PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876



Tinamous to Doves

Noting those found during 
Focus On Nature Tours

1991 thru 2015

In Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala
Honduras, Panama

Part 1 of a Central America Bird List, with some Photos,
compiled by Armas Hill 

Photo at upper right: AGAMI HERON


(t): a globally threatened or rare species, designated by Birdlife International
 (t1): critically endangered
 (t2): endangered
 (t3): vulnerable
(nt): a near-threatened species globally

In the list that follows, relating to sightings during FONT tours, the country & the months are noted.
CR:   Costa Rica    
GU:   Guatemala
HN:    Honduras
PN:    Panama

(CAi): introduced species in Central America
(CAr): a rare species in Central America 

(*):  species found during Focus On Nature Tours

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT web-site

Links to Bird Groupings in this part of this List:

Tinamous     Chachalacas, Guans, Curassow     Wood-Partridge, Quail, Turkey     Waterfowl

Pelagic Birds     Grebes     Storks, Ibises, Spoonbill     Egrets, Herons, Bitterns

Frigatebirds, Pelicans, Boobies    Cormorants, Anhinga    Vultures   Caracaras & Falcons

Osprey & Kites    Hawks & Eagles     Crakes, Rails, & Allies     Sungrebe, Sunbittern. Limpkin

Shorebirds     Jaegers, Gulls, Terns, Skimmer    Pigeons & Doves    

Links to Other Parts of this Central American Bird List:       
Part #2: Macaws to Woodpeckers     Part #3: Manakins to Thrashers     Part #4: Thrushes to Buntings

Links to Lists of Birds of:  
Belize    Costa Rica     Guatemala     Honduras     Panama

Links to Lists & Photo Galleries of Other Nature, including Central American:

Mammals     Butterflies     Amphibians, Reptiles     Marine Life, inc. Fish, Crustaceans

Links to Information about Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours:

in Central America      by month, in:  2015   2016   or:  by geographic location worldwide

Other Links:

FONT Past Tour Highlights

Directory of Photos in this Website


Birds of Central America, Part #1:


  1. Great Tinamou (nt) (*)  ______  BZ:mar  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,apr,jun,dec  HN:dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug
    Tinamus major fuscipennis

  2. Highland Tinamou  (*) ______   CR:mar
    Nothocercus bonapartei frantzii

  3. Slaty-breasted Tinamou  (*) ______  BZ:mar  CR:mar,dec/jan  GU:jan,mar,apr,jun  
    Crypturellus boucardi costaricensis

    Another name for Crypturellus boucardi has been the Boucard's Tinamou. 

  4. Little Tinamou  (*) ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,jul,dec  HN:mar,apr  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Crypturellus soui modestus

  5. Thicket Tinamou  (*) ______  BZ:feb,mar  CR:mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:mar,apr 
    Crypturellus cinnamomeus praepes

    Another name for Crypturellus cinnamomeus has been the Rufescent Tinamou.


  6. Gray-headed Chachalaca  (*) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug
    Ortalis cinereiceps 

  7. Plain Chachalaca  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  GU:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,jul  HN:apr,dec
    Ortalis vetula

    Plain Chachalaca
    (photo by Dick Tipton)

  8. White-bellied Chachalaca  (*) ______  GU:mar,apr,dec
    Ortalis lecucogastra 

  9. Crested Guan  (*) (ph) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,hul,dec  PN:aug,nov
    Penelope purpurascens aequatorialis

    A Crested Guan photographed during a FONT Guatemala tour 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  10. Highland Guan  (t3) (*) ______  GU:jan,apr,jun.jul,dec  HN:feb
    Penelopina nigra 

  11. Black Guan  (nt) (*) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,dec  (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Chamaepetes unicolor 

  12. Horned Guan  (t2) (*) (ph) ______  GU:jul
    Oreophasis derbianus 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    The global population of the Horned Guan was estimated to be less than 1,000 birds in the 1970s. It is said to have declined since then.

    Above: a photo of 1 of 2 Horned Guans seen during the FONT Guatemala tour in July 2007
    (photo during the tour by Josue de Leon, one of our guides)
    Below: a captive Horned Guan at a zoo in Guatemala

  13. Great Curassow  (t3) (*)  ______  CR:mar,jul  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul  PN:aug
    Crax r. rubra


  14. Buffy-crowned Wood Partridge  (*) ______ CR  GU:apr   (another name has been Buff-fronted Wood Partridge)
    Dendrotyx leucophrys hypospodius

    Another name for Dendrotyx leucophrys has been the Buff-fronted Wood Partridge.

  15. Spot-bellied Bobwhite (*) ______  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:apr,jun,jul,dec  
    Colinus leucopogon dickeyi 

    The Spot-bellied Bobwhite has been considered conspecific with the Crested Bobwhite (below) of northern South America & southern Central America.   

  16. Crested Bobwhite  (*)  ______  PN:feb
    Colinus cristatus

  17. Yucatan Bobwhite  (*)  ______  BZ:feb
    Colinus nigrogularis

  18. Singing Quail  (*)  ______  GU:feb,apr
    Dachylortyx thoracicus dolichonyx 
    (the single member of its genus)

  19. Ocellated Quail  (nt) (*) ______  GU:jun
    Cytonyx ocellatus 

  20. Spotted Wood Quail (*) ______  CR:mar  GU:feb,mar,apr,jul
    Odontophorus guttatus

  21. Marbled Wood Quail  (nt) (*) ______   CR:jan,feb,mar  PN:feb
    Odontophorus gujanensis

  22. Black-eared Wood Quail  (*) ______  CR:jul  
    Odontophorus m. melanotis  

    The Black-eared Wood Quail was conspecific with the Rufous-fronted Wood Quail of South America.

  23. Black-breasted Wood Quail  (nt) (*) ______  CR:feb,mar  (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Odontophorus leucolaemus 

  24. Tawny-faced Quail ______
    Rhynchortyx cinctus

  25. Ocellated Turkey  (nt) (*) (ph)  ______  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun.jul
    Meleagris ocellata 

    An Ocellated Turkey photographed during a FONT tour in Guatemala
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


  26. Black-bellied Whistling Duck  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,jul,dec  GU:apr,jun  HN:mar,apr  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug
    Dendrocygna a. autumnalis

  27. Fulvous Whistling Duck  (*) ______  BZ:feb  CR:mar,jul  HN:feb,apr  PN:feb
    Dendrocygna bicolor 

  28. White-faced Whistling Duck  (ph) ______  
    Dendrocygna viduata

  29. Muscovy Duck  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:feb,apr,jun  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:jul,aug,nov
    Cairina moschata 
    (monotypic, and single member of its genus)

    Muscovy Ducks photographed during a FONT tour

  30. Mallard  (*)  (ph)  ______  CR:mar
    Anas platyrhynchos

  31. American Wigeon  (*) (ph)  ______  GU:feb  HN:feb,dec
    Anas americana

  32. Northern Shoveler  (*)  _____   CR:mar
    Anas clypeata

  33. Northern Pintail  (ph)  _____
    Anas acuta 

  34. Blue-winged Teal (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,dec  GU:jan,mar,apr  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:feb
    Anas discors 

  35. Cinnamon Teal ______
    Anas cyanoptera

  36. Green-winged Teal  (ph) ______
    Anas carolinensis

  37. Ring-necked Duck (*) (ph) ______  CR:mar  HN:feb
    Aythya collaris 

  38. Lesser Scaup  (*) (ph) ______  GU:dec
    Aythya affinis

  39. Greater Scaup ______
    Aythya marila

  40. Ruddy Duck  (*)  ______  GU:dec
    Oxyura jamaicensis

  41. Masked Duck (*) ______  CR:feb,mar
    Nomoyx dominicus 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) 


  42. Black-capped Petrel  (t2) (ph) ______  
    Pterodroma hasitata 

  43. Galapagos Petrel  (t1) ______  (was conspecific with the Hawaiian Petrel, and was then called the Dark-rumped Petrel)  
    Pterodroma phaeopygia  
  44. Black Petrel  (t3) ______  (another name has been Parkinson's Petrel
    Procellaria parkinsoni

  45. Sooty Shearwater (*) (ph) ______  CR:jul
    Puffinus griseus 

  46. Pink-footed Shearwater  (t3) (ph) ______
    Puffinus creatopus

  47. Wedge-tailed Shearwater ______
    Puffinus pacifiicus
  48. Short-tailed Shearwater  (ph) ______
    Puffinus tenuirostris

  49. Audubon's Shearwater  (ph) ______
    Puffinus lherminieri

  50. Galapagos Shearwater ______  (was part of the Audubon's Shearwater)
    Puffinus subalaris

  51. Wilson's Storm Petrel  (ph) ______
    Oceanites oceanicus

  52. Leach's Storm Petrel ______
    Oceanodroma leucorhoa

  53. Black Storm Petrel ______
    Oceanodroma melania

  54. Wedge-rumped Storm Petrel ______
    Oceanodroma tethys

  55. Band-rumped Storm Petrel ______
    Oceanodroma castro

  56. Least Storm Petrel ______
    Oceanodroma microsoma

  57. Markham's Storm Petrel   ______
    Oceanodroma markhami

  58. White-faced Storm Petrel  (ph) ______
    Pelagodroma marina
      (the single member of its genus)   


  59. Pied-billed Grebe  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,may  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:jan,feb,mar,jul,aug
    Podilymbus p. podiceps

  60. Atitlan Grebe  ______  GU  (now believed to be extinct)
    Podilymbus gigas

    The Atitlan Grebe occurred at Lake Atitlan in Guatemala, being endemic to both the country and the lake. It was flightless. In the 1930s, there were an estimated 200 or so. The population had decreased to 50-60 birds by the early 1980s. It is now believed to be extinct. Some say that this bird was a larger resident subspecies of the Pied-billed Grebe. 

  61. Least Grebe (*) (ph) ______  BZ:apr  CR:feb,mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar
    (formerly Podiceps) dominicus brachypterus

  62. Eared Grebe  (ph) ______   HN:feb  
    Podiceps nigricollis

    Another name for Podiceps nigricollis is the Black-necked Grebe. 


  63. Wood Stork  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul
    Myceteria americana 

  64. Jabiru  (CAr) (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:mar,jul,dec/jan  HN:dec
    Jabiru mycteria 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    Jabirus photographed during FONT tours

  65. Green Ibis  (*) ______  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan
    Mesembrinibis cayennensis 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  66. American White Ibis  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:feb,mar,jun  HN:dec  PN:feb,mar,aug
    Eudocimus albus 

    American White Ibis
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  67. Glossy Ibis  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:mar,jul,dec/jan  PN:feb
    Plegadis falcinellus 
    (has been called monotypic)

  68. Roseate Spoonbill  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,apr  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:apr,jun  HN:dec
    (formerly Ajaia) ajaja  (monotypic)


  69. Western Cattle Egret  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb.mar,apr,dec  PN:jan,feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Bubulcus ibis

    The Western Cattle Egret is in parts of Europe and Africa, and now in much of the Americas. The Eastern Cattle Egret, Bubulcus coromandus, is in eastern Asia.

    The Western Cattle Egret was first observed in Costa Rica in 1954, and in Panama for the first time that same year. 

  70. Green Heron  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,eb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov   
    Butorides v. virescens

    At one time, the Green Heron was considered conspecific with the nearly cosmopolitan Striated Heron, and was then called the Green-backed Heron.   

  71. Striated Heron  (*) (ph)  ______  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct
    Butorides striata

    The Striated Heron is a species that only occurs in "North America"
    in Panama
    (photographed during a FONT tour)    

  72. Little Blue Heron  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Egretta caerulea 

  73. Tricolored Heron  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,aug,oct,nov  
    Egretta tricolor ruficollis

    Another name for Egretta tricolor was the Louisiana Heron.

  74. Reddish Egret  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb  CR:dec/jan
    Egretta r. rufescens

  75. Snowy Egret  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Egretta t. thula

  76. Great Egret  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:jan,feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Ardea alba egretta  (has been Casmerodius alba egretta)

  77. Great Blue Heron  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,nov
    Ardea h. herodias

  78. Cocoi Heron  (*) (ph)  ______  PN:feb,jul,aug
    Ardea cocoi

    The Cocoi Heron is a species that only occurs in "North America" in Panama.
    This photo during a FONT tour. 

  79. Agami Heron  (t3) (CAr) (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:apr  CR:mar,apr  GU:mar  PN:feb 
    Agamia agami 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    Another name for Agamia agami has been the Chestnut-bellied Heron.

    Agami Heron
    (photo courtesy of Laguna del Lagarto in Costa Rica)

  80. Capped Heron  (*) (ph)  ______  PN:feb
    Pilherodius pileatus 
    (the single member of its genus)

    A Capped Heron photographed during a FONT tour 

  81. Rufescent Tiger Heron  (*) (ph) ______  CR:dec/jan  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,nov
    Tigrisoma l. lineatum

    An adult Rufescent Tiger Heron 

  82. Fasciated Tiger Heron  (nt) (*) ______  CR:mar,apr
    Tigrisoma fasiatum salmoni

  83. Bare-throated Tiger-Heron  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:mar 
    Tigrisoma mexicanum 

    A juvenile Bare-throated Tiger-Heron
    (photo by Dick Tipton)

  84. Black-crowned Night Heron  (*) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,jul,dec  GU:mar,apr,jun  HN:feb  PN:feb,jul,aug
    Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli

  85. Yellow-crowned Night Heron  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar  CR:feb,mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,mar,jun,dec  HN:feb,apr  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,nov
    Nyctanassa v. violacea 
    (the single member of its genus)

  86. Boat-billed Heron  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr  HN:dec  PN:feb,mar,aug
    Cochlearius cochlearius 
    (the single member of its genus)   
    Cochlearius cochlearius phillipsi 
    subspecies in northern Costa Rica
    Cochlearius cochlearius panamensis  
    subspecies in southern Costa Rica

    Boat-billed Heron
    (photo by Dick Tipton)

  87. Pinnated Bittern  (*) (ph) ______  GU:apr
    Botaurus pinnatus

  88. American Bittern ______
    Botaurus lentiginosus

  89. Least Bittern  (*) (ph) ______  GU:jul  HN:dec
    Ixobrychus exilis


  90. Red-billed Tropicbird  (ph) ______
    Phaethon aethereus

  91. Magnificent Frigatebird  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:feb  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Fregata magnificens 
    (now said to be monotypic)

    Two Magnificent Frigatebirds photographed during a FONT tour 
    along the seacoast in Belize 
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  92. Great Frigatebird ______
    Fregata minor

  93. Brown Pelican  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis

  94. American White Pelican  (*) (ph) ______  GU:mar,apr  HN:dec
    Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
  95. Brown Booby (*) ______  CR:feb,mar,jul  PN:mar,jul,aug
    Sula l. leucogaster

  96. Blue-footed Booby (*) (ph) ______  PN:aug
    Sula nebouxii

  97. Red-footed Booby  (ph) ______
    Sula sula

  98. Masked Booby ______
    Sula dactylatra

  99. Nazca Booby  (ph) ______
    Sula granti 

    and ANHINGA

  100. Neotropic Cormorant  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov  
    Phalacrocorax brasilianus 
    Phalacrocorax brasilianus mexicanus 
    (subspecies in northern Costa Rica)
    Phalacrocorax b. brasilianus 
    (subspecies in southern Costa Rica)

    The Neotropic Comorant was called the Olivaceous Cormorant. 

    A Neotropic Cormorant photographed during the FONT Belize tour
    in March 2007, at the fresh-water Crooked Tree Lagoon.
    Along the seacoast, the Cormorants during that tour were Double-crested.
    (photo by Alan Brady) 

  101. Double-crested Cormorant  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:feb,mar  GU:feb
    Phalacrocorax auritus floridanus

  102. Anhinga  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul  HN:dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Anhinga anhinga leucogaster

    A female Anhinga 
    (photo by Alan Brady)


  103. Turkey Vulture  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:jan,feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Cathartes a. aura
      (another subspecies, C. a. meridionalis, from central North America, migrates thru southern Central America, in Panama & Costa Rica, sometimes in large flocks)

  104. Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:mar,jul  GU:mar,apr,jun,jul  HN:feb,dec  PN:feb
    Cathartes burrovianus 

  105. Black Vulture  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:jan,feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Coragyps atratus 
    (now said to be monotypic) (the only member of its genus)

  106. King Vulture  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:feb,apr,jun,jul  PN:feb
    Sarcoramphus papa 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)


  107. Northern Crested Caracara  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Caracara cheriway

  108. Yellow-headed Caracara  (*) (ph)  ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,jul  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Milvago chimachima cordata

    A Yellow-headed Caracara photographed during a FONT tour
    in Costa Rica in March 2012
    (photo by Virginia Woodhouse)

  109. Red-throated Caracara  (CAr) (*)  ______  PN:feb
    Ibycter americanus

  110. Laughing Falcon  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul
    Herpetotheres c. cachinnans 
    (the single member of its genus)

    A Laughing Falcon
    , photographed in late-day sunlight,
    during a FONT tour in northern Costa Rica in March 2012
    (photo by Virginia Woodhouse)   

  111. Barred Forest Falcon  (*) ______  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:feb,jun  PN:feb,jul
    Micrastur ruficollis interstes

  112. Collared Forest Falcon  (*) ______  CR:mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:mar,dec  PN:mar,aug
    Micrastur semitorquatus naso

  113. Slaty-backed Forest Falcon  (*)  ______  PN:feb
    Micrastur mirandollei

  114. American Kestrel  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:mar,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,dec  HN:apr,dec  PN:feb,aug
    Falco s. sparverius 
    (subspecies from further north in North America that winters in Costa Rica)  

  115. Merlin  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar  CR:mar  PN:feb,nov
    Falco c. columbarius

  116. Bat Falcon  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun  HN:feb  PN:feb,mar,aug
    Falco rufigularis petoensis

  117. Aplomado Falcon  (CAr) (*) (ph) ______  CR:mar,dec/jan  PN:feb  
    Falco f. femoralis 

    In Costa Rica, the Aplomado Falcon is known from a very few reports in recent decades, all in the Palo Verde area of the northwest part of the country - and that's where we've seen ours, twice. 

    According to "The Birds of Costa Rica" by Garrigues & Dean (published in 2007), there have only been 3 reports of Aplomado Falcons in Costa Rica in the last few decades, all of them in Guanacaste. 

  118. Peregrine Falcon  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:feb,mar,dec/jan  GU:mar  HN:dec  PN:feb,mar,nov
    Falco peregrinus anatum 
    (subspecies from further north in North America that winters in Costa Rica)

  119. Orange-breasted Falcon  (nt) (CAr) (ph)  ______  GU:jan,mar,apr,jul
    Falco deiroleucus

    An Orange-breasted Falcon photographed at Tikal, Guatemala
    (photo by Alan Brady)


  120. Osprey  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr  HN:apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,aug,oct,nov
    Pandion haliaetus carolinensis 
    (the single member of its genus)

  121. Gray-headed Kite  (*) ______  BZ:feb  CR:feb,mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:feb,mar,apr  HN:dec  PN:feb,aug,nov  
    Leptodon c. cayanensis 

    Another name for Leptodon cayanensis has been the Cayenne Kite. 

  122. Hook-billed Kite  (*) ______  CR:mar,dec/jan  GU:apr  HN:feb  PN:feb
    Chondrohierax u. uncinatus 

  123. Swallow-tailed Kite  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:feb,mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,mar,jul  GU:feb,mar,apr,jun,jul  HN:feb  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug
    Elanoides forficatus 
    (the single member of its genus) (2 subspecies in Costa Rica, E. f. forficatus, & E. f. yetapa


    Swallow-tailed Kite
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  124. Pearl Kite  (*) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar  PN:feb 
    Gampsonyx swainsonii leonae 

    The Pearl Kite was first reported in Costa Rica in the mid-1990s. It was since occurred along the entire Pacific slope.

    During the FONT tour in southern Costa Rica in February 2004, a pair of Pearl Kites were seen at their nest.   

  125. White-tailed Kite  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:feb,mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:juan,feb,mar,apr,jun,dec  HN:dec  PN;feb,mar,jul
    Elanus leucurus majusculus

  126. Double-toothed Kite  (*) ______  CR:feb,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:apr  PN:feb,mar,aug
    Harpagus bidentatus fasciatus

  127. Plumbeous Kite  (*) ______  BZ:feb,mar  CR:mar,apr,jul  GU:mar,apr,may,jun,jul  PN:feb,mar,aug
    Ictinia plumbea 

  128. Mississippi Kite  (*) ______  GU:apr
    Ictinia mississippiensis

  129. Snail Kite  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:feb,mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,mar,apr,may,jul,dec  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,nov
    Rostrhamus s. sociabilis

    Snail Kites, above an immature male, below a female
    (photos by Marie Gardner)

    and EAGLES

  130. Crane Hawk  (*) (ph) ______  CR:feb,jul,dec/jan  PN:feb
    Geranospiza caerulesens nigra 
    (the single member of its genus)

  131. Northern Harrier  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb  CR:mar  GU:feb  PN:feb  (in Eurasia this species called Hen Harrier)
    Circus cyaneus hudsonius

  132. Sharp-shinned Hawk  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb  CR:mar,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,apr,dec  HN:dec  PN:mar
    Accipiter striatus velox 
    (subspecies from further north in North America that winters in Costa Rica) 
  133. White-breasted Hawk  (*)  ______  GU:feb,apr,jun,dec  HN:apr 
    Accipiter chionogaster

    The White-breasted Hawk has been considered a subspecies of the Sharp-shinned Hawk.

  134. Bicolored Hawk  (*) ______  CR:feb,mar,dec/jan  GU:feb  HN:feb  PN:jul
    Accipiter b. bicolor

  135. Cooper's Hawk  (ph) ______  BZ:mar  GU;apr
    Accipiter cooperii

  136. Tiny Hawk  (*) ______  CR  PN:mar
    Accipiter superciliosus

  137. Barred Hawk  (*) ______  CR:feb,mar,apr,mar,jul   
    (formerly Leucopternis) princeps  (monotypic)

    Other names for the Barred Hawk have been the Black-chested Hawk and the Prince Hawk.

  138. Plumbeous Hawk  (nt) (*) ______  PN:feb,mar
    (formerly Leucopternis) plumbea  (monotypic)

  139. Semiplumbeous Hawk  (*)  ______  CR:jul,dec/jan  PN:mar,aug,nov
    Leucopternis semiplumbeus 

  140. White Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______   BZ:mar  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  PN:aug
    (formerly Leucopternis) albicollis costaricensis

    A White Hawk photographed in Costa Rica
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  141. Common Black Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:feb,mar,jun  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,jul,aug,nov
    Buteogallus a. anthracinus
    Buteogallus anthracinus bangsi 
    ("Mangrove Black Hawk"CR, GU, PN

    Common Black Hawk
    (photo by Dick Tipton)

  142. Great Black Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______   BZ:mar  CR:feb,mar  GU:apr,jun  PN:feb,aug,nov
    Buteogallus urubitinga ridgwayi

  143. Savanna Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  CR:jan  PN:feb,jul,nov
    Buteogallus meridionalis 

    A Savanna Hawk photographed during a FONT tour.
    In Costa Rica, the species occurs only sparingly 
    in the far-southern part of the country. 

  144. Montane Solitary Eagle  (nt) (*)  ______  CR:mar  GU:feb
    (formerly Harpyhaliaetus) solitarius sheffleri

  145. Black-collared Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:apr  GU:apr
    Busarellus n. nigricollis 
    (the single member of its genus)

    A Black-collared Hawk photographed during a FONT tour

  146. Bay-winged Hawk  (*) (ph) ______  CR:apr,jul,dec/jan  PN:feb  
    Parabuteo unicinctus harrisis 
    (the single member of its genus)

    In North America, the Bay-winged Hawk is called the Harris' Hawk.

  147. Gray Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,dec  HN:feb,apr,dec
    Buteo plagiatus

    Buteo plagiatus
    , the Gray Hawk, has been considered conspecific with Buteo nitidus, the Gray-lined Hawk.
    Also, in the past, these were in a monotypic genus, Asturina.  

    Buteo plagiatus ranges from northwest Costa Rica north into the US in southern Arizona and southern Texas (also rarely into southern New Mexico).  
    Buteo nitidus ranges from Costa Rica south into South America.  

    An immature Gray Hawk 
    (photo by Danny Leon Cordero)

  148. Gray-lined Hawk  (*)  ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug
    Buteo nitidus costaricensis  
    subspecies in southern Costa Rica and Panama

  149. Roadside Hawk  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul
    Rupornis magnirostris 
    (formerly Buteo magnirostris) 
    Rupornis magnirostris griseocauda 
    subspecies in most of Costa Rica
    Rupornis magnirostris petulans  
    subspecies in southwest Costa Rica

    Above & below: from two different angles,
    Roadside Hawks.
    The subspecies Rupornis magnirostris griseocauda
    (upper photo by Dick Tipton,
     lower photo by Alan Brady during a FONT tour)

  150. Broad-winged Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,dec  GU:apr,dec  HN:feb,apr  PN:feb,mar,oct,nov
    Buteo p. platypterus 
    (migrant that breeds further north in North America) 

    Broad-winged Hawk
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  151. Swainson's Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  CR:mar,dec/jan  GU:apr  PN:mar,oct,nov
    Buteo swainsoni 
    (monotypic)  (migrant that breeds further north in North America, some occasionally winter in Central America)

  152. Short-tailed Hawk  (*) (ph) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,mar,apr,dec  HN:apr,dec  PN:jan,feb,mar,aug,oct
    Buteo brachyurus fuliginosus

    A dark-morph of the Short-tailed Hawk,
    photographed during a FONT tour

  153. White-tailed Hawk  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:feb,mar  CR:feb,apr,dec/jan  GU:dec  HN:dec  PN:mar
    Geranoaetus albicaudatus hypospodius 
    (formerly Buteo albicaudatus hypospodius)

  154. Zone-tailed Hawk  (*) (ph) ______  CR:mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:mar,dec  HN:dec  PN:feb
    Buteo albonotatus 

    A Zone-tailed Hawk photographed during a FONT tour.
    The underwing of this species resembles that of the Turkey Vulture.

  155. Red-tailed Hawk  (*) (ph) ______  CR:feb,mar,dec/jan  GU:feb,mar,apr,jun,dec  HN:feb,dec  PN:feb,mar
    Buteo jamaicensis costaricensis

    A dark morph of the Red-tailed Hawk, photographed during a FONT tour.
    Red-tailed Hawks in Central America are often dark.

  156. Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle  (nt) (*) ______  CR:mar,jul  GU  PN:mar
    Spizaetus melanoleucus 
    (was Spizastur melanoleucus)  (monotypic)

  157. Black Hawk-Eagle  (*) ______  CR:mar,apr  GU:jan,apr,dec  HN;dec  
    Spizaetus tyrannus serus

    Another name for Spizaetus tyrannus has been Tyrant Hawk Eagle. 

  158. Ornate Hawk-Eagle  (nt) (*) (ph) ______  GU:jan
    Spizaetus ornatus

    An immature Ornate Hawk-Eagle
    (photo by Daniel Leon Cordero)

  159. Crested Eagle  (nt) ______  GU:apr
    Morphnus guianensis 

  160. Harpy Eagle  (nt) (ph) ______
    Harpia harpyja

    and ALLIES

  161. Uniform Crake  (*) ______  CR:mar  GU:apr  PN:jul
    Amaurolimnas concolor

  162. Ocellated Crake ______
    Micropygia schomburgkii

  163. Gray-necked Wood Rail  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:apr  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct
    Aramides cajanea 

    Aramides c. cajanea  (subspecies in most of Costa Rica)
    Aramides cajanea plumbeicollis 
    (subspecies in northeast Costa Rica)

    Gray-necked Woodrail

    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  164. Rufous-necked Wood Rail  (*) ______  CR:jul,dec/jan
    Aramides axillaris 

  165. Clapper Rail  (ph) ______
    Rallus crepitans
    (formerly R. longirostris)
    Rallus crepitans belizensis  ______ 
    subspecies in Belize

    The Clapper Rail was first found in Costa Rica in 1998 in mangroves by the Gulf of Nicoya.  

    In 2014, the Clapper Rail was split into 3 species: 
    the Clapper Rail, Rallus crepitans, in Central America (Belize) along the Caribbean coast
    the Ridgway's Rail, Rallus obsoletus, in northern and western Mexico    
    the Mangrove Rail, Rallus longirostris, in South America along the coast of the Caribbean, and that of the Pacific in Ecuador and Peru.
    A "Clapper Rail" along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica does not fall into any of these geographic categories.    

  166. Spotted Rail  (*) ______ 
    Pardirallus maculatus

  167. Paint-billed Crake ______ 
    Neocrex erythrops

  168. White-throated Crake (*) ______   CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Laterallus albigularis 
    (2 subspecies in Costa Rica)
    Laterallus albigularis cinereiceps 
    (subspecies in most of Costa Rica)
    Laterallus a. albigularis 
    (subspecies in southwest Costa Rica)

  169. Ruddy Crake  (*)  ______  BZ:mar,apr  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec
    Laterallus ruber

  170. Gray-breasted Crake  (*) ______  CR:mar
    Laterallus exilis 

  171. Black Rail  (nt) (*) ______  CR:mar  (would be more properly called Black Crake)
    Laterallus j. jamaicensis

  172. Yellow-breasted Crake (*) _____ 
    Porzana flaviventer

  173. Sora  (*)  ______  HN:feb  PN:feb
    Porzana carolina

  174. Common Gallinule  (*) (ph)  ______   BZ:feb,mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,dec  GU:feb,mar,apr,may  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct 
    Gallinula chloropus cachinnans

  175. Purple Gallinule  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct
    (formerly Porphyrula) martinica  (monotypic)

    A Purple Gallinule photographed during a FONT tour in Panama
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  176. American Coot  (*)  ______  BZ:feb  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul  HN:feb,dec  PN:feb
    Fulica americana


  177. Sungrebe  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:feb  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,mar,apr,jun 
    Heliornis fulica 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    An alternate name for Heliornis fulica could be "American Finfoot".


  178. Sunbittern  (*) (ph) ______  CR:feb,jul  PN:feb,mar
    Eurypyga helias major 
    (a single member of its genus & family) 

  179. Limpkin  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:aug
    Aramus guarauna dolosus 
    (the single member of its genus & family)

    A Limpkin photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


  180. Double-striped Thick-knee  (*) (ph)  ______  CR:mar,jul,dec/jan
    Burbinus b. bistriatus

  181. American Oystercatcher  (*) (ph) ______ PN:feb
    Haematopus palliatus

  182. American Avocet  (ph) ______ 
    Recurvirostra americana

  183. Black-necked Stilt  (*) (ph) ______   BZ:apr  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,mar,apr,jun  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,aug,nov 
    Himantopus mexicanus

    Himantopus mexicanus has been said by some to be conspecific with Himantopus himantopus, the Black-winged Stilt of the Old World. 

  184. Northern Jacana  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar
    Jacana s. spinosa

    Above & below: Northern Jacanas
    (lower photo by Virginia Woodhouse during a FONT tour in Costa Rica in March 2012) 

  185. Wattled Jacana  (*) (ph) ______  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Jacana jacana

    The Wattled Jacana occasionally strays north into southern Costa Rica from Panama.

    The Wattled Jacana is a bird that occurs in "North America"
    only in Panama. 
    This immature bird was photographed during a FONT tour.


  186. Black-bellied Plover  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:apr  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,aug,nov 
    Pluvialis squatarola cynosurae

    Pluvialis squatarola
    is also called the Grey Plover.

  187. American Golden Plover  (ph) ______
    Pluvialis dominica

  188. Semipalmated Plover (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:feb,mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:apr  HN:apr,dec  PN:mar,aug,nov
    Charadrius semipalmatus 

  189. Wilson's Plover (*) (ph) ______  CR:feb,mar,apr,dec/jan  GU:jun  PN:aug
    Charadrius wilsonia beldingi

  190. Killdeer (*) ______  BZ:feb,mar  CR:feb,mar,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,dec  HN:feb,dec  PN:feb
    Charadrius v. vociferus

  191. Collared Plover (*) ______  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul  PN:aug
    Charadrius collaris 

  192. Snowy Plover (ph) ______
    Charadrius nivosus

  193. Southern Lapwing  (BZr) (CRr) (*) (ph) ______   BZ:mar  CR:feb,mar  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,nov  
    Vanellus chilensis cayennensis

    The Southern Lapwing was first recorded in Costa Rica in 1997. It has since occurred in lowlands of both the Caribbean & Pacific slopes.

    Southern Lapwings have been spreading north.
    One was seen during the FONT tour in Belize 
    in March 2007.

  194. Marbled Godwit (*) (ph) ______  CR:mar,dec/jan  PN:feb,aug
    Limosa f. fedoa

  195. Hudsonian Godwit  (ph)  ______
    Limosa haemastica

  196. Whimbrel (*) (ph) ______   BZ:mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jun  HN:feb,apr  PN:feb,mar,aug,nov
    Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus

    The Whimbrel is one of a good assortment of shorebirds 
    to be seen, in season, on the expansive mudflats of the Pacific coast in Panama City.  
    (photo by Abram Fleishman)

  197. Long-billed Curlew (nt) (*) (ph) ______  CR:mar  PN:feb,aug
    Numenius americanus

  198. Greater Yellowlegs (*) ______   BZ:mar,apr  CR:mar,dec/jan  GU:apr,jun  HN:dec  PN:feb,mar,aug
    Tringa melanoleuca 

  199. Lesser Yellowlegs (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:feb,mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,apr  HN:feb,dec  PN:feb
    Tringa flavipes 

  200. Solitary Sandpiper (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr  HN:apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,nov
    Tringa solitaria 
    (2 subspecies in Costa Rica, T. s. solitaria & T. s. cinnamomea)

  201. Willet (*) (ph) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  HN:dec  PN:feb,mar,aug,nov
    (formerly Catoptrophorus) semipalmatus inornatus  

  202. Wandering Tattler ______
    (some say Tringa) brevipes  

  203. Spotted Sandpiper (*) (ph) ______   BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,dec  HN:mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,nov
    Actitis macularia 

  204. Upland Sandpiper (*) ______ 
    Bartramia longicauda
      (the single member of its genus)

  205. Ruddy Turnstone (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  HN:dec  PN:feb,mar,aug,nov
    Arenaria i. interpres

  206. Surfbird  (*)  ______  PN:aug
    Aphriza virgata 
    (the single member of its genus)

  207. Red Knot (*) (ph) ______  CR:mar  PN:mar
    Calidris canutus rufa

  208. Sanderling (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:feb,dec/jan  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar
    Calidris alba rubida

  209. Semipalmated Sandpiper (*) ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:mar,apr  HN:apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,aug
    Calidris pusilla 

  210. Western Sandpiper (*) (ph) ______  BZ:apr  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:mar,apr  PN:feb,mar,aug
    Calidris mauri 

  211. Least Sandpiper (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb  CR:feb,mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,mar,apr  HN:dec  PN:feb,mar,aug
    Calidris minutilla 

  212. Pectoral Sandpiper (*) (ph) ______  CR:apr  GU:apr
    Calidris melanotos 

  213. White-rumped Sandpiper  (ph) ______  GU:apr  PN:aug
    Calidris fiscicollis

  214. Baird's Sandpiper ______
    Calidris bairdii

  215. Dunlin  (*) (ph)  ______   CR:mar
    Calidris alpina

    In Costa Rica, the Dunlin is a very rare migrant from North America, found by the Gulf of Nicoya from late December to early May.

  216. Curlew Sandpiper (ph) ______
    Calidris ferruginea 

    The Curlew Sandpiper, a bird of the Old World, has been reported, once, in Costa Rica in November by the Gulf of Nicoya.    

  217. Stilt Sandpiper (*) ______  CR:feb,mar  GU:apr
    (formerly Micropalama) himantopus 

  218. Buff-breasted Sandpiper (nt) (ph) ______
    Tryngites subruficollis 
    (the single member of its genus)

  219. Ruff / Reeve (ph) ______
    Philomachus pugnax 
    (the single member of its genus)

  220. Short-billed Dowitcher (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:apr,jun  HN:dec  PN:feb,mar,aug,nov
    Limnodromus griseus

  221. Long-billed Dowitcher ______
    Limnodromus scolopaceus

  222. Wilson's Snipe  (ph) ______  HN:feb   (was conspecific with the Common Snipe of the Old World)
    Gallinago delicata

  223. Wilson's Phalarope ______
    Phalaropus tricolor

  224. Red-necked Phalarope (ph) ______
    Phalaropus lobatus  


  225. Parasitic Jaeger (*) (ph) ______  CR:jul  (called Arctic Skua in the Old World)
    Stercorarius parasiticus  (monotypic)

  226. Pomarine Jaeger  (ph) ______  (also called Pomarine Skua)
    Stercorarius pomarinus

    The Pomarine Jaeger is a sporadic visitor off both coasts of Costa Rica, from August to April, most commonly from December to February off the Pacific (when it can be found among Wedge-tailed Shearwaters).  

  227. Long-tailed Jaeger  (CAr) (ph) ______  (called Long-tailed Skua in the Old World)
    Stercorarius longicaudus

    There's a late-April record of a Long-tailed Jaeger in the Gulf of Papagayo. Generally, the species is further offshore.  

  228. South Polar Skua  (CAr) (ph) ______
    (formerly Catharacta) maccormicki

    Sightings of skuas in Costa Rican waters off both coasts have probably been the South Polar. Such sightings have been in April, May, August, & September. 

  229. Laughing Gull (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,amr,apr,dec  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,aug,oct
    (formerly Larus) atricilla megalopterus

  230. Franklin's Gull (*) (ph) ______  CR:dec/jan  GU:apr,jul  PN:aug
    (formerly Larus) pipixcan  (formerly Larus) pipixcan  (monotypic)

  231. Lesser Black-backed Gull  (CAr) (*) ______  GU:apr  PN:aug
    Larus fuscus graellsii

    3 immature Lesser Black-backed Gulls in Panama City in April 2009 were said to be the first of that species in Panama since 1998.

  232. Ring-billed Gull (*) (ph) ______  CR:apr  PN:feb,mar
    Larus delawarensis 

  233. "American" Herring Gull (*) ______  CR:dec/jan  PN:mar
    Larus argentatus smithsonianus

  234. Kelp Gull  (CAr) (ph)  ______
    Larus dominicanus

    A Kelp Gull in Panama, in a report published in 2009, was said to be the first in that country since 2001.  

  235. Bonaparte's Gull  (CRr) (ph) ______
    (formerly Larus) philadelphia

    The Bonaparte's Gull has been known in Costa Rica from 3 sightings along the Pacific coast, in May 1977 (2 in breeding plumage) at Golfito, and further north in Chomes in December 1978 & January 1980 (immature birds).   

  236. Sabine's Gull (*) (ph) ______ 
    Xema sabini 
    (the single member of its genus)

    The Sabine's Gull is a regular transient, in moderate numbers, off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, during the spring & fall. 

  237. Black-legged Kittiwake  (CAr) (ph)  ______
    Rissa tridactyla

    A Black-legged Kittiwake photographed in Panama in April 2009 (in Panama City) was said to be first record of the species for that country. 

  238. Gull-billed Tern (*) ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:mar,dec/jan  GU:mar,apr  HN:apr  PN:feb,mar,aug,oct
    (formerly Sterna) nilotica vanrossemi  (occurs on the Pacific side of Costa Rica) 

  239. Caspian Tern (*) (ph) ______   BZ:feb,apr  CR:mar  GU:mar,apr  HN:apr,dec  PN:nov
    (formerly Sterna) caspia  (monotypic)

  240. Royal Tern (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,dec  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,nov
    (formerly Sterna) m. maxima

  241. Sandwich Tern (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,dec  GU:apr  HN:apr,dec  PN:feb
    (formerly Sterna) sandvicensis acuflavida

  242. Elegant Tern  (nt) (*) ______  CR:apr
    (formerly Sterna) elegans  (monotypic)

  243. Forster's Tern (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:mar  HN:dec  PN:mar
    Sterna forsteri 

  244. Common Tern (*)  ______  BZ:mar,apr  HN:dec  PN:feb,mar
    Sterna hirundo
  245. Least Tern (*) ______  CR:apr
    (formerly Sterna) antillarum browni

  246. Large-billed Tern  (ph) ______ 
    Phaetusa simplex

    In Costa Rica, a Large-billed Tern, a bird of South America, was photographed along the Tortuguero River in March 2003.    

  247. Black Tern (ph) ______  BZ:feb  GU:jul
    Chlidonias niger

    A Black Tern as seen during a FONT tour in Guatemala in July 

  248. Bridled Tern (ph) ______
    Onychoprion anaethetus

  249. Brown Noddy (*) ______  CR:
    Anous stolidus ridgwayi  

  250. Black Noddy ______
    Anous minutus

    The Black Noddy is an abundant breeding resident on the Cocos Islands, well offshore from mainland Costa Rica, in the Pacific.

  251. Angel Tern ______  (has been called either White Tern or Fairy Tern
    Gygis alba 
    (the single member of its genus)

    The Angel Tern is an abundant breeding resident on the Cocos Islands, offshore from mainland Costa Rica, from February to September. It is absent from there, at sea, the remainder of the year.   

  252. Black Skimmer  (*) (ph) ______  CR:mar  GU:apr  HN:apr,dec  PN:feb
    Rynchops n. niger

    and DOVES

  253. Common (or Feral) Pigeon (i) (*) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:jan,feb,mar,jul,aug,nov
    Columba livia

  254. Scaled Pigeon (*) ______   BZ:apr  CR:feb,mar,jul  GU:mar,apr  PN:feb,aug
    (formerly Columba) speciosa

  255. Band-tailed Pigeon (*) (ph) ______  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:feb,mar,apr,jun,dec  PN:feb,mar
    (formerly Columba) fasciata crissalis

  256. Pale-vented Pigeon (*) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,nov
    (formerly Columba) cayennensis pallidicrissa

  257. Red-billed Pigeon (*) ______  BZ:mar  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:mar,dec
    (formerly Columba) flavirostris

  258. Ruddy Pigeon  (t3) (*) ______  CR:mar,jul  PN:feb
    (formerly Columba) subvinacea minima

  259. Short-billed Pigeon (*) ______   BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul  PN:feb,jul
    (formerly Columba) nigrirostris  (monotypic)

  260. White-crowned Pigeon ______  BZ:mar
    (formerly Columba) leucocephala

    In Costa Rica, the White-crowned Pigeon has been seen very rarely along the Caribbean coast.  

  261. Mourning Dove (*) ______  BZ:mar  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  HN:feb  PN:feb,mar
    Zenaida macroura turturilla

  262. White-winged Dove (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec
    Zenaida asiatica australis

    White-winged Dove
    (photo by Dick Tipton)

  263. Common Ground Dove (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,apr  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:dec
    Columbina passerina neglecta

  264. Plain-breasted Ground Dove (*) ______  BZ:mar  CR:mar,jul  GU:jan,mar,apr  HN:dec  PN:feb,jul
    Columbina minuta elaeodes

  265. Ruddy Ground Dove  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Columbina taipacoti rufipennis

    A female Ruddy Ground Dove during the FONT tour in Belize in April 2011

    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  266. Blue Ground Dove (*) ______  BZ:mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,apr,jul  PN:feb
    Claravis pretiosa 

  267. Maroon-chested Ground Dove ______
    Claravis mondetoura

    The Maroon-chested Ground Dove is extremely rare in Costa Rica in the highlands between 900 & 3,000 meters above sea level. 

  268. Inca Dove (*) (ph) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec
    (formerly Scardafella) inca  (monotypic)

  269. White-tipped Dove (*) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov  
    Leptotila v, verreauxi

    A former name for Leptotila verreauxi was the White-fronted Dove. 

  270. Gray-headed Dove (*) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jul  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul  
    Leptotila p. plumbeiceps

    The Gray-headed Dove was said by some to be conspecific with the Gray-fronted Dove, Leptotila rufaxilla, of South America.

  271. Gray-chested Dove (*) ______   BZ:mar  CR:feb,mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,apr  HN:dec  PN:feb,aug
    Leptotila cassinii cerviniventris

  272. Purplish-backed Quail-Dove (*) ______  CR:dec/jan
    Geotrygon lawrencii 

  273. Buff-fronted Quail-Dove (*) ______  CR:jul  PN:feb   (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Geotrygon costaricensis 

  274. Chiriqui Quail-Dove (*) ______  CR:feb,mar   (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Geotrygon chiriquensis 

    The Chiriqui Quail-Dove has also been called the Rufous-breasted Quail-Dove.

  275. Ruddy Quail-Dove (*) ______  BZ:mar  CR:feb,mar  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may  PN:jul
    Geotrygon m. montana
  276. White-faced Quail-Dove  (*)  ______  GU:apr,dec
    Geotrygon albifacies 

  277. Olive-backed Quail-Dove ______
    Geotrygon veraguensis

  278. Violaceous Quail-Dove ______
    Geotrygon violacea 

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