris godmani

  65. Goldman's Nectar Bat ______ (*) CR(S) (fairly common in the humid Pacific lowlands of southwest Costa Rica) (occurs in evergreen forests & banana groves)
    Lonchophylla mordax

  66. Orange-nectar Bat ______
    Lonchophylla robusta

    , in the Subfamily Carolliinae

  67. Chestnut Short-tailed Bat ______
    Carollia castanea

  68. Gray Short-tailed Bat ______  (in northwest Costa Rica)
    Carollia subrufa

  69. Silky Short-tailed Bat ______
    Carollia brevicauda

  70. Seba's Short-tailed Bat ______
    Carollia perspicillata

    , in the Subfamily Stenodermatinae

  71. Little Yellow-shouldered Bat ______
    Sturnira lilium

  72. Luis' Yellow-shouldered Bat ______  (in Costa Rica, on the Caribbean slope)
    Sturnira luisi

  73. Highland Yellow-shouldered Bat ______  (mid-elevation forests & forest edge)
    Sturnira ludovici

  74. Talamancan Yellow-shouldered Bat ______  (mid & high elevation forests & forest edge)
    Sturnira mordax

  75. Great Fruit-eating Bat ______  (in rainforests & clearings) 
    Artibeus lituratus

  76. Intermediate Fruit-eating Bat ______
    Artibeus intermedius

  77. Jamaican Fruit-eating Bat ______  (in rainforests & plantations)
    Artibeus jamaicensis

  78. Aztec Fruit-eating Bat ______
    Artibeus aztecus

  79. Toltec Fruit-eating Bat ______
    Artibeus toltecus

  80. Pygmy Fruit-eating Bat ______
    Artibeus phaeotis

  81. Thomas' Fruit-eating Bat ______
    Artibeus watsoni

  82. Velvety Fruit-eating Bat ______
    (formerly Enchisthenes) hartii

  83. Common Tent-making Bat  (ph)  ______
    Uroderma bilobatum

    Common Tent-making Bats
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  84. Heller's Broad-nosed Bat ______
    Platyrrhinus helleri

  85. Greater Broad-nosed Bat ______
    Platyrrhinus vittatus

  86. Great Stripe-faced Bat ______ (uncommon north of Panama)
    Vampyrodes caraccioli

  87. Hairy Big-eyed Bat ______
    Chiroderma villosum

  88. Salvin's Big-eyed Bat ______
    Chiroderma salvini

  89. Little Yellow-eared Bat ______
    Vampyressa pusilla

  90. Striped Yellow-eared Bat ______
    Vampyressa nymphaea

  91. MacConnell's Bat ______
    Mesophylla maconnelli

  92. Honduran White Bat ______ (uncommon & local)
    Ectophylla alba

  93. Wrinkle-faced Bat ______
    Centurio senex

    , in the Subfamily Desmodontinae

  94. Common Vampire Bat ______
    Desmodus rotundus

  95. White-winged Vampire Bat ______ (Primarily South American; in Central America, rare & local.)
    Diaemus youngi

  96. Hairy-legged Vampire Bat ______
    Diphylla ecaudata

    , in the Family Natalidae

  97. Mexican Funnel-eared Bat ______
    Natalus stramineus

    , in the Family Furipteridae

  98. Thumbless Bat ______ (In Central America, apparently rare & local, where known from few localities in lowland, evergreen forests,)  
    Furipterus horrens

    , in the Family Thyropteridae

  99. Spix's Disk-winged Bat ______
    Thyroptera tricolor

    , in the Family Vespertilionidae

  100. Black Myotis ______ (*) CR(N,S)  (in forests & built-up areas)
    Myotis nigricans

  101. Elegant Myotis ______
    Myotis elegans

  102. Silver-haired Myotis ______ 
    Myotis albescens

  103. Riparian Myotis ______
    Myotis riparius

  104. Hairy legged Myotis ______
    Myotis keaysi

  105. Montane Myotis ______
    Myotis oxyotus

  106. Big Brown Bat ______
    Eptesicus fuscus

  107. Brazilian Brown Bat ______
    Eptesicus brasiliensis

  108. Argentine Brown Bat ______
    Eptesicus furinalis

  109. Central American Yellow Bat ______
    Rhogeessa tumida

  110. Van Gelder's Bat ______ 
    Bauerus dubiaquercus

  111. Western Red Bat ______
    Lasiurus blossevillii

  112. Tacarcuna Bat ______ (Rare; known from very few specimens in evergreen forest in Costa Rica & Panama.)
    Lasiurus castaneus

  113. Southern Yellow Bat ______
    Lasiurus ega      

    , in the Family Molossidae

  114. Greenhall's Dog-faced Bat ______
    Molossops greenhalli

  115. Mexican (or Brazilian) Free-tailed Bat ______  (locally in dry open areas & forests)
    Tadarida brasiliensis

  116. Black Bonneted Bat ______
    Eumpos auripendulus

  117. Wagner's Bonneted Bat ______
    Eumops glaucinus

  118. Sanborn's Bonneted Bat ______
    Eumops hansae

  119. Dwarf Bonneted Bat ______
    Eumops bonariensis

  120. Big-crested Mastiff Bat ______
    Promops centralis 

  121. Black Mastiff Bat ______
    Molossus ater

  122. Miller's Mastiff Bat ______
    Molossus prestiosus

  123. Sinaloan Mastiff Bat ______
    Molossus sinaloae

  124. Pallas's Mastiff Bat ______ 
    Molossus molossus 

, or NEW WORLD MONKEYS, in the Order of Primates, in the Family Atelidae:

  1. Mantled Howler Monkey  (t3) (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N,S)
    Alouatta palliata

    A Mantled Howler Monkey photographed during a FONT tour in Costa Rica

  2. White-headed Capuchin  (ph)  ______  CR(N,S)(*)  PN(*)
    Cebus capucinus

    Other vernacular names for Cebus capucinus have been White-faced Capuchin and White-throated Capuchin. 

    White-headed Capuchins photographed during the FONT tour
    in northern Costa Rica in March 2012 
    (photo by Virginia Woodhouse)

  1. Geoffroy's Spider Monkey  (t3) (ph)  ______  CR(N,S)(*)
    Ateles geoffroyi
    Ateles g. ornatus  subspecies in Costa Rica: the "Ornate Spider Monkey"  

    A Geoffroy's Spider Monkey photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  2. Central American Squirrel Monkey  (t1) (ph)  ______ (*) CR(S)
    Saimiri oerstedii
    (2 subspecies: the northern S. o. citrinellus paler than S. o. oerstedii - the latter pictured below)

    Above & below: Central American Squirrel Monkeys photographed during FONT tours in Costa Rica
    (The lower photo by Virginia Woodhouse during the Southern Costa Rica Tour in March 2012) 

  3. Lemurine Night Monkey  ______  (has also been called Owl Monkey)  
    Aotus lemurinus 

    In Central America, Aotus lemurinus occurs in Panama. There have been several unconfirmed reports from Costa Rica. 

    the gnawing mammals in the Order Rodentia, which is the largest order of mammals with nearly 2,000 species worldwide. 
    Families include:
    Squirrels:  Sciuridae
    Mice & Rats:  Muridae
    New World Porcupines:  Erethizontidae 

    , in the Family Sciuridae 

  4. Red-tailed Squirrel  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N,S)
    (formerly Guerlinguetus) granatensis

    A Red-tailed Squirrel photographed during a FONT tour 
    in southern Costa Rica in March 2012
    (photo by Virginia Woodhouse)

  5. Variegated Squirrel ______ (*) CR(N,S)
    Sciurus variegatoides
    (14 named subspecies are recognized, including those below in Costa Rica)
    S. v. underwoodi  (*)  (in northern Costa Rica)
    S. v. dorsalis 
    (a distinctive nearly black & white subspecies in northwest Costa Rica)
    S. v. atrirufus 
    (on the lower Nicoya Peninsula)
    S. v. thomasi 
    (in much of Costa Rica, including all of the Caribbean slope & lowlands) 
    S. v. melania 
    (in central & southern Costa Rica in the Pacific lowlands) 
    S. v. rigidus 
    (in central Costa Rica & the lower northwest)
    S. v. loweryi 
    (in southern Costa Rica on the Pacific slope, similar to S. v. thomasi

  6. Central American Dwarf Squirrel (or "Alfari's Pygmy Squirrel") ______ (*) CR(N)
    Microsciurus alfari

  7. Montane Squirrel ______ (in the highlands of Costa Rica & western Panama)
    (formerly Syntheosciurus) brochus

    , in the Family Geomyidae

  8. Variable Pocket Gopher ______  (montane forest clearings & farmland soils in the Cordillera Central & Cordillera de Talamanca)
    Orthogeomys heterodus

  9. Cherrie's Pocket Gopher ______  (north & northeast Costa Rica)
    Orthogeomys cherriei

  10. Underwood's Pocket Gopher ______  (Pacific lowlands of central Costa Rica)
    Orthogeomys underwoodi

  11. Chiriqui Pocket Gopher ______ (in southern Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Orthogeomys cavator

    , in the Family Heteromyidae

  12. Salvin's Spiny Pocket Mouse ______  (in northern Costa Rica)
    Liomys salvini

  13. Forest Spiny Pocket Mouse ______ (*) CR(S)
    Heteromys desmarestianus

  14. Mountain Spiny Pocket Mouse ______ (Endemic to Costa Rica; only in the Talamanca Mountains, from 1800 to 2600 meters above sea level.)
    Heteromys oresterus

    , in the Family Muridae

    , in the Subfamily Sigmodontinae

  15. Coue's Rice Rat ______ 
    Oryzomys couesi

  16. Talamancan Rice Rat ______
    Oryzomys talamancae

  17. Alfaro's Rice Rat ______
    Oryzomys alfaroi

  18. Long-whiskered Rice Rat ______  (on the Caribbean slope)
    Oryzomys bolivaris

  19. Dusky Rice Rat ______
    Melanomys caliginosus

  20. Big Arboreal Rice Rat ______  (in Costa Rica, in the southern part of the country) 
    (has been part of Oryzomys) trinitatis

  21. Sprightly Pygmy Rice Rat ______
    Oligoryzomys vegetus

  22. Northern Pygmy Rice Rat ______ (*) CR(N)
    Oligoryzomys fulvescens

  23. Common Cane Mouse  ______  (in southeast Costa Rica)
    Zygodontomys brevicauda

  24. Hispid Cotton Rat ______ (*) CR(N)
    Sigmodon hispidus

  25. Goldman's Water Mouse ______  (by fast-flowing streams in forested mountains)
    Rheomys raptor

  26. Underwood's Water Mouse ______  (in central Costa Rica)
    Rheomys underwoodi  

  27. Watson's Climbing Rat ______  (lowland forests)
    Tylomys watsoni

  28. Big-eared Climbing Rat ______
    Ototylomys phyllotis

  29. Vesper Rat ______
    Nyctomys sumichrasti

  30. Alston's Singing Mouse ______  (montane forests & forest edge)
    Scotinomys teguina

  31. Chiriqui Singing Mouse ______  (montane forest, forest edge, and paramo)
    Scotinomys xerampelinus

  32. Sumichrast's Harvest Mouse ______
    Reithrodontomys sumichrasti

  33. Slender Harvest Mouse ______  (in northwest Costa Rica)
    Reithrodontomys gracilis

  34. Mexican Harvest Mouse ______ (*) CR(S)
    Reithrodontomys mexicanus

  35. Short-nosed Harvest Mouse ______  (in the Cordillera Central)
    Reithrodontomys brevirostris

  36. Nicaraguan Harvest Mouse ______  (northwest Costa Rica)
    Reithrodontomys paradoxus

  37. Rodriguez's Harvest Mouse ______  (on slopes of volcanoes in central Costa Rica) 
    Reithrodontomys rodriguezi

  38. Chiriqui Harvest Mouse ______
    Reithrodontomys creper

  39. Mexican Deer Mouse ______
    Peromyscus mexicanus

    OLD WORLD RATS & MICE, in the Subfamily Murinae 

  40. House Rat (i) ______ (*)  (other names include Black Rat & Roof Rat)   
    Rattus rattus

    Rattus rattus
    is originally from India. It is introduced worldwide.

  41. Brown Rat (i) ______ (also called Norway Rat
    Rattus norvegicus

    Rattus norvegicus is originally from southeast Siberia & northern China. It is introduced worldwide.
    Rattus norvegicus is less widespread than Rattus rattus in Central America.

  42. Western House Mouse (i) ______    
    Mus domesticus  (formerly conspecific with Mus musculus, now the Eastern House Mouse)

    Mus domesticus is commensal with humans in Europe, north Africa, & the Middle East. It is introduced in North & South America, subsaharan Africa, north Australia, & oceanic islands. 

    , in the Family Erethizontidae
    More closely related to cavy-like rodents such as the Agouti and Paca, than to the Old World Porcupines 

  43. Mexican Hairy Dwarf Porcupine  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N)
    (formerly Sphiggurus) mexicanus

    Coendon mexicanus is a generally long-haired, prehensile-tailed Porcupine.

    Mexican Hairy Dwarf Porcupine
    (photo by Dick Tipton)

    , in the Family Dasyproctidae

  44. Central American Agouti ______ (*) CR(N,S)
    Dasyprocta punctata

    Central American Agouti
    (photo by Linda Navarro)

    PACAS, in the Family Agoutidae

  45. Lowland Paca ______  (also called Spotted Paca)
    Cuniculus (formerly Agouti) paca

    SPINY RATS, in the Family Echimyidae

  46. Tomes' Spiny Rat ______ (*) CR(N)
    Proechimys semispinosus

  47. Armored Rat ______
    Hoplomys gymnurus

    , in the Order Lagomorpha, Family Leporidae)
  48. Eastern Cottontail  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N)
    Sylvilagus floridanus

  49. Forest Rabbit  ______ (*) CR(N)  (other names: Tropical Cottontail Rabbit or Brazilian Rabbit or Tapiti
    (formerly Tapeti) brasilensis

  50. Dice's Rabbit ______ (*) CR(S)  (also called Mountain Rabbit; formerly considered a subspecies of the Forest Rabbit)
    (formerly Tapeti) dicei 

    , in the Order Carnivora, with Families including:
    Dogs & Foxes:  Canidae 
    Cats:  Felidae
    Raccoons & allies:  Procyonidae
    Weasels, Skunks, & allies:  Mustelidae

    , in the Family Canidae 

  51. Gray Fox ______  
    Urocyon cinereoargenteus

  52. Coyote  (ph)  ______  (*) CR(N)
    Canis latrans

    , in the Family Procyonidae

  53. Kinkajou  (ti) (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N,S)
    Potos flavus 
    (the single member of its genus)   

    Kinkajou, photographed during a FONT tour in Costa Rica in February 2006
    (photo by Rosemary Lloyd)

  54. Bushy-tailed Olingo  ______  (*) CR(N)
    Bassaricyon gabbii

  55. Harris's Olingo (t2) ______  (endemic to Costa Rica, in the Estrella de Cartago region)
    Bassaricyon lasius

  56. Northern Raccoon  (ph)  ______  (*) CR(N)
    Procyon lotor

  57. Crab-eating Raccoon  (ph)  ______ 
    Procyon cancrivorus

    A Crab-eating Raccoon photographed during a FONT tour

  58. White-nosed Coati  (ph)  ______  (*) CR(N,S)
    Nasua narica

    A White-nosed Coati photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  59. Cacomistle ______ (*) CR(S)
    Bassariscus sumichrasti

    , in the Family Mustelidae 

  60. Long-tailed Weasel ______ (*) CR(N)
    Mustela frenata

  61. Greater Grison ______
    Galictis vittata

  62. Tayra ______ (*) CR(S)
    Eira barbara 
    (the single member of its genus)

  63. Neotropical River Otter ______ (*) CR(N,S)
    (formerly Lontra) longicaudis

  64. Hooded Skunk ______  (in northwest Costa Rica)
    Mephitis macroura

  65. Eastern Spotted Skunk ______
    Spilogale putorius

  66. Striped Hog-nosed Skunk ______ (*) CR(N,S)
    Conepatus semistriatus

    , in the Family Felidae

  67. Ocelot  (t2) (ph)  ______ 
    Leopardus pardalis

  68. Margay  (t2) ______ (*) CR(S)
    Leopardus wiedii

  69. Oncilla ______
    Leopardus tigrinus

  70. Jaguarundi ______  (*) CR(N)
    Herpailurus yauarondi

  71. Puma  (ph)  ______ (also called Cougar, or Mountain Lion) 
    Puma concolor

  72. Jaguar  (ph)  ______
    Panthera onca

    , in the Order Sirenia, in the Family Trichechidae

  73. West Indian Manatee  (t1) (ph)  ______  (rare & local along the Central American Caribbean coast)
    Trichechus manatus  

    , in the Order Perissodactyla; the tapirs in the Family Tapiridae)

  74. Baird's Tapir  (t1) (ph)  ______ (*) CR(S)
    Tapirus bairdii

    Baird's Tapir

    , in the Order Artiodactyla, with Peccaries in the Family Tayassuidae and Deer in the Family Cervidae 

  75. Collared Peccary ______ (*) CR(N)
    Tayassu tajacu

    Collared Peccaries

  76. White-lipped Peccary ______ (*) CR(S)
    Dicotyles pecari

  77. White-tailed Deer ______ (*) CR(N)
    Odocoileus virginianus

  78. Red Brocket (Deer) ______ (*) CR(S)
    Mazama americana

    , in the Order Cetacea 

    , in the Suborder Odontoceti

    , in the Family Delphinidae
  79. Rough-toothed Dolphin  (t3) ______ 
    Steno bredanensis
    (off Central America, in the Pacific, offshore, including Cocos Island waters)  

  80. Tucuxi  (t3) ______
    Satalia fluviatilis
    (along the Central American Caribbean coast, from Cahuita, Costa Rica, south)

  81. Pacific Spotted Dolphin ______
    Stenella atrenuata
    (off the Central American Pacific coast, where frequently seen) 

  82. Atlantic Spotted Dolphin  (t3) ______
    Stenella frontalis
    (off the Central American Caribbean coast) 

  83. Long-snouted Spinner Dolphin  ______ (*) CR(S)
    Stenella longirostris centroamericana
    (off the Central American Pacific coast, & further offshore including Cocos Island waters)

  84. Clymene Dolphin  (t3) (ph)  ______  (also called Short-snouted Spinner Dolphin) 
    Stenella clymene
    (off Central America, in the Caribbean)

  85. Striped (or Blue-white) Dolphin ______
    Stenella coeruleoalba
    (off Central America, in the Pacific, offshore, including Cocos Island waters) 

  86. Common Dolphin  (ph)  ______
    Delphinus delphis
    (in Central America, off the Pacific coast; one of the most gregarious and abundant of the world's cetaceans

    A Common Dolphin photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Andy Smith)

  87. Bottlenose Dolphin  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N)
    Tursiops truncatus
    (off & along the Central American Pacific & Caribbean coasts)

    A Bottlenose Dolphin photographed during a FONT tour

  88. Fraser's Dolphin  (t2) (ph)  ______
    Lagenodelphis hosei
    (off the Central American Pacific coast, & further offshore, including waters near Cocos Island; does occur in the Lesser Antilles & the Gulf of Mexico) 

  89. Risso's Dolphin  (t3) (ph)  ______  (also called Gray Grampus
    Grampus griseus
    (off Central America, in the Pacific)

  90. Melon-headed Whale (t3) ______
    Peponocephala electra
    (off Central America, in the Pacific)  

  91. Pygmy Killer Whale (t3) ______
    Feresa attenuata
    (in the Pacific, off the Central American coast)

  92. False Killer Whale (t3) ______
    Pseudorca crassidens
    (in the Pacific, off the Central American coast, & in Cocos Island waters)

  93. Killer Whale (or Orca) (t3) (ph)  ______
    Orcinus orca
    (off the Central American Pacific & Caribbean coasts) 

  94. Short-finned Pilot Whale (t3) (ph)  ______
    Globicephala Macrorhynchus
    (off the Central American Pacific coast, & further offshore including Cocos Island waters)

    SPERM WHALE, a single species in the Family Physeteridae 

  95. Great Sperm Whale (t2) (ph)  ______
    Physeter catodon
    (off the Central American coasts, in the Pacific and the Caribbean)

    PYGMY SPERM WHALES, now in the Family Kogiidae

  96. Pygmy Sperm Whale (t3) (ph)  ______
    Kogia brevicops
    (off Central America, in the Pacific)

  97. Dwarf Sperm Whale (t3) (ph)  ______
    Kogia simus
    (off Central America, in the Pacific; & has been recorded about 150 miles south of Cocos Island) 

    BEAKED WHALES, in the Family Hyperoodontidae

  98. Cuvier's Beaked Whale (t3) (ph)  ______
    Ziphius cavirostris
    (off the Pacific coast of Central America)

  99. Blainville's Beaked Whale (t3) ______
    Mesoplodon densirostris
    (on occasion, in the Pacific off Central America; has been recorded about 50 miles southeast of Cocos Island)

  100. Gray's Beaked Whale (t3) ______
    Mesoplodon grayi
    (in the Pacific, well offshore; has been recorded over a hundred miles southwest of Cocos Island)

  101. Southern Bottlenose Whale (t2) ______
    Hyperoodon planifrons
    (off Central America, in the Pacific, including Cocos Island waters)  

    RORUALS, in the Family Balaenopteridae

  102. Blue Whale  (t2) (ph)  ______
    Balaenoptera musculus
    (in the Pacific, generally more than 200 miles off Central American coast; reported in Cocos Island waters)

  103. Fin Whale (t2) (ph)  ______
    Balaenoptera physalus
    (off Central America, in the Caribbean, offshore)

  104. Sei Whale (t2) ______
    Balaenoptera borealis 
    (off Central America, in the Pacific, well offshore; recorded north of Cocos Island)

  105. Bryde's Whale (t1) ______
    Balaenoptera brydei (formerly edeni)
    (off Central America, in the Pacific, offshore; recorded in Cocos Island waters)

  106. Northern Minke Whale  (t2) (ph)  ______
    Balaenoptera acutorostrata
    (formerly conspecific with what's now the Antarctic Minke Whale, Balaenoptera bonaerensis)
    (off Central America, in the Caribbean, offshore; & may also occur in the Pacific off Central America)

  107. Humpback Whale  (t2) (ph)  ______
    Megaptera novaeangliae
    (in the Pacific, off Central America, mainly from July to December)   


during Focus On Nature Tours

Amphibians, Reptiles, Butterflies, Moths are in other lists:  

  1. Large Forest-floot Millipede  ______  CR(N)
    Nyssodesmus python


  2. colorful "upland" crabs ______ CR(S)


  3. Hermit Crabs   ______ CR(S)

  4. Sally Lightfoot Crab  (ph)  ______  CR(N,S)
    Grapsus grapsus

  5. Jack-o-lantern Crab  ______  CR(S)
    Gercacinus quadratus 

  6. Ghost Crab  (ph)  ______ CR(N 

    OTHER MARINE-LIFE  (not including Marine Mammals and Birds)

  7. Manta Ray (a) ______  CR(S) (P)
    Manta hamiltoni

    Manta Rays
    have been seen in the water below from low-flying airplanes during FONT tours to and from Tiskita Lodge.

  8. Jellyfish ______  CR(N)  (in mangrove area)

  9. small marine creatures of coastal tidal pools  ______  CR(S) 



  10. Leaf-cutter Ants ______  CR(N,S)   PN
    Atta cephalotes

  11. Army Ants  ______  CR(N,S)
    Eciton burchelli

  12. Dung Beetles ______ CR(N) 

  13. Peanut-head Bug ______ CR
    Fulgora latenaria  (in the family Fulgoridae)    

  14. Leaf-footed Bug ______ PN
    in the genus Leptoglossus 
    (in the family Corcidae) 

    Below is a photograph of a Leaf-footed Bug seen during a FONT tour on the Caribbean side of Panama, at a lodge called Sierra Llorona, in hills near Colon.
    Leaf-footed Bugs are in the family Coreidae, in the genus Leptoglosus.
    They are large insects, with leaf-like expansions of the hind tibia and femoraq. They have four-segmented antennae, large compound eyes, and one pair of oceli, or simple eyes. There are a few species.
    Among the favored food, are the seed pods of Catalpa trees.
    These beautiful creatures can be found in the garden at Sierra Llorona. They are perfectly harmless. Although they have stink glands, the odor is not revolting or persistent. Only when they are grabbed, do they use that defense.       


(a): sometimes (in southern CR) seen from low-flying airplane

total eclipse of the Sun ______

earthquake tremors CR(N)

active volcano (by day and/or night) CR(N)

hot sulphur/volcanic springs CR(N)

magnificent rainbows CR(N)

stellar constellations, particularly brilliant in a clear sky above a dark beach, also: meteors ("falling stars");

At other times: earthshine on the moon, Pacific sunsets with the "green flash".