PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876



of Eastern 
North America 

in the 
Atlantic Ocean

including inshore and offshore waters
of coastal North Carolina, 
and south to Florida, north into Canada 
and beyond that to ICELAND 

A list compiled by Armas Hill

With those seen during FONT tours 
and pelagic trips with an (*)

Photo at upper right: AMERICAN SHAD, 
a fish in eastern North America in both salt and fresh water  

A fine & interesting book about the SHAD is "The Founding Fish" by John McPhee, 2002. 


A Listing of scheduled Focus On Nature Tours     Upcoming Focus On Nature Tours in North America

FONT Past Tour Highlights

Links, to groupings of fish in the following list:

Sharks    Sawfishes    Guitarfish    Sturgeons    Gars    Tarpon     Skates & Rays     

Anchovies     Herrings     Smelts     Salmon     Opah     Hakes     Cods

Goosefishes (inc "Monkfish")     Frogfishes (inc Sargassum Fish)     Mullets 

Flying Fish     Seahorses     Dolphin Fish     Remoras     Jacks & Pompanos      Pomfrets

Snappers     Mojarras     Grunts     Porgies     Drums     Goatfishes     Sea Chubs     

Tunas & Mackerels
     Billfishes     Flounders    Sunfish & Molas 

Other Links:

Other Marine Life of Eastern North America  (except Marine Mammals) (with some photos)

Mammals of Eastern North America  (with some photos)

A List & Photo Gallery of North American Birds, in 6 Parts

Other Nature of Eastern North America  (with some photos):
    Moths    Dragonflies & Damselflies    Amphibians & Reptiles



All of the following either along the coast or offshore

DE   in Delaware 
FL   in Florida
MA  in Massachusetts

MD  in Maryland
NC   in North Carolina
NH   in New Hampshire

NJ   in New Jersey 
NF   in Newfoundland, Canada 
IW:  in Icelandic waters

(p)   seen pelagically during an offshore FONT trip 

(FGCF:xx)  refers to the page with an illustration in the book "A Field Guide to Coastal Fishes, from Maine to Texas", by Val Kells & Kent Carpenter, 2011.    

These classifications by the ICUN (International Union for Conservation of Nature)
of threatened & near-threatened species; 
(t1):  critically endangered
(t2):  endangered
(t3);  vulnerable  
(nt):  near-threatened 

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website

   THRESHER SHARKS  (Family Alopiidae)  

  1. Thresher Shark  (t3) (*)  ______  MD  NC  NJ (p)  (FGCF:65)
    Alopias vulpinus 

    The Thresher Shark grows to 20 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 642 pounds on June 19, 2009. In New Jersey waters 617 pounds in 2004.

  2. Bigeye Thresher  (t3)  ______  NC  (FGCF:65)
    Alopias superciliosus

    The Bigeye Thresher grows to 15 feet in length.

    BASKING SHARK  (Family Cetorhinus)

  3. Basking Shark  (t3) (*)  ______ NC  NJ (p)  IW  (FGCF:67)
    Cetorhinus maximus

    The Basking Shark is the world's second largest fish (after the Whale Shark). It can be over 30 feet long and weigh more than 4 tons; and it can jump completely out of the water.



    With its mouth open, a Basking Shark

    SOME COMMENTARY REGARDING SHARKS  (38 species are in this list):

    The shark fin trade has contributed to catastrophic declines of shark populations worldwide. It threatens to disrupt ocean ecosystems and encourages the proliferation of other predators, which in turn diminishes stocks of fish for human consumption.
    Finning is the cutting off the fins of sharks and then throwing the fish back into the ocean, often while still alive.
    The fins are used in the preparation of shark fin soup, which has been considered a Chinese delicacy.

    Countries that currently have shark finning regulations include: American Samoa, Argentina, Australia (most states & territories), the Bahamas, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, the European Union, Honduras, India, Mexico, Namibia, Nicaragua, Oman, Panama, South Africa, and the United States.

    Overall, 2011 was a key year for shark conservation. Hopefully, the realization will continue of the value of a healthy shark population for ecosystems and economies, supporting a policy of protecting sharks in the waters of the world.

    A good and informative book about sharks is "The Shark Watcher's Handbook", by Mark Carwardine & Ken Watterson, published in 2002.     

    SAND TIGER SHARKS  (Family Odontaspididae)

  4. Sand Tiger Shark  (t3)  ______  NC  NJ  (FGCF:65)
    Carcharias taurus

    The Sand Tiger Shark is not to be confused with the Sand Shark or the Tiger Shark (both below), and even though its scientific name, Carcharias taurus,  means "bull shark", it is not to be confused with the Bull Shark (also below).   

    The Sand Tiger Shark grows to a length of 19.4 feet. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 246 pounds in 1989 in the Delaware Bay.   

  5. Smalltooth Sand Tiger Shark  (t3)  ______  FL  NC  (also called the Bumpytail Ragged-tooth Shark)
    Odontaspis ferox  

    MACKEREL SHARKS  (Family Lamnidae)

    Four types of fish
    have been found by the Food & Drug Administration of the US government to often have mercury levels above 1 part per million (ppm): shark, King Mackerel, Swordfish, and Tilefish.
    These species accumulate mercury as they grow larger because they consume large amounts of small fish.
    All four species just noted combined add up to a very small amount (about 1 per cent) of the fish Americans eat. The average mercury level in all the types of fish Americans east is low - 0.086 ppm, weighted for consumption.   

  6. Great White Shark  (t3)  ______  MD  NC  NJ  (FGCF:67)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Carcharodon carcharias

    The Great White Shark grows up to 19 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 467 pounds on June 11, 1992. In New Jersey waters 759 pounds in 1988.  

  7. Shortfin Mako  ______  MD  NC  NJ  (FGCF:67)
    Isurus oxyrinchus

    The Shortfin Mako grows up to 8 feet in length.  

  8. Longfin Mako  (t3)  ______  MD  NC  NJ  (FGCF:67)  (species described in 1966)
    Isurus paucus

    The Longfin Mako grows up to 13 feet in length.

    The record weight of a Mako Shark in Maryland waters was 876 pounds on June 20, 2009. In New Jersey waters 856 pounds in 1994.  

  9. Porbeagle  (t3)  ______  NC  IW  (FGCF:67)
    Lamma nasus
    (Range: Iceland south to North Carolina) 

    The Porbeagle grows up to 8 feet in length.


    Above: the jaws of a shark
    Below: up to five rows of the shark's sharp teeth

    REQUIEM SHARKS  (Family Carcharhinidae) 

  10. Bull Shark  ______  NC  (FGCF:71 
    Carcharhinus leucas

    The Bull Shark grows up to 11 feet in length. 

  11. Blacknose Shark  ______  NC  (FGCF:69)
    Carcharhinus acronotus

    The Blacknose Shark grows up to 4.6 feet in length.

  12. Bignose Shark  ______  (FGCF:71)  (species described in 1950) 
    Carcharhinus altimus

    The Bignose Shark grows up to 9.8 feet in length.

  13. Spinner Shark  ______  NC  (FGCF:71)
    Carcharhinus brevipinna

    The Spinner Shark grows up to 9 feet in length.

  14. Silky Shark  ______  NC  (FGCF:71)
    Carcharhinus falcifornis

    The Silky Shark grows up to 10.8 feet in length.

  15. Finetooth Shark  ______  NC(rare)  (FGCF:71)
    Carcharhinus isodon

    The Finetooth Shark grows up to 6.5 feet in length.

  16. Blacktip Shark  ______  MD  NC  (FGCF:73)
    Carcharhinnus limbatus

    The Blacktip Shark grows up to 8.4 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 193 pounds on August 4, 1991.

  17. Oceanic Whitetip Shark  (t3)  ______  NC  (FGCF:73)
    Carcharhinnus longimannus 

    The Oceanic Whitetip Shark roams the open ocean, usually far from shore. It may be the most numerous large shark in the world. Some large schools have been observed, but lone individuals seem to be more common.

    Oceanic Whitetip Sharks are often seen in association with other creatures at sea including Dolphin Fish and tuna. 
    They are also known to follow several species of whales. 
    When they are with a pod of Short-finned Pilot Whales, the sharks perhaps take advantage of the whales' remarkable ability to find squid by echolocation, or they may feed on injured individuals.

    Oceanic Whitetip Sharks can sometimes be seen cruising at the surface of the water, with their large pectoral fins conspicuously outspread, and they have been observed raising their snouts high into the air.
    Scientists have determined that by sniffing the air the sharks can respond to the smell of food more quickly, and from a grater distance than if they relied only on the odor reaching them underwater.
    Once they have found food, Oceanic Whitetip Sharks can be very aggressive and will dominate other shark species at the feast. 

    The Oceanic Whitetip Shark grows up to 13 feet in length. It is said to be a potentially high risk danger to divers. 

  18. Dusky Shark  (t3)  ______  MD  NC  NJ  (FGCF:73)
    Carcharhinnus obscurus

    The Dusky Shark grows up to 12 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 469 pounds on July 1, 1982. In New Jersey waters 530 pounds in 1987.  

  19. Sandbar Shark  (t3)  ______  MD  NC  NJ  (FGCF:73)
    Carcharhinus plumbeus

    The Sandbar Shark grows up to 7.8 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 235 pounds on July 8, 1983. In New Jersey waters 168 pounds 8 ounces in 1987.

  20. Tiger Shark  ______  MD  NC  NJ  IW  (FGCF:75)
    Galeocerdo cuvier

    The Tiger Shark grows up to 18 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 1,210 pounds on September 8, 1983. In New Jersey waters 880 pounds in 1988. 

  21. Tope  ______  IW
    Galeorhinus galeus

  22. Lemon Shark  ______  NC  (FGCF:75)
    Negaprion brevirostris

    The Lemon Shark grows up to 11 feet in length. 

  23. Blue Shark  (nt) (*)  ______ MD  NC  NJ (p)  (FGCF:75)
    Prionace glauca

    The Blue Shark grows up to 12.5 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 280 pounds on September 13, 1997. In New Jersey waters 366 pounds in 1996.

  24. Atlantic Sharpnose Shark  ______  NC  (FGCF:75)
    Rhizoprionodon terraenovae

    The Atlantic Sharpnose Shark grows up to 3.6 feet in length.

    HAMMERHEAD SHARKS  (Family Sphyrindae)

  25. Scalloped Hammerhead  (t2)  ______  MD  NC  NJ  (FGCF:77)
    Sphyrna lewini
    (Range: from New Jersey to Florida, and south) 

    The Scalloped Hammerhead grows up to 13.8 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 266 pounds on August 8, 2012. In New Jersey waters 365 pounds in 1985.

  26. Great Hammerhead  (t2)  ______  NC  (FGCF:77)
    Sphyrna mokarran
    (Range: North Carolina to Florida, and south)

    The Great Hammerhead grows to 19.7 feet in length.  

  27. Bonnethead  ______  NC  (FGCF:77)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  
    Sphyrna tiburo

    The Bonnethead grows up to 5 feet in length.

  28. Smooth Hammerhead  (t3)  ______  MD  NC  (FGCF:77)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Sphyrna zygaena

    The Smooth Hammerhead grows up to 13 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 375 pounds on June 17, 2004.

    BRAMBLE SHARKS  (Family Echinorhinidae)

  29. Bramble Shark  ______  (FGCF:79)
    Echinorhinus brucus

    The Bramble Shark grows up to 10 feet in length.

    CATSHARKS  (Family Scyliorhinidae)

  30. Deepsea Catshark  ______  IW
    Apristurus laurussonii

  31. Marbled Catshark  ______  NC  (FGCF:69)
    Galeus arae

    The Marbled Catshark grows up to 13 inches in length.

  32. Galeus murinus  ______  IW

  33. a Catshark  ______  IW
    Scyliorhinus canicula  

  34. Chain Dogfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:69)
    Scyliorhinus retifer

    The Chained Dogfish grows up to 23 inches in length.

    HOUND SHARKS  (Family Triakidae)

  35. Smooth Dogfish  ______  MD  NC  NJ  (FGCF:69)
    Mustelus canis

    The Smooth Dogfish grows up to 5 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 15 pounds, 5 ounces on May 22, 1993. In New Jersey waters 19 pounds 8 ounces in 2000.  

    DOGFISH SHARKS  (Family Squalidae)

    With their obvious shark-like bodies, the "Dogfish" or "Huss" in the SQUALIDAE family are immediately recognizable as "sharks".
    However, the sheer number of shark species is confusing, and is often all the more so with different regional names.
    It should be borne in mind that some sharks have been fished excessively, and thus with them there are sustainability issues.

    Alternatives, as food, would include "monkfish", cod, and skate.

    Regarding the Dogfish Sharks, in SQUALIDAE, they are nutritious, low in fat and easy to digest. The pink, dense and meaty flesh has a strong game-like taste that goes well with robust flavors and in tomato-based soups and stews. It lends itself to the cooking methods used for tuna and swordfish, and can also be baked, stir-fried, pan-fried or grilled (broiled).

    Huss (or "dogfish") is available whole, but it is usually skinned before purchase. After the head and skin have been removed, the fish can be filleted in a similar way to "monkfish".
    After the central cartilage has been removed, there are no other bones to extract.         

  36. Spiny Dogfish  (t3)  ______  MD  NC  NJ  IW  (FGCF:79)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Squalus acanthias 

    The Spiny Dogfish grows up to 6.5 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 11 pounds, 8 ounces on May 17, 1993. In New Jersey waters 15 pounds 12 ounces in 1990.

    Another name for Squalus acanthias is Spurdog.

  37. Cuban Dogfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:79)  (species described in 1936)
    Squalus cubensis

    The Cuban Dogfish grows up to 3.6 feet in length.

  38. Roughskin Dogfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:79)  (species described in 1973)
    Cirrhigaleus asper

    The Roughskin Dogfish grows up to 3.8 feet in length.

  39. Birdbeak Dogfish  ______  IW
    Deania calceus  

    LANTERN SHARKS  (Families Etmopteridae and Somniosidae)

    The genus Centroscyllium in the family SOMNIOSIDAE.

  40. Black Dogfish Shark  ______  IW  (FGCF:81)
    Centroscyllium fabricii
    (Range: from Iceland and Greenland to Virginia)

    The Black Dogfish Shark grows up to 3.5 feet in length. 

  41. Centroscyllium coelolepis  ______  IW

  42. Centroscyllium crepidater  ______  IW  

  43. Centroscyllium obscurus  ______  IW  (was Scymnodon obscurus)

  44. Broadband Lantern Shark  ______  NC  (FGCF:81)  (species described in 1968)
    Etmopterus gracilispinis
    (Range: from Virginia to Florida, also Uruguay, Argentina, South Africa) 

    The Broadband Lantern Shark grows up to 13 inches in length.

  45. Etmopterus princeps  ______  IW

  46. Velvet belly Lantern Shark  ______  IW
    Etmopteris spinax

    SLEEPER SHARKS  (Family Somniosidae)

  47. Portuguese Shark  (nt)  ______  NC   (FGCF:81)
    Centroscymnus coelolepis

    The Portuguese Shark grows to 4 feet in length.

  48. Greenland Shark  (nt)  ______  IW  (FGCF:81)
    Somniosus microcephalus
    (Range: in Arctic and North Atlantic waters south rarely to Massachusetts)

    The Greenland Shark grows to 21 feet in length. 

    KITEFIN SHARKS  (Family Dalatiidae)

  49. Kitefin Shark  ______  NC  (FGCF:81)
    Dalatias licha

    The Kitefin Shark grows to 5.2 feet in length. 

    ANGEL SHARKS  (Family Squatinidae)

  50. Atlantic Angel Shark  ______  NC  (FGCF:83)
    Squatina dumeril

    The Atlantic Angel Shark grows to 5 feet in length.  

    SAWFISHES  (Family Pristidae)

  51. Smalltooth Sawfish  (t1)  ______  (FGCF:83)
    Pristis pectinata

    The Smalltooth Sawfish grows to 18 feet in length.

  52. Largetooth Sawfish  (t1) (ph)  ______  (FGCF:83)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Pristis pristis

    The Largetooth Sawfish has recently been included, by scientists from throughout the world, in a list (compiled in 2012) of the 100 most endangered species of life on our planet. 
    It is said to have disappeared from 95 per cent of its historical range. 

    The Largetooth Sawfish grows to 20 feet in length.

    Here's a link to:  THE 100 MOST ENDANGERED SPECIES IN THE WORLD       

    GUITARFISHES  (Family Rhinobatidae)

  53. Atlantic Guitarfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:85)
    Rhinobatos lentiginosus     

    SKATES  (Family Rajidae, or Archynchobatidae)

    SKATES are found in all the oceans of the world. They are kite-shaped, cartilaginous flat fish with long thin tails. The skin color varies in different species.

    Skates are edible, and among them, regardless of the species, the texture is much the same. The flesh of skates is unique and recognizable as it peels away from the cartilage in long strands. It has a distinctive, strong and somewhat earthy flavor.

    A whole skate is uncommon in a fish market because only the fins (usually known as the wings) and the cheeks (also known as the knobs) can be eaten.
    The skin is difficult to remove, and so it is better for the fish supplier to skin the wings. The fish should have a fresh smell. An ammonia-like smell is a sign that the fish is not fresh.

    Wings and knobs can be poached, fried, baked, or cooked in a parcel or package of greaseproof (wax) foil.      

  54. Thorny Skate  (t3)  ______  NC  IW  (FGCF:85)  (another name is Starry Ray)
    Amblyraja radiata 
    (was Raja radiata)

  55. Barndoor Skate  (t2)  ______  NC  (FGCF:85)
    Dipturus laevis
    (Range: from Newfoundland to North Carolina)

  56. Prickly Brown Ray  ______  NC  (FGCF:87)  (species described in 1951)
    Dipturus teevani

  57. Underworld Windowskate  ______  (FGCF:87)  (another name is Pluto Skate)
    Fenestraja plutonia

  58. Little Skate  ______  NC  (FGCF:87)
    Leucoraja erinacea
    (Range: from Newfoundland to North Carolina) 

  59. Rosette Skate  ______  NC  (FGCF:87)  (species described in 1939)
    Leucoraja garmani
    Leucoraja garmani virginica
    (subspecies from Massachusetts to North Carolina)
    Leucoraja garmani garmani  ______ 
    (subspecies from North Carolina to Florida)

  60. Winter Skate  (t2)  ______  NC  (FGCF:89)
    Leucoraja ocellata
    (Range: from Newfoundland to South Carolina)

  61. Smooth Skate  (t2)  ______  (FGCF:89)
    Mabacoraja senta
    (Range: from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Maine)

  62. Clearnose Skate  ______  NC  (FGCF:89)
    Raja eglanteria

  63. Raja batis  ______  IW

  64. Thornback Skate (or Ray)  ______  IW
    Raja clavata

  65. Shagreen Ray  ______  IW
    Raja fullonica  

  66. Raja fyllae  ______  IW

  67. Raja hyperborea  ______  IW

  68. Pale Ray  ______  IW
    Raja lintea

  69. Raja nidarosiensis  ______  IW

  70. Soft Skate  ______  IW
    Raja spinacidermis

  71. Spinytail Skate  ______  IW
    (or Raja) spinicauda

    AMERICAN ROUND STINGRAYS  (Family Urotrygonidae)

  72. Yellow Stingray  (ph)   ______  NC  (FGCF:89)
    Urobatis jamaicensis

    Yellow Stingray

    WHIPTAIL STINGRAYS  (Family Dasyatidae)

  73. Atlantic Stingray  ______  NC  (FGCF:91)
    Dasyatis sabina

  74. Southern Stingray  (ph)   ______  NC  (FGCF:91)
    Dasyatis americana

    Southern Stingray
    (photo courtesy of Diane Allison)

  75. Roughtail Stingray  ______  NC  (FGCF:91)
    Dasyatis centroura

  76. Bluntnose Stingray  ______  NC  (FGCF:91)
    Dasyatis say

  77. Pelagic Stingray  ______  NC  (FGCF:91)
    Pteroplatytrygon violacea

    BUTTERFLY RAYS  (Family Gymnuridae)

    BUTTERFLY RAYS form a small family of 2 genera and at least 13 species. They are mainly tropical, and occasionally warm-temperate marine fishes, found throughout the world, mostly in relatively shallow waters.

  78. Spiny Butterfly Ray  (t3)  ______  NC  (FGCF:93)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Gymnura altavela

    Spiny Butterfly Rays have a width up to 6.8 feet. 

  79. Smooth Butterfly  ______  NC  (FGCF:93)
    Gymnura micrura

    EAGLE RAYS  (Family Myliobatidae)

    are marine fishes that are found in near-shore tropical to temperate waters worldwide. There are 5 genera and 27 species.

  80. Cownose Ray  ______  NC  (FGCF:95)
    Rhinoptera bonasus 

  81. Spotted Eagle Ray  (ph)  ______  NC  (FGCF:93)
    Aetobatus narinari

  82. Bullnose Ray  ______  NC  (FGCF:93)
    Myliobatis greminvillei

  83. Southern Eagle Ray  ______  NC  (FGCF:93)
    Myliobatis goodei

  84. Giant Manta  (nt) (*)  ______  NC(p)  NJ (p)  (FGCF:95)
    Manta birostris 
    (was in the Family Mobulidae)

  85. Devil Ray  ______  NC  (FGCF:95)
    Mobula hypostoma

    STURGEONS  (Family Acipenseridae
    in the Order Acipenseriformes)

    The STURGEONS are an old group of anadromous and freshwater fishes. The family is comprised of 4 genera and 25 species found throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere.

    STURGEONS are oviparous. 

    Some species species make a kind of squeaking sound.  

    In this "old group", among the oldest known are actual fossils from a Late Cretaceous Period in Alberta, Canada, going back about 80 to 85 million years, which are little more than fragments of ornamented bone. 
    But it is thought that  STURGEONS may go back to the Early Cretaceous, perhaps 130 million years ago. Their sister group, the PADDLEFISHES, are known from that period.
    A wonderfully preserved fossil STURGEON (Priscosturion longipinnis) from the Late Cretaceous has been found in the gut of a fossil HADROSAUR.        

  86. Shortnose Sturgeon  (t3)  ______  MA(very rare)  MD(very rare)  (FGCF:95)
    Acipenser brevirostrum

    The Shortnose Sturgeon and the Atlantic Sturgeon (below) are both classified as endangered in Massachusetts and New Jersey, and they are both classified as federally endangered by the US government.   
    The Shortnose Sturgeon is also classified as endangered in North Carolina. 

  87. Atlantic Sturgeon  (nt) (ph)  ______  MA(very rare)  MD(very rare)  NJ  (FGCF:95)
    Acipenser oxyrinchus

    As of early February in 2012, some populations of the Atlantic Sturgeon were designated by the US government as endangered. Four populations, including the New York bight group in the Delaware River, the Chesapeake Bay, and the Carolina coast, were categorized as endangered. Another group in the Gulf of Maine was listed as threatened.

    The Atlantic Sturgeon is classified as endangered by the state of Delaware. 

    In the Delaware River & Bay before 1890, there were an estimated 180,000 adult female Atlantic Sturgeons spawning. Now, the total spawning adults in that area is believed to number less than 300.

    During the late 1800s and early 1900s, the number of large bony-backed sturgeons in the Delaware was large enough to support a lucrative fish and caviar industry. 

    Sturgeons are ranked as the most primitive of bony fishes, with ties to species that swan in oceans and rivers during the time of the dinosaurs. (See general note above.)

    The "endangered" classification was justified due to threats by fishing, poor water quality, and either the possibility of dams that could disrupt spawning or dredging in spawning areas (such as the Delaware Bay), along with "vessel hits" in the Delaware River & Bay, where there were vessel strikes that killed 29 sturgeon between 2004 & 2008.

    Atlantic Sturgeon grow to a length of 14 feet and can weigh several hundred pounds. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 82 pounds in 1994.

    Atlantic Sturgeon

  88. a sturgeon  ______  IW
    Acipenser sturio

    GARS  (Family Lepisosteidae)

  89. Longnose Gar  ______  MD(rare)  NC  (FGCF:97)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Lepisosteus osseus

    The Longnose Gar grows to a length of 6.5 feet. The record weight in Maryland waters was 17 pounds on July 31, 2011, in the Pocomoke River.

    TENPOUNDERS  (Family Elopidae)

  90. Ladyfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:97)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Elops saurus

    TARPONS  (Family Megalopidae)

  91. Tarpon  ______  NC  NJ  (FGCF:97)
    Megalops atlanticus

    The Tarpon grows to a length of 7.2 feet. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 53 pounds in 1982. 

    BONEFISHES  (Family Albulidae)

    are tropical fishes, although a few species wander into temperate waters. They are found in marine, estuarine, and occasionally freshwater throughout the world. 

    It has been long thought that in the family there were only a few species in 2 genera, but now, based on molecular studies, taxonomists are unsettled  and all is confusion, as what was once thought to be the worldwide Albula vulpes is now understood to be a number of similar-appearing species.

    BONEFISHES are oviparous, and have large leptocephali larvae.   

  92. Bonefish  ______  NC  (FGCF:97)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Albula vulpes

    FRESHWATER EELS  (Family Anguillidae) 

  93. American Eel  ______  NC  NH  NJ  (FGCF:99)
    Anguilla rostrata  

    The American Eel is a nocturnal forager. The species is catadromous. It grows to a length of 5 feet. The record weight in New Hampshire waters was 8 pounds on July 6, 1975. In New Jersey waters 6 pounds, 13 ounces in 2005, in the Round Valley Reservoir.  

    An excellent book about eels is "Eels, an Exploration from New Zealand to the Sargasso, of the World's Most Mysterious Fish", Harper Collins Publishers, 2010.  

    The Eels in the genus ANGUILLA are snake-like in appearance. In addition to Anguilla rostrata, the American Eel, in the genus, there is also the critically-endangered species Anguilla anguilla, the European Eel.

    The Freshwater Eels, in the Family Anguillidae (above and below), and the Conger Eel (below) have been considered edible, but now there are serious sustainability issues surrounding both, so alternatives should be considered.   

  94. European Eel  (t1)  ______  IW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Anguilla anguilla   

    MORAY EELS  (Family Muraenidae)

    The MURAENIDS are tropical and warm-temperate marine fishes, some of which routinely enter fresh water. There are in all maybe 15 genera and around 185 species.

    MORAYS are oviparous and have planktonic leptocephalus larvae. A Leptocephalus larva is thin, fairly large, and leaf-shaped, and can take a number of months to metamorphose into a juvenile.

    "Moray" seems to be derived from the Greek word for "lamprey".  

  95. Blacktail Moray  ______  NC  (FGCF:101)  (species described in 1980)
    Gymnothorax kolpos

  96. Spotted Moray  ______  NC  (FGCF:101)  
    Gymnothorax moringa

  97. Honeycomb Moray  ______  NC  (FGCF:101)  (also called Ocellated Moray)
    Gymnothorax saxicola

  98. Purplemouth Moray  ______  NC  (FGCF:103)
    Gymnothorax vicinus

  99. Reticulate Moray  ______  NC  (FGCF:103)
    Muraena retifera

    and WORM EELS  (Family Ophichthidae)

  100. Spotted Spoon-nose Eel  ______  NC  (FGCF:103)
    Echiophis intertinctus 

  101. Speckled Worm Eel  ______  NC  (FGCF:103)
    Myrophis punctatus

  102. Shrimp Eel  ______  (FGCF:105)
    Ophichthus gomesii

  103. Pale-spotted Eel  ______  NC  (FGCF:105)
    Ophiichthus puncticeps

    CONGER EELS  (Family Congridae)

  104. Bandtooth Conger Eel  ______  NC  (FGCF:105)
    Ariosoma balaericum

  105. European Conger Eel  ______  IW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Conger conger

    The European Conger Eel grows up to 9.8 feet and weighs up to 110 pounds, making it the largest eel in the world.

  106. American Conger Eel  ______  NC  (FGCF:105)
    Conger oceanicus

    The American Conger Eel grows to 6.5 length in length.

    ANCHOVIES  (Family Engraulidae)

  107. Striped Anchovy  ______  NC  (FGCF:107)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Anchoa hepsetus

  108. Dusky Anchovy  ______  NC  (FGCF:107)
    Anchoa lyolepis

  109. Bay Anchovy  ______  NC  (FGCF:107)
    Anchoa mitchilli

  110. Silver Anchovy  ______  NC  (FGCF:107)
    Engraulis eurystole

    Fresh anchovies in the widespread genus ENGRAULIS, including the European Anchovy, Engraulis encrasiclous, are often startlingly attractive with vivid, deep blue backs and shiny, silvery flanks.
    These fish are closely related to sardines and herrings (below). 
    The anchovies are a finger-length, slim fish that swim in large shoals in warmer waters.

    Oily and delicate, anchovies do not transport well and lose their good condition very rapidly, so they are often salted, canned, or cured in vinegar.
    Whole salted anchovies, which are popular some places, for example in Italy, can be substituted with tinned or bottled fillets in oil. The popularity of anchovies as a preserved fish has led to relentless fishing, which has threatened some stocks.

    Fresh anchovies can either be simply pan-fried with sage or cured in white wine vinegar and salt for a few hours, and then drained and marinated in olive oil, herbs, and lemons overnight.

    Regarding some terminology above:
    The term "shoal" is used to describe any group of fish, including mixed-species groups.
    "School" is used for more closely-knit groups of the same species swimming in a highly synchronized manner.

    HERRINGS  (Family Clupeidae)

    The CLUPEIDS are close relatives of the ANCHOVIES. They are a large group of marine, estuarine, freshwater, and anadromous fishes that live throughout the world. There are about 57 genera and 190 species worldwide.

    CLUPEIDS are oviparous with planktonic eggs and larvae.

    Fossils of fish described as "clupeomorpha" have been found in Late Jurassic formations (at least 160 million years ago), and the oldest Clupeidae (Knightia spp.) are known at least from the Paleocene (a minimum of 55.8 million years ago).   

    Herrings are caught in large quantities in North Atlantic waters and herring fishing is an important industry off the Pacific Coast of the United States and Canada.
    in the United States, herrings are mostly fished during the summer months.

    When very fresh, herrings have shiny silver skin with blue-green iridescent colors along the back, and large loose scales. 

    Shad, or river herring, in the herring family, spawn in rivers. The fish as food can be used interchangeably in various recipes. 
    There are, however, some sustainability issues in the US due to the large amounts of by-catch, occurring when they are caught unintentionally,

    Herring and shad have an oily and creamy flesh with a delicate flavor. Their prized roe is often sold separately.

    To prepare fresh herrings, remove the skins and heads, slit open the backs and remove the bones, without disturbing the roe. The blood line along the backbone and the bitter gills should always be removed.  
    Fresh herring is simple to cook and can be pan-fried, roasted, or grilled (broiled).

    Herrings are also preserved by salting, smoking and pickling to produce such specialties as kippers and rollmops.

    In the United States, herring is often sold canned and labeled as sardines. For fresh fish, sardines and mackerels make good substitutes.

  111. Blueback Herring  ______  NC  (FGCF:107)
    Alosa aestivalis

  112. Twaite Shad  ______  IW
    Alosa fallax fallax

  113. Hickory Shad  ______  MD  NC  (FGCF:109)
    Alosa mediocris

    The Hickory Shad grows up to 2 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 4 pounds on July 23, 1971, in the Susquehanna River. 

  114. Alewife  ______  (FGCF:109)  (species described by Alexander Wilson in Philadelphia in 1811) 
    Alosa pseudobarengus

  115. American Shad  (ph)  ______  MA  MD  NJ  (FGCF:109)  (species described by Alexander Wilson in Philadelphia in 1811) 
    Alosa sapidissima

    Although the American Shad ranges from the Gulf of the St. Lawrence to Florida, its prime breeding ground has been the Delaware River Estuary.

    When Alexander Wilson (who was noted mostly as an ornithologist) described the species for science in 1811, he also described the fish as being "most savory". The Latin word "sapidissima" can also be translated to mean "most delicious".   

    The American Shad grows to 2.3 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 8 pounds 2 ounces on May 31, 1975, in the Wicomico River. In Massachusetts waters 11 pounds 4 ounces in 1986, in the Connecticut River. In New Jersey waters 11 pounds 1 ounce in 1984, in the Delaware River. 

    American Shad

  116. Atlantic Menhaden  ______  NC  (FGCF:111)
    Brevoortia tyrannus

  117. Atlantic Herring  ______  NC  IW  (FGCF:111)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Clupea harengus
    (Range: from southern Greenland south to North Carolina)

  118. Gizzard Shad  ______  NC  (FGCF:113)
    Dorosoma cepedianum
    (Range: from the St. Lawrence River south to Florida)

  119. Round Herring  ______  NC  (FGCF:113)
    Etrumeus teres

  120. Scaled Sardine  ______  NC  (FGCF:113)
    Harengula jaguana

  121. Atlantic Thread Herring  ______  NC  (FGCF:115)
    Opisthonema oglinum 

  122. Spanish Sardine  ______  NC  (FGCF:115)
    Sardinella aurita

  123. a sardine  ______  IW
    Sardina pilchardus

    SMELTS  (Family Osmeridae
    in the Order Salmonidormes)

  124. Capelin  ______  IW  (FGCF:117)
    Mallotus villosus
    (Range: in the northwest Atlantic Ocean south to Nova Scotia and the Grand Banks)

    The Capelin is a critical component of the diet of the Atlantic Puffin, a bird that nests on cliffs by the North Atlantic Ocean.
    The food favored by the Puffin varies a bit regionally, but everywhere their diet is made up almost entirely of one or two species.
    In the northwestern Atlantic, the Capelin is the Puffin's preferred prey, sometimes accounting for up to 95 per cent of their diet.

    The Capelin is a small silvery fish with a key role in the food chain. They feed on plankton, and they are fed upon by a range of birds, mammals, and other fish. 
    The Capelin is a schooling species that lives in cold, open waters of the arctic and sub-arctic.

    Commercial Capelin fisheries catch the fish, that are used mainly for fish meal and oil industry products, and only to a lesser extent for food. Species such as the Atlantic Cod and the Atlantic Puffin are competing with the fisheries for a main food source in their diet.        

    Capelin grow to 10 inches in length.

    The Capelin is a favored food of the Atlantic Puffin.

  125. Rainbow Smelt  ______  (FGCF:117)
    Osmerus mordax
    (Range: from Labrador south to New Jersey)

    SALMONIDS  (Family Salmonidae) 

    The SALMONIDS include both salmon & trout, and more including: WHITEFISHES, GRAYLING, and the like. In the family, there are 11 genera and about 66 species. 

    A book with interesting reading about salmon is "Four Fish, the Future of the Last Wild Food", by Paul Greenberg, published in 2010. The four fish are: salmon, sea bass, cod, tuna.  

  126. Atlantic Salmon  ______  MA  NH  IW  (FGCF:117)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Salmo salar
    (Range: from Iceland and Greenland south to New York) 

    The Atlantic Salmon has a relatively complex life history that includes spawning, juvenile rearing in rivers, and extensive feeding migrations in the ocean. This fish has its greatest feeding and growth in salt water.

    Atlantic Salmons have an extraordinary sense of returning back to the same stream where they were hatched, and doing so it has mystified biologists for hundreds of years.

    The coloration of the Atlantic Salmon changes as it grows older. In freshwater, blue and red spots can be marked on their skin, and as they mature those spots disappear and the fish develops a silver blue sheen. At their time of reproduction, the skin color changes to green or red.

    Atlantic Salmons spend their first few years in freshwater (small streams and rivers). feeding on aquatic insects and other food that comes in the current. At that stage in their life, they are known as "parr". Most of their time at that stage goes in fighting for food. When spring comes and they reach if size of about 4 inches, they become "smolts" and begin migrating to the ocean.

    There are generally 3 recognized groups of Atlantic Salmon: North America, European, and Baltic. 
    Atlantic Salmon
    reproduce in coastal rivers of northeastern North America, Iceland, Europe, and northwestern Russia. Then the smolts migrate through various parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. At sea, the European and North American types are known to intermingle.
    The Atlantic Salmon has remained a popular fish for human consumption.

    Atlantic Salmon in the wild is now rare. It is now extensively farmed in Norway, Scotland, and Chile, which provides a good source for a demanding market worldwide.

    The striking silver-scaled skin of the Salmon is speckled with black spots. The firm, oily, flamingo-pink flesh of the fish has a delicious flavor. It is available whole and cleaned, filleted or cut into steaks, with or without skin.
    Salmon should be scaled before cooking because the scales will otherwise loosen and stick to the flesh. If filleted, the pinbones should be removed.
    Fresh salmon has a moist, flaky texture and suits a variety of cooking methods including poaching and pan-frying and grilling (broiling) and roasting.   
    A salmon steak requires only 8 to 10 minutes to cook through, and the tail end of the salmon, popular because it is boneless, requires only 4 to 5 minutes cooking. Also salmon can be enjoyed either cold, or hot smoked.

    Alternatives to Salmon can include Steelhead Trout (also known as Salmon Trout) which has a similarly colored flesh. Arctic Char could also be substituted.
    The Steelhead Trout is a variety of Rainbow Trout. It is a freshwater fish, but very similar in taste and texture to Salmon. Arctic Char, also a freshwater fish, is found, among some other places, in the Canadian Arctic. No other fish occurs as far north.     

    The Atlantic Salmon grows up to 3 feet in length. The record weight in Massachusetts waters was 22 pounds 15 ounces in 1997. In New Hampshire waters 18 pounds 8 ounces in 1942. 

  127. Arctic Char  ______  IW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Salvelinus alpinus 

    The subspecies Salvelinus alpinus oquassa, the Blueback Trout, or Sunapee Trout, has been extirpated from most of what has been its native range in the eastern US. It does occur in Quebec (in Canada) and in northern New England (in the US).  

  128. Pink Salmon  ______  IW  (introduced in Iceland waters)  (another name is Humpback Salmon 
    Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

    LIZARDFISHES  (Family Synodontidae)

  129. Largescale Lizardfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:119)  (also called Brazilian Lizardfish)
    Saurida brasiliensis

  130. Shortjaw Lizardfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:119)
    Saurida normani

  131. Inshore Lizardfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:119)
    Synodus foetens 

  132. Sand Diver  ______  NC  (FGCF:119)
    Synodus intemedius

  133. Snakefish  ______  NC  (FGCF:119)
    Trachinocephalus myops

    Snakefish bury themselves and quickly ambush prey.

    GREENEYES  (Family Chlorophthalmidae)

  134. Shortnose Greeneye  ______  NC  (FGCF:121)
    Chlorophthalmus agassizi

    LANCETFISHES  (Family Alepisauridae)

  135. Longnose Lancetfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:121)
    Alepisaurus ferox

    The Longnose Lancetfish grows to 6.5 feet in length. 

    OPAHS  (Family Lampridae)

  136. Opah  ______  NC  (FGCF:121)
    Lampris guttatus

    RIBBONFISHES  (Family Trachipteridaae)

  137. Polka-dot Ribbonfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:121)
    Desmodema polystictum

    OARFISHES  (Family Regalecidae)

  138. Oarfish  (ph)  ______  (FGCF:123)
    Regalecus glesne

    The Oarfish grows up to 26 feet in length. It may be the longest known bony fish.

    Much of what is known about the Oarfish has been learned from specimens that have washed ashore or have been accidentally caught by fisherman.
    They have been known to come to the surface of the sea at night, apparently attracted by the lights of boats.

    A live Oarfish was filmed alive for the first time in 2001when it was spotted by a team of U.S. Navy personnel repairing a buoy in the Bahamas. The fish was observed as it swam by undulating its long dorsal fin while keeping its body fairly straight. That type of propulsion is known as an amiiform mode of swimming. Oarfish have also been observed swimming in a vertical position. it is thought that may be one way that it searches for food. 

    Adult Oarfish are thought to live solitary lives. They are usually found at a depth of about 600 feet, but they have been known to go as deep as 3,000 feet.

    This unusual deep water species has been known to wash ashore on beaches after storms, providing considerable fascination to onlookers. The fish has also been found floating near the surface of the water when it is ill. 
    It is believed that the Oarfish may be responsible for legendary sightings of "sea monsters" and "sea serpents" by ancient mariners and beach goers    
    Although it is on occasion fished for sport, the Oarfish is not fished commercially as its gelatinous flesh is not considered edible. 

    An Oarfish

    BEARDFISHES  (Family Polymixiidae)

  139. Beardfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:123)
    Polymixia lowei

    The Beardfish grows to 8 inches in length.

    GRENADIERS  (Family Macrouridae)

  140. Coelorhynchus coelorhynchus  ______  IW

  141. Coryphaenoides guntberi  ______  IW

  142. Ceryphaenoides rupestris  ______  IW

  143. Macrourus berglax  ______  IW

  144. Marlin-spike  ______  NC  (FGCF:123)
    Nezumia bairdii

  145. Nezumia aequalis  ______  IW

  146. Trachyrhynchus murrayi  ______  IW

    MERLUCCID HAKES  (Family Merlucciidae)

    Popular as a fish with good taste, the hakes of the family MERLUCCIIDAE are closely associated with cod (below), and has similar white, flakly flesh. 
    With distinctive silvery, elongated bodies and pointed snake-like heads, large eyes and a sharp set of teeth, various species of Merluccid Hakes are caught around the globe, including in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
    The species of Europe is Merluccius merluccius.  
    In some waters, hakes has been fished to unsustainable levels.

    Hakes are usually cleaned on landing and have soft skin and fins so, apart from removing the gills, a whole fish requires little preparation. Although, it may be sold whole, it is more commonly available in fillets or steaks.

    Hakes have a deceptively soft and delicate flesh, even when very fresh, but fillets become firm, white and sweet-flavored when cooked. 
    Hake works well with the same flavors as cods, and it naturally partners with olive oil, citrus, garlic, and tomato. It is also excellent poached and seasoned with oil and lemon juice or served with mayonnaise. 
    Good alternatives are others in the cod and hake families (Gadidae & Merlucciidae).          

  147. Offshore Hake  ______  NC  (FGCF:123)
    Merluccius albidus

  148. Silver Hake  ______  NC  (FGCF:123)
    Merluccius bilinearis

  149. European Hake  ______  IW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Merluccius merluccius 

    Merluccius merluccius is called the "Herring Hake", as it often feeds on Atlantic Herring, at times voraciously, devouring them in great numbers.
    The European Hake is a night predator. During the day it generally stays at depths from 90 to 1200 feet, although it can be as far down as 3,000 feet below the surface of the water.     

    PHYCID HAKES  (Family Phycidae)

  150. Fourbeard Rockling  ______  NC  IW  (FGCF:125)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766) (was Rhinonemus cimbrius)
    Enchelyopus cimbrius

  151. Greater Forkbeard  ______  IW
    Phycis blennoides

  152. Red Hake  ______  NC  NJ  (FGCF:125)
    Urophycis chuss
    (Range: Nova Scotia to North Carolina) 

    The Red Hake grows up to 19 inches in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 8 pounds 12 ounces in 1990.

  153. Carolina Hake  ______  NC  (FGCF:125)
    Urophycis earllii

  154. Southern Hake  ______  NC  (FGCF:125)
    Urophycis floridana

  155. Spotted Hake  ______  NC  (FGCF:125)
    Urophycis regia

  156. White Hake  ______  NJ  IW
    Urophycis tenuis

    The record weight of a White Hake in New Jersey waters was 41 pounds 7 ounces in 1989. 

    CODS  (Families Gadidae
    and Lotidae)

    Species in the genera Ciliata, Gaidropsanus, and Molva are now in the LOTIDAE family.of cod-like fishes

    COD is easily identified by its yellow or olive-green speckles and the white line that runs the length of each side.
    It has superb white, flaky flesh that is almost creamy in consistency.

    Several species are caught in the oceans globally, and in some areas of the North Atlantic Ocean. 
    Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua, has been fished to unsustainable levels in some areas.
    Cods are the best known members of the large family GADIDAE that includes haddock, whiting, and coley.

    The fish originally known as "Whiting" in English is Merlangius merlangus, in the family GADIDAE. That species inhabits the eastern Atlantic ocean. In the United States that fish is commonly known as the English Whiting.

    Also in the US, the name "whiting" on its own is often used for various species of HAKE in the genus MERLUCCIUS (above, in this list).

    In Canada, "whiting" is a name used for the Alaska Pollack, Theragra chalcogramma.

    Coley is another name for Pollock, Polachius virens.  

    COD is generally sold filleted, but it can be purchased whole or in steaks. Highly versatile, it can be poached, baked, grilled (broiled), pan-fried, and deep-fried.
    When buying a fresh cod fillet, one should make sure that the flakes of flesh are tightly packed. If they are opening enough to reveal the skin, the fish is past its best.

    Salted and dried cod, prepared in countries bordering the North Sea (in Europe), is more common that the fresh fish in southern Europe and the Caribbean.
    Fillets are usually sold with their skin still on because it protects the fish from drying out in the oven. However, the pinbones need to be removed.

    Good substitutes for cod are other related fish such as pollock, haddock, hake, and whiting.

    A book with interesting reading about cod is "Four Fish, The Future of the Last Wild Food", by Paul Greenberg, published in 2010. The four fish are: salmon, sea bass, cod, tuna.   

  157. Polar Cod  ______  IW
    Boreogadus saida

  158. Cusk  (or Torsk ______  IW  (FGCF:127)
    Brosme brosme
    (Range: Iceland to New Jersey)

  159. Five-bearded Rockling  ______  IW  (in family LOTIDAE)
    Ciliata mustela

  160. Norway Rockling  ______  IW   (in family LOTIDAE) 
    Ciliata septentrionalis

  161. Silvery Pout  ______  IW
    Gadiculus argenteus

  162. Atlantic Cod  (t3)  ______  NH  IW  (FGCF:127)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Gadus morhua

    The Atlantic Cod grows to 4.5 feet in length. The record weight in New Hampshire waters was 98 pounds 12 ounces in 1969.

  163. Haddock  (t3)  ______  IW  (FGCF:127)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Melanogrammus aeglefinus
    (Range: Iceland to New Jersey)

    The record weight in New Hampshire waters was 10 pounds 11 ounces on May 26, 1988. 

  164. Whiting  ______  IW
    Merlangius merlangus

  165. Blue Whiting  ______  IW
    Micromesistius poutassou

  166. Atlantic Tomcod  (ph)  _______  (FGCF: 127)
    Microgadus tomcod
    (Range: Labrador to Virginia)

    Above: a picture of an Atlantic Tomcod on an old postcard obtained 
    in the area of the Gaspe Peninsula in Quebec.
    Below: an old photograph of drying cod in that same area   

  167. Blue Ling  ______  IW   (in family LOTIDAE)
    Molva dypterygia

  168. Ling  ______  IW  (n family LOTIDAE)
    Molva molva

  169. "Codfish"  ______  IW   (in family LOTIDAE)
    (or now Gaidropsanus) argentatus  

  170. Atlantic Pollock  ______  IW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Pollachius pollachius

  171. Pollock  (or Saithe ______  NH  NJ  IW  (FGCF:127)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Pollachius virens 
    (Range: Iceland and Greenland to North Carolina)

    The Pollock grows to 4.2 feet in length. The record weight in New Hampshire waters was 47 pounds on July 1, 1981. In New Jersey waters was 46 pounds 7 ounces in 1975. 

  172. Norway Pout  ______  IW
    Trisopterus esmarki

    TOADFISHES  (Family Batrachoididae)

  173. Oyster Toadfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:135)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Opsanus tau

  174. Atlantic Midshipman  ______  NC  (FGCF:135)
    Porichthys plectrodon 

    GOOSEFISHES  (Family Lophiidae)

    Some fish in the LOPHIUS genus are known as "MONKFISH"
    In northwestern Europe, Lophius piscatonus and Lophius budegassa, and in northeastern North America, Lophius americanus, go by that name.

    With a large head, and glossy, brown mottled skin, these grotesque fish have a distinctive appearance>

    The "Monkfish", or Goosefish, is called the "poor man's lobster" due to its dense texture and somewhat lobster-like taste. And with yet another name for the fish is also known as the "anglerfish"

    The "Monkfish" is generally sold with its head removed. The cheeks are sold separately. The tail can be purchased on the bone or filleted. If the fillets have not been skinned, the skin should be peeled from the top end of the tail.
    A tough transparent membrane lies underneath and it also needs to be trimmed away with a knife, or it will discolor and shrink during cooking.
    Occasionally, monkfish liver and roe are available, but it is not recommended to eat the liver as it can contain high levels of toxins such as PCBs and dioxins.

    The flavorsome flesh of the Monkfish has compact fibers and is very tender. With its meaty flesh similar to lobster, monkfish is excellent pan-fried, stir-fried, and roasted.
    During cooking, the volume of Monkfish decreases considerably, so this must be taken into account when calculating quantities.            

  175. Goosefish  ______  NC  (FGCF:135)
    Lophius americanus

  176. Reticulate Goosefish  ______
    Lophius reticulatus

  177. Blackfin Goosefish  ______
    Lophius gastrophysus 

    FROGFISHES  (Family Antennariidae)

  178. Ocellated Frogfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:137)
    Antennarius ocellatus

  179. Singlespot Frogfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:137)
    Antennarius radiosus

  180. Striated Frogfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:137)  (also called Split-lure Frogfish)
    Antennarius striatus

  181. Sargassum Fish  (ph) (*)  ______ NC(p)  (FGCF:137)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Histrio histrio 

    The Sargassum Fish grows to 7.8 inches in length.

    Histrio histrio has been among the sealife seen in sargassum in the Gulf Stream during FONT North Carolina pelagic trips.

    Above & below: Sargassum Fish
    Below showing how it blends in with the sargassum. 
    This fish in the photo is swimming toward you. 

    MULLETS  (Family Mugilidae)

  182. Striped Mullet  ______  NC  (FGCF:143)  (also called the Gray Mullet) (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Mugil cephalus

    Beautiful, sleek, silver-gray and densely covered in scales, the STRIPED MULLET has a low-rated reputation for its earthy flavor.
    When buying it, one should look for very fresh fish that has bright eyes, red gills and gleaming scales. It is usually sold whole. but one can ask that it be trimmed, scaled, and cleaned. 
    The skin is generally left on fillets to protect the delicate flesh during cooking.

    STRIPED MULLET is usually roasted or grilled (broiled) whole, but it is also good poached. 
    If the fish is cooked whole, it is good to slash both sides part way through to the bone.
    The fillets can be quite thick, allowing the heat to penetrate to the center without overcooking the rest of the fish. 
    To reduce the muddy flavor, it is good to marinate the fish in lemon juice, wine, or another acidulated liquid for about 30 minutes.  

    Regarding the non-related RED MULLET: Its common name notwithstanding, the Red Mullet of Europe and the Mediterranean, Mullus barbatus and Mullus surmuletus, belong to the GOATFISH FAMILY, MULLIDAE (later in this list), and are not even closely related to other species also called "mullets".      

  183. White Mullet  ______  NC  (FGCF:143)
    Mugil curema

    NEW WORLD SILVERSIDES  (Family Atherinopsidae)

    ''WHITEBAIT" is a collective term for immature "fry fish", typically between 25 and 50 millimeters long. Such young fish often travel together in schools along the coast, and move into estuaries where they can be easily caught with fine meshed fishing nets. 
    Whitebaiting is the activity of catching whitebait.

    Whitebait are tender and edible, and regarded as a "delicacy". The entire fish is eaten including the head, fins, and gut. 
    Some species make better eating than others, and the particular species that are marketed as "whitebait" varies in different parts of the world.

    In the eastern United States, the term "whitebait" is used for silversides and sand-eels in the family AMMODYTES (later in this list). They would be cooked in a way similar to other "whitebait".

    Elsewhere in the world, "whitebait" consists of immature fry of many important food species such as herring, sprat, sardines, mackerel, bass, and many others.
    Thus, "whitebait" is NOT an ecologically viable foodstuff and in several countries there are strict controls on such harvesting. As the fish are immature, they would not have a chance to spawn. Because these fish are relentlessly harvested, the survival of the various species is threatened.  

    Alternatives would be other small but more mature fish, such as sardines, sprats, or smelt.        

  184. Rough Silverside  ______  NC  (FGCF:145)
    Membras martinica

  185. Inland Silverside  ______  NC  (FGCF:145)
    Menidia beryllina

  186. Atlantic Silverside  ______  NC  (FGCF:145)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Menidia menidia

    The Atlantic Silverside is preyed upon by Striped Bass and Bluefish.

  187. Waccamaw Silverside  ______  NC  (also known as Skipjack Minnow, Glass Minnow)
    Menidia extensa

    Menidia extensa
    is known only from Lake Waccamaw and the upper Waccamaw River in Columbus County, North Carolina. The species is classified as threatened both in North Carolina and federally. 

    FLYING FISHES  (Family Exocoetidae)

  188. Margined Flying Fish  ______  NC  (FGCF:147)
    Cheilopogon cyanopterus

    The Margined Flying Fish is attracted to lights at night. 

  189. Bandwing Flying Fish  (*)  ______  NC  (FGCF:147)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1771)
    Cheilopogon exsiliens

    The Bandwing Flying Fish occurs in the Gulf Stream.

  190. Atlantic Flying Fish  (ph) (*)  ______  NC  (FGCF:147)
    Cheilopogon melanurus

    Atlantic Flying Fish leap and glide across the surface of the water. 

    Am Atlantic Flying Fish off the North Carolina coast

    This fish has often been seen in large numbers during FONT pelagic trips,
    offshore from eastern North America in North Carolina. 

  191. Oceanic Two-wing Flying Fish  ______  NC  (FGCF:147)
    Exocoetus obtusirostris

  192. Tropical Two-wing Flying Fish  ______  NC  (FGCF:149)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Exocoetus volitans

  193. Fourwing Flying Fish  ______  NC  (FGCF:149)
    Hirundichthys affinis

  194. Blackwing Flying Fish  ______  NC  (FGCF:149)
    Hirundichthys rondeletii
    (Massachusetts to Florida)

  195. Smallwing Flying Fish  ______  NC  (FGCF:149)  (species described in 1935)
    Oxyporhamphus micropterus similis

  196. Sailfin Flying Fish  ______  NC  (FGCF:149)
    Parexocoetus hillianus 
    (formerly Parexocoetus brachypterus)

    HALFBEAKS  (Family Hemiramphidae)

  197. Flying Halfbeak  ______  NC  (FGCF:151)
    Euleptorhamphus velox

  198. Balao  ______  NC  (FGCF:151)
    Hemiramphus balao

  199. Ballyhoo  ______  NC  (FGCF:151)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Hemiramphus brasiliensis

  200. False Silverstripe Halfbeak  ______  NC  (FGCF:151)
    Hyporhamphus meeki

    NEEDLEFISHES  (Family Belonidae)

  201. Flat Needlefish  ______  NC  (FGCF:153)
    Ablennes hians

  202. Keeltrail Needlefish  ______  NC  (FGCF:153)
    Platybelone argalus

  203. Atlantic Needlefish  ______  NC  (FGCF:153)
    Strongylura marina

  204. Atlantic Agujon  ______  NC  (FGCF:153)
    Tylosurus acus

  205. Houndfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:153)
    Tylosurus crocodilus

    SAURIES  (Family Scomberesocidae)

  206. Atlantic Saury  ______  NC  (FGCF:155)
    Scomberesox saurus 

    TOPMINNOWS  (Family Fundulidae)

  207. Mummichog  ______  NC  (FGCF:155)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Fundulus heteroclitus

  208. Spotfin Killifish  ______  MD(rare)  NC  (FGCF:157)
    Fundulus luciae

  209. Striped Killifish  ______  NC  (FGCF:157)
    Fundulus majalis

  210. Rainwater Killifish  ______  NC  (FGCF:159)
    Lucania parva

    PUPFISHES  (Family Cyprinodontidae)

  211. Sheepshead Minnow  ______  NC  (FGCF:159)
    Cyprinodon variegatus

    LIVEBEAERS  (Family Poeciliidae)

  212. Eastern Mosquitofish  ______  NC  (FGCF:161)
    Gambusia holbrooki

  213. Least Killifish  ______  (FGCF:161)
    Heterandria formosa
    (South Carolina to Florida)

  214. Sailfin Molly  (ph)  ______  NC  (FGCF:161)
    Poecilia latipinna  

    Sailfin Molly

    ROUGHIES  (Family Trachichthyidae)

  215. Big Roughy  ______  NC  (FGCF:163)
    Gephyroberyx darwinii

  216. Silver Roughy  ______  NC  (FGCF:163)
    Hoplostethus mediterraneus

    ALFONSINOS  (Family Berycidae)

  217. Splendid Alfonsino  ______  NC  (FGCF:163)
    Beryx splendens  

    SQUIRRELFISH  (Family Holocentridae) 

  218. Spinycheek Soldierfish  ______  (FGCF:163)
    Corniger spinosus

  219. Squirrelfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:163)
    Holocentrus adscensionis

  220. Longspine Squirrelfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:165)
    Holocentrus rufus
    (North Carolina to Florida)

  221. Blackbar Soldierfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:165)
    Myripristis jacobus

  222. Bigeye Soldierfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:165)
    Ostichthys trachypoma

  223. Deepwater Squirrelfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:167)
    Sargocentron bullisi

    TINSELFISHES  (Family Grammicolepididae)

  224. Thorny Tinselfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:167)
    Grammicolepis brachiusculus

  225. Spotted Tinselfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:167)
    Xenolepidichthys dalgleishi

    DORIES  (Family Zeidae)

  226. Red Dory  ______  (FGCF:169)
    Cyttopsis rosea

  227. Buckler Dory  ______  NC  (FGCF:169)
    Zenopsis conchifera

    STICKLEBACKS  (Family Gasterosteidae)

  228. Fourspine Stickleback  ______  (FGCF:169)
    Apeltes quadracus
    (Newfoundland to Virginia)

  229. Threespine Stickleback  ______  MA(rare)  IW  (FGCF:169)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Gasterosteus aculeatus
    (Range: Baffin Island in northern Canada and Iceland south to North Carolina)

    The Threespine Stickleback has been classified as threatened in Massachusetts.

  230. Black-spotted Stickleback  ______  (FGCF:169)
    Gasterosteus wheatlandi
    (Range: Newfoundland to New York)

  231. Ninespine Stickleback ______  (FGCF:169)   (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Pungitius  pungitius
    (Range: Baffin Island in northern Canada to New Jersey)  

    SEAHORSES  (in the Family Syngnathidae, along with PIPEFISHES)

  232. Longsnout Seahorse  (*)  ______  NC (p)  (FGCF:171)
    Hippocampus reidi 

  233. Lined Seahorse  (ph)  ______  NC  (FGCF:171)  
    Hippocampus erectus

  234. Pipehorse  ______  NC  (FGCF:171)
    Amphelikturus dendriticus 
    (formerly Acentronura dendritica)

    The Pipehorse grows to 3 inches in length.


  235. Fringed Pipefish  ______  NC  (FGCF:171)
    Anarchopterus criniger

  236. Pugnose Pipefish  ______  NC  (FGCF:173)
    Bryx dunckeri

  237. Whitenose Pipefish  ______  (FGCF:173)
    Cosmocampus albirostris

  238. Shortfin Pipefish  ______  NC  (FGCF:173)
    Cosmocampus elucens

  239. Snake Pipefish  ______  IW
    Entelurus aequoreus

  240. Opossum Pipefish  ______  NC  (FGCF:173)
    Microphis brachyurus lineatus

  241. Dusky Pipefish  ______  NC  (FGCF:173)
    Syngnathus floridae

  242. Sargassum Pipefish  (*)  ______  NC  (FGCF:175)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Syngnathus pelagicus

    The Sargassum Pipefish grows to 8 inches in length.

    Syngnathus pelagicus has been among the sealife seen in sargassum in the Gulf Stream
    during FONT North Carolina pelagic trips. 

    Sargassum Pipefish

  243. Chain Pipefish  ______  NC  (FGCF:175)
    Syngnathus louisianae

  244. Northern Pipefish  ______  NC  (FGCF:175)
    Syngnathus fuscus

    CORONETFISHES  (Family Fistulariidae)

  245. Red Coronetfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:177)
    Fistularia petimba

  246. Blue-spotted Coronetfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:177)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Fisularia tabacaria

    SNIPEFISHES  (Family Macroramphosidae)

  247. Longspine Snipefish  ______  NC  (FGCF:177)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Macroramphosus scolapax

    The Longspine Snipefish grows up to 7 inches in length.

    Longspine Snipefish

    SCORPIONFISHES  (Family Scorpaenidae)

    There are several different species of SCORPIONFISHES, which are also known by their French name, Rascasse.
    They are small, rotund, spiny, and with large eyes. Easily recognized, these fish require careful handling because the sharp spines can inflict a painful wound.
    The Scorpionfish are closely related to the Redfish group that includes rockfish and "Ocean Perch" found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
    In the United States, Scorpionfish are not often found in markets, but substitutes can be "monkfish", lobster, striped bass, and members of the cod family.

    Smaller specimens (of scorpionfish) are usually sold whole, while larger fish are sold as skinned fillets because the spines are sharp. The many pinbones near the thicker end of the fillet need to be extracted.
    When buying, one should choose a fish that is vibrant in appearance, and remember that the bones and head comprise more than half of the fish's weight.

    Their delicate, white, flaky flesh can be prepared in a number of ways such as pan-frying, poaching, and baking, but traditionally in places such as Italy, it is mainly used in soups and stews. It goes well with delicate herbs and citrus flavors.

    Alternative choices include members of the cod and sea robin families.     

  248. Blackbelly Rosefish  ______  NC  IW  (FGCF:179)
    Helicolenus dactylopterus

    An alternate name for Helicolenus dactylopterus is "Blue-mouth".

  249. Spinycheek Scorpionfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:179)  (species described in 1935)
    Neomerinthe hemingwayi

  250. Longspine Scorpionfish  ______  (FGCF:179)
    Pontinus longipennis

  251. Highfin Scorpionfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:179)
    Pontinus rathbuni

  252. Red Lionfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:179)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Pterois volitans

    The Red Lionfish is not native to the North Atlantic Ocean. It occurs naturally in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, but now it can be found from New York to the Bahamas and the Caribbean Sea. It is believed to have been introduced into Florida waters in the 1990s.

  253. Goosehead Scorpionfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:181)
    Scorpaena bergi

  254. Barbfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:181)
    Scorpaena brasiliensis

  255. Spotted Scorpionfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:183)
    Scorpaena plumieri

  256. Deepreef scorpionfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:183)
    Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus

  257. Acadian Redfish  (t2)  ______  (FGCF:183)  (sold as "Ocean Perch")
    Sebastes fasciatus
    (Range: Atlantic Canada to New Jersey)

  258. Atlantic Redfish  ______  IW  (also called "Rose Fish")  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Sebastes marinus

  259. Beaked Redfish  ______  IW
    Sebastes mentella

  260. Golden Redfish  ______  (FGCF:183)
    Sebastes norvegicus
    (Range: in western North Atlantic south to Grand Banks)

  261. Norway Redfish  ______  IW   (also called "Norway Haddock", although of course not haddock)
    Sebastes viviparus

    SEAROBINS  (Family Triglidae)

  262. Horned Searobin  ______  NC  (FGCF:185)
    Bellator militaris

  263. Grey Gurnard  ______  IW
    Eutrigla gurnardus

  264. Spiny Searobin  ______  NC  (FGCF:185)
    Prionotus alatus

  265. Northern Searobin ______  NC  (FGCF:185)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1771)
    Prionotus carolinus
    (Range: Nova Scotia to Florida)

  266. Striped Searobin  ______  NC  (FGCF:185)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Prionotus evolans
    (Rare: Nova Scotia to Florida, rare north of Cape Cod) 

  267. Bandtail Searobin  ______  NC  (FGCF:185)
    Prionotus ophryas
    (Rare: Cape Hatteras to Florida)

  268. Blue-spotted Searobin  ______  NC  (FGCF:187)
    Prionotus roseus

  269. Blackwing Searobin  ______  NC  (FGCF:187)
    Prionotus rubio

  270. Leopard Searobin  ______  NC  (FGCF:187)
    Prionotus scitulus

  271. Shortwing Searobin  ______  NC  (FGCF:187)
    Prionotus stearnsi

  272. Bighead Searobin  ______  NC  (FGCF:187)
    Prionotus tribulus

    ARMORED SEAROBINS  (Family Peristedion)

  273. Slender Searobin  ______  NC  (FGCF:189)
    Peristedion gracile

  274. Armored Searobin  ______  NC  (FGCF:189)
    Peristedion miniatum

  275. Rimspine Searobin  ______  NC  (FGCF:189)  (species described in 1952)
    Peristedion thompsoni

    SCULPINS  (Family Cottidae)

  276. Atlantic Hookear Sculpin  ______  IW  (FGCF:189)
    Artediellus atlanticus
    (Range: Iceland and Greenland to Cape Cod)

  277. Arctic Staghorn Sculpin  ______  IW  (FGCF:189)
    Gymnocanthus tricuspis
    (Range: Iceland south to Labrador and the Gulf of the St. Lawrence)

  278. Twohorn Sculpin  ______  IW
    Icelus bicornis

  279. Grubby  ______  (FGCF:191)
    Myoxocephalus aenaeus
    (Range: Gulf of St. Lawrence to New Jersey) 

  280. Longhorn Sculpin  ______  (FGCF:191)
    Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus
    (Range: Newfoundland to New Jersey)

  281. Shorthorn Sculpin  ______  IW  (FGCF:191)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Myoxocephalus scorpius
    (Greenland to New Jersey)

  282. "Sea Scorpion"  ______  IW
    Taurulus bubalis

  283. Norway Bullhead  ______  IW
    Taurulus lilljeborgi

  284. Moustache Sculpin  ______  IW  (FGCF:191)  (also called Mailed Sculpin)
    Triglops murrayi  
    (Range: in the North Atlantic south to Cape Cod)

    SEARAVENS  (Family Hemitripteridae)

  285. Sea Raven  ______  (FGCF:191)
    Hemitripterus americanus
    (Range: Newfoundland to New Jersey)

    POACHERS  (Family Agonidae)

  286. Alligatorfish  ______  (FGCF:193)
    Spidophoroides monopterygius
    (Range: Greenland to Cape Cod)

    FATHEAD SCULPINS  (Family Psychrolutidae)

    Those in this group were previously in the family COTTUNCULIDAE

  287. Cottunculus subspinosus  ______  IW

  288. Polar Sculpin  ______  IW  (FGCF:193)
    Cottunculus microps
    (Range: Iceland and Greenland to New Jersey)

  289. Pallid Sculpin  ______  IW
    Cottunculus thomsoni

    LUMPFISHES  (Family Cyclopteridae)

  290. Lumpfish  ______  IW  (FGCF:193)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Cyclopterus lumpus
    (Range: Iceland and Greenland to New Jersey)

  291. Atlantic Spiny Lumpsucker  ______  IW  (FGCF:193)
    Eumicrotremus spinosus
    (Range: Iceland and Greenland to the Gulf of Maine)

    SNAILFISHES  (Liparidae)

  292. Careproctus reinhardti  ______  IW

  293. Atlantic Seasnail  ______  (FGCF:193)
    Liparis atlanticus
    (Ungava Bay, Quebec to New York)

  294. Gulf Seasnail  ______  (FGCF:195)  (species described in 1976)
    Liparis coheni
    (Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Maine)

  295. Liparis fabrici  ______  IW

  296. Inquiline Snailfish  ______  (FGCF:195)  (species described in 1973)
    Liparis inquilinus
    (Gulf of St. Lawrence to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina)

  297. Common Seasnail  ______  IW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Liparis liparis  ______

  298. Montagu's Seasnail  ______  IW
    Liparis montagui

  299. Black Seasnail  ______  IW
    Paraliparis bathybius  

  300. Threadfin Seasnail  ______  IW
    Rhodichthys regina

    The Threadfin Seasnail occurs in the Arctic Ocean and the northern Atlantic Ocean, at depths from 3,500 feet to 7,760 feet. 
    It is 12 inches in length.  
    Rhodichthys regina is the only known member of its genus.

    SNOOKS  (Family Centropomidae)

  301. Common Snook  ______  NC  (FGCF:197)
    Centropomus undecimalis

    TEMPERATE BASSES  (Family Moronidae) 


    The European fish known as the SEA BASS, Dicentrarchus labrax, is in this family MORONIDAE, as is the American STRIPED BASS, Morone saxatilis, that is caught wild in the western Atlantic Ocean.

    These fish have a dense covering of small scales, a gleaming silver belly, and a well-deserved reputation for is white, lean and delicate flesh.   

    Fish in MORONIDAE are often compared to SEA BREAM in texture and flavor.    

    Another "Sea Bass" off eastern North America is the BLACK SEA BASS, Centropristis striata, in the family SERRANIDAE (below).

    "SEA BASS" is sold both filleted and whole. If it has been filleted, it is already scaled, so it is usually unnecessary to remove the skin, although of course if can be if preferred.
    With a whole sea bass, the sharp spines on the fins along the back must be trimmed and the fish should be scaled and cleaned with the gills removed.  

    With its white, lean and delicate flesh, "SEA BASS" can be pan-fried, grilled (broiled), roasted or wrapped in a parcel or package before baking or cooking on the barbecue.     

    A book with interesting reading about "sea bass" is "Four Fish, the Future of the Last Wild Food", by Paul Greenberg, published in 2010. The four fish are: salmon, "sea bass", cod, tuna.   

  302. European Sea Bass  ______  IW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Dicentrarchus labrax

  303. White Perch  ______  MD  NC  NJ  (FGCF:197)
    Morone americana

    The White Perch grows up to 19 inches in length, but more commonly is from 7 to 10 inches. The record weight in Maryland waters was 2 pounds 10 ounces on May 18, 1979. In New Jersey waters 2 pounds 12 ounces in 1998.

  304. Striped Bass  ______  MD  NC  NH  NJ  (FGCF:197)
    Morone saxatilis

    The Striped Bass grows up to 6 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 67 pounds 8 ounces on May 13, 1995. In New Hampshire waters 60 pounds on June 26, 1980. In New Jersey waters 78 pounds 8 ounces in 1982.

    WRECKFISHES  (Family Polyprionidae)

  305. Atlantic Wreckfish  ______  NC  IW  (FGCF:197)  (was in the family SERRANIDAE)
    Polyprion americanus

    The Wreckfish grows up to 6.5 feet in length.

    SEA BASSES  (Family Serranidae)

  306. Yellowfin Bass  ______  NC  (FGCF:199)  (species described in 1933)
    Anthias nicholsi

  307. Threadnose Bass  ______  (FGCF:199)
    Anthias tenuis

  308. Bank Sea Bass  ______  NC  (FGCF:199)
    Centropristis ocyurus
    (Range: from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina south to the Florida Keys) 

  309. Rock Sea Bass  ______  NC  (FGCF:199)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Centropristis philadelphica  

  310. Black Sea Bass  ______  MD  NC  NJ  (FGCF:201)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Centropristis striata

    The Black Sea Bass grows up to 2 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 8 pounds on June 1, 1978. In New Jersey waters 8 pounds 2 ounces in 1982 & 1984.

  311. Graysby  ______  NC  (FGCF:201)
    Cephalopholis cruentata

  312. Coney  ______  (FGCF:201)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Cephalopholis fulva
    (Range: from South Carolina to Florida)

  313. Marbled Grouper  (nt)  ______  NC  (FGCF:201)
    Dermatolepis inermis

  314. Sand Perch  ______  NC  (FGCF: 203)  (also called Sand Seabass (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Diplectrum formosum

    In the following genus EPINEPHELUS are the GROUPERS, among the most highly prized sea fish due because their white flesh is tasty and tender.
    "GROUPERS"  are found in seas around the world. This large grouping of fish (sorry for the pun) includes in North America:
    the Red Grouper, Epinephelus morio (in this list),
    the Yellowmouth Grouper, Mycteroperca interstitalis (in our list of Caribbean birds),
    and the Spotted Cabrilla, Epinephelus analogus, (locally called the "Mexican Sea Bass", a fish in the Pacific from Mexico to Chile.

    The diet of groupers is of smaller fish, and as a result, their flesh is firm, white and meaty with a sweet flavor.

    The skin of groupers is thick and strong with a layer of fat lying directly underneath it. In preparing to eat the fish, that layer should be removed along with the skin by cutting into the flesh slightly. 
    If the fish is purchased whole, one can ask for it top be trimmed, deep-skinned and filleted rather than doing it at home.
    Grouper are best cooked simply either by poaching (their stock is excellent) or baking.  

    As some GROUPERS are now endangered or threatened species, alternative choices could include members of the cod family, snapper, "sea bass", tilapia, catfish, Alaskan pollock, amberjack, and cobia.         

  315. Rock Hind  (t1)  ______  NC  (FGCF:203)  (also called Calico Grouper)
    Epinephelus adscensionis

  316. Speckled Hind  (t1)  ______  NC  (FGCF:203)  (also called Kitty Mitchell)
    Epinephelus drummondhayi

  317. Yellowedge Grouper  (t3)  ______  NC  (FGCF:203)
    Epinephelus flavolimbatus

  318. Red Hind  ______  NC  (FGCF:203) (also called Strawberry Grouper)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Epinephelus guttatus  

  319. Red Grouper  (nt)  ______  NC  (FGCF:205)
    Epinephelus morio

  320. Misty Grouper  ______  NC  (FGCF:205)
    Epinephelus mystacinus

  321. Warsaw Grouper  (t1)  ______  NC  (FGCF:205)
    (some say Hyporthodus) nigritus

  322. Snowy Grouper  (t3)  ______  MD  NC  (FGCF:205)
    Epinephelus niveatus

    The Snowy Grouper grows up to 4 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 66 pounds on July 30, 2012.

  323. Spanish Flag  ______  NC  (FGCF:207)
    Gonioplectrus hispanus 
    (the single member in its genus)

  324. Streamer Bass  ______  NC  (FGCF:207)
    Hemanthias aureorubens 
    (was Prontogrammus aureorubens)

  325. Longtail Bass  ______  NC  (FGCF:207)  (species described in 1952)
    Hemanthias leptus

  326. Red Barbier  ______  NC  (FGCF:207)
    Hemanthias vivanus

  327. Wrasse Basslet  ______  NC  (FGCF:211)  (species described in 1962) 
    Liopropoma eukrines

  328. Gag  ______  NC  (FGCF:215)
    Mycteroperca microlepis

  329. Scamp  ______  NC  (FGCF:215)
    Mycteroperca phenax

  330. Yellowfin Grouper  (nt) (ph)  ______  NC  (FGCF:215)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Mycteroperca venenosa

    Yellowfin Grouper (with a Green Moray also in the photo) 

  331. Atlantic Creolefish  ______  NC  (FGCF:215)
    Paranthias furcifer

  332. Apricot Bass  ______  NC  (FGCF:217)
    Plectranthias garrupellus

  333. Roughtongue Bass  ______  NC  (FGCF:217)
    Pronotogrammus martinicensis

  334. White-spotted Soapfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:217)
    Rypticus maculatus

  335. School Bass  ______  NC  (FGCF:219)  (species described in 1940)
    Schultzea beta

  336. Pygmy Sea Bass  ______  NC  (FGCF:219)  (species described in 1952)
    Serraniculus pumilio

  337. Tattler  ______  (FGCF:221)
    Serranus phoebe
    (South Carolina, Florida)

  338. Belted Sandfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:221)
    Serranus subligarius

    JAWFISHES  (Family Opistognathidae)

  339. Moustache Jawfish  ______  (FGCF:225)
    Opistognathus lonchurus

  340. Spotfin Jawfish  ______  (FGCF:227)  (species described in 1997)
    Opistognathus robinsi

    BIGEYES  (Family Priacanthidae)

  341. Bulleye  ______  (FGCF:227)
    Cookeolus japonicus

  342. Glasseye Snapper (or Glasseye ______  (FGCF:227)
    Heteropriacanthus cruentatus 
    (was Priacanthus cruentatus, and Cookeolus boops)

  343. Bigeye  ______  (FGCF:229)
    Priacanthus arenatus

  344. Short Bigeye  ______  (FGCF:229)
    Pristigenys alta

    CARDINALFISHES  (Family Apogonidae)

  345. Flamefish  ______  (FGCF:231)
    Apogon maculatus

  346. Twospot Cardinalfish  ______  (FGCF:233)
    Apogon pseudomaculatus

    Twospot Cardinalfish

  347. Bronze Cardinalfish  ______  (FGCF:233)
    Astrapogon alutus

    TILEFISHES  (Family Malacanthidae)

  348. Goldface Tilefish  ______  (FGCF:237)
    Caulolatilus chrysops

  349. Blackline Tilefish  ______  (FGCF:237)
    Caulolatilus cyanops

  350. Blueline Tilefish  ______  MD  (FGCF:237)
    Caulolatilus microps

    The Blueline Tilefish grows up to 14 inches in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 20 pounds on September 12, 2012.

  351. Tilefish  ______  MD  (FGCF:237)  (also called Golden Tilefish)
    Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps

    The Tilefish occurs on soft bottoms of the ocean, usually at depths of 265 to 1,770 feet. It constructs burrows in bottom substate.

    The Tilefish grows up to 3.5 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters is 62 pounds on October 22, 2009.

    Four fish have been found by the Food & Drug Administration of the US government to often have mercury levels about 1 part per million (ppm): King Mackerel, shark, Swordfish, and Tilefish.
    These species accumulate mercury as they grow larger because they consume large amounts of small fish. 
    All four species just noted combined add up to a very small amount (about 1 per cent) of the fish Americans eat. The average mercury level in all the types of fish Americans eat is low - 0.086 ppm, weighted for consumption.      

  352. Sand Tilefish  ______  (FGCF:237)
    Malacanthus plumieri

    BLUEFISHES  (Family Pomatomidae)

  353. Bluefish  ______  MD  NC  NH  NJ  (FGCF:239)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Pomatomus saltatrix 

    The Bluefish grows up to 3.8 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters is 23 pounds, 8 ounces on October 30, 1974. In New Hampshire waters 21 pounds on August 23, 1975. In New Jersey waters 27 pounds 1 ounce in 1997.

    DOLPHINFISHES  (Family Coryphaenidae)

  354. Dolphinfish  (*)  ______  MD  NC  NJ  (FGCF:239)  (other names are Mahi-mahi & Dorado (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Coryphaena hippurus

    The Dolphinfish grows to 6.5 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 67 pounds, 8 ounces on July 21, 1985. In New Jersey waters 63 pounds 3 ounces in 1974.


  355. Pompano Dolphinfish  ______  (FGCF:239)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Coryphaena equiselis  

    The Pompano Dolphinfish schools with and is often misidentified as the Dolphinfish.

    The Pompano Dolphinfish grows to 2.5 feet in length. 

    COBIA  (Family Rachycentridae)

  356. Cobia  ______  MD  NJ  (FGCF:239)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Rachycentron canadum

    The Cobia grows up to 6.5 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 97 pounds 12 ounces on July 25, 2009, in the Chesapeake Bay. In New Jersey waters 87 pounds in 1999.

    REMORAS  (Family Echeneidae)

  357. Common Remora  (*)  ______  IW  (FGCF:241)  (also called "Shark-sucker") (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Remora remora

  358. Marlinsucker  ______   (FGCF:241)
    Remora osteochir

    The Marlinsucker is associated with billfishes, particularly the White Marlin and Sailfish.

  359. Spearfish Remora  ______  (FGCF:241)
    Remora brachyptera

  360. Slender Sharksucker  ______  (FGCF:241)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Echeneis naucrates

  361. Whitefin Sharksucker  ______  (FGCF:241)
    Echeneis neucratoides

    JACKS and POMPANOS  (Family Carangidae)

  362. African Pompano  ______  (FGCF:243)
    Alectris ciliaris

  363. Yellow Jack  ______  (FGCF:243)
    Caranx bartholomaei

  364. Blue Runner  ______  (FGCF:243)
    Caranx crysos

    Juvenile Blue Runners are associated with Sargassum seaweed.

  365. Crevalle Jack  ______  (FGCF:243)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Caranx hippos

  366. Horse-eye Jack  ______  (FGCF:243)
    Caranx latus

  367. Black Jack  ______  (FGCF:245)
    Caranx lugubris

  368. Bar Jack  ______  (FGCF:245)
    Caranx ruber

  369. Atlantic Bumper  ______  (FGCF:245)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Chloroscombrus chrysurus  

  370. Mackerel Scad  ______  (FGCF:245)
    Descapterus macarellus

  371. Round Scad  ______  (FGCF:245)  (also called Cigarfish)
    Decapterus punctatus

  372. Redtail Scad  ______  (FGCF:247)  (species described in 1968)  
    Decapterus rabl

  373. Rainbow Runner  ______  (FGCF:247)
    Elagatis bipinnulata

  374. Bluntnose Jack  ______  (FGCF:247)
    Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus

  375. Pilotfish  (ph)  ______  (FGCF:247)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Naucrates ductor

    Pilot Fish

  376. Leatherjack  ______  (FGCF:247)
    Oligoplites saurus

  377. White Trevally  ______  (FGCF:249)
    (or Caranx) dentex

  378. Bigeye Scad  ______  (FGCF:249)
    Selar crumenophthalmus

  379. Atlantic Moonfish  ______  (FGCF:249)
    Selene setapinnis

  380. Lookdown  ______  (FGCF:249)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Selene vomer

    A Lookdown looking down

  381. Greater Amberjack  ______  NJ  (FGCF:249)
    Seriola dumerili

    The Greater Amberjack grows up to 5 feet in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 85 pounds in 1993.

  382. Lesser Amberjack  ______  (FGCF:251)
    Seriola fasciata

  383. Almaco Jack  ______  (FGCF:251)
    Seriola rivoliana

  384. Banded Rudderfish  ______  (FGCF:251)
    Seriola zonata

  385. Florida Pompano  ______  NC  (FGCF:251)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Trachinolus carolinus

  386. Permit  ______  (FGCF:251)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Trachinolus falcatus

  387. Palometa  ______  (FGCF:253)
    Trachinotus goodei

  388. Rough Scad  ______  (FGCF:253)
    Trachurus lathami

  389. Atlantic Horse Mackerel  ______  IW  (other names are Common Scad, or Saurel)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Trachurus trachurus 

  390. Cottonmouth Jack  ______  (FGCF:253)
    Uraspis secunda  

    POMFRETS  (Family Bramidae)

  391. Atlantic Pomfret  ______  IW  (FGCF:253)  (another name is Ray's Bream)
    Brama brama

  392. Caribbean Pomfret  ______  (FGCF:253)  (species described in 1972)
    Brama caribbea

  393. Lowfin Pomfret  ______  (FGCF:255)
    Brama dussumieri

  394. Atlantic Fanfish  ______  IW  (FGCF:255)  (also called "Bream")
    Pterycombus brama

  395. Rough Pomfret  ______  IW
    Taractes asper

    The Rough Pomfret is a widespread species, occurring in the North Atlantic Ocean from the Madeira Islands north to Iceland and northern Norway. It occurs in the North Pacific Ocean off Japan, Alaska, and California (USA). It also occurs in the Indian Ocean.
    It is a highly migratory species, offshore in temperate, and sometimes warm waters.

  396. Bigscale Pomfret  ______  (FGCF:255)
    Taratichthys longipennis

    ROVERS  (Family Emmelichthyidae)

  397. Crimson Rover  ______  (FGCF:255)  (species described in 1954)
    Erythrocles monodi

    SNAPPERS  (Family Lutjanidae)

  398. Queen Snapper  ______   (FGCF:257)
    Etelis oculatus

  399. Mutton Snapper  ______  (FGCF:257)
    Lutjanus analis

  400. Schoolmaster  ______  (FGCF:257)
    Lutjanus apodus

  401. Blackfin Snapper  ______  (FGCF:257)
    Lutjanus buccanella

  402. Red Snapper  ______  (FGCF:259)
    Lutjanus campechanus

  403. Cubera Snapper  (t3)  ______  (FGCF:259)
    Lutjanus cyanopterus

  404. Gray Snapper  ______  (FGCF:259)  (another name is Mangrove Snapper) (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Lutjanus griseus

  405. Dog Snapper  ______  (FGCF:259)
    Lutjanus jacu

  406. Mahogany Snapper  ______  (FGCF:259)
    Lutjanus mahogoni

  407. Lane Snapper  ______  (FGCF:261)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Lutjanus synagris

  408. Silk Snapper  ______  (FGCF:261)
    Lutjanus vivanus

  409. Yellowtail Snapper  (ph)  ______  (FGCF:261)
    Ocyurus chrysurus

    Yellowtail Snapper
    (photo courtesy of Diane Allison)

  410. Wenchman  ______  (FGCF:261)
    Pristipomoides aquilonaris

  411. Slender Wenchman  ______  (FGCF:261)  (species described in 1966)
    Pristipomoides freemani  

  412. Vermilion Snapper  ______  (FGCF:261)
    Rhomboplites aurorubens

    TRIPLETAILS  (Family Lobotidae)

  413. Atlantic Tripletail  ______  (FGCF:263)
    Lobotes surinamensis

    MOJARRAS  (Family Gerreidae)

  414. Irish Pompano  ______  (FGCF:263)
    Diapterus auratus

  415. Spotfin Mojarra  ______  (FGCF:263)
    Eucinostomus argenteus

  416. Silver Jenny  ______  (FGCF:263)
    Eucinostomus gula

  417. Tidewater Mojarra  ______  (FGCF:263)
    Eucinostomus harengulus

  418. Striped Mojarra  ______  (FGCF:265)
    Eugerres plumieri

    GRUNTS  (Family Haemulidae)

  419. Tomtate  ______  (FGCF:267)
    Haemulon aurolineatum

  420. French Grunt  (ph)  ______  (FGCF:269)
    Haemulon flavolineatum

  421. Cottonwick  ______  (FGCF:269)
    Haemulon melanurum

  422. White Grunt  ______  (FGCF:271)
    Haemulon plumierii

  423. Blue-striped Grunt  ______  (FGCF:271)
    Haemulon sciurus

  424. Pigfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:271)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Orthopistis chrysoptera 

    PORGIES  (Family Sparidae)

    Found in warm waters throughout the world, the large family SPRIDAE includes dentex, gilthead sea bream, and white sea bream, as well as in the United States: the Red Porgy, Sheepshead, and Scup (all of these American fish in the list below)
    Each of these fish can used interchangeably in recipes.

    The species vary in color, bur their general appearance is similar with a deep, rounded body, a slightly domed head and plate-like scales that should be removed before cooking.
    They are conveniently available year-round and are most often sold whole or in fillets. Whole Sea Bream can be trimmed, scaled, cleaned, and the gills removed before filleting.

    Their lean, firm flesh is highly prized and their delicately flavored cheeks (pearls) may be extracted if the fish is cooked whole.
    The fish is suitable fro pan-frying, grilling (broiling), and baking in fillets or whole in a parcel or package, steaming or roasting.
    A whole fish takes about 20 minutes to cook through, whereas fillets require less than 5 minutes each.

    If sea bream is unavailable, suitable alternatives would be: sea bass, red mullet, gray (striped) mullet, black sea bass, and barramundi.
    If a larger fish is required, it can be substituted with Red Snapper.            

  425. Sheepshead  ______  MD  NC  NJ  (FGCF:273)
    Archosargus probatocephalus

    The Sheepshead grows up to 3 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 17.5 pounds on July 25, 2004. In New Jersey waters 14 pounds 1 ounce in 1995.

  426. Sea Bream  ______  (FGCF:273)  (also known as the Western Atlantic Sea Bream)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Archosargus rhomboidalis

  427. Jolthead Porgy  ______  (FGCF:275)
    Calamus bajonado

  428. Saucereye Porgy  ______  (FGCF:275)
    Calamus calamus

  429. Whitebone Porgy  ______  (FGCF:275)
    Calamus leucosteus

  430. Knobbed Porgy  ______  (FGCF:275)
    Calamus nodosus

  431. Spottail Pinfish  ______  (FGCF:277)
    Diplodus holbrookii

  432. Pinfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:277)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Lagodon rhomboides

  433. Blackspot Seabream ______  IW
    Pagellus bogarareo 

  434. Red Porgy  ______  (FGCF:277)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Pagrus pagrus

  435. Scup  ______  (FGCF:279)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Stenotomus chrysops  

    THREADFINS  (Family Polynemidae)

  436. Atlantic Threadfin  ______  (FGCF:279)
    Polydactylus octonemus

  437. Barbu  ______  (FGCF:279)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Polydactylus virginicus  

    DRUMS  (Family Sciaenidae)

  438. Meagre  ______  IW
    Argyrosomus regius

  439. Silver Perch  ______  (FGCF:281)  (another name is the Silver Croaker)
    Bairdiella chrysoura

  440. Spotted Seatrout  ______  MD  NJ  (FGCF:281)
    Cynoscion nebulosus

    The Spotted Seatrout grows up to 17.2 inches in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 13 pounds on August 21, 1973. In New Jersey waters 11 pounds 2 ounces in 1974. 

  441. Silver Seatrout  ______  NC  (FGCF:283)  (another name is Silver Weakfish)
    Cynoscion nothus

  442. Weakfish  ______  MD  NJ  (FGCF:283)  (another name is Gray Weakfish)
    Cynoscion regalis

    The Weakfish grows up to 3 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 16 pounds on September 11, 1976. In New Jersey waters 18 pounds 8 ounces in 1986.

  443. Jackknife Fish  (ph)  ______  (FGCF:283)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Equetus lanceolatus

    Jackknife Fish

  444. Banded Drum  ______  (FGCF:283)
    Larimus fasciatus

  445. Northern Kingfish  ______  NC  NJ  (FGCF:285)  (also known as Whiting)
    Menticirrhus saxatilis

    The Northern Kingfish grows up to 18 inches in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 2 pounds 8 ounces in 2004 in Barnegat Bay. 

  446. Southern Kingfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:285)  (another name is Southern Kingcroaker (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Menticirrhus americanus

  447. Gulf Kingfish  ______  (FGCF:285)  (other names are Gulf Whiting, Sea Mullet)
    Menticirrhus littoralis

  448. Atlantic Croaker  ______  NC  NJ  (FGCF:285)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Micropogonias undulatus

    The Atlantic Croaker grows up to 19.7 inches in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 5 pounds 8 ounces in 1981. 

  449. Spot  ______  NC  (FGCF:285)
    Leiostomus xanthurus

  450. High-bat  ______  (FGCF:287)
    Pareques acuminatus

  451. Blackbar Drum  ______  (FGCF:287)  (another name is Gulf Cubbyu)  (species described in 1988)
    Pareques iwamotoi 

  452. Cubbyu  ______  (FGCF:287)
    Pareques umbrosus

  453. Black Drum  (t2)  ______  MD  NJ  (FGCF:287)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Pogonias cromis  

    The Black Drum grows up to 5.6 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 103 pounds on September 23, 1973. In New Jersey waters 105 pounds in 1995.

  454. Red Drum  ______  MD  NC  NJ  (FGCF:289)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766) 
    Sciaenops ocellatus

    Some other names of the Red Drum include: Redfish, Channel Bass, Puppy Drum.

    The Red Drum grows up to a length of 5.2 feet. The record weight in Maryland waters was 74 pounds 6 ounces on May 15, 1977. In New Jersey waters 55 pounds in 1985.

  455. Star Drum  ______  (FGCF:289)  (also called American Star Drum)
    Stellifer lanceolatus

  456. Sand Drum  ______  (FGCF:289)
    Umbrina coroides

    GOATFISHES  (Family Mullidae)

    This family includes the popular Red Mullet species of Europe and the Mediterranean: Mullus barbatus and Mullus surmuletus.

  457. Red Goatfish  ______  (FGCF:289)
    Mullus auratus

  458. Spotted Goatfish  ______  (FGCF:291)
    Pseudupeneus maculatus

  459. Dwarf Goatfish  ______  (FGCF:291)
    Upeneus parvus

    SEA CHUBS  (Family Kyphosidae)

  460. Yellow Chub  ______  (FGCF:291)
    Kyphosus incisor

  461. Bermuda Chub  ______  (FGCF:291)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Kyphosus sectator

    BUTTERFLYFISHES  (Family Chaetodontidae)

  462. Foureye Butterflyfish  ______  (FGCF:293)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Chaetodon cupistratus

  463. Spotfin Butterflyfish  ______  (FGCF:293)
    Chaetodon ocellatus

  464. Reef Butterflyfish  ______  (FGCF:293)
    Chaetodon sedentarius

  465. Banded Butterflyfish  ______  (FGCF:293)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Chaetodon striatus

    ANGELFISHES  (Family Pomacanthidae)

  466. Gray Angelfish  (ph)  ______  (FGCF:297)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Pomacanthus arcuatus

  467. French Angelfish  ______ (FGCF:297)
    Pomacanthus paru

    DAMSELFISHES  (Family Pomacentridae)

  468. Sergeant Major  ______  (FGCF:299)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Abudefduf saxatilis

  469. Purple Reeffish  ______  (FGCF:301)
    Chromis scotti

  470. Bicolor Damselfish  ______  (FGCF:303)
    Stegastes partitus

  471. Threespot Damselfish  ______  (FGCF:303)
    Stegastes planifrons

  472. Cocoa Damselfish  ______  (FGCF:303)
    Stegastes variabilis

    WRASSES  (Family Labridae)

  473. Spotfin Hogfish  ______  (FGCF:305)
    Bodianus pulchellus

  474. Spanish Hogfish  ______  (FGCF:305)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Bodianus rufus

  475. Greenband Wrasse  ______  (FGCF:307)  (species described in 1932)
    Halichoeres bathyphilus

  476. Slippery Dick  ______  (FGCF:307)
    Halichoeres bivittatus

  477. Painted Wrasse  ______  (FGCF:307)
    Halichoeres caudalis

  478. Yellowcheek Wrasse  ______  (FGCF:307)
    Halichoeres cyanocephalus

  479. Clown Wrasse  ______  (FGCF:309)
    Halichoeres maculipinna

  480. Puddingwife  (ph)  ______  (FGCF:309)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Halichoeres radiatus  


  481. Hogfish  (t3)  ______  (FGCF:311)
    Lachnolaimus maximus

  482. Tautog  (t3)  ______  MD  NH  NJ  (FGCF:311)  (another name is "Blackfish")  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Tautoga onitis

    The Tautog grows up to 3 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 23 pounds on January 1, 2012. In New Hampshire waters 23 pounds 12 ounces on June 16, 1999. In New Jersey waters 25 pounds in 1998.

  483. Cunner  ______  NJ  (FGCF:311)
    Tautogolabrus adspersus
    (Labrador to Virginia)

    The Cunner grows up to 15 inches in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 1 pound 10 ounces in 1993. 

  484. Pearly Razorfish  ______  (FGCF:313)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Xyrichtys novacula

    SAND LANCES, or SAND-EELS  (Family Ammodytidae)  

    is a common name used in Europe for a number of species of fish, mostly in the genera: AMMODYTES, GYMNAMMODYTES, and HYPEROPLUS, all in the family AMMODYTIDAE. 
    Some of the species are found off the western coasts of Europe from Scotland to Spain, and in the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas.
    Some other species in the above genera, found in oceans other than the European North Atlantic, are not usually called Sand Eels, but instead Sand Lance, as they are called in North America.  
    Sand Eels are not related to the true eels (earlier in this list).

    Sand Eels are an important food source for seabirds, including puffins and kittiwakes.

  485. American Sand Lance  ______  (FGCF:323)
    Ammodytes americanus
    (Range: Labrador to Virginia, more rarely to North Carolina)

    The bird, the Atlantic Puffin, in the northwest Atlantic Ocean
    feeds on both the American and Northern Sand Lances 

  486. Northern Sand Lance  ______
    Ammodytes dubius
    (Range: Greenland south, straying to North Carolina)

  487. Raitt's Sand-eel  ______  IW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Ammodytes marinus

  488. Lesser Sand-eel  ______  IW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Ammodytes tobianus

  489. Great Sand-eel  ______  IW
    Hyperoplus lanceolatus

    STARGAZERS  (Family Uranoscopidae)

  490. Northern Stargazer  ______  NJ  (FGCF:325)
    Astroscopus guttatus

    The Northern Stargazer grows up to 22 inches in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters is 13 pounds in 2000.

  491. Southern Stargazer  ______  NC  (FGCF:325)
    Astroscopus y-graecum

  492. Freckled Stargazer  ______  (FGCF:325)
    Gnathagnus egregius
    (Georgia to Florida)

  493. Lancer Stargazer  ______  (FGCF:325)
    Kathetostoma albigutta

    SAND STARGAZERS  (Family Dactyloscopidae)

  494. Speckled Stargazer  ______  (FGCF:327)
    Dactyloscopus moorei

  495. Masked Stargazer  ______  (FGCF:329)  (species described in 1982)
    Gillellus healae

    CLINGFISHES  (Family Gobiesocidae)

  496. Skilletfish  ______  (FGCF:349)
    Gobiesox strumosus   

    SPADEFISHES  (Family Ephippidae)

  497. Atlantic Spadefish  (ph)  ______  MD  NJ  (FGCF:371)
    Chaetodipterus faber  

    The Atlantic Spadefish grows up to 3 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 11 pounds 6 ounces on September 2, 2004. In New Jersey waters 11 pounds 6 ounces in 1998.

    Atlantic Spadefish

    LOUVAR  (Family Luvaridae)

  498. Louvar  ______  (FGCF:373)
    Luvarus imperialis

    SURGEONFISHES  (Family Acanthuridae)

  499. Ocean Surgeon  ______  (FGCF:373)
    Acanthurus bahianus

  500. Doctorfish  (ph)  ______  (FGCF:373)
    Acanthurus chivurgus


  501. Blue Tang  ______  (FGCF:373)
    Acanthurus coeruleus

    BARRACUDAS  (Family Sphyraenidae)

  502. Great Barracuda  ______  NC  NJ  (FGCF:375)
    Sphyraena barracuda
    (Massachusetts to Florida)

    The Great Barracuda grows up to 10 feet in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 27 pounds 8 ounces in 1991.

  503. Northern Sennet  ______  (FGCF:375)
    Sphyraena borealis
    (Nova Scotia to Florida)

  504. Guaguanche  ______  (FGCF:375)
    Sphyraena guachancho
    (Massachusetts, where rare, to Florida)

    SNAKE MACKERELS  (Family Gempylidae)

  505. Snake Mackerel  ______  (FGCF:375)
    Gempylus serpens

  506. Escolar  ______  (FGCF:377)
    Lepidocybium flavobrunneum

  507. Black Snake Mackerel  ______  (FGCF:377)
    Nealotus tripes

  508. Black Gemfish  ______  IW  (FGCF:377)
    Nesiarchus nasutus

  509. Roudi Escolar  ______  (FGCF:377)
    Promethichthys prometheus

  510. Oilfish  ______  (FGCF: 377)
    Ruvettus pretiosus 

    TUNAS & MACKERELS  (Family Scombridae)

    A book with interesting reading about tunas is "Four Fish, the Future of the Last Wild Food", by Paul Greenberg, published in 2010. The four fish are: salmon, sea bass, cod, tuna.

    Tuna fishing for human consumption has been highly profitable because the fish are greatly appreciated and demand high.
    But Bluefin Tuna is now endangered and should be avoided.
    Yellowfin Tuna is considered sustainable . Both bonito and mackerel (below) make good alternatives, as smaller members of the same family.
    The catching of tuna with a "pole and line" is more sustainable, as the process is harmless to other sea life, that unfortunately become victims during tuna fishing with nets.    

    Some tuna grow to a considerable size (as noted below). And so it is sold commercially as whole fish, mostly filleted into loins and then cut into steaks for sale to the public. Usually sold skinned and boneless, tuna requires no preparation.

    A fresh tuna is best simply char-grilled (charbroiled) or pan-fried as direct contact with heat tends to brown the flesh and give a more appetizing appearance. Canned tuna is common many places.    

    In Japan, raw tuna is included in meals as sushi and sashimi, from various species including Bluefin Tuna. 
    Even though Japan seems far away from eastern North America, a considerable amount of tuna caught in the North Atlantic is flown to Japan soon after being caught.    
  511. Albacore  ______  MD  NC  NJ   (FGCF:383)
    Thunnus alalunga

    The Albacore grows up to 4.4 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 74 pounds on July 17, 2004. In New Jersey waters 77 pounds 15 ounces in 1984.

  512. Yellowfin Tuna  (*)  ______  MD  NC  NJ (p)  (FGCF:383)
    Thunnus albacares

    The Yellowfin Tuna grows up to 7.2 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 236.5 pounds on September 22, 2002. In New Jersey waters 290 pounds in 1980.

  513. Blackfin Tuna  ______  MD  NC  (FGCF:383)
    Thunnus atlanticus

    The Blackfin Tuna grows to 3.5 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 32 pounds on September 20, 1998. 

  514. Bigeye Tuna  (t3)  ______  MD  NC  NJ  (FGCF:385)
    Thunnus obesus

    The Bigeye Tuna grows to 8.5 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 375 pounds on August 26, 1977. In New Jersey waters 364 pounds 14 ounces in 1984. 

  515. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna  (t2)  ______  MD  NC  NH  NJ  (FGCF:385)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Thunnus thynnus

    The Atlantic Bluefin Tuna grows up to 11 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 625 pounds on August 3, 1975. In New Hampshire waters 844 pounds on September 13, 1997. In New Jersey waters 1030 pounds in 1981. 

  516. Skipjack Tuna  (*)  ______ DE  NC  NJ (p)  (FGCF:381)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Katsuwonus pelamis

    The Skipjack Tuna grows to 3.8 feet in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 13 pounds 4 ounces in 1999. 

  517. Bullet Mackerel  ______  NC  (FGCF:379)  (also called Bullet Tuna)
    Auxis rochei

  518. Frigate Mackerel  ______  NC  (FGCF:379)  (also called Frigate Tuna)
    Auxis thazard

  519. Little Tunny  ______  NC  NJ  (FGCF:379)
    Euthynnus alletteratus

    The Little Tunny grows to 3.5 feet in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 24 pounds 15 ounces in 1977.

  520. Atlantic Mackerel  (*)  ______ NC  NJ (p)  IW  (FGCF:381)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Scomber scombrus
    (Labrador to North Carolina)

    The Atlantic Mackerel grows to 2 feet in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 4 pounds 1 ounce in 1983. 

    The Mackerel, Scomber scombrus, has a streamlined, bullet-shaped body, and an iridescent shine and rainbow hue along its flanks.

    Like tuna, mackerel is caught in large shoals in North Atlantic waters. In the eastern United States, mackerel are commercially fished in southern New England and mid-Atlantic coastal waters and to the north in the Gulf of Maine.
    There are sustainability concerns about fish caught by large trawlers. 
    Mackerel are available year-round, but they are at their best during the summer. They are to be avoided during the spring when the fish are producing roe and their flesh can then be disappointing.

    Mackerel has a very nice delicate flavor and creamy texture when it is straight out of the water, As the fish loses its initial freshness, the flavor becomes stronger and more pronounced.
    The fish is sold whole and as fillets. One buying a whole fish should be sure that the gills and the blood line (found running close to the backbone) are removed as they have a bitter taste that can taint the flavor of the fish. The fine skin is usually left on.

    Mackerel is best grilled (broiled) or roasted. A single fillet requires less than 4 minutes cooking time under the grill (broiler) and, as it is quite thin, it doesn't require turning as it is cooked.
    Rich and oily, mackerel is a natural partner to gooseberries, and it also teams up well with mint.         

  521. Atlantic Chub Mackerel  ______  NC  (FGCF:381)
    Scomber colias

  522. King Mackerel ______  MD  NC  NH  NJ  (FGCF:381)
    Scomberomarus cavalla 

    The King Mackerel grows to 6.2 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 47 pounds on October 18, 1985. In New Hampshire waters 53 pounds on May 12, 1988. In New Jersey waters 54 pounds in 1998. 

    Four fish have been found by the Food & Drug Administration of the US government to often have mercury levels above 1 part per million (ppm): King Mackerel, shark, Swordfish, and Tilefish.
    These species accumulate mercury as they grow older because they consume large amounts of small fish.
    All of the fish just noted combined add up to a very small amount (about 1 per cent) of the fish Americans eat. The average mercury level in all the types of fish Americans eat is low - 0.086 ppm, weighted for consumption.  

  523. Spanish Mackerel  ______  MD  NC  NJ  (FGCF:383)
    Scomberomarus maculatus 

    The Spanish Mackerel grows to 2.8 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 12.4 pounds on October 6, 2007. In New Jersey waters 9 pounds 12 ounces in 1990. 

  524. Cero  ______  NC   (FGCF:383)
    Scomberomarus regalis

  525. Wahoo  (*)  ______ MD  NC  NJ (p)  (FGCF:379)
    Acanthocybium solandri

    The Wahoo grows up to 7.3 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 111 pounds on October 8, 2003. In New Jersey waters 123 pounds 12 ounces in 1992.

  526. Atlantic Bonito  ______  NC  NJ  (FGCF:381)
    Sarda sarda 

    The Atlantic Bonito grows to 3.2 feet in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 13 pounds 8 ounces in 1945.

    BILLFISHES  (Family Istiophoridae)

  527. Sailfish  (*)  ______ NC  NJ (p)  (FGCF:385)
    Istiophorus platypterus
    (formerly albicans)

    The Sailfish grows up to 11 feet in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 41 pounds in 1984.  

  528. Longbill Spearfish  (*)  ______ NC  NJ (p)  (FGCF:387)
    Tetrapturus pfluegeri

    The Longbill Spearfish grows up to 8.2 feet. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 42 pounds, in 1989 & 1997. 

  529. Roundscale Spearfish  ______  NC   (FGCF:387)
    Tetrapturus georgii

    The Roundscale Spearfish can be misidentified as the White Marlin.

  530. White Marlin  (*)  ______ MD  NC  NJ (p)  (FGCF:387)
    Kajikia albidus

    The White Marlin grows up to 9 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 135 pounds on August 29, 1980. In New Jersey waters 137 pounds 8 ounces in 1980.

  531. Blue Marlin  (*)  ______ MD  NC  NJ (p)  (FGCF:385)
    Makaira nigricans

    The Blue Marlin grows up to 14.7 feet in length. The record weight in Maryland waters was 1,062 pounds on August 7, 2009. In New Jersey waters 1,046 pounds in 1986. In New York waters 1,174 pounds on July 20, 1986. 

    SWORDFISH  (Family Xiphiidae)

  532. Swordfish  (*)  ______ NC  NJ (p)  IW  (FGCF:385)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)   
    Xiphias gladius

    The Swordfish grows up to 14.7 feet in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 530 pounds in 1964.

    The Swordfish is a dynamic, aggressive, and handsome fish. It is easily identified with its distinctive long "sword", dark back, and silvery flanks.
    It is caught mostly in warmer oceanic waters around the globe. The Swordfish is highly valued and often expensive.

    Due to its size, Swordfish is usually filleted into long loins for sale and then cut into steaks. The advantage of this is that there are no bones and usually no skin, and so it requires virtually no preparation. Smoked Swordfish is also available.

    With a dense and meaty flesh, the flavor of the Swordfish is delicate, sweet, and ideal for a wide range of recipes, many of which are also suitable for fresh tuna.
    Fresh swordfish is perfect for the barbeque and for pan-frying - a swordfish steak requires only 3 to 4 minutes on each side.
    It is best accompanied by strongly aromatic herbs, such as oregano and basil, and works well with "salsa verde" (a Mexican green salsa), especially when gherkins, garlic and anchovy are added.

    Having said all these positive things about Swordfish as food, there is unfortunately a negative note:
    Four fish have been found by the Food & Drug Administration of the US government to often have mercury levels above 1 part per million (ppm): King Mackerel, shark, Swordfish, and Tilefish.
    These species accumulate mercury as they grow larger because they consume amounts of small fish.
    All of the fish just noted combined add up to a very small amount (about 1 per cent) of the fish Americans eat. The average mercury level in all the types of fish Americans eat is low - 0.086 ppm, weighted for consumption.

    LEFT-EYE FLOUNDERS  (Family Bothidae)

  533. Eyed Flounder  ______  (FGCF:407)
    Bothus ocellatus

  534. Twospot Flounder  ______  (FGCF:407)
    Bothus robinsi

  535. Plate Fish  ______  (another name is Peacock Flounder)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Bothus lunatus

  536. Spiny Flounder  ______  (FGCF:407)  (species described in 1933)
    Engyophrys senta

  537. Deepwater Flounder  ______  (FGCF:407)
    Monolene sessilicauda

    RIGHT-EYE FLOUNDERS  (Family Pleuronectidae)

  538. Witch Flounder  ______  IW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Glyptocephalus cynoglossus 

  539. American Plaice  ______  IW
    Hippoglossoides platessoides
    Hippoglossoides platessoides limandoides  ______ 

  540. Atlantic Halibut  (t2)  ______  IW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Hippoglossus hippoglossus 

    The Atlantic Halibut grows up to 8 feet in length. 

  541. Common Dab  ______  IW
    Limanda limanda

  542. Yellowtail Flounder  ______  (FGCF:405)
    Limanda ferruginea

  543. Lemon Sole  ______  IW
    Microstomus kitt

  544. Plaice  ______  IW
    Pleuronectes platessa

  545. Smooth Flounder  ______  (FGCF:405)
    Pleuronectes putnami
    (Range: Labrador to Rhode Island)

  546. Winter Flounder  ______  NH  NJ  (FGCF:405)
    Pseudopleuronectes americanus

    The Winter Flounder grows up to 2 feet in length. The record weight in New Hampshire waters was 3 pounds 1 ounce July 7, 2010. In New Jersey waters 5 pounds 11 ounces in 1992.

  547. Greenland Halibut  ______  IW  (FGCF:405)  (another name is Greenland Turbot)
    Reinhardtius hippoglossoides

    The Greenland Halibut grows up to 4 feet in length.

    SAND FLOUNDERS  (Family Paralichthyidae)

  548. Gulf Flounder  ______  NC  (FGCF:399)
    Paralichthy albigutta

  549. Summer Flounder  ______  NC  NJ  (FGCF:401)  (also called Fluke)   (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Paralichthys dentatus

    The Summer Flounder, or Fluke, grows up to 3 feet in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 19 pounds 12 ounces in 1953. 

  550. Southern Flounder  ______  NC  (FGCF:401)
    Paralichthys lethostigma 

    PUFFERS  (Family Tetraodontidae)

  551. Goldface Toby  ______  NC  (FGCF:421)
    Canthigaster jamestyleri

  552. Sharpnose Puffer  ______  (FGCF:421)
    Canthigaster rostrater

  553. Smooth Puffer  ______  NJ  (FGCF:421)  (also called Blowfish)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Lagocephalus laevigarus

    Lagocephalus laevigarus
    , ranging from New England to Argentina, is not considered a common fish, and is rarely caught by hook and line.
    As info, a state record in Texas is 10.75 pounds, caught in April 2001. 
    Not much is known about the life history of the species, but generally it inhabits inshore/nearshore areas over sandy or muddy bottoms. It feeds on other fish and shrimp.
    Most puffers are toxic, containing a very potent neurotoxin that can be deadly, concentrated in the liver, skin, and gonads. It rarely seeps into the muscle however, but extreme care must be taken when cleaning the fish, and any fillets that could have been contaminated should immediately be discarded.       

    The Smooth Puffer (or Blowfish) grows up to 3.3 feet in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 9 pounds 10 ounces in 1992 in the Delaware Bay. 

  554. Northern Puffer  ______  NC  NJ  (FGCF:421)
    Sphoeroides maculatus

    The Northern Puffer grows up to 10 inches in length. The record weight in New Jersey waters was 1 pound 14 ounces, in 1987 in the Delaware Bay. 

  555. Checkered Puffer  (ph)  ______  (FGCF:423)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Sphoeroides testudineus

    Checkered Puffer
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

    PORCUPINE FISHES  (Family Diodontidae)

  556. Striped Burrfish  ______  NC  (FGCF:425)
    Chilomycterus schoepfi

  557. Balloonfish  ______  (FGCF:427)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Diodon holocanthus

  558. Porcupinefish  (ph)  ______  (FGCF:427)  (also called Blowfish)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Diodon hystrix

    The Porcupinefish grows up to 2.5 feet in length. 


    SUNFISHES & MOLAS  (Family Molidae)

    Large fish with disc-like bodies, lacking a tail. 

  559. Ocean Sunfish  (*)  ______ DE(p)  NC(p)  NJ (p)  IW  (FGCF:427)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Mola mola

    Mola Mola grow up to 11.5 feet in length and can weigh up to 2 tons.

    An Oceanic Sunfish photographed during a FONT pelagic trip 

  560. Sharptail Mola  ______  (FGCF:427)
    Masturus lanceolatus
    (Massachusetts to Florida)

    The Sharptail Mola grows up to 6.5 feet in length.

References include:

"Sea Life - A Complete Guide to the Marine Environment",  edited by Geoffrey Waller, with principal contributors Marc Dando & Michael Burchett, 1996.  

"Iceland - Nature's Meeting Place",  by Mark Carwardine, 1986

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