PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876

Website:  www.focusonnature.com


noting those found during
Focus On Nature Tours 

1998 thru 2015

during the months of 
 February, March, July, August, 
 October and November  

The following list of Panama Birds 
compiled by Armas Hill

Photos at right: KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN
(Both photos by Marie Grenouillet) 

In the list that follows, there are about 
60 different species of hummingbirds.
Among the links below, there is one to a list
of all the hummingbirds, with photos of many. 

There have been 10 FONT birding tours in Panama.
596 species of birds have cumulatively been seen.


(PNe):    endemic to Panama
(PNi):     introduced species in Panama
(t):         a globally threatened or rare species, designated by Birdlife International.
               (t1): critically endangered        (t2): endangered        (t3): vulnerable
(nt):       a near-threatened species globally
(PNt):     a nationally threatened species in Panama 
               (t1): critically endangered        (t2): endangered        (t3): vulnerable
(PNnt):   in Panama, a nationally near-threatened species 
(PNr):     rare, or very rare in Panama

(ph):      species with photo in the FONT website 

In the following list, these codes below when blue relate to birds during FONT tours. Otherwise, these codes are gray.

CB: the Panama Canal Basin, including areas of Panama City, Gamboa, Pipeline and Plantation Roads, Barro Colorado Island, and various other nearby places in the Soberania and Chagres National Parks. On the Caribbean side of the Canal Basin, locations include: the Escobal & Achiote Roads, Fort Sherman, Isla Gaviota, and Sierra Llorona.

Species with an (mp) have occurred at the Metropolitan Park in Panama City. An (r) is a rarity there.
Species with an (sp) have occurred in the Soberania National Park, including Gamboa & the Pipeline Road.
Again, an (r) is a rarity there. (v) is a vagrant.

CH: highlands in Chiriqui province, in western Panama

CL: lowlands in Chiriqui province, in western Panama

DL: lowlands in Darien, in eastern Panama  (DN: in Darien in general)

EP: eastern Panama province 

Links to Groupings of Birds in this List:

Tinamous    Chachalacas, Guans, Curassow    Wood Quails, Bobwhite     Waterfowl    Seabirds

Grebes    Ibises, Spoonbill, Stork    Bitterns, Herons, Egrets    Tropicbirds, Pelicans, Boobies

Cormorants & Anhinga    Raptors    Rails & Allies    Shorebirds    Jaegers, Gulls, Terns

Pigeons, Doves    Macaws, Parakeets, Parrots    Cuckoos    Owls    Potoos, Nighthawks, Nightjars

Swifts    Hummingbirds    Trogons    Kingfishers    Motmots    Jacamars    Puffbirds    Barbets

Toucans    Woodpeckers    Tityras, Becards    Cotingas    Manakins

Tapaculos    Antthrushes, Antpittas    Furnariids    Woodcreepers    Vireos    Jays

Waxwing & Allies    Swallows, Martins    Wrens    Gnatcatchers, Gnatwrens    Thrushes

Mockingbird, Catbird    Dipper    Pipit    Chlorophonias, Euphonias    New World Warblers    

Icterids    Bananaquit    Finches, Sparrows    Tanagers    Conebill, Dacnis, Honeycreepers

Finches, Grassquits, Seedeaters    Dickcissel, Saltators, Grosbeaks, Buntings 

Other Links:

A List & Photo Gallery of Central American Birds, in 4 parts 

Panama Mammals    Mammals in Central America  (with some photos) 

A List & Photo Gallery of Central American Butterflies & Moths, in 6 parts 

Hummingbirds, a 2-part list of them all  (with some photos)

Directory of Photos in the FONT Website

Highlights of some previous FONT tours in Panama  

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in Central America

Chronological Listing of upcoming FONT Tours Elsewhere 


Between October 2000 & December 2006, nests were found in Panama
of 25 breeding pairs of Harpy Eagles in the province of Darien.
Most were in tropical rain forest at an average altitude 
of nearly 400 feet above sea level, ranging in elevations
from 150 to about 900 feet.
Nest densities are estimated to be 4 to 6 in about 50 square miles.
Each breeding pair occupies from 8 to 12 square miles of forest.
This nesting density of Harpy Eagles is the highest that's known
for the species throughout its entire breeding range. 

The Harpy Eagle is the national bird of Panama.


  1. Great Tinamou  (nt) (*)  ______  CB  sp  DL  EP
    Tinamus major castaneiceps

  2. Little Tinamou  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  DL  EP
    Crypturellus soui poliocephalus

  3. Choco Tinamou  (t3) (PNt2)  ______
    Crypturellus kerriae

  4. Highland Tinamou  (PNt2)  ______
    Nothocercus bonapartei


  5. Gray-headed Chachalaca  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  DL
    Ortalis cinereiceps 

  6. Black Guan  (nt) (PNt3)  ______  (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Chamaepetes unicolor

  7. Crested Guan  (PNt3) (ph) (*) ______ CB  sp(r)
    Penelope purpurascens aequatorialis

  8. Great Curassow  (nt) (PNt3) (*) ______ CB  sp(r)
    Crax r. rubra


  9. Marbled Wood Quail  (nt) (PNt3) (*)  ______  CB  sp
    Odontophorus gujanensis marmoratus 

  10. Black-eared Wood Quail  ______  
    Odontophorus melanotis

    The Black-eared Wood Quail is closely related to and has been considered conspecific with the Rufous-fronted Wood Quail, Odontophorus erythrops, of South America, occurring in nearby Colombia.
    There has been no evidence of intergradation between O. melanotis & O. erythrops.     

  11. Black-breasted Wood Quail  (PNt3)  ______  
    Odontophorus leucolaemus

  12. Tacarcuna Wood Quail  (t3) (PNt2)  ______  DN
    Odontophorus dialeucos  

    The Tacarcuna Wood Quail was discovered in 1963. It is known only on Tacarcuna Ridge in the Darien of Panama & adjacent Colombia.

  13. Spotted Wood Quail  _______
    Odontophorus guttatus

  14. Tawny-faced Quail  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Rhynchortyx cinctus

  15. Crested Bobwhite  (*)  ______  DL 
    Colinus cristatus 
    (2 subspecies in Panama)
    Colinus cristatus mariae 
    (subspecies in northwest Panama, in Chiriqui)
    Colinus cristatus panamensis 
    (subspecies in southwest Panama) 

    The Crested Bobwhite has been considered by some to be conspecific with the more-northerly Spot-bellied Bobwhite.  


  16. Black-bellied Whistling Duck  (PNt3) (ph) (*) ______  CB  sp  CL  DL  EP
    Dendrocygna a. autumnalis 

  17. Fulvous Whistling Duck  (*) ______
    Dendrocygna bicolor 

  18. White-faced Whistling Duck  (PNr) (PNt1) (ph)  ______  CB  sp(v)
    Dendrocygna viduata

  19. Muscovy Duck  (PNt3) (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Cairina moschata 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  20. Comb Duck  (PNt1)  ______   
    Sarkidiornis syvicola

    The Comb Duck was conspecific with what is now the Knob-billed Duck of Asia & Africa.

  21. Blue-winged Teal  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  sp  CL
    Anas discors 

  22. Mallard  (PNr) (ph)  ______  (a wild bird, not escaped domestic stock, would be a vagrant in Panama)
    Anas platyrhynchos

    There was a Panamanian record of a Mallard on the Pacific side of the Canal Area in 1992.  

  23. White-cheeked Pintail  (PNr) (ph)  ______  (a vagrant in Panama)
    Anas bahamensis

  24. Northern Pintail  (PNr) (ph)  ______
    Anas acuta

    There have been very few records of the Northern Pintail in Panama. A pair was seen in the Canal Basin in December 1997.

  25. Green-winged Teal  (PNr)  (ph)  ______  CB  (a vagrant in Panama)
    Anas carolinensis

    There was a Panamanian record of a male Green-singed Teal in the Canal Basin in December 1996.

  26. Cinnamon Teal  (PNr)  ______
    Anas cyanoptera 

    In September 2003, several Cinnamon Teal was present near Panama City, at Costa del Este, in September 2003. 
    They continued in that area for a few weeks.  

  27. Northern Shoveler  (PNr) (ph)  ______
    Anas clypeata

    2 Northern Shovelers were near Panama City. at Costa del Este, in October 1997. 

  28. American Wigeon  (ph)  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Anas americana

  29. Ring-necked Duck  (ph)  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Aythya collaris

  30. Lesser Scaup  (ph)  ______  CB  sp
    Aythya affinis

  31. Masked Duck  (PNt3)  ______  CB  sp
    Nomonyx dominicus


  32. Galagagos Penguin  (t2) (PNr)  _____  (a vagrant in Panama)
    Spheniscus mendiculus

    There was a record of a Galapagos Penguin along the Chiriqui coast in 1955, at Puerto Armuelles.

  33. Wandering Albatross  (t3) (PNr)  ______  (offshore, a vagrant in Panama)
    Diomedes exulans

  34. Waved Albatross  (t1) (PNr) (ph)  ______  (offshore, a vagrant in Panama)
    Phoebastria irrorata

    Two reports of the Waved Albatross in Panamanian offshore waters of the Pacific Ocean were in February 1941 west on Pinas Bay in Darien, and in September 1964 southwest of the Pearl Islands. 

  35. Gray-headed Albatross  (t3) (PNr)  ______  (offshore, a doubtful record in the 19th Century)  
    Thalassarches chrysostoma

  36. Galapagos Petrel  (t1)  ______  
    Pterodroma phaeopygia 

    The Galapagos Petrel was part of the former Dark-rumped Petrel when it was conspecific with the Hawaiian Petrel. 

  37. Parkinson's (or Black) Petrel  (t3)  ______
    Procellaria parkinsoni

  38. Cory's Shearwater  (PNr) (ph)  ______  (offshore, a vagrant in Panama)
    Calonectris diomedea

    There was a record of a Cory's Shearwater off the Caribbean coast north of Colon in 1985.

  39. Wedge-tailed Shearwater  ______
    Puffinus pacificus

  40. Sooty Shearwater  (ph)  ______
    Pufinus griseus

  41. Christmas Shearwater  (PNr)  _____  (offshore, a vagrant in Panama)
    Puffinus nativitatis

    There was a record of the Christmas Shearwater far offshore off the western Pacific coast in 1990.
    The Christmas Shearwater resembles the Sooty Shearwater.

  42. Townsend's Shearwater  (t1)  ______  (offshore, a vagrant in Panama)
    Puffinus auricularis

  43. Audubon's Shearwater  (PNt2) (ph)  ______
    Puffinus iherminieri

  44. Galapagos Shearwater  _____
    Puffinus subalaris

    Until recently, the Galapagos Shearwater was a subspecies of the Audubon's Shearwater.

  45. Manx Shearwater  (PNr)  ______  (offshore, a vagrant in Panama)
    Puffinus puffinus

    There was a record of a Manx Shearwater at Isla Margarita off the Caribbean cost, near Colon, in 2003.
  46. Wilson's Storm Petrel  (PNr) (ph)  ______  (offshore, a vagrant in Panama)
    Oceanites oceanicus 

    There was a record of a Wilson's Storm Petrel by the Pearl Islands in 1969.

  47. White-vented Storm Petrel  (PNr)  ______  (offshore, a vagrant in Panama)
    Oceanites gracilis

  48. Wedge-rumped Storm Petrel  ______
    Oceanodroma tethys

  49. Black Storm Petrel  ______
    Oceanodroma melania

  50. Markham's Storm Petrel  (PNr)  ______  (offshore, a vagrant in Panama)
    Oceanodroma markhami 

  51. Least Storm Petrel  ______
    Oceanodroma microsoma


  52. Least Grebe  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  sp  CL
    (formerly Podiceps) dominicus brachypterus

  53. Pied-billed Grebe  (*)  ______  CB  sp  CL
    Podilymbus podiceps
    (2 subspecies in Panama)
    Podilymbus p. podiceps 
    (subspecies in western Panama)
    Podilymbus podiceps antarcticus 
    (subspecies in eastern Panama)


  54. American White Ibis  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  CL  DL
    Eudocimus albus 

  55. Scarlet Ibis  (ph)  ______
    Eudocimus ruber

  56. Glossy Ibis  (ph) (*)  ______
    Plegadis falcinellus 
    (said to be monotypic)

  57. Green Ibis  ______  CB  sp(v)
    Mesembrinibis cayennensis

  58. Buff-necked Ibis  (ph)  ______
    Theristicus caudatus

  59. Roseate Spoonbill  (ph)  ______
    Ajaia ajaja

  60. Wood Stork  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp(r)  sp(r)  CL  DL  EP
    Mycteria americana 

  61. Jabiru  (ph)  ______
    Jabiru mycteria


  62. Least Bittern  (ph)  ______  CB  sp
    Ixobrychus exilis

  63. American Bittern  (PNr) (ph)  ______  (a vagrant in Panama)
    Botaurus lentiginosus

    There was a record of an American Bittern in the Canal Area in 1862. 

  64. Rufescent Tiger Heron  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  sp
    Tigrisoma l. lineatum

  65. Bare-throated Tiger Heron (PNt3) (ph) (*)  ______ CL
    Tigrisoma mexicanum 

  66. Fasciated Tiger Heron  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Tigrisoma fasiatum

  67. Agami Heron  (nt) (ph) (*)  ______  CB  sp(r)  DL
    Agamia agami 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) 

    Another name for the Agami Heron is the Chestnut-bellied Heron.

  68. Capped Heron  (ph) (*)  ______  DL
    Pilherodius pileatus  
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  69. Cocoi Heron  (ph) (*)  _____ CB  sp(r)
    Ardea cocoi 

  70. Great Blue Heron  (*)  ______  CB  sp  CL  DL
    Ardea h. herodias

  71. Great Egret  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  DL  EP
    Casmerodius (has been Ardea) alba egretta

  72. Snowy Egret  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  sp  CH  CL  DL  EP
    Egretta t. thula

  73. Little Blue Heron  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  CL  DL  EP
    Egretta caerulea

  74. Tricolored Heron  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  DL 
    Egretta tricolor ruficollis

    The Tricolored Heron was called the Louisiana Heron. 

  75. Reddish Egret  (ph)  ______
    Egretta rufescens

  76. Western Cattle Egret  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  DL  EP
    Bubulcus ibis

    The Western Cattle Egret is in parts of Europe & Africa, and now in much of the Americas. The Eastern Cattle Egret, Bubulcus coromandus, is in eastern Asia.  

  77. Green Heron  (*) (ph)  ______ CB  sp  CL  DL
    Butorides v. virescens 

    The Green Heron, of North America & much of Central America, was at one time considered conspecific with the nearly-cosmopolitan Striated Heron (below), and it was then called the Green-backed Heron.  

  78. Striated Heron  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  EP  
    Butorides s. striata

  79. Boat-billed Heron  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Cochlearius cochlearius panamensis

  80. Black-crowned Night Heron  (*)  ______ CB  sp  CL
    Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli

  81. Yellow-crowned Night Heron  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  EP
    Nyctanassa violacea caliginis 
    (the single member of its genus)


  82. White-tailed Tropicbird  (PNr)  (ph)  ______  (a vagrant in Panama)  
    Phaethon lepturus

    Two records of the White-tailed Tropicbird off the Caribbean coast of Panama have been in 1936, and more recently 20 kilometers east of the Bocas del Toro coast in March 1990. 

  83. Red-billed Tropicbird  (PNt2) (ph)  ______
    Phaethon aethereus

  84. Magnificent Frigatebird  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL  DL
    Fregata magnificens 
    (now said to be monotypic) 

  85. Great Frigatebird  (PNr)  ______  (a vagrant in Panama)
    Fregata minor

    Male and female Great Frigatebirds, one of each, were seen and photographed 240 kilometers offshore from Coiba Island in November 2013. 
    The species may occur somewhat regularly in those far offshore Panamanian waters of the Pacific Ocean.    

  86. Brown Pelican  (ph) (*)  ______   CB  mp  sp  CL  DL
    Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis

  87. American White Pelican  (ph)  ______
    Pelecanus erythrorhynchos

  88. Brown Booby  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Sula l. leucogaster
    (subspecies in the Caribbean)
    Sula leucogaster etesiaca 
    (subspecies in the Pacific)

  89. Blue-footed Booby  (*)  ______ CB
    Sula n. nebouxii 

  90. Masked Booby  ______
    Sula dactylatra

  91. Nazca Booby  (ph)  ______
    Sula granti

  92. Peruvian Booby  ______
    Sula variegata
  93. Red-footed Booby  (PNr) (ph)  ______  CB  sp(v)
    Sula sula


  94. Neotropic Cormorant  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CL  DL  EP  
    Phalacrocorax b. brasilianus
    (formerly P. o. olivaceus

    The Neotropic Cormorant was called the Olivaceous Cormorant. 

  95. Guanay Cormorant  ______
    Phalacrocorax bougainvillii

  96. Anhinga  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  sp  CL  DL
    Anhinga anhinga leucogaster 


  97. King Vulture  (PNt3) (ph) (*)  ______  CB  sp  CL  DL
    Sarcoramphus papa 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  98. Turkey Vulture  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  DL  EP
    Cathartes aura ruficollis 
    (birds from further north also migrate thru/to Panama) 

    Each year in Panama, there is a large migration of Turkey Vultures, passing through in large flocks numbering in the thousands.
    During their southward passage, most enter Panama on the Caribbean slope in Bocas del Toro, and then cross over the Continental Divide in central Panama, continuing south on the Pacific slope in the Canal Basin and in eastern Panama.
    Their northern passage in March and April is less concentrated along particular routes.

    The migration of Turkey Vultures is heaviest from early October to mid-November, with the peak being in the last two weeks in October. 
    The number of birds moving through is enormous.

    Such a massive Turkey Vulture migration has been seen during FONT tours in the Panama Canal Basin during October.

    In 2004, during a raptor watch conducted by the Panama Audubon Society and Hawk Mountain Sanctuary in the US, over 3.1 million raptors were counted during a 6-week period in the fall at 9 sites. 
    The following year, during that raptor watch, the greatest single one day movement was on November 14 when over 640,000 raptors were tallied, with more than 90 per cent of them being Turkey Vultures (counted from Ancon Hill in Panama City).
    Other raptor species were Broad-winged Hawks and Swainson's Hawks (both below)

  99. Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture  (ph) (*)  ______
    Cathartes burrovianus 

  100. Black Vulture  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  DL  EP
    Coragyps atratus 
    (now said to be monotypic)  (the only member of its genus)

  101. Northern Crested Caracara  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  EP
    Caracara cheriway 

    The Northern Crested Caracara was conspecific with what is now the Southern Caracara, Caracara plancus, of South America, generally south of the Amazon. 

  102. Yellow-headed Caracara  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL  DL  EP 
    Milvago chimachima cordata

  103. Red-throated Caracara  (PNt3) (*)  ______  CB  sp(v)  DL
    Ibycter americanus 
    (the single member of its genus)

  104. Laughing Falcon  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  CH  DN  EP
    Herpstotheres c. cachinnans

  105. Barred Forest Falcon  (*)  ______ CB  sp  CH
    Micrastur ruficollis interstes

  106. Slaty-backed Forest Falcon  (PNt3) (*)  ______  CB  sp(r)  CH
    Micrastur mirandollei 

  107. Collared Forest Falcon  (*)  ______ CB  mp
    Micrastur semitorquatus naso

  108. American Kestrel  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  DL  EP
    Falco s. sparverius 
    (subspecies from further north in North America that winters in Panama)

  109. Merlin  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  CH
    Falco c. columbarius

  110. Aplomado Falcon  (PNt2) (ph) (*)  ______
    Falco f. femoralis

  111. Bat Falcon  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  CL
    Falco r. petoensis

  112. Peregrine Falcon  (PNt3) (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL
    Falco peregrinus anatum 
    (subspecies from further north in North America that winters in Panama)

  113. Orange-breasted Falcon  (nt) (PNt2) (ph)  ______
    Falco deiroleucos

  114. Osprey  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL
    Pandion haliaetus carolinensis 
    (the single member of its genus)

  115. Gray-headed Kite  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  DL
    Leptodon c. cayanensis 
    (the single member of its genus) 

    Another name for the Gray-headed Kite has been the Cayenne Kite.

  116. Hook-billed Kite  (*)  ______  CB  sp  DL
    Chondrohierax u. uncinatus 
    (the single member of its genus)

  117. Swallow-tailed Kite  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  CH  EP
    Elanoides forficatus 
    (the single member of its genus)  (2 subspecies in Panama, E. f. foficatus, &  e, f. yetapa

    The Swallow-tailed Kite is the earliest raptor migrant in Panama. It passes south from mid-July to early September, and returns, passing northward, in late January and February.    
    While most nest further north, some breed in Panama and they too migrate to South America during their non-breeding season.    

  118. Pearl Kite  (*)  ______  DL
    Gampsonyx swainsonii leonae 
    (the single member of its genus)
  119. White-tailed Kite  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  DL  EP
    Elanus leucurus majusculus

  120. Double-toothed Kite  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH
    Harpagus bidentatus fasciatus

  121. Plumbeous Kite  (*)  ______ CB  sp  DN
    Ictinia plumbea 

    Migrant Plumbeous Kites move south in Panama from early August to late September, and north from early February to mid-March.
    While others nest further north, some breed in Panama and they too migrate to South America during their non-breeding season.

  122. Mississippi Kite  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Ictinia mississippiensis 

    Mississippi Kites
    migrate south through Panama mainly in October and north from mid-March to mid-April.

  123. Snail Kite  (ph) (*)   ______ CB  sp  CL
    Rostrhamus s. sociabilis

  124. Slender-billed Kite  (PNt3)  ______
    (formerly Rostrhamus) hamatus

  125. Crane Hawk  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  DL
    Geranospiza caerulesens nigra 
    (the single member of its genus)

  126. Black-collared Hawk  (PNt1) (ph)  ______
    Busarellus nigricollis

  127. Northern Harrier  (ph) (*)  ______ 
    Circus hudsonius 

    The Northern Harrier was merged with the Eurasian species, the Hen Harrier, Circus cyaneus.

  128. Long-winged Harrier  (PNr) (ph)  ______  (a vagrant in Panama) 
    Circus buffoni

    Three Panamanian records of the Long-winged Harrier, a South American bird, have been: 
    1 in August 1995 at Tocumen Marsh, 1 in Darien in January 2001, and another, seen and photographed in June 2006 again at the Tocumen Marsh. 

  129. Sharp-shinned Hawk  (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Accipiter striatus velox 
    (subspecies from further north in North America that winters in Panama)  

  130. Tiny Hawk  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Accipiter supercilliosus fontanieri

  131. Bicolored Hawk  (PNt3) (*)  ______  CB  mp  EP
    Accipiter bicolor

  132. Cooper's Hawk  (PNr) (ph)  ______  (a vagrant in Panama) 
    Accipiter cooperi 

    Two Panamanian records of the Cooper's Hawk were in 1994 & 2001, both in Chiriqui and both in March.

  133. Plumbeous Hawk  (nt) (PNt3) (*)  ______ CB  sp(r)
    Leucopternis plumbea 

  134. Semiplumbeous Hawk  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Leucopternis semiplumbeus

  135. White Hawk  (ph) (*)   ______  CB  sp
    Leucopternis albicollis costaricensis

  136. Barred Hawk  ______  
    Leucopternis princeps 

    Other names for the Barred Hawk have been "Black-chested Hawk" and "Prince Hawk". 

  137. Common Black Hawk  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Buteogallus a. anthracinus

  138. Mangrove (or Pacific) Black Hawk  (*)  ______  CB  mp  CL  
    Buteogallus (anthracinus) subtilis bangsi

    The "Mangrove Black Hawk" is best considered a form of the Common Black Hawk. 

  139. Great Black Hawk  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  CL
    Buteogallus urubitinga ridgwayi

  140. Savanna Hawk  (ph)  (*)  ______ CB  sp  EP
    Buteogallus meridionalis 

  141. Bay-winged Hawk  (PNr) (ph) (*)   ______ DL  
    Parabuteo unicinctus harrisis 
    (the single member of its genus)

    In North America, Parabuteo unicinctus is called the Harris' Hawk.   

  142. Gray-lined Hawk  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL  EP
    (was Asturina) nitidus costaricensis

    The Gray-lined Hawk was merged with the more-northerly Gray Hawk, Buteo plagiatus, from central Costa Rica north into the southwest US.   

  143. Roadside Hawk  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  EP  DL
    Rupornis magnirostris 
    (formerly Buteo magnirostris)  (3 subspecies in Panama, including one. B. m. alius, restricted to the offshore Pearl Island)
    Rupornis magnirostris griseocauda 
    (subspecies in most of Panama)
    Rupornis magnirostris petulans 
    (subspecies in western Panama)

  144. Broad-winged Hawk  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH
    Buteo p. platypterus 
    (migrant that breeds further north in North America)

  145. Swainson's Hawk  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  CL
    Buteo swainsoni 
    (monotypic)  (migrant that breeds further north in North America; some occasionally winter in Panama)

  146. Short-tailed Hawk  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  DL
    Buteo brachyurus fuliginosus

  147. White-tailed Hawk  (*)  ______  CB  mp  CL
    Geranoaetus albicaudatus hypospodius 
    (formerly Buteo albicaudatus hypospodius)

  148. Zone-tailed Hawk  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp CH
    Buteo albonotatus 

  149. Red-tailed Hawk  (ph) (*)  ______  CH
    Buteo jamaicensis costaricensis

  150. Montane Solitary Eagle  (nt) (PNt2)  ______
    Harpyhaliaetus solitarius

  151. Crested Eagle  (nt) (PNt2)  ______  CB  sp(v)
    Morphus guianensis

  152. Harpy Eagle  (nt) (PNt2) (ph)  ______  CB  sp(v)
    Harpia harpyja

  153. Black-and-white Hawk Eagle  (PNt2)  ______ 
    Spizastur melanoleucus

  154. Black Hawk-Eagle  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Spizaetus tyrannus serus

  155. Ornate Hawk Eagle  (nt)  (ph)  ______  CB  mp(r)  sp(r)
    Spizaetus ornatus


  156. White-throated Crake  (*)  ______ CB  sp  CH  DL
    Laterallus a. albigulais 

  157. Gray-breasted Crake  ______
    Laterallus exilis

  158. Black Rail  (nt) (PNt2)  ______
    Laterallus jamaicensis

  159. Ruddy Crake  (PNr)  ______  (possibly a vagrant in Panama, but maybe overlooked)
    Laterallus ruber

    One Ruddy Crake was seen at a marsh in Bocas del Toro in March 2006.

  160. Clapper Rail  (PNt2) (ph)  ______
    Rallus longirostris

  161. Gray-necked Wood Rail  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  CH
    Aramides c. cajanea

  162. Rufous-necked Wood Rail  (PNt2)  ______
    Aramides axillaris 

    Records of the Rufous-necked Wood Rail in Panama have been from late December to early March, suggesting that the species is only in the country seasonally.

  163. Uniform Crake  (PNt3) (*)  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Amaurolimnas concolor

  164. Sora (Crake) (*)  ______
    Porzana carolina 

  165. Yellow-breasted Crake  ______  CB  sp
    Porzana flaviventer

  166. Colombian Crake  (PNt2)  ______
    Neocrex colombianus 

    In the book "A Bird-Finding Guide to Panama" by Angehr, and Engleman & Engelman, published in 2008, it is stated there have been no recent records of the Colombian Crake in Panama.
    The species did occur in the early 1980s at the Tocuman Marsh where it apparently bred, and it was also found near Achiote, where one was collected in 1965. 
    But subsequently there were no records from Tocuman Marsh or anywhere else in Panama after 1984.     

  167. Paint-billed Crake  (PNt2)  ______
    Neocrex erythrops

  168. Spotted Rail  (PNt2)  ______
    Pardirallus maculatus

  169. Common Gallinule  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  CL
    Gallinula galeata cachinnans

  170. Purple Gallinule  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  CL  DL
    Porphyrula martinica 

  171. American Coot  (*)  ______  CB  sp  CH
    Fulica a. americana


  172. Sungrebe  (ph)  ______  CB  sp
    Heliornis fulica 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) 

  173. Sunbittern  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  sp  CH
    Eurypyga helias major
      (a single member of its genus & family)

  174. Limpkin  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Aramus g. guarauna 
    (the single member of its genus & family)


  175. Northern Jacana  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  sp(v) CL
    Jacana s. spinosa

  176. Wattled Jacana  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  DL  EP
    Jacana jacana hypomelaena

  177. American Oystercatcher  (ph) (*)  ______  CL
    Haematopus palliatus

  178. Southern Lapwing  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  CL  DL  EP
    Vanellus chilensis cayennensis

  179. Black-bellied (or Grey) Plover  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  CL
    Pluvialis squatarola cynosurae

  180. American Golden Plover  (ph)  ______  
    Pluvialis dominica

  181. Wilson's (or Thick-billed) Plover  (ph) (*)  ______ CB
    Charadrius wilsonia beldingi
  182. Collared Plover  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Charadrius collaris 

  183. Semipalmated Plover  (ph) (*)  ______ CB
    Charadrius semipalmatus 

  184. Killdeer  (PNt2) (ph) (*)  ______  CL
    Charadrius v. vociferus

  185. Snowy Plover  (ph)  ______
    Charadrius nivosus

  186. Black-necked Stilt  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  CL  
    Himantopus mexicanus

    The Black-necked Stilt was said, at one time, by some to be conspecific with the Black-winged Stilt, Himantopus himantopus, of the Old World.

  187. American Avocet  (ph)  ______
    Recurvirostra americana

  188. "Western" Willet  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  CL  DL
    (formerly Catoptrophorus) semipalmatus inornatus

  189. "American" Whimbrel  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  CL
    Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus

  190. Long-billed Curlew  (nt) (PNr) (ph) (*)  ______ CB
    Numenius a. americanus

  191. Marbled Godwit  (ph) (*)  ______ CB
    Limosa f. fedoa

  192. Hudsonian Godwit  (ph)  ______
    Limosa haemastica

  193. Upland Sandpiper  ______
    Bartramia longicauda 
    (the single member of its genus) 

  194. Greater Yellowlegs  (*)  ______ CB  CL
    Tringa melanoleuca 

  195. Lesser Yellowlegs  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  CL
    Tringa flavipes 

  196. Solitary Sandpiper  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  DL
    Tringa solitaria 
    (2 subspecies in Panama, T. s. solitaria & T. s. cinnamomea)

  197. Wandering Tattler  ______
    (some say Tringa) brevipes

  198. Spotted Sandpiper  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  DL
    Actitis macularia 

  199. Ruddy Turnstone  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  CL
    Arenaria interpres morinella

  200. Surfbird  (*)  ______ CB
    Aphriza virgata 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  201. Red Knot  (ph) (*)  ______ CB
    Calidris canutus rufa

  202. Sanderling  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  CL
    Calidris alba rubida

  203. Semipalmated Sandpiper  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Calidris pusilla 

  204. Western Sandpiper  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Calidris mauri 

  205. Least Sandpiper  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Calidris minutilla 

  206. White-rumped Sandpiper  (ph) (*)  ______ CB
    Calidris fuscicollis 

  207. Baird's Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    Calidris bairdii

  208. Pectoral Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    Calidris melanotos

  209. Dunlin  (ph)  ______
    Calidris alpina

  210. Stilt Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    (formerly Micropalama) himantopus

  211. Buff-breasted Sandpiper  (nt) (ph)  ______
    Tryngites subruficollis 
    (the single member of its genus)

  212. Ruff / Reeve (ph)  ______
    Philomachus pugnax 
    (the single member of its genus)

  213. Short-billed Dowitcher  (ph) (*)  ______ CB
    Limnodromus griseus 
    (3 subspecies can occur in Panama)

  214. Long-billed Dowitcher  ______
    Limnodromus scolopaceus

  215. Wilson's Snipe  (ph)  ______  CB  sp  
    Gallinago delicata

    The Wilson's Snipe was part of the Common Snipe of the Old World, Gallinago gallinago.

  216. Wilson's Phalarope  ______
    Phalaropus tricolor

  217. Red-necked Phalarope  (ph)  ______
    Phalaropus lobatus


  218. Pomarine Jaeger  (ph)  ______  
    Stercorarius pomarinus

  219. Parasitic Jaeger  (ph)  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Stercorarius parasiticus

  220. Long-tailed Jaeger  (ph)  ______
    Stercorarius longicaudus

  221. South Polar Skua  (ph)  ______
    (formerly Catharacta) maccormicki

  222. Laughing Gull  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  CL  DL
    (formerly Larus) atricilla megalopterus

  223. Franklin's Gull  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp(r)
    (formerly Larus) pipixcan  (monotypic)

  224. Gray-hooded Gull  (ph)  ______
    Larus cirrocephalus

  225. Bonaparte's Gull  (ph)   ______
    (formerly Larus) philadelphia

  226. Gray Gull  (ph)  ______
    Larus modestus

  227. Belcher's Gull  ______  (was part of Band-tailed Gull)
    Larus belcheri

  228. Ring-billed Gull  (PNr) (ph) (*)   ______ CB  sp(r)
    Larus delawarensis 

  229. "American" Herring Gull  (PNr) (*)  ______ CB  sp(r)  (seen during a FONT tour on the Pacific side)
    Larus argentatus smithsonianus

  230. Lesser Black-backed Gull  (PNr) (ph) (*)  ______ CB (seen during a FONT tour on the Caribbean side)
    Larus fuscus graelisii 

    3 immature Lesser Black-backed Gulls in Panama City in April 2009 were said to be first of that species recorded in the country since 1998.  

  231. Kelp Gull  (PNr) (ph)  ______  CB
    Larus dominicanus

    A Kelp Gull along the Pacific coast in Panama City, in a report published in 2009, was said to be first record in the country since 2001. 
  232. Sabine's Gull  (ph)  ______
    Xema sabini

  233. Swallow-tailed Gull  (ph)  ______
    Creagrus furcatus

  234. Black-legged Kittiwake  (PNr)  ______  CB  (a vagrant in Panama)
    Rissa tridactyla

    A Black-legged Kittiwake, photographed in Panama City at Costa del Este, on April 2, 2009, was said to be the first record of that species for the country.   

  235. Gull-billed Tern  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    (formerly Sterna) nilotica aranea

  236. Caspian Tern  (ph) (*)  ______ CB
    (formerly Sterna) c. caspia 

  237. Royal Tern  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  CL
    (formerly Sterna) m. maxima

  238. Sandwich Tern  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  CL
    (formerly Sterna) sandvicensis acuflavidus

  239. Elegant Tern  (nt) (ph)  ______
    (formerly Sterna) elegans

  240. Common Tern  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Sterna h. hirundo

  241. Forster's Tern  (ph) (*)  ______ CB
    Sterna forsteri 

  242. Arctic Tern  (PNr)   ______  (a vagrant in Panama)
    Sterna paradisaea

    Two records of the Arctic Tern in Panama have been: an adult offshore from Pinas Bay, in Darien in March 1995, and a first-winter bird near Panama City, at Costa del Este, in October 1997. 

  243. Least Tern  ______  CB  sp
    (formerly Sterna) antillarum

  244. Yellow-billed Tern  (PNr)  ______
    (formerly Sterna) superciliaris

    Two Panamanian records of the Yellow-billed Tern, a South American bird, were one in July 1996 at Aguadulce, and one at El Agallito Beach near Chitre in April 1998. 
    Previously, there was a record in Panama in 1977 at Coco Solo.  

  245. Bridled Tern  (ph)  ______
    Onychopion anaethetus

  246. Sooty Tern  (PNt3)  (ph)  ______  CB  sp(v)
    Onychopion fuscata

  247. Large-billed Tern  (ph)  ______
    Phaetusa simplex

  248. Black Tern  (ph)  ______  CB  sp
    Chlidonias niger surinamensis

  249. Inca Tern  (ph)  ______
    Larosterna inca

  250. Brown Noddy  (PNt2)  ______  CB  sp(v)
    Anous stolidus

  251. Black Noddy  (PNr)  ______  (a vagrant in Panama)
    Anous minutus 

    One Panamanian record of the Black Noddy was a bird seen at the Isla Frailes del Norte, off the south coast of Los Santos, in September 1998.

  252. White Tern  ______
    Gygis alba

  253. Black Skimmer  (ph) (*)  ______ CB
    Rynchops n. niger


  254. Feral Pigeon (i) (*)  ______ CB  mp  CH  DL  EP 
    Columba livia

  255. Band-tailed Pigeon  (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    (formerly Columba) fasciata crissalis

  256. Scaled Pigeon  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH
    (formerly Columba) speciosa  (monotypic)

  257. Pale-vented Pigeon  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL  DL
    (formerly Columba) cayennensis pallidicrissa

  258. Ruddy Pigeon  (t3) (PNt3) (*) ______ CH
    (formerly Columba) s. subvinacea

  259. Short-billed Pigeon  (*)  ______ CB  sp  EP
    (formerly Columba) nigrirostris  (monotypic)

  260. White-crowned Pigeon  (nt) (PNt2)  ______
    (formerly Columba) leucocephala

  261. Plumbeous Pigeon  (PNt3)  ______
    (formerly Columba) plumbea

  262. Dusky Pigeon  ______  
    (formerly Columba) goodsoni

  263. Plain-breasted Ground Dove  (*)  ______  CB  sp(r)  DL
    Columbina minuta alaeodes

  264. Ruddy Ground Dove  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  DL  EP
    Columbina talpacoti rufipennis

  265. Common Ground Dove  (PNt3) (ph)  ______
    Columbina passerina

  266. Blue Ground Dove  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  DL
    Claravis pretiosa 

  267. Maroon-chested Ground Dove  (PNt3)  ______
    Claravis mondetours

  268. Mourning Dove (PNt3) (*)  ______ CL
    Zenaida macroura turturilla

  269. Eared Dove  (ph)  ______
    Zenaida auriculata

  270. White-winged Dove  (PNt3) (ph)  ______
    Zenaida asiatica

  271. White-tipped Dove  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  DL  EP  (was called White-fronted Dove)
    Leptotila v. verreauxi

  272. Gray-chested Dove  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Leptotila c. cassinii

  273. Gray-headed Dove  (PNt3)  ______
    Leptotila plumbiceps

  274. Brown-backed Dove  (t3) (PNt2) (PNe)  ______ (has been considered conspecific with the Gray-headed Dove)
    Leptotila battyi

    The Brown-backed Dove is one of only less than a dozen species endemic to Panama.

  275. Buff-fronted Quail-Dove  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Geotrygon costaricensis 

  276. Olive-backed Quail-Dove  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Geotrygon veraquensis

  277. Chiriqui Quail-Dove  (PNt3)  ______
    Geotrygon chiriquensis

  278. Purplish-backed Quail-Dove  (PNt3)  ______
    Geotrygon lawrencii

  279. Russet-crowned Quail-Dove  (nt) (PNt3)  ______
    Geotrygon goldmani

  280. Violaceous Quail-Dove  (PNt3)  ______  CB  sp
    Geotrygon violacea

  281. Ruddy Quail-Dove  (*)  ______  CB  sp
    Geotrygon montana


  282. Red-and-green Macaw  (PNt2) (ph) (*)  ______  DL
    Ara chloropterus

  283. Blue-and-yellow Macaw  (PNt2) (ph)  ______
    Ara ararauna

  284. Great Green Macaw  (t3) (PNt2) (ph)  ______
    Ara ambigua

  285. Scarlet Macaw  (PNt2) (ph)  ______
    Ara macao

  286. Chestnut-fronted Macaw  (PNt2)  ______
    Ara severus

  287. Sulphur-winged Parakeet  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Pyrrhura hoffmanni gaudens

  288. Azuero Parakeet  (PNt2) (PNe)  ______  
    Pyrrhura eisenmanni 

    The "Azuero Parakeet" has been considered part of the Painted Parakeet, Pyrrhura picta If a valid species, it is one of only less than a dozen endemic to Panama. 

  289. Crimson-fronted Parakeet  (*)  ______  CH
    Aratinga finschi 

    Another name for the Crimson-fronted Parakeet has been the Finch's Conure.

  290. Brown-throated Parakeet  (*)  ______ CL  DL  
    Aratinga ocularis 

    Included here within the Brown-throated Parakeet is a Panamanian form that is by some considered a distinct species, the Veragua Parakeet, Aratinga (pertinax) ocularis 

  291. Aztec Parakeet  (ph)  ______  
    Aratinga astec 

    What is now the Aztec Parakeet was considered to be part of the Olive-throated Parakeet when it included the population on the Caribbean island of Jamaica. 

  292. Barred Parakeet  (PNt3)  ______
    Bolborhynchus lineola

  293. Spectacled Parrotlet  (PNt3) (*)  ______  EP
    Forpus conspicillatus

  294. Red-fronted Parrotlet  (t3) (PNt3)  ______
    Touit costaricensis

  295. Blue-fronted Parrotlet  (PNt3)  ______
    Touit dilectissima

  296. Orange-chinned Parakeet  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  DL  EP
    Brotogeris j. jugularis 

    Another name for Brotogeris jugularis has been the Tovi Parakeet.

  297. Brown-hooded Parrot  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp(r)  sp  DL  EP
    Pionopsitta haematotis coccinicollaris

  298. Saffron-headed Parrot  (t3) (PNt2)  ______
    Pionopsitta pyrilia

  299. Blue-headed Parrot  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  DL
    Pionus menstruus rubigularis 

  300. White-crowned Parrot  (PNt2) (*)  ______ CH
    Pionus senilis 

  301. Red-lored (or Yellow-cheeked) Amazon  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL  DL
    Amazona autumnalis salvini

    Another name for Amazona autumnalis has been the Yellow-cheeked Amazon.

  302. Yellow-crowned Amazon  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL  DN
    Amazona ochrocephala panamensis 

    The Yellow-headed Amazon of northern Central America, Amazona oratrix, was said to be a subspecies of the Yellow-crowned Amazon. 
    The Yellow-naped Amazon of middle Central America, Amazona auropalliata, is also closely related.

  303. Mealy Amazon  (*)  ______ CB  sp  DL
    Amazona farinosa inornata

    Another name for Amazona farinosa is Blue-crowned Amazon.


  304. Black-billed Cuckoo  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Coccyzus erythrophalmus 

  305. Yellow-billed Cuckoo  ______  CB  mp sp
    Coccyzus americanus

  306. Dark-billed Cuckoo  ______
    Coccyzus melacoryphus

  307. Gray-capped Cuckoo  ______
    Coccyzus lansbergi

  308. Mangrove Cuckoo  (ph)  ______
    Coccyzus minor

  309. Dwarf Cuckoo  ______
    Coccyzus pumilus

  310. Squirrel Cuckoo  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  DL  EP
    Piaya cayana thermophila

  311. Little Cuckoo  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Coccycus minuta

  312. Greater Ani  (*)  ______ CB  sp  DL
    Crotophaga major 

  313. Groove-billed Ani  (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Crotophaga sulcirostris 
    (now monotypic, as a "second form" in Mexico now extinct)

  314. Smooth-billed Ani  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL  DL  EP
    Crotophaga ani 

  315. Striped Cuckoo  (*)  ______ CB  sp  CH  DL
    Tapera naevia excellens

  316. Pheasant Cuckoo  (*)  ______  CB  mp(r)  sp(r)  EP
    Dromococcyx phasianellus

  317. Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoo  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Neomorphus geoffroyi


  318. American Barn Owl  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  DL  
    Tyto furcata pratincola

    The American Barn Owl has been part of the Barn Owl of Eurasia & Africa, Tyto alba.
    But Tyto furcata is a heavier bird, with a larger and stouter head and body, and with much more powerful talons.

  319. Tropical Screech Owl  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH 
    (formerly Otus) choliba luctisonus

  320. Vermiculated Screech Owl  ______  CB  mp  sp
    (formerly Otus) vermiculatus

  321. Bare-shanked Screech Owl  (PNt3)  ______
    Megascops (formerly Otus) clarkii

  322. Crested Owl  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Lophostrix cristata wedeli 
    (the single member of its genus)

  323. Ferruginous Pygmy Owl  (ph) (*)  ______  
    Glaucidium brasilianum 

  324. Costa Rican Pygmy Owl  ______  
    Glaucidium costaricanum

    The Costa Rican Pygmy Owl was considered part of the Andean Pygmy Owl of South America.

  325. Central American Pygmy Owl  ______  CB  sp  
    Glaucidium griseiceps 

    The Central American Pygmy Owl was part of the Least Pygmy Owl. 

  326. Burrowing Owl  (PNr) (ph)  ______
    Athene cunicularia

    There was a Panamanian record of a Burrowing Owl, a long time ago, in Chiriqui in 1900.  

  327. Great Horned Owl  (PNr) (PNt2) (ph)  ______ 
    Bubo virginianus 

    There have only been a couple records of the Great Horned Owl in Panama. One was in Veraguas in 1868, adn the other near Coiba Island in 1956.   

  328. Spectacled Owl  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Pulsatrix perspicillata chapmani

  329. Mottled Owl  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Strix v. virgata

  330. Black-and-white Owl  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Strix nigrolineata 

  331. Striped Owl  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  DL
    (formerly Asio) clamator forbesi

  332. Unspotted Saw-whet Owl  (PNt3)  ______
    Aegolius ridgewayi


  333. Common Potoo  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  (has also been called Gray Potoo)
    Nyctibius griseus panamensis

  334. Great Potoo  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Nyctibius g. grandis

  335. Oilbird  (PNt2)  ______  CR  sp(r)
    Steatornis caripensis

  336. Short-tailed Nighthawk  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Lurocalis semitorquatus noctivagus

    Another name for Lurocalis semitorquatus has been the Semicollared Nighthawk.

  337. Lesser Nighthawk  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CL
    Chordeiles acutipennis
      (at least 2 subspecies occur in Panama as migrants)

  338. Common Nighthawk  (*)  ______ CB  mp
    Chordeiles minor panamensis 
    (other subspecies occur in panama as migrants)

  339. Pauraque  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL  DL
    Nyctidromus albicollis 
    (the single member of its genus)  (2 subspecies in Panama)
    Nyctidromus albicollis intercedens 
    (subspecies in western Panama)
    Nyctidromus albicollis gilvus 
    (subspecies in central & eastern Panama)

  340. Ocellated Poorwill  ______
    Nyctiphrynus ocellatus

  341. Rufous Nightjar  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    (formerly Caprimulgus) rufus minimus

  342. Chuck-will's-widow  ______  CB  sp
    (formerly Caprimulgus) carolinenis

  343. Eastern Whip-poor-will  ______
    (formerly Caprimulgus) vociferus

  344. Dusky Nightjar  (PNt3)  ______
    (formerly Caprimulgus) saturatus

  345. White-tailed Nightjar  (*)  ______  CL
    (formerly Caprimulgus) albicauda 


  346. American Black Swift  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Cypseloides niger

  347. White-chinned Swift  ______
    Cypseloides cryptus

  348. White-collared Swift  (*)  ______ CB  sp(r)  CH
    Streptoprocne zonaris bouchelli

  349. Chestnut-collared Swift  ______
    (formerly Cypseloides) rutilus

  350. Vaux's Swift  (*)  ______ CH
    Chaetura vauxi richmondi

    The subspecies Chaetura vauxi richmondi has also been called the "Dusky-backed Swift".

  351. Band-rumped Swift  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  DL
    Chaetura spinicaudus aetherodroma

  352. Costa Rican Swift  (PNr)  ______
    Chaetura fumosa 

    In Panama, the Costa Rican Swift is rather scarce in western Chirqui from the lowlands to the lower highlands. Recent definite records have been at the Rio Palo Blanco, west of Puerto Armuelles. 

    The Costa Rican Swift was part of the Band-rumped Swift, Chaetura spinicaudus (above)

  353. Short-tailed Swift  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Chaetura b. brachyura

  354. Gray-rumped Swift  ______
    Chaetura cinereiventris 

  355. Chimney Swift  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Chaetura pelagica

  356. Chapman's Swift  (PNr)  ______
    Chaetura chapmani

  357. Ashy-tailed Swift  (PNr)  ______  (a vagrant in Panama) 
    Chaetura meridionalis 

    Two records of the Ashy-tailed Swift in Panama were in Eastern Panama province in 1023 and in southern Cocle in 1975.
    The Ashy-tailed Swift is a species in South America.  

  358. Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Panyptila c. cayennensis


  359. Bronzy Hermit  (*)  ______
    Glaucis a. aenea 

  360. Rufous-breasted Hermit  ______  CR  sp
    Glaucis hirsutus

  361. Band-tailed Barbthroat  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  EP
    Threnetes ruckeri

  362. Green Hermit  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  sp(v) CH
    Phaethornis guy coruscus

  363. Long-billed Hermit  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Phaethornis longirostris cephalus

    The Long-billed Hermit was part of a wider-ranging Long-tailed Hermit, now restricted to South America.

  364. Stripe-throated Hermit  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Phaethornis striigularis saturatus 
    (genus has also been said to be Pygmornis)

    The Stripe-throated Hermit was conspecific with the Little Hermit of northeast South America.

  365. Pale-bellied Hermit  ______
    Phaetornis anthophilus 

    In Panama, the Pale-bellied Hermit is most common on the larger Pearl Islands.

  366. White-whiskered Hermit  (PNr) (ph)  ______  DN
    Phaetornis yaruqui

    A White-whiskered Hermit observed in the Darien region of Panama on July 10, 1996 was said to be a first record of the species for both Panama and for Central America.  
    The species may be a rare resident in eastern Darien.

  367. White-tipped Sicklebill  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  sp(v)  CH
    Eutoxeres aquila salvini

  368. Tooth-billed Hummingbird  ______
    Androdon aequatorialis

  369. Green-fronted Lancebill  ______
    Doryfera ludovicae

  370. Scaly-breasted Hummingbird  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  EP
    Phaeochroa c. cuvierii

    Another name for Phaeochroa civierii has been Cuvier's Hummingbird.

  371. Violet Sabrewing  (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Campylopterus hemileucurus mellitus

  372. White-necked Jacobin  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH 
    Florisuga m. mellivora

  373. Brown Violetear  (*)  ______ CH
    Colibri d. delphinae

  374. Green Violetear  (ph)  ______ CH
    Colibri thalassinus cyanotus

  375. Green-breasted Mango  (PNt3) (ph)  ______
    Anthracothorax prevostii

  376. Veraguan Mango  (PNt2) (PNe) (*)  ______ CL   
    Anthracothorax (prevostii) veraguensis

    The Veraguan Mango has been part of the Green-breasted Mango.

  377. Black-throated Mango  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  DL  EP
    Anthracothorax nigricollis 

  378. Ruby-topaz Hummingbird  ______
    Chrysolampis mosquitus

  379. Violet-headed Hummingbird  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp(v)  CH
    Klais guimeti merritii

  380. Rufous-crested Coquette  (ph)  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Lophornis delattrei

  381. White-crested Coquette  (PNt2)  ______
    Lophornis adorabilis 

  382. Green Thorntail  (ph)  ______
    (formerly Popelairia) conversii

  383. Garden Emerald  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP  
    Chlorostilbon assimilis 

    The Garden Emerald was part of the former Fork-tailed Emerald.

  384. Violet-crowned Woodnymph  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Thalurania colombica venusta

    Recently, in 2013, the Violet-crowned Woodnymph (above) and the Green-crowned Woodnymph (below) have been merged by the AOU into one species, the Crowned Woodnymph, Thalurania columbica, based on interbreeding in Colombia
    However, in Panama the Violet-crowned Woodnymph and the Green-crowned Woodnymph are not known to come into contact with each other,    

  385. Green-crowned Woodnymph  (*)  ______  EP
    Thalurania fannyi

  386. Fiery-throated Hummingbird  (PNt2) (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Panterpe i. insignis 
    (the single member of its genus)

  387. Violet-bellied Hummingbird  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Damophila julie panamensis

  388. Sapphire-throated Hummingbird  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp(r)  EP
    Lepidopyga coeruleogularis 
    (2 subspecies in Panama)
    Lepidopyga c. coeruleogularis 
    (in western Panama)
    Lepidopyga coeruleogularis confinis 
    (in eastern Panama)

  389. Blue-headed Sapphire  (PNt2)  ______
    Hylocharis grayi

  390. Blue-throated Goldentail  ______
    Hylocharis eliciae

  391. Violet-capped Hummingbird  (PNt2)  ______
    Goldmania violiceps

  392. Rufous-cheeked Hummingbird  (nt) (PNt2)  ______
    Goethalsia bella

  393. Blue-chested Hummingbird  (*)  ______  CB  sp
    Amazilia (amabilis) amabilis 
    (monotypic, if the Beryl-crowned Hummingbird (below) is split) 

  394. Beryl-crowned Hummingbird  (PNt2) (*)  ______ CH  
    Amazilia (amabilis) decora 

    Another name for the Beryl-crowned Hummingbird is the Charming Hummingbird.

    The Beryl-crowned, or Charming Hummingbird has been considered conspecific with the Blue-chested Hummingbird (the previous bird in this list).

  395. Snowy-bellied Hummingbird  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  EP
    Amazilia e. edward 
    (4 subspecies in Panama)

    Amazilia edward is called either the Snowy-bellied Hummingbird or the Snowy-breasted Hummingbird.

  396. Rufous-tailed Hummingbird  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  EP
    Amazilia t. tzacati

  397. Escudo Hummingbird  (t3) (PNt1) (PNe)  ______  
    Amazilia tzacati handleyi  

    The "Escudo Hummingbird" is only on the island Escudo de Veraguas in Panama. It has been considered a distinct species, but more recently (as of 2008) it's been treated as a subspecies of the Rufous-tailed Hummingbird. 
    Amazilia tzacati handleyi is slightly larger than other races of the Rufous-tailed Hummingbird.

    The range of A. t. handleyi is only 3 square kilometers. Due to its small range, it is threatened. When it was considered a species, it was classified by Birdlife International as "vulnerable".        

  398. Stripe-tailed Hummingbird  (*)  ______ CH
    Eupherusa eximia egregia

  399. Black-bellied Hummingbird  (PNt2)  ______
    Eupherus nigriventris

  400. White-tailed Emerald  (PNt2) (*)  ______ CH
    Elvira chionura 

  401. Snowcap  ______
    Microcheria albocoronata

  402. White-vented Plumeleteer  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Chalybua buffonii micans

  403. Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer  (*)  ______ CB  
    Chalybura urochrysia isaurae 

    Chalybura urochrysia
    has also been called the Red-footed Plumeleteer.

  404. White-throated Mountain-gem  (PNt2) (*)  ______  CH  
    Lampornis c. castaneoventris

    The White-throated Mountain-gem has been said by some to be conspecific with the Gray-tailed Mountain-gem (of southern Costa Rica) and the Purple-throated Mountain-gem, and when so it was collectively called the Variable Mountain-gem.   

  405. Purple-throated Mountain-gem  (PNt3)  ______
    Lampornis calolaema

  406. White-bellied Mountain-gem  (PNt2)  ______
    Lampornis hemileucus

  407. Green-crowned Brilliant  (ph)  ______
    Heliodoxa jacula

  408. Magnificent Hummingbird  (ph) (*)  ______ CH  
    Eugenes fulgens spectabilis

  409. Greenish Puffleg  ______
    Haplophaedia aureliae

  410. Purple-crowned Fairy  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Heliothryx barroti 

  411. Long-billed Starthroat  (*)  ______  CB  sp(r)  CH
    Heliomaster l. longirostris

  412. Magenta-throated Woodstar  (PNt2) (*)  ______ CH
    Calliphlox bryantae 

  413. Purple-throated Woodstar  (PNt3)  ______
    Calliphlox mitchellii

  414. Ruby-throated Hummingbird  (ph) (*)  ______  CL
    Archilochus colubris 

  415. Scintillant Hummingbird  (PNt2) (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Selasphorus scintilla 

  416. Glow-throated Hummingbird  (t3) (PNt1) (PNe) (*)  ______ CH
    Selasphorus ardens 

    The Glow-throated Hummingbird is one of less than a dozen species endemic to Panama. 

  417. Volcano Hummingbird  (PNt2) (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Selasphorus flammula torridus


  418. Resplendent Quetzal  (nt) (PNt2) (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Pharomachrus mocinno costaricensis

  419. Golden-headed Quetzal  (PNt3)  ______
    Pharomachrus auriceps

  420. Slaty-tailed Trogon  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Trogon massena hoffmanni

    Another name for Trogon massena is the Massena Trogon.

  421. Black-throated Trogon  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Trogon rufus tenellus

  422. Collared Trogon  (*)  ______ CH
    Trogon collaris puella

  423. Orange-bellied Trogon  (*)  _____ CH  (some consider conspecific with Collared Trogon)
    Trogon a. aurantilventris

  424. Black-tailed Trogon  (*)  ______ CB  sp  EP
    Trogon melanurus macroura

  425. White-tailed Trogon  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Trogon chionurus 

    The White-tailed Trogon was conspecific with what is now the Green-backed Trogon, Trogon viridis, of South America east of the Andes.   

  426. Gartered Trogon  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  DL   
    Trogon caligatus
    (formerly violaceus) concinnus

    The Gartered Trogon was part of the Violaceous Trogon, now only in South America.

  427. Baird's Trogon  (nt) (PNt1) (ph)  ______
    Trogon bairdii

  428. Lattice-tailed Trogon  (PNt3)  ______
    Trogon clarthratus


  429. Ringed Kingfisher  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL  DL  EP
    (formerly Ceryle) t. torquata

  430. Belted Kingfisher  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp
    (formerly Ceryle) alcyon

  431. Amazon Kingfisher  (*)  ______ CB  sp  DL
    Chloroceryle amazona mexicana

  432. Green Kingfisher  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Chloroceryle americana isthmica

  433. Green-and-Rufous Kingfisher  (*)  ______  CB  sp  DL
    Chloroceryle inda 
    (now said to be monotypic)

  434. American Pygmy Kingfisher  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  DL
    Chloroceryle a. aenea


  435. Broad-billed Motmot  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Electron platyrhynchum minor

  436. Rufous Motmot  (*)  ______ CB  sp  EP
    Baryphthengus martii semirufus

  437. Blue-diademed Motmot  (ph) (*)  ______ CH  
    Momotus lessonii

    Another name for Momotus momota is Lesson's Motmot.

    The Blue-diademed Motmot and the following species, the Whooping Motmot, have been part of an expanded Blue-crowned Motmot.
    The Blue-crowned Motmot, Momotus coeruliceps, in now endemic to Mexico.

  438. Whooping Motmot  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  EP
    Momotus subrufescens conexus

    Another name for Momotus subrufescens is the Tawny-bellied Motmot.

  439. Tody Motmot  ______
    Hylomanes momotula


  440. Dusky-backed Jacamar  (PNt3)  ______
    Brachygalba salmoni
  441. Rufous-tailed Jacamar  (ph)  ______
    Galbula ruficauda

  442. Great Jacamar  ______  CB  sp
    Jacamerops aureus


  443. Barred Puffbird  (ph)  ______  CB  sp(v)
    Nystalus radiatus

  444. White-necked Puffbird  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Notharchus macrorhynchos hyperrynchus

  445. Black-breasted Puffbird  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Notharchus pectoralis 

  446. Pied Puffbird  (*)  ______ CB  sp  EP
    Notharchus tectus subtectus

  447. White-whiskered Puffbird  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Malacoptila p. panamensis

    Another name for Malacoptila panamensis is White-whiskered Softwing. 

  448. Lanceolated Monklet  (PNt2)  ______
    Micromonacha lanceolata

  449. Gray-cheeked Nunlet  ______
    Nonnula ruficapilla

  450. White-fronted Nunbird  ______  
    Monasa morphoeus


  451. Spot-crowned Barbet  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CB  sp(r)
    Capito maculicoronatus 
    (2 subspecies in Panama)
    Capito m. maculicoronatus 
    (subspecies in western Panama)

    Capito maculicoronatus rubrilateralis 

  452. Prong-billed Barbet  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Semnornis frantzii 

  453. Red-headed Barbet  (ph)  ______
    Eubucco bourcieri

  454. "Blue-throated" Emerald Toucanet  (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Aulacorhynchus (prasinus) caeruleogularis 
    (2 subspecies in Panama)
    Aulacorhynchus c. caeruleogularis 
    (west PN)
    Aulacorhynchus caeruleogularis cognatus 
    (east PN)

  455. Collared Aracari  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  DL  EP
    Pteroglossus t. torquatus

  456. Fiery-billed Aracari  (PN2) (ph)  ______
    Pteroglossus frantzii

  457. Yellow-eared Toucanet  ______ CB  sp(r)
    Selenidera spectabilis

  458. Keel-billed Toucan  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  DL  EP
    Ramphastos sulfuratus brevicarinatus

  459. Black-mandibled Toucan  (*) (ph)  ______  CB  sp  DL  
    Ramphastos ambiguus swainsonii

    What has been the Chestnut-mandibled Toucan is now part of the Black-mandibled Toucan, a species that was only in South America.
    Another name for the Chestnut-mandibled Toucan has been the Swainson's Toucan. 

  460. Choco Toucan  (PNr) (ph)  ______
    Ramphastos brevis  

    A single Choco Toucan was first reported at Cana, in Darien, in January 2000. Subsequently, over a period of several years, what was seemingly that same individual was seen. 
    But the species may be a rare resident in eastern Darien.
    The Choco Toucan is visually very similar to the "Chestnut-mandibled Toucan", which, as noted above, has been merged into the Black-mandibled Toucan.
    The Choco Toucan can be best distinguished from Ramphastos ambiguus by voice.        


  461. Olivaceous Piculet  (*)  ______ CH
    Picumnus o. flavotinctus 

  462. Acorn Woodpecker  (ph) (*)  ______  CH
    Melanerpes formicivorus striatipectus

  463. Black-cheeked Woodpecker  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Melanerpes p. pucherani

  464. Red-crowned Woodpecker  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  DL  EP
    (formerly Centurus) rubricapillus wagleri

  465. Golden-naped Woodpecker  (PNt1) (ph)  ______
    (formerly Centurus) chrysauchen

  466. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker  (ph)  ______  CB  mp(r)  sp(r)
    Sphyrapicus varius

  467. Hairy Woodpecker  (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Picoides villosus sanctorum

  468. Smoky-brown Woodpecker  (*)  ______ CH
    (formerly Veniliornis) fumigatus  (2 subspecies in Panama)
    Picoides fumigatus sanguinolentus 
    (west PN)
    Picoides fumigatus reichenbachi 
    (east PN)

  469. Red-rumped Woodpecker  ______
    Veniliornis kirkii

  470. Golden-olive Woodpecker  (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Piculus rubiginosus uropygialis

  471. Golden-green Woodpecker  (*)  ______  DL
    Piculus chrysochloros aurosus

  472. Rufous-winged Woodpecker  (PNt2)  ______
    Piculus simplex

  473. Stripe-cheeked Woodpecker  (PNt2) (PNe)  ______  CB  sp
    Piculus callopterus 

    The Stripe-cheeked Woodpecker is one of less than a dozen species endemic to Panama. 

  474. Spot-breasted Woodpecker  (*)  ______  EP
    (formerly Colaptes) punctigula

  475. Cinnamon Woodpecker  (*)  ______ CB  sp  DL
    Celeus loricatus mentalis

  476. Chestnut-colored Woodpecker  (PNt3)  ______
    Celeus castaneus

  477. Lineated Woodpecker  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL  DL
    Dryocopus lineatus mesorhynchus

  478. Crimson-crested Woodpecker  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Campephilus melanoleucos malherbii

  479. Crimson-bellied Woodpecker  ______
    Campephilus haematogaster

  480. Pale-billed Woodpecker  (ph)  ______
    Campephilus guatemalensis


  481. Masked Tityra  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH
    Tityra semifasciata costaricensis

  482. Black-crowned Tityra  (*)  _____  CB  mp  sp
    Tityra inquisitor 

  483. Speckled Mourner  (*)  _____  CB  sp
    Laniocera rufescens


  484. Cinnamon Becard  (*)  ______ CB  sp  CH  DL  EP
    Pachyramphus c. cinnamomeus

  485. White-winged Becard  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Pachyramphus polychopterus similis

  486. Black-and-white Becard  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Pachyramphus albogriseus ornatus

  487. One-colored Becard  (ph) (*)   ______  CB  sp(v)  DL  EP
    Pachyramphus h. homochrous

  488. Rose-throated Becard  (PNt3) (*) ______ CH
    Pachyramphus aglaiae latirostris

  489. Barred Becard  ______
    Pachyramphus versicolor

  490. Cinereous Becard  ______  DN
    Pachyramphus rufus


  491. Sharpbill  ______
    Oxyruncus cristatus 
    (the single member of its genus)

  492. Rufous Piha  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Lipaugus u. unirufus

  493. Turquoise Cotinga  (t3) (PNt1) (ph) (*)  ______
    Cotinga ridgwayi 

    Another common name for Cotinga ridgwayi is Ridgway's Cotinga.

  494. Blue Cotinga  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Cotinga nattererii 

    Another common name for Cotinga nattererii is Natterer's Cotinga.

  495. Lovely Cotinga  (PNt2)  ______
    Cotinga amabilis

  496. Black-tipped Cotinga  (PNt3)  ______
    Carpodectes hopkei

  497. Yellow-billed Cotinga  (t2) (PNt1)  ______
    Carpodectes antoniae

  498. Snowy Cotinga  ______
    Carpodectes nitidus

  499. Purple-throated Fruitcrow  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Querula purpurata 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  500. Bare-necked Umbrellabird  (t2) (PNt2) (ph)  ______
    Cephalopterus glabricollis

  501. Three-wattled Bellbird  (t3) (PNt3) (*)  ______  CB  sp(v)  CH
    Procnias triarunculatus 


  502. Red-capped Manakin  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    (formerly Pipra) mentalis ignifera

  503. Golden-headed Manakin  ______
    (formerly Pipra) erythrocephala

  504. White-crowned Manakin   ______
    Pipra pipra

  505. Blue-crowned Manakin  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Lepidothrix coronata minuscula

  506. Lance-tailed Manakin  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Chiroxiphia lanceolata 

  507. White-ruffed Manakin  (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Corapipo a. altera

  508. Golden-collared Manakin  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Manacus v. vitellinus

    The Golden-collared Manakin has been considered conspecific with the White-collared Manakin (below). Some have considered both conspecific with the White-bearded Manakin of South America. 

  509. White-collared Manakin  (PNt3) (ph)  ______
    Manacus candei

  510. Orange-collared Manakin  (PNt3)  ______
    Manacus aurantiacus

  511. Green Manakin  (*)  ______  EP
    Cryptopipo holochora 
    (formerly Xenopipo holochlora, prior to that Chloropipo holochlora)  


  512. (Broad-billed) Sapayoa  (*)  ______ CB  sp(r)
    Sapayoa aenigma 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus & family)


  513. Northern Schiffornis  ______   
    Schiffornis veraepacis 

    The Northern Schiffornis was part of the Thrush-like Schiffornis. The former Thrush-like Schiffornis was previously called the Thrush-like Mourner, or the Thrush-like Manakin, but the bird was neither a mourner nor a manakin. 

    Now, what was the Thrush-like Schiffornis has been split into 5 species in Central & South America.

    The geographic range of Schiffornis veraepacis is in Central America from western Panama northward.

    In western Panama, and in foothills in central Panama (east to Nusagandi in western San Blas), the Northern Schiffornis gives a three-noted rhythmic phrase, recognizably similar to the four-noted phrase of the Rufous-winged Schiffonis (below), but more drawn out.
    Visually, the Northern Schiffornis is a darker olive-brown coloration, whereas the Rufous-winged Schiffornis is overall a lighter brown.  

  514. Rufous-winged Schiffornis  (*)  ______  CB  sp
    Schiffornis stenohyncha

    An alternate name for Schiffornis stenohyncha is the Slender-billed Schiffornis.

    The geographic range of Schiffornis stenohyncha is central Panama to Colombia and western Venezuela.

    In the Canal Area and the lowlands eastward, the Rufous-winged Schiffornis gives, as noted above, a four-noted rhythmic phrase.


  515. Gray-headed Piprites  (PNt3)  ______
    Piprites griseiceps


  516. Black Phoebe  (*)  ______  CH  DL
    Sayornis nigricans amnicola

  517. Vermilion Flycatcher  (ph)  ______
    Pyrocephalus rubinus

  518. Pied Water Tyrant  (*)  ______  CB  sp(r)  DL
    Fluvicola p. pica 

  519. Long-tailed Tyrant  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  EP
    Colonia colonus leuconota 
    (the single member of its genus)

  520. Cattle Tyrant  (ph)  ______
    Machetornis rixosa

  521. Scissor-tailed Flycatcher  (ph) (*)  ______ CL
    Tyrannus forficatus 

  522. Fork-tailed Flycatcher  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CL  DL  EP 
    Tyrannus savana monachus

  523. Eastern Kingbird  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Tyrannus tyrannus 

  524. Tropical Kingbird  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  DL  EP
    Tyrannus melancholicus satrapa

  525. Gray Kingbird  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Tyrannus d. dominicensis

  526. Western Kingbird  (PNr) (ph)  ______
    Tyrannus verticalis

    2 Western Kingbirds below El Chorogo on April 3, 1999 was said to be the 2nd record of the species for Panama.
    The first record was said to be in 1988.  

  527. Crowned Slaty-Flycatcher  (PNr)  ______
    Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus

    On December 1, 2007, a Crowned Slaty-Flycatcher was found in foothills on the Pacific slope, at Cerro Azul, about 40 kilometers northeast of Panama City.
    That bird, a species normally in South America, was a first record not only for Panama but for Central America.   

  528. Piratic Flycatcher  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL  EP  DL
    Legatus leucophaius
      (the single member of its genus)  (2 subspecies occur in Panama: L. l. variegatus & L. l. leucophaius)

  529. Streaked Flycatcher  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  DL  EP
    Myiodynastes maculatus difficilis

  530. Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Myiodynastes luteiventris 

  531. Boat-billed Flycatcher  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  EP
    Megarynchus pitangua mexicanus

  532. Golden-bellied Flycatcher  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Myiodynastes hemichrysus 

  533. Gray-capped Flycatcher  (*)  ______  CB  sp  CH
    Myiozetetes g. granadensis 
    (1 of 2 subspecies in Panama)

  534. Golden-crowned Flycatcher  (PNt3)  ______
    Myiozetetes chrysocephalus

  535. Rusty-margined Flycatcher  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Myiozetetes cayanensis rufipennis

  536. Social Flycatcher  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  DL  EP
    Myiozetetes similis columbianus

  537. White-ringed Flycatcher  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Conopias albovittatus

  538. Great Kiskadee  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL  EP  DL
    Pitangus sulphuratus guatimalensis

  539. Lesser Kiskadee  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    (formerly Philohydor) lictor panamensis

  540. Rufous Mourner  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Rhytipterna h. holerythra

  541. Bright-rumped Attila  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Attila spadiceus 
    (2 subspecies in Panama)
    Attila spadiceus citreopyga
    (in west Panama)
    Attila spadiceus sclateri 
    (in east Panama)

  542. Western Sirystes  (*)  ______ CB  sp  EP  
    Sirystes (sibilator) albogriseus 

    The Western Sirystes is sometimes split from the Sirystes, Sirystes sibilator, a widespread species in South America.
    If so, Sirystes aibilator is the Eastern Sirystes.   

  543. Dusky-capped Flycatcher  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Myiarchus tuberculifer brunneiceps

  544. Panama Flycatcher  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Myiarchus p. panamensis

  545. Great Crested Flycatcher  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Myiarchus crinitus 

  546. Tropical Pewee  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Contopus cinereus brachytarsus

  547. Dark Pewee  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Contopus lugubris 

  548. Eastern Wood Pewee  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH
    Contopus virens 

  549. Western Wood Pewee  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH
    Contopus sordidulus 
    (4 subspecies migrate south thru or into Panama) 

  550. Olive-sided Flycatcher  (nt) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Contopus cooper
    (Formerly in genus Nuttallornis. Previous scientific name has long been borealis.) 

    Another name for Contopus cooperi is the Boreal Pewee.

  551. Ochraceous Pewee  (nt) (PNt3)  ______
    Contopus ochraceus

  552. Black-billed Flycatcher  (nt) (PNt2)  ______
    Aphanotriccus audax

  553. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher  (*)  ______ CB  sp  CH
    Empidonax flaviventris  

  554. Acadian Flycatcher  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Empidonax virescens 

  555. Willow Flycatcher  (*)  ______  CB  sp
    Empidonax traillii

  556. Yellowish Flycatcher  (*)  ______ CH
    Empidonax f. flavescens

  557. Black-capped Flycatcher  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Empidonax atriceps 

  558. Alder Flycatcher  ______  CB  sp
    Empidonax alnorum

  559. White-throated Flycatcher  ______
    Empidonax albigularis

  560. Least Flycatcher  ______
    Empidonax minimus

  561. Hammond's Flycatcher  (PNr)  ______
    Empidonax hammondii

    A single record of the Hammond's Flycatcher for Panama was near Boquete in Chiriqui in 1982. 

  562. Northern (or Common) Tufted Flycatcher  (*)  ______ CH
    Mitrephanes phaeocercus vividus

  563. Sulphur-rumped Myiobius (or Flycatcher (*)  ______ CB  sp 
    Myiobius sulphureipgius aureatus

    The Sulphur-rumped Myiobius, or Flycatcher was conspeciic with what is now the Whiskered Myiobius, or Flycatcher, Myiobius barbatus, of South America. 

  564. Black-tailed Myiobius (or Flycatcher (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Myiobius a. atricaudus

  565. Tawny-breasted Myiobius (or Flycatcher)  ______ 
    Myiobius villosus

  566. Bran-colored Flycatcher  (*)  ______  CB  sp  CH
    Myiophobus fasciatus furfurosus

  567. Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Terenotriccus erythrurus fulvigularis

  568. Northern Royal-Flycatcher  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Onychorhynchus mexicanus 
    (monotypic, if distinct from other Royal Flycatchers

    The Northern Royal Flycatcher has been conspecific with the related South American species: 
    the Amazonian Royal Flycatcher, the Pacific Royal Flycatcher, and the Atlantic Royal Flycatcher.    

  569. Stub-tailed Spadebill  (PNt3)  ______
    Platyrinchus cancrominus

    There is an isolated population of the Stub-tailed Spadebill on the Bocas del Toro islands, the only place where the species occurs in Panama.
    Otherwise, the Stub-tailed Spadebill ranges from northwestern Costa Rica north to southern Mexico.   

  570. White-throated Spadebill  ______
    Platyrinchus mystaceus

  571. Golden-crowned Spadebill  ______  CB  sp
    Platyrinchus coronatus

  572. Brownish Twistwing  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Cnipodectes subbrunneus panamensis 
    (the single member of its genus)

    Cnipodectes subbrunneus
    has also been called the Brownish Flycatcher.

  573. Yellow-olive Flatbill (or Flycatcher)  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Tolmomyias sulphurescens flavoolivaceus 

  574. Yellow-margined Flatbill (or Flycatcher)  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Tolmomyias (assimilis) flavotectus 

    The Yellow-margined Flatbill, or Flycatcher is closely related to the Zimmer's Flatbill, or Flycatcher of South America. The two have been considered conspecific.  

  575. Ochre-lored Flatbill  (*)  ______  CB  EP  (was called Yellow-breasted Flatbill, or Flycatcher)
    Tolmomyias olivaceus

  576. Olivaceous Flatbill  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Rhynchocyclus olivaceus bardus

  577. Eye-ringed Flatbill  ______
    Rhynchocyclus brevirostris

  578. Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher  (*)  ______ CB 
    Todirostrum nigriceps 

  579. Common Tody-Flycatcher  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH
    Todirostrum cinereum wetmorei 
    (1 of 2 subspecies in Panama)

  580. Slate-headed Tody-Flycatcher  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp
    (formerly Todirostrum) sylvia schistaceiceps

  581. Northern Bentbill  (PNt2) (*)  ______ CH  
    Oncostoma cinereigulare 

    The Northern Bentbill (above) and the Southern Bentbill (below) have been said by some to be conspecific.  

  582. Southern Bentbill  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Oncostoma olivaceum 

  583. Pale-eyed Pygmy Tyrant  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Atalotriccus pilaris wilcoxi 
    (the single member of its genus)

  584. Scale-crested Pygmy Tyrant  ______
    Lophotriccus pileatus

  585. Black-capped Pygmy Tyrant  (*)  ______ CB  sp  CH
    Myiornis atricapillus

  586. Bronze-olive Pygmy Tyrant  (PNt3)  ______
    Pseudotriccus pelzelni

  587. Yellow Tyrannulet  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Capsiempis flaveola semiflava

  588. Yellow-green Tyrannulet  (PNt2) (PNe) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Phylloscartes flavovirens 

    The Yellow-green Tyrannulet is one of less than a dozen species endemic to Panama.

  589. Rufous-browed Tyrannulet  ______ 
    Phylloscartes supercillaris

  590. Torrent Tyrannulet  (*)  ______ CH
    Serpophaga cinerea grisea

  591. Yellow-bellied Elaenia  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  EP  DL
    Elaenia flavogaster pallidorsalis

  592. Lesser Elaenia  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Elaenia c. chiriquensis

  593. Mountain Elaenia  (*)  ______ CH
    Elaenia f. frantzii

  594. Greenish Elaenia  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Myiopagis viridicata accola

  595. Forest Elaenia  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Myiopagis gaimardii macilivainii

  596. Gray Elaenia  ______  CB  sp
    Myiopagis caniceps

  597. Southern Beardless Tyrannulet  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH
    Camptostoma obsoletum flaviventre

  598. Mouse-colored Tyrannulet  (*)  ______  CB  mp(r)
    Phaeomyias murina eremonoma

  599. Paltry Tyrannulet  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  EP
    Zimmerius vilissimus parvus

    The Paltry Tyrannulet has also been called the Mistletoe Tyrannulet. It was conspecific with what is now the Venezuelan Tyrannulet of South America.

  600. Northern Scrub Flycatcher  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp(r)
    Sublegatus a. arenarum

  601. Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Tyrannulus elatus panamensis

  602. Brown-capped Tyrannulet  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Ornithion brunneicapillum

  603. Yellow-bellied Tyrannulet  ______
    Ornithion semiflavum

  604. White-fronted Tyrannulet  (PNt3)  (*)  ______ CH 
    Phyllomyias (burmeisteri) zeledoni

    The White-fronted Tyrannulet in Panama has also been known as the Zeledon's Tyrannulet. It is considered conspecific with the Rough-legged Tyrannulet of South America.

  605. Sooty-headed Tyrannulet  (PNt3) (*)  _____  EP
    Phyllomyias griseiceps

  606. Sepia-capped Flycatcher  (PNt3)  (ph)  ______  CB  mp
    Leptopogon amaurocephalus

  607. Slaty-capped Flycatcher  ______ 
    Leptopogon superciliaris

  608. Ochre-bellied Flycatcher  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH
    Mionectes oleagineus parcus 

  609. Olive-striped Flycatcher  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Mionectes olivaceus


  610. Fasciated Antshrike  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Cymbilaimus lineatus fasciatus

  611. Great Antshrike  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Taraba major melanocrissus 
    (the single member of its genus)

  612. Barred Antshrike  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  DL  EP
    Thamnophilus doliatus 
    (4 subspecies in Panama, 2 of them on offshore islands) 
    Thamnophilus doliatus nigricristatus 
    (subspecies in eastern Panama)

  613. Black Antshrike  (PNt3) (*)  ______  DL  EP  (species restricted to eastern Panama & Colombia)
    Thamnophilus n. nigriceps

  614. Black-crowned Antshrike  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Thamnophilus atrinucha 

    In 2013, the name of what was the Western Slaty Antshrike was changed to the Black-crowned Antshrike.
    Genetic evidence has shown that it is not related to the South American slaty-antshrikes.  

  615. Black-hooded Antshrike  (PNt2)  ______
    Thamnophilus bridgesi

  616. Speckled Antshrike  (t3) (PNt2)  ______  
    Xenornis setifrons

    The Speckled Antshrike has also been called the Spiny-faced Antshrike.

  617. Russet Antshrike  (*)  ______ CB  sp  CH
    Thamnistes anabatinus 
    (the single species in its genus)  (2 subspecies in Panama)
    Thamnistes anabatinus coronatus
    (subspecies in central & eastern Panama)
    Thamnistes anabatinus saturatus 
    (subspecies in western Panama)

  618. Plain Antvireo  (*)  ______ CB
    Dysithamnus mentalis  
    (2 subspecies in Panama)
    Dysithamnus mentalis septentrionalis 
    (subspecies in western Panama)
    Dysithamnus mentalis suffusus 
    (subspecies in eastern Panama)

  619. Spot-crowned Antvireo  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Dysithamnus p. puncticeps

  620. Moustached Antwren  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Myrmotherula ignota 

    The Moustached Antwren has been called the Griscom's Antwren. It was conspecific with the Pygmy Antwren of South America, Myrmotherula brachyura. 

  621. Checker-throated Antwren  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  (the British spelling is "Chequer-throated")
    Myrmotherula fulviventris 
    (2 subspecies in Panama)
    Myrmotherula fulviventris costaricensis 
    (subspecies in western Panama)
    Myrmotherula f. fulviventris 
    (subspecies in eastern Panama) 

  622. White-flanked Antwren  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Myrmotherula axillaris albigula 

  623. Slaty Antwren  (*)  ______ CH
    Myrmotherula s. schisticolor

  624. Pacific Antwren  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Myrmotherula pacifica  

    The Pacific Antwren has been called the Streaked Antwren when it was conspecific with what are now the Amazonian Streaked Antwren, M. multostriata, and the Guianan Streaked Antwren, M. surinamensis.

  625. Rufous-winged Antwren  ______
    Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus

  626. Dot-winged Antwren  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Microrhopias quixensis 
    (the single member of its genus) (2 subspecies in Panama) 
    Microrhopias quixensis virgatus 
    (subspecies in western Panama)
    Microrhopias quixensis consobrinus 
    (subspecies in eastern Panama)

  627. Northern White-fringed Antwren  (PNt2)  ______
    Formicivora intermedia 

    The Northern White-fringed Antwren occurs in Panama only on the larger islands of the Pearl Archipelago, and on some smaller islands immediately adjacent to them.
    The next location to the south for the species is northern Colombia.   

  628. Rufous-rumped Antwren  ______
    (formerly Terenura) callinota

  629. Dusky Antbird  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Cercomacra tyrannina rufiventris

  630. Jet Antbird  ______
    Cercomacra nigricans

  631. Bare-crowned Antbird  (*)  _____  CB  sp(r)
    Gymnocichla nudiceps

  632. White-bellied Antbird  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Myrmeciza longipes panamensis

  633. Dull-mantled Antbird  (*)  ______  CB  sp(r)  CH
    Myrmeciza l. laemosticta  

  634. Chestnut-backed Antbird  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Myrmeciza exsul 
    (3 subspecies in Panama)

  635. Zeledon's Antbird  ______
    Myrmeciza zeledoni

    In 2013, the Zeledon's Antbird was split from the Immaculate Antbird, Myrmeciza immaculata, of Colombia and Venezuela.
    The new Zeledon's Antbird ranges from Costa Rica to Ecuador.  

  636. Bicolored Antbird  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Gymnopithys leucaspis bicolor

    The Bicolored Antbird has been considered conspecific with the "White-cheeked Antbird" of northern South America.

  637. Spotted Antbird  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Hylophylax naeviodes 
    (2 subspecies in Panama)
    Hylophylax naeviodes capnitis 
    (subspecies in western  Panama)
    Hylophylax n. naevioides 
    (subspecies in eastern Panama)

  638. Wing-banded Antbird  ______  CB  sp
    Myrmornis torquata

  639. Ocellated Antbird  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Phaenostictus mcleannani 
    (the single species of its genus)  (3 subspecies in Panama)
    Phaenostictus m. mcleannani 
    (subspecies in east-central Panama)


  640. Silvery-fronted Tapaculo  (PNt3)  (*)   ______  CH
    Scytalopus argentifrons

  641. Tacarcuna Tapaculo  (t3) (PNt3)  ______
    Scytalopus panamensis

  642. Choco Tapaculo  (PNt3)  ______
    Scytalopus chocoensis


  643. Black-faced Antthrush  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Formicarius analis panamensis

  644. Black-headed Antthrush  ______
    Formicarius nigricapillus

  645. Rufous-breasted Antthrush  ______
    Formicarius rufipectus

  646. Black-crowned Antpitta  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Pittasoma michleri

  647. Scaled Antpitta  ______
    Grallaricula guatimalensis

  648. Ochre-breasted Antpitta  ______
    Grallaricula flavirostris

  649. Streak-chested Antpitta  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Hylopezus p. perspicillatus 
    (3 subspecies in Panama)

    Another name for Hylopezus perspicillatus has been Spectacled Antpitta.  

  650. Fulvous-bellied Antpitta  ______  
    Hylopezus dives

    The Fulvous-bellied Antpitta has also been called the Thicket Antpitta.


  651. Pale-breasted Spinetail  (*)  ______ CH
    Synallaxis albescens latitabunda

  652. Slaty Spinetail  ______
    Synalliaxis brachyura

  653. Red-faced Spinetail  (*)  ______ CH
    Cranioleuca erythrops rufigenis

  654. Coiba Spinetail  (t3) (PNt2) (PNe)  ______  
    Cranioleuca dissita

    The Coiba Spinetail is endemic to Coiba Island in Panama. This arboreal bird is fairly common there, but as it has such a small range, it is considered "vulnerable".
    Some consider the bird to be a subspecies of the Rusty-backed Spintail as Cranioleuca vulpina dissita.

  655. Double-banded Graytail  (PNt2) (*)  ______  EP
    Xenerpestes miniosi umbraticus 
    (the only other member of this genus is in the Andes of Ecuador & northern Peru)

  656. Spotted Barbtail  (*)  ______  CH
    Premnoplex brunnescens brunneicauda

  657. Beautiful Treerunner  (nt) (PNt2) (PNe)  ______
    Margarornis bellulus 

    The Beautiful Treerunner is one of less than a dozen species endemic to Panama.

  658. Ruddy Treerunner  (PNt3)  ______
    Margarornis rubiginosus

  659. Buffy Tuftedcheek  ______
    Pseudocolaptes lawrencii

  660. Western Woodhaunter  ______  
    Hyloctistes virgatus

    Hyloctistes virgatus
    was called the Striped Foliage-gleaner, and more recently the Striped Woodhaunter. It is now split from the Eastern Woodhaunter of South America.

  661. Lineated Foliage-gleaner  (*)  ______ CH
    Syndactyla subalaris lineata

  662. Scaly-throated Foliage-gleaner  (*)  ______ CH 
    Anabacerthia v. variegaticeps

    Anabacerthia variegaticeps
    has also been called the Spectacled Foliage-gleaner.

  663. Slaty-winged Foliage-gleaner  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Philydor fuscipennis

  664. Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner  ______
    Philydor rufus

  665. Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (or Automolus)  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Automolus ochrolaemus pallidigularis

  666. Ruddy Foliage-gleaner (or Automolus)  ______ 
    Automolus rubiginosus

  667. Streak-breasted Treehunter  (PNt3)  ______
    Tripacdectes rufobrunneus

  668. Plain Xenops  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Xenops minutus ridgwayi

  669. Streaked Xenops  ______
    Xenops rutilans

  670. Tawny-throated Leaftosser  ______  CB  sp
    Sclerurus mexicanus

  671. Gray-throated Leaftosser  (PNt3)  ______
    Sclerurus albigularis

  672. Scaly-throated Leaftosser  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Sclerurus guatemalensis

  673. Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper  (PNt3)  ______
    Lochmias nematura


  674. Plain-brown Woodcreeper  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Dendrocincla fuliginosa ridgwayi

  675. Tawny-winged Woodcreeper  (PNt2) (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Dendrocincla anabatina

  676. Ruddy Woodcreeper  (ph) (*)   ______ CB  sp
    Dendrocincla homochroas

  677. Long-tailed Woodcreeper  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Deconychura longicauda darienensis

  678. Olivaceous Woodcreeper  (*)  ______ CB  mp  CH  DL
    Sittasomus griseicapillus veraguensis

  679. Wedge-billed Woodcreeper  (*)  ______ CB  sp  CH
    Glyphorynchus spirurus sublestus

  680. Northern Barred-Woodcreeper  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae 
    (2 subspecies in Panama)
    Dendrocolaptes s. sanctithomae 
    (subspecies on the Pacific side of Panama)  
    Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae hesperius
      (subspecies in northwest Panama)

  681. Black-banded Woodcreeper  ______
    Dendrocolaptes picumnus

  682. Strong-billed Woodcreeper  (PNt3)  ______
    Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus

  683. Straight-billed Woodcreeper  (*)  ______ CB
    Xiphorhynchus picus extimus

  684. Cocoa Woodcreeper  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  DL  
    Xiphorhynchus susurrans  
    (3 subspecies in Panama)

    The Cocoa Woodcreeper was conspecific with the Buff-throated Woodcreeper of South America.

  685. Black-striped Woodcreeper  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Xiphorhynchus l. lachrymosus

  686. Spotted Woodcreeper  (*)  ______ CH
    Xiphorhynchus erythropygius insolitus

  687. Streak-headed Woodcreeper  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP  DL
    Lepidocolaptes souleyetii lineaticeps

  688. Spot-crowned Woodcreeper  (*)  ______ CH
    Lepidocolaptes affinis neglectus

  689. Brown-billed Scythebill  (*)  ______ CH
    Campylorhamphus pusillus borealis

  690. Red-billed Scythebill  (ph)  ______
    Campylorhamphus trochilirostris 


  691. Rufous-browed Peppershrike  (*)  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Cyclarhis gujanensis perrygoi

  692. Green Shrike-Vireo  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Vireolanius pulchellus viridiceps

  693. Yellow-browed Shrike-Vireo  (PNt3)  ______
    Vireolanius eximius

  694. Yellow-throated Vireo  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH
    Vireo flavifrons 

  695. Yellow-winged Vireo  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Vireo carmioli 

  696. Brown-capped Vireo  (*)  ______ CH  
    Vireo leucophrys chiriquensis

    The Brown-capped Vireo was at one time conspecific with the Warbling Vireo. 

  697. Philadelphia Vireo  (*)  ______  CB  sp  CH
    Vireo philadelphicus 

  698. Red-eyed Vireo  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH
    Vireo o. olivaceus

  699. Yellow-green Vireo  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH
    Vireo f. flavoviridis

  700. White-eyed Vireo  (ph)  ______
    Vireo griseus

  701. Blue-headed Vireo  (ph) ______
    Vireo solitarius

  702. Warbling Vireo  ______
    Vireo gilvus

  703. Black-whiskered Vireo  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Vireo altiloquus

  704. Scrub Greenlet  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Hylophilus flavipes viridiflavus

  705. Golden-fronted Greenlet  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Hylophilus a. aurantiifrons

  706. "Gray-headed" Lesser Greenlet  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH
    Hylophilus d. decurtatus 

  707. Tawny-crowned Greenlet  (*)  ______  CB  sp
    Hylophilus ochraceiceps


  708. Black-chested Jay  (*)  ______  CB  sp  EP  DL
    Cyanocorax affinis zeledoni

  709. Brown Jay  (ph) (*)  ______
    (formerly Cyanocorax) m, morio 

  710. Azure-hooded Jay  ______
    Cyanolyca cucullata

  711. Silvery-throated Jay  (PNt3)  ______
    Cyanolyca argentigula


  712. Cedar Waxwing  (ph) ______
    Bombycilla cedrorum

  713. Long-tailed Silky (-Flycatcher)  (PNt3) (ph) (*)  ______  CH
    Ptilogonys caudatus

  714. Black-and-Yellow Phainoptila  (PNt3)  ______
    Phainoptila melanoxantha


  715. Mangrove Swallow  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  CL
    Tachycineta albilinea 

  716. Tree Swallow  (ph) ______  CB  sp
    Tachycineta bicolor

  717. Violet-green Swallow  ______
    Tachycineta thalassina

  718. White-winged Swallow  (PNr)  ______  DN
    Tachycineta albiventer

    A White-winged Swallow observed in the Darien region of Panama on July 6, 1996 was said to be a first record for both Panama and for Central America.

  719. Purple Martin  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Progne subis 
    (3 subspecies migrate thru Panama)

  720. Gray-breasted Martin  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  DL  EP 
    Progne c. chalybea

  721. Southern Martin  ______
    Progne modesta

  722. Brown-chested Martin  (PNr) (ph)  ______  CB  sp(r)
    (formerly Phaeoprogne) tapera

  723. Blue-and-white Swallow  (*)  ______ CB  sp  CH
    (has also been Notiochelidon) cyanoleuca  (2 subspecies occur in Panama)
    Pygochelodon c. cyanoleuca 
    (subspecies in Central & northern South America)
    Pygochelodon cyanoleuca patagonia 
    (subspecies, a migrant from southern South America)

  724. White-thighed Swallow  ______  CB  sp
    Neochelidon tibialis

  725. Northern Rough-winged Swallow  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CL
    Stelgidopteryx serripennis 
    (3 subspecies occur in Panama)

  726. Southern Rough-winged Swallow  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH
    Stelgidopteryx ruficollis decolor 

  727. Bank Swallow (or Sand Martin)  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Riparia r. riparia

  728. Barn Swallow  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL
    Hirundo rustica erythrogaster

  729. American Cliff Swallow  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp
    (has been Hirundo) pyrrhonota

  730. Cave Swallow  (ph)  ______
    (has been Hirundo) fulva


  731. White-headed Wren  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CB  sp(r)
    Campylorhynchus a. albobrunneus 
    (1 of 2 subspecies in Panama)

    The White-headed Wren is closely related to the Band-backed Wren.

  732. Band-backed Wren  (*)  ______  CH  
    Campylorhynchus zonatus costaricensis 
    (1 of 2 subspecies in Panama)

    Another name for the Band-backed Wren is the Barred Wren.

  733. Black-throated Wren  (*)  ______
    Thryothorus atrogularis 

  734. Bay Wren  (*)  ______  CB  sp  CH 
    Thryothorus nigricapillus 
    (5 subspecies in Panama)

  735. Stripe-breasted Wren  (*)  ______ CH  
    Thryothorus thoracicus 

    The Stripe-breasted Wren has been considered conspecific with the Stripe-throated Wren of South America. 

  736. Rufous-breasted Wren  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH
    Thryothorus rutilus hyperythrus

  737. Black-bellied Wren  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Thryothorus fasciatoventris melanogaster

  738. Rufous-and-white Wren  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Thryothorus rufalbus castanonotus

  739. Buff-breasted Wren  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Thryothorus leucotis galbraithii

  740. Plain Wren  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH
    Thryothorus modestus elutus

  741. Canebrake Wren  ______  (has been considered part of the Plain Wren)
    Thryothorus zeledoni

  742. Sooty-headed Wren  (PNt3)  ______
    Thryothorus spadix

  743. Riverside Wren  (PNt2) (ph)  ______
    Thryothorus semibadius

  744. Stripe-throated Wren  ______
    Thryothorus leucopogon 

  745. (Southern) House Wren  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  DL  EP
    Troglodytes musculis
    (or aedon in part) inquietus

  746. Ochraceous Wren  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Troglodytes ochraceus ligea

  747. Timberline Wren  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Thryorchilus b. browni

  748. Sedge Wren  (PNt2) (ph)  ______
    Cistothorus stellaris 

  749. White-breasted Wood-Wren  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Henicorhina leucosticta darienensis

  750. Gray-breasted Wood-Wren  (*)  ______ CH  EP
    Henicorhina leucophrys collina

  751. "Panama Nightingale-Wren"  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Microcerculus (marginatus) luscinia  

    The "Panama Nightingale-Wren" has been called the Whistling Wren (or Whistling (Nightingale-) Wren). It is closely to, and probably conspecific with the Scaly-breasted Wren of South America, Microcerculus marginatus.    

  752. Song Wren  (*)  ______  CB  sp  EP
    Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus lawrencii

    The Song Wren us closely related to the Musician Wren of South America.  

  753. Black-capped Donacobius  (ph)  ______
    Donacobius atricapillus 


  754. Tropical Gnatcatcher  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Polioptila plumbea bilineata

  755. Slate-throated Gnatcatcher  (*)  ______  DN  EP
    Polioptila schistaceigula

  756. Long-billed Gnatwren  (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Ramphocaenus rufiventris panamensis 

    The Long-billed Gnatwren has been said by some to be separate from the "Straight-billed Gnatwren" of South America.

  757. Tawny-faced Gnatwren  (*)  ______  CB  sp  EP
    Microbates cinereiventris


  758. Black-faced Solitaire  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Myadestes melanops 

  759. Varied Solitaire  (PNt3)  ______
    Myadestes coloratus

  760. Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush  (*)  ______ CH
    Catharus aurantiirostris russatus

  761. Slaty-backed Nightingale-Thrush  (*)  ______ CH
    Catharus fuscater hellmayri

  762. Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush  (*)  ______ CH
    Catharus frantzii wetmorei

  763. Swainson's Thrush  (*)  ______  CB  mp  cp  CH
    Catharus ustulatus swainsoni

  764. Black-billed Nightingale-Thrush  (PNt3)  ______
    Catharus gracilirostris

  765. Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush  ______
    Catharus mexicanus

  766. Veery  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Catharus fuscessens

  767. Gray-cheeked Thrush  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Catharus minimus

  768. Wood Thrush  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Hylocichia mustelinus

  769. Sooty Thrush (or Robin)  (PNt3) (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Turdus nigrescens 

  770. Mountain Thrush (or Robin (*)  ______ CH
    Turdus p. plebejus

  771. Pale-vented Thrush (or Robin (*)  ______ CH 
    Turdus o. obsoletus

    The Pale-vented Thrush was considered conspecific with the Cocoa Thrush and the Hauxwell's Thrush, both of South America.

  772. Clay-colored Thrush (or Robin)  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  EP  DL
    Turdus grayi casius

  773. White-throated Thrush (or Robin (*)  ______  CH  CB  sp(r)
    Turdus assimilis cnephosus

    The White-throated Thrush was considered conspecific with the White-necked Thrush of South America.  


  774. Tropical Mockingbird  (PNi) (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  DL
    Mimus gilvus melanopterus 
    (introduced in Panama from Colombia)

  775. Gray Catbird  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH
    Dumetella carlinensis 


  776. Northern Wheatear  (PNr)  ______
    Oenanthe oenanthe

    There has been one Panamanian record of a Northern Wheatear in Chirqui in 2008.   


  777. (North) American Dipper  (*)  ______  CH
    Cinclus mexicanus ardesiacus  


  778. European Starling  (PNi) (ph)  ______
    Sturnus vulgaris

    3 records of the European Starling in Panama, in 1979, 2001, & 2008, were probably ship-assisted.  

  779. House Sparrow  (PNi) (*)  ______  CB  mp  CH 
    Passer domesticus

  780. Nutmeg Munia  (PNi) (PNr)  ______  CB  sp(v)   (also called Nutmeg Mannikin)
    Lonchura punctulata

  781. Tricolored Munia  (PNi) (PNr)  ______  CB  mp  sp(v)  (also called Tricolored Mannikin
    Lonchura malacca  


  782. Yellowish Pipit  (*)  ______ CL
    Anthus lutescens parvus


  783. Golden-browed Chlorophonia  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH  
    Chlorophonia callophrys 

    The Golden-browed Chlorophonia was, at one time, considered conspecific with the Blue-crowned Chlorophonia of northern Central America. 

  784. Yellow-collared Chlorophonia  (PNt3)  ______
    Chlorophonia flavirostris

  785. Yellow-crowned Euphonia  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Euphonia luteicapilla 

  786. Thick-billed Euphonia  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  DL  EP
    Euphonia laniirostris crassirostris

  787. Elegant Euphonia  (*)  ______  CH    
    Euphonia e. elegantissma 

    The Elegant Euphonia was called the Blue-hooded Euphonia. It is closely related to, and was conspecific with the Antillean Euphonia of the West Indies and the Golden-rumped Euphonia of South America.  

  788. Fulvous-vented Euphonia  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Euphonia f. fulvicrissa

  789. Spot-crowned Euphonia  (PNt2) (*)  ______
    Euphonia imitans 

  790. Olive-backed Euphonia  (ph) (*)  ______
    Euphonia gouldi praetermissa

  791. Tawny-capped Euphonia  (PNt3) (*)  ______
    Euphonia a. anneae

  792. Yellow-throated Euphonia  (PNt2) (ph)  ______
    Euphonia hirundinacea

  793. White-vented Euphonia  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Euphonia minuta

  794. Orange-bellied Euphonia  ______  DN
    Euphonia xanthogaster


  795. Lesser Goldfinch  (*)  ______ CB  mp  CH
    (or Astragalinus) psaltria colombiana

    Another name for Carduelis psaltria is the Dark-backed Goldfinch.

  796. Yellow-bellied Siskin  (*)  ______ CH
    (formerly Carduelis) x. xanthogastra  


  797. Black-and-white Warbler  (*) ______  CB  mp  sp  CH
    Mniotilta varia

  798. Prothonotary Warbler  (ph) (*) ______  CB  mp  sp
    Protonotaria citrea

  799. Worm-eating Warbler  ______  CB  mp(r)  sp(r)
    Helmitheros vermivorus

  800. Swainson's Warbler  (PNr)  ______  CB  sp(v)
    Limnothlypis swainsonii

    A single record for Panama of a Swainson's Warbler was in 2004.

  801. Golden-winged Warbler  (nt) (*) ______  CB  mp  sp  CH
    Vermivora chrysoptera

  802. Blue-winged Warbler  (ph) (*) ______  CH  sp
    Vermivora pinus

  803. Tennessee Warbler  (ph) (*) ______  CB  mp  sp  CH
    (formerly Vermivora) peregrina

  804. Nashville Warbler  (ph)  ______
    (formerly Vermivora) ruficapilla

  805. Virginia's Warbler  (PNr)  ______  CB
    (formerly Vermivora) virginiae

    A single record of the Virginia's Warbler in Panama was on the Pacific side in the Canal Basin in 2001.

  806. Northern Parula  (ph)  ______
    (formerly Parula) americana

  807. Tropical Parula  (*) ______  CH  EP
    (formerly Parula) pitiayumi speciosa

  808. Flame-throated Warbler  (PNt3) (*) ______  CH
    (formerly Parula) gutturalis

  809. Yellow Warbler  (ph) (*) ______  CB  mp  sp  CL
    (formerly Dendroica) petechia 

  810. Mangrove Warbler  (ph) (*) ______  CB 
    (formerly Dendroica) erithachorides 

    The Mangrove Warbler has been part of the Yellow Warbler (above), and by some it is still considered to be so..  

  811. Magnolia Warbler  (ph) (*) ______  CB  mp  sp
    (formerly Dendroica) magnolia

  812. Yellow-throated Warbler  (ph) (*) ______  CH
    (formerly Dendroica) dominica

  813. Chestnut-sided Warbler  (ph) (*) ______  CB  mp  sp  CH
    (formerly Dendroica) pensylvanica 

  814. Black-throated Green Warbler  (ph) (*) ______ CH
    (formerly Dendroica) virens 

  815. Blackburnian Warbler  (ph) (*) ______  CB  mp  sp  CH
    (formerly Dendroica) fusca

  816. Bay-breasted Warbler  (*) ______ CB  mp  sp  
    (formerly Dendroica) castanea

  817. Cape May Warbler  ______  CB  mp(r)  sp(r)
    (formerly Dendroica) tigrina

  818. Black-throated Blue Warbler  ______  CB  sp(r)
    (formerly Dendroica) caerulescens

  819. "Myrtle" Yellow-rumped Warbler  (ph)  ______ 
    (formerly Dendroica) c, coronata

  820. Townsend's Warbler  ______
    (formerly Dendroica) townsendi

  821. Hermit Warbler  ______
    (formerly Dendroica) occidentalis

  822. Pine Warbler  (ph)  ______
    (formerly Dendroica) pinus

  823. Prairie Warbler  (ph)  ______
    (formerly Dendroica) discolor

  824. Palm Warbler  ______
    (formerly Dendroica) palmarum

  825. Blackpoll Warbler  (ph)  ______  CB  mp(r)  sp(r)
    (formerly Dendroica) striata

  826. Cerulean Warbler  (t3)  ______  CB  mp(r)  sp
    (formerly Dendroica) cerulea

  827. Hooded Warbler  (PNr)  ______  CB  sp(r)
    (formerly Wilsonia) citrina

  828. Ovenbird  (ph)  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Seiurus aurocapillus

  829. Northern Waterthrush  (*) ______ CB  mp  sp
    (formerly Seiurus) n. noveboracensis

  830. Louisiana Waterthrush  (*) ______  CB  sp  CH
    (formerly Seiurus) motacilla

  831. Mourning Warbler  (ph) (*) ______  CB  CH
    (formerly Oporornis) philadelphia

  832. Olive-crowned Yellowthroat  (*) ______
    Geothlypis semiflava bairdi

  833. Common Yellowthroat  (ph)  ______  CB  sp(r)
    Geothylpis trichas

  834. Chiriqui Yellowthroat  ______   
    Geothylpis chiriquensis    

    The Chiriqui Yellowthroat of western Panama and adjacent Costa Rica has been considered part of the Masked Yellowthroat, Geothylpis aequinoctialis, now of northeastern South America.  

  835. Gray-crowned Yellowthroat  ______ 
    Geothylpis poliocephala

  836. Kentucky Warbler  ______  CB  sp
    (formerly Oporornis) formosus

  837. Mourning Warbler  ______  CB  mp  sp
    (formerly Oporornis) philadelphia

  838. MacGillivray's Warbler  (ph)  ______
    (formerly Oporornis) tolmiei

  839. Connecticut Warbler  (ph)  ______
    Oporornis agilis 
    (now the single member of its genus)

  840. Wilson's Warbler  (*) ______ CH
    (formerly Wilsonia) p. pusilla

  841. Canada Warbler  (ph)  ______  CB  mp  sp
    (formerly Wilsonia) canadensis

  842. American Redstart  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Setophaga ruticilla 
    (now said to be monotypic) (the single member of its genus)

  843. Slate-throated Whitestart  (*)  ______ CH
    Myioborus miniatus 
    (2 subspecies in Panama)
    Myioborus miniatus aurantiacus 
    (subspecies in western  Panama)
    Myioborus miniatus ballux 
    (subspecies in eastern  Panama) 

    Myioborus miniatus has also been called the Slate-throated Redstart.

  844. Collared Whitestart  (PNt3) (ph) (*) ______ CH
    Myioborus torquatus 

    Myioborus torquatus has also been called the Collared Whitestart.

  845. Stripe-crowned Warbler  (*)  ______ CH   
    Basileuterus culicivorus godmani

    Another name often used for Basileuterus culicivorus has been the Golden-crowned Warbler. 

  846. Chestnut-capped Warbler  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Basileuterus m. mesochrysus 
    (Another subspecies in Panama, B. m. aqctuosus,  restricted to the offshore Coiba Island)

    By some, the Chestnut-capped Warbler has been considered conspecific with the Rufous-capped Warbler of northern Middle America and Mexico. 
  847. Black-cheeked Warbler  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Basileuterus m. melanogenys

  848. Three-striped Warbler  (*)  ______ CH
    Basileuterus tristriatus melanotis

  849. Pirre Warbler  (t3) (PNt3)  ______
    Basileuterus ignotus

  850. Buff-rumped Warbler  (ph) (*) ______  CB  mp  sp  CH  EP
    Phaeothylpis fulvicauda 
    (3 subspecies in Panama)

    The Buff-rumped Warbler is closely related to the more-southerly Riverbank Warbler, that has also been called the Neotropical River Warbler, Phaeothylpis rivularis. 

  851. Zeledonia  (PNt3) (*) ______ CH
    Zeledonia coronata 

    Another name for Zelondia coronata has been the Wrenthrush.

  852. Yellow-breasted Chat  (ph) ______
    Icteria virens


  853. Crested Oropendola  (ph) (*)  ______ CB
    Psarocolius decumanus melanterus

  854. Chestnut-headed Oropendola  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp  CH 
    Psarocolius wagleri ridgwayi

  855. Black Oropendola  (PNt2) (*)  ______  DL  EP
    Psarocolius guatimozinus

  856. Montezuma Oropendola  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  sp
    Psarocolius montezuma 

  857. "Western" Yellow-rumped Cacique  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  DL
    Cacicus (cela) vitellinus 

    The "Western" Yellow-rumped Cacique is conspecific with the "Eastern" Yellow-rumped Cacique of South America.  

  858. Scarlet-rumped Cacique  (*) ______ CB  mp  sp
    Cacicus m. microrhynchus

  859. Yellow-billed Cacique  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    (formerly Cacicus) h. holosericeus

  860. Black-cowled Oriole  (*)  ______  
    Icterus prosthemelas praecox

    The Black-cowled Oriole was conspecific with what was the Greater Antillean Oriole, Icterus dominicensis, in the West Indies. 
    That species in the Caribbean has since been split into a few species: the Hispaniolan Oriole, the Puerto Rican Oriole, the Cuban Oriole, and the Bahama Oriole.     

  861. Orchard Oriole  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Icterus s. spurius

  862. Yellow-backed Oriole  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Icterus chrysater giraudii

  863. Yellow-tailed Oriole  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Icterus mesomelas carrikeri

  864. Orange-crowned Oriole  (*)  ______  CB  sp(r)  DL  EP
    Icterus auricapillus

  865. Baltimore Oriole  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH 
    Icteus galbula

    For a while, the Baltimore Oriole was conspecific with the Bullock's Oriole of the western US & Mexico. The two were then called the Northern Oriole. 

  866. Red-breasted Blackbird  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  CL  DL  EP
    (formerly Leistes) militaris  (monotypic) 

  867. Eastern Meadowlark  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  CH  CL  EP
    Sturnella magna subulata

  868. Yellow-headed Blackbird  (ph)  ______
    Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus

  869. Great-tailed Grackle  (ph) (*) ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  DL  EP
    Quiscalus mexicanus peruvianus

  870. Giant Cowbird  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Molothrus oryzivorus impacifa

  871. Bronzed Cowbird  (*)  ______  CB  mp  CH  
    Molothrus a. aeneus 

    Another name for Molothrus aeneus has been the Red-eyed Cowbird.

  872. Shiny Cowbird  (*)  ______  CB
    Molothrus bonariensis

    The Shiny Cowbird has recently increased in numbers in Panama. 

  873. Bobolink  (ph)  ______  CB  sp
    Dolichonyx oryzivorus


  874. Bananaquit  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CL  DL
    Coereba flaveola mexicana 


  875. Sooty-faced Finch  (PNt3)  ______
    Lysurus crassirostris

  876. Yellow-thighed Finch  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Pselliophorus tibialis

  877. Yellow-green Finch  (t3) (PNt2) (PNe)  ______
    Pselliophorus luteoviridis

    The Yellow-green Finch is one of less than a dozen species endemic to Panama.
  878. Large-footed Finch  (PNt3)  ______
    Pezopetes capitalis

  879. Yellow-throated Brush Finch  (*)  ______ CH 
    Atlapetes gutturalis brunnescens

  880. Chestnut-capped Brush Finch  ______
    (formerly Atlapetes) brunneinucha

  881. Black-headed Brush Finch  ______
    (formerly Atlapetes) atricapillus

    Both the Black-headed Brush Finch and the Costa Rican Brush Finch (below) were part of the Stripe-headed Brush Finch, Arremon turquatus, now of South America.    

  882. Costa Rican Brush Finch   ______  (the range is southwestern Costa Rica and adjacent western Panama)
    Arremon costaricensis

  883. Orange-billed Sparrow  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Arremon a. aurantiirostris

  884. Black-striped Sparrow  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Arremonops conirostris striaticeps

  885. Grasshopper Sparrow  (PNt1) (ph)  ______
    Ammodramus savannarum

  886. Lark Sparrow  (ph)  ______
    Chondestes grammacus

  887. Savannah Sparrow  (ph)  ______
    Passerculus sandwichensis

  888. Lincoln's Sparrow  ______  
    Melospiza lincolnii

  889. Rufous-collared Sparrow  (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Zonotrichia capensis costaricensis

  890. White-crowned Sparrow  (ph)  ______
    Zonotrichia leucophrys

  891. Volcano Junco  (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Junco vulcani 


  892. Black-and-yellow Tanager  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Chrysothlypis c. chrysomelas

  893. Yellow-backed Tanager  ______
    Hemithraupis flavicollis

  894. Common Bush Tanager  (*)  ______ CH
    Chlorospingus flavopectus
    (formerly ophthalmicus)  (3 subspecies in Panama) 
    Chlorospingus flavopectus regionalis 
    (subspecies in western Panama)
    Chlorospingus flavopectus novicius 
    (subspecies in the area of Boquete & the Volcan de Chiriqui eastern slope)
    Chlorospingus flavopectus punctulatus 
    (subspecies in western Panama)

    Throughout its extensive range in Central & South America, there are said to be 27 subspecies of the Common Bush Tanager.  

  895. Sooty-capped Bush Tanager  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Chlorospingus pileatus 
    (2 subspecies in Panama: C. p. pileatus & C. p. diversus)

  896. Yellow-throated Bush Tanager (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Chlorospingus flavigularis hypophaeus

  897. Ashy-throated Bush Tanager  (PNt3)  ______
    Chlorospingus canigularis

  898. Tacarcuna Bush Tanager  (PNt3)   ______
    Chlorospingus tacarcunae

    The Tacarcuna Bush Tanager has been considered a subspecies of the Common Bush Tanager (above). 

  899. Pirre Bush Tanager  (PNt3) (PNe)  ______
    Chlorospingus inornatus 

    The Pirre Bush Tanager is one of less than a dozen species endemic to Panama.

  900. Dusky-faced Tanager  (*)  ______  CB  sp  CH
    Mitrospingus c. cassinii

  901. Rosy Thrush-Tanager  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Rhodinocichla rosea eximia

  902. Carmiol's Tanager  ______  CB  sp
    Chlorothraupis carmioli

    The Carmiol's Tanager was conspecific with the Olive Tanager of South America.

  903. Lemon-spectacled Tanager  ______
    Chlorothraupis olivacea

  904. Gray-headed Tanager  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Eucometis penicillata cristata

  905. White-throated Shrike-Tanager  (PNt3)  ______
    Lanio leucothorax

  906. Sulphur-rumped Tanager  (PNt3) (*)  ______  CB  sp 
    Heterospingus rubrifrons 

    The Sulphur-rumped Tanager is closely related to the Scarlet-browed Tanager of eastern Panama & northwest South America. 

  907. Scarlet-browed Tanager  (PNt3)  ______
    Heterospingus xanthopygius

  908. White-shouldered Tanager  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Tachyphonus luctuosus panamensis

  909. Tawny-crested Tanager  (*)  ______ CB  sp  DN  EP
    Tachyphonus delatrii 

  910. White-lined Tanager  (*)  ______  CB  sp  CH
    Tachyphonus rufus 

  911. Red-crowned Ant-Tanager  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  CH
    Habia rubica vinacea

  912. Red-throated Ant-Tanager  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  mp  sp
    Habia fuscicauda willisi

  913. Tooth-billed Tanager  (*)  ______  CB  mp  CH  
    Piranga lutea testacea

    The Tooth-billed Tanager was part of the Hepatic Tanager. 

  914. Summer Tanager  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH
    Piranga r. rubra

  915. Scarlet Tanager  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Piranga olivacea 

  916. Flame-colored Tanager  (ph) (*)  ______ CH    
    Piranga bidentata citrea 

    The Flame-colored Tanager has also been called the Streak-backed Tanager. 

  917. White-winged Tanager  (*)  ______ CH
    Piranga leucoptera latifasciata

  918. Western Tanager  (ph)  ______
    Piranga ludoviciana

  919. Crimson-collared Tanager  (*)  ______ CH
    Phlogothraupis sanguinolenta apricus

  920. Crimson-backed Tanager  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  DL  EP  
    Ramphocelus d. dimidiatus

  921. Cherrie's Tanager  (PNt2) (ph) (*)  ______ CH  
    Ramphocelus costaricensis 

    The Cherrie's Tanager was, with the Passerini's Tanager (below), part of the former Scarlet-rumped Tanager. 

  922. Passerini's Tanger  (ph)  ______
    Ramphocelus passerini

  923. Lemon-rumped Tanager  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Ramphocelus (flammigerus) icteonotus

    The Lemon-rumped Tanager has been considered conspecific with the Flame-rumped Tanager of South America.

  924. Blue-gray Tanager  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  CL  DL  EP
    Thraupis episcopus cana

  925. Palm Tanager  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  EP
    Thraupis palmarum atripennis

  926. Blue-and-gold Tanager  (nt) (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH
    Bangsia a. arcaei 

  927. Plain-colored Tanager  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  DL  EP
    Tangara inornata languens

  928. Emerald Tanager  (*)  ______ CH
    Tangara f. florida

  929. Silver-throated Tanager  (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Tangara icterocephala frantzii

  930. Speckled Tanager  (ph) (*)  ______ CH
    Tangara guttata eusticta

  931. Bay-headed Tanager  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  sp(r)  CH  EP
    Tangara gyrola bangsi

  932. Golden-hooded Tanager  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Tangara larvata fanny

  933. Spangle-cheeked Tanager  (PNt3) (*) ______ CH
    Tangara dowii 

  934. Green-naped Tanager  (nt) (PNt2) (PNe)  ______
    Tangara fucosa 

    The Green-naped Tanager is one of less than a dozen species endemic to Panama. 

  935. Gray-and-gold Tanager  (PNt3)  ______
    Tangara palmeri

  936. Swallow Tanager  (ph)  ______
    Tersina viridis


  937. White-eared Conebill  (*)  ______ EP
    Conirostrum leucogenys panamense

  938. Scarlet-thighed Dacnis  (*)  ______  CB  sp  CH
    Dacnis v. venusta

  939. Blue Dacnis  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  EP
    Dacnis cayana ultramarina

  940. Viridian Dacnis  (nt) (PNt3)  ______
    Dacnis  viquieri

  941. Green Honeycreeper  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  EP
    Chlorophanes spiza aguta

  942. Shining Honeycreeper  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  EP
    Cyanerpes lucidus isthmicus

  943. Red-legged Honeycreeper  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  CL 
    Cyanerpes cyaneus carneipes

  944. Purple Honeycreeper  (ph)  ______  DN
    Cyanerpes caeruleus

  945. Slaty Flower-piercer  (PNt3) (ph) (*) ______ CH  
    Diglossa p. plumbea 

    The Slaty Flower-piercer is closely related to the Rusty Flower-piercer of South America. 


  946. Slaty Finch  ______
    Haplospiza rustica

  947. Peg-billed Finch  (PNt2)  ______
    Acanthidops bairdi

  948. Yellow-faced Grassquit  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  sp  CH  EP
    Tiaris olivacea pusillus

  949. Blue Seedeater  ______
    Amaurospiza concolor

  950. Variable Seedeater  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  DL  EP
    Sporophila corvina 
    (formerly Sporophila aurita) hoffmannii

    There are 2 other subspecies in Panama: S. c. corvina & S. c. hicksii.

  951. White-collared Seedeater  (ph) (*)  ______ CL
    Sporophila torqueola morelleti

  952. Yellow-bellied Seedeater  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Sporophila n. nigricollis

  953. Ruddy-breasted Seedeater  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  EP
    Sporophila minuta centralis

  954. Slate-colored Seedeater  ______  CB  mp(r)  sp(r)
    Sporophila schistacea

  955. Lesson's Seedeater  ______
    Sporophila bouvronides

  956. Lined Seedeater  (PNr)  ______
    Sporophila lineola

    A Lined Seedeater near Fort Sherman on January 2, 2000 was said to be the first record of the species for Panama. 

  957. Thick-billed Seed Finch  (*) ______ CB  sp  CH  
    Oryzoborus funereus ochrogyne

    The Thick-billed Seed Finch was conspecific with what is now the Chestnut-bellied Seed Finch of South America, Oryzoborus angolensis, and when so it was called the Lesser Seed Finch.   

  958. Nicaraguan Seed Finch  (PNt2)  ______
    Oryzoborus nuttingi

  959. Blue-black Grassquit  (*) ______ CB  mp  sp  CL  DL  EP
    Volatinia jacarina splendens 
    (the single member of its genus)

  960. Grassland Yellow-Finch  (PNt2) (*) ______ CB  EP
    Sicalis luteola eisenmanni

  961. Saffron Finch  (PNi) (ph) (*) ______ CB
    Sicalis f. flaveola 

  962. Wedge-tailed Grass Finch  (ph)  ______  
    Emberizoides herbicola


  963. Dickcissel  (ph)  ______  CB  sp
    Spiza americana

  964. Black-headed Saltator  (*)  ______ CB  sp
    Saltator atriceps lacertosus

  965. Buff-throated Saltator  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH  EP
    Saltator maximus intermedius

  966. Streaked Saltator  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH
    Saltator striatipectus isthmicus

  967. Slate-colored Grosbeak  ______  CB  sp
    (formerly Pitylus) grossus

  968. Black-faced Grosbeak  (*)  ______ CH
    Caryothraustes poliogaster scapularis

  969. Yellow-green Grosbeak  (PNt3)  ______
    Caryothraustes canadensis

  970. Black-thighed Grosbeak  (PNt3) (*)  ______ CH  
    Pheucticus tibialis 

    The Black-thighed Grosbeak is closely related to the more-northerly Mexican Yellow Grosbeak and the more-southerly Southern Yellow Grosbeak.  

  971. Rose-breasted Grosbeak  (ph) (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp  CH
    Pheucticus ludovicianus 

  972. Blue-black Grosbeak  (*)  ______ CB  mp  sp
    Cyanocompsa c. cyanoides

  973. Blue Grosbeak  (ph)  ______  CB  mp
    Guiraca c. caerulea

  974. Indigo Bunting  (ph) (*)  ______  CB  sp  CH
    Passerina cyanea 

  975. Painted Bunting  (ph)  ______
    Passerina ciris


Mammals & Other Wildlife &Nature during Focus On Nature Tours in Panama

  1. Mantled Howler Monkey  (ph)  ______ CB
    Alouatta palliata

  2. White-faced Capuchin  (ph) ______ CB
    Cebus olivaceus

  3. Red-naped (or Geoffrey's) Tamarin ______ CB
    Saguinus geoffroyi 

  4. Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth  (ph)  ______ CB
    Bradypus variegatus

  5. Hoffmann's Two-toed Sloth  (ph)  ______ CB
    Choloepus hoffmanni

  6. Northern Tamandua  (ph)  ______  CB
    Tamandua mexicana

    Another name for Tamandua mexicana is the Banded Anteater.

  7. Central American Agouti  (ph)  ______ CB
    Dasyprocta punctata 

  8. Tayra  ______  CB  CL
    Eira barbara

  9. White-nosed Coati  (ph)  ______ CB
    Nasua narica

  10. Nine-banded Long-nosed Armadillo  (ph)  ______ CB
    Dasypus novemcinctus

  11. Capybara  (ph)  ______ CB
    Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris

  12. Common Opossum ______ CB
    Didelphis marsupialis

  13. Collared Peccary  (ph)  ______ CB
    Tayassu tajacu

  14. White-tailed Deer  (ph)  ______
    Odocoileus virginianus

  15. Red-tailed Squirrel  (ph)  ______  CL  CH
    Sciurus granatensis

  16. Variegated Squirrel ______ CB
    Sciurus variegatoides

  17. Arboreal Rice Rat ______ CH
    Oryzomys spp.

  18. Bulldog or Fishing Bat  (ph)  ______  CB
    Noctilio leporinus

  19. other bats ______ CB

American Crocodile ______ CB

(Speckled) Caiman ______ CB 

Iguana ______ CB 

Basilisk ("Jesus Christ Lizard") ______ CB 

various other lizards ______ CB 
various fresh-water turtles ______ CB
Morpho Butterflies ______ CB 

various other butterflies & moths ______  CB  CL  CH
Leaf-cutter and other rainforest ants ______  CB


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