PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876


North America

Noting those during 
Focus On Nature Tours
with an (*)
including those during 
our tours
in Florida, Newfoundland,
the Delmarva Peninsula,
and North Carolina

1992 thru 2015 

List compiled by Armas Hill 

Photo at Upper Right: a RED FOX
(photograph by Doris Potter)


(i):    introduced species
(p):   seen during offshore pelagic trip
(ph): species with a photo in the FONT website 

DE:  occurs in Delaware
FL:   occurs in Florida
MD:  occurs in Maryland
NC:  occurs in North Carolina
NJ:   occurs in New Jersey
PA:   occurs in Pennsylvania
VA:   occurs in Virginia

Links to Groupings in this List:

LAND MAMMALS   Opossum & Armadillo    Shrews & Moles     Rabbits

Porcupine     Some Aquatic Mammals (Nutria, Beaver, Muskrat)     Woodchuck & Squirrels

Rats, Mice, and the like     Bats     Cats     Dogs     Bears     Raccoon & Mustelids

Seals     Deer     Manatee

MARINE MAMMALS    Whales, Dolphins, Porpoise

Other Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in North America  

Mammals of North America  (with some photos)

Birds during Previous FONT North Carolina Tours  (with some photos) 

Birds of the Delmarva Peninsula  (DE, MD, & VA)  (with some photos)

Butterflies of Eastern North America  (with some photos)

Moths of Eastern North America  (with some photos)

Dragonflies & Damselflies of Eastern North America  (with some photos)

Amphibians & Reptiles of Eastern North America  (with some photos) 

Wildflowers & Other Plants of Eastern North America  (with some photos)

Directory of Photos in this Website

A book, published back in 1903, entitled "The Mammals of Pennsylvania and New Jersey - A Biographic, Historic and Descriptive Account of the Furred Animals of Land and Sea, both Living and Extinct, known to have Existed in These States", was written by Samuel H. Rhoads.
References to that historic book are throughout the list that follows. 

 Land Mammals:

       Opossum & Armadillo

  1. Virginia Opossum  (ph)  ______   DE(*)  FL  MD(*)  NC(*)  NJ  PA  VA
    Didelphis virginiana

    A Virginia Opossum photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Karl Frajford)

  2. Nine-banded Armadillo  (ph)  ______  FL(*) 
    Dasypus novemcinctus

    Nine-banded Armadillo


  3. Cinereous Shrew  ______  DE  MD  NJ  PA  VA  (was called the Masked Shrew)
    Sorex cinereus
    Sorex cinereus nigriculus 
    Tuckahoe Shrew  ______  NJ

    This species and the following, called the Eastern Masked Shrew, Sorex personnatus, by Rhoads in 1903. 

  4. Southeastern Shrew ______  MD  NC  VA  (was conspecific with Sorex cinereus, the former Masked Shrew
    Sorex longirostris

    Referring to the above 2 animals as one species, Rhoads (in 1903) wrote the following:   

    "This the least of our mammals, and being subterranean in its living and rare in upland tracts, it is seldom seen alive."

    Nor was it alive in the photo below, taken by Alan Brady in 1998, at Pickering Beach in Delaware, where the animal was found.  With the shrew in the photo is a US cent.

    Southeastern Shrew

  5. Pygmy Shrew ______  NC  NJ  PA
    Sorex hoyi
    Sorex hoyi winnemane 
    Southern Pygmy Shrew  ______  MD

  6. Long-tailed Shrew ______  MD(rare)  NC  NJ  PA  (another name is Rock Shrew)
    Sorex dispar

    Sorex dispar
    occurs in Appalachian uplands.

  7. Smoky Shrew ______  MD(rare)  NC  NJ  PA
    Sorex fumeus  

  8. Gaspe Shrew  ______
    Sorex gaspensis

  9. Water Shrew  ______  NJ  PA
    Sorex palustris
    Sorex palustris punctulatus 
    Southern Water Shrew  ______  MD
    (very rare)

    Called the Eastern Marsh Shrew, or Big Water Shrew, by Rhoads in 1903. 

  10. Arctic Shrew  ______
    Sorex arcticus maritimensis

  11. Least Shrew  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA(rare)
    Cryptotis parva

    Called the Least Mole Shrew by Rhoads in 1903.

    Cryptotis parva is classified as endangered in Pennsylvania. 

  12. Northern Short-tailed Shrew ______  DE  NC  NJ  PA
    Blarina brevicauda

    Called the Large Bob-tail Shrew, or North Eastern Mole Shrew, by Rhoads in 1903.

  13. Southern Short-tailed Shrew ______  NC
    Blarina carolinensis

  14. Eastern Mole ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Scalopus aquaticus

    Called the Eastern Naked-tail Mole by Rhoads in 1903. This species was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

  15. Hairy-tailed Mole ______  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Parascalops breweri

    Called the Eastern Hairy-tailed Mole, or Brewer's Mole, by Rhoads in 1903.

  16. Star-nosed Mole ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Condylura cristata

    Also called the Long-tailed, or Swamp Mole by Rhoads in 1903. The species was described by Linnaeus in 1758.   


  17. Eastern Cottontail  (ph) ______  DE(*)  MD(*)  NC(*)  NJ  PA  VA 
    Sylvilagus floridannus

    Called the Southeastern, or Lowland Cottontail, or Rabbit, by Rhoads in 1903.

    Eastern Cottontail
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  18. Appalachian Cottontail ______  MD(very rare)  NC
    Sylvilagus obscurus

    Called the Alleghenian Cottontail, or Rabbit by Rhoads in 1903, with the now historic scientific name Lepus floridanus transitionalis.   

  19. New England Cottontail  ______  NJ(rare)  PA(rare)
    Sylvilagus transitionalis

  20. Marsh Rabbit  ______  NC(*) 
    Sylvilagus palistris

  21. Snowshoe Hare  ______  MD(extirpated)  PA(rare)
    Lepus americanus

    Referred to as the Alleghenian Varying Hare, or "White Rabbit", Lepus amerianus virgininianus, by Rhoads in 1903.

  22. Arctic Hare  ______  NF
    Lepus arcticus

  23. Cape Hare (i)  ______  
    Lepus capensis


  24. North American Porcupine  (ph)  ______  MD(very rare)  NJ  PA
    Erethizon dorsatum  

    Called the Canada Porcupine, or "Hedgehog", by Rhoads in 1903. The species was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    North American Porcupine
    (photo by Doris Potter)

    Some Aquatic Mammals

  25. Nutria (i) (ph)  ______  MD  NC(*)  NJ  
    Myocastor coypus

    A Nutria photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  26. American Beaver  (ph)  ______  DE(*)  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Castor canadensis

    Called the Northeastern, or Canada, Beaver by Rhoads in 1903, when also noted was the Southeastern Beaver, Castor canadensis carolinensis.  

    The American Beaver has been re-introduced in Pennsylvania.

    American Beaver

    (photo by Doris Potter) 

  27. Muskrat  (ph)  ______  DE(*)  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Ondatra zibethicus

    Referred to by Rhoads in 1903  as the Southeastern Muskrat, with the scientific name Fiber zibethicus. The species was described by Linnaeus in 1766.

    (photo by Doris Potter)

  28. Round-tailed Muskrat  ______  FL
    Neofiber alleni

    Woodchuck & Squirrels

  29. Woodchuck  (ph) ______  DE(*)  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Marmota monax

    Called the Groundhog by Rhoads in 1903, when he also noted both the Southeastern Woodchuck, then Arctomys monax, and the Northeastern Woodchuck, then Arctomys monax canadensis.
    The species was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    Above: A young Woodchuck; Below: 2 of them. 
    (photos by Doris Potter)

  30. Eastern Gray Squirrel  (ph)  ______  DE(*)  MD(*)  NC  NJ(*)  PA  VA 
    Sciurus carolinensis

    Called the Carolina Gray Squirrel by Rhoads in 1903, when also noted was the Northern Gray, or Black, Squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis leucotis.  

    Eastern Gray Squirrel
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  31. Eastern Fox Squirrel  (ph) ______  NC(*)  VA(*)  PA
    Sciurus niger
    Sciurus niger cinereus 
    Delmarva Fox Squirrel  ______  DE
    (very rare)  MD(very rare)  PA(probably extirpated)  VA(*)

    Sciurus niger cinereus is classified as endangered in Delaware.

    An Eastern Fox Squirrel photographed during the FONT North Carolina Tour in May 2009 
    (photo courtesy of Cindy & Ron Becker)

  32. Red Squirrel ______  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Tamiasciurus hudsonicus

    Called the Canadian Chickaree, or Pine Squirrel, by Rhoads in 1903, when also noted was the Southeastern Chickaree, or Red Squirrel, as Sciurus hudsonicus loquax.

  33. Southern Flying Squirrel  ______  DE(*)  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Glaucomys volans

    Called the Virginia Flying Squirrel by Rhoads in 1903. The species was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

  34. Northern Flying Squirrel  ______  NJ  PA(rare)
    Glaucomys sabrinus

  35. Eastern Chipmunk  (ph) ______  DE(*)  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Tamias striatus

    The Eastern Chipmunk was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Eastern Chipmunk
    (photo by Doris Potter)

    Rats, Mice, and the like

  36. Southeastern Pocket Gopher  ______  FL(north)
    Geomys pinetis

  37. Eastern Woodrat ______  NC  NJ(very rare)  PA(rare)
    Neotoma floridana

  38. Allegheny Woodrat  ______  MD(very rare)
    Neotoma magister

    Called the Allegheny Cave Rat by Rhoads in 1903, with the scientific name Neotoma pennsylvanica.

  39. Marsh Rice Rat ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA(extirpated)
    Oryzomys palustris

    Called the Northern Rice Rat, or Marsh Rat, by Rhoads in 1903,

  40. Hispid Cotton Rat  (*)  ______  NC
    Sigmodon hispidus

  41. Woodland Jumping Mouse ______  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Napaeozapus insignis 

    Called the Miller's Woodland Jumping Mouse by Rhoads in 1903.

  42. Meadow Jumping Mouse ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Zapus hudsonius 

    Also called the Hudson Bay Zapus by Rhoads in 1903, with the lowland race being Barton's Zapus, Zapus hudsonius americanus.  

  43. Eastern Harvest Mouse ______  MD  NC
    Reithrodontomys humulis

  44. White-footed Deermouse ______  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Peromyscus leucopus

    Called the Rafinesque's Deer Mouse by Rhoads in 1903. The subspecies Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis was then called the Fischer's Deer Mouse.

  45. North American Deermouse ______  MD  NC  PA
    Peromyscus maniculatus

  46. Cotton Deermouse ______  NC
    Peromyscus gossypinus 

  47. Oldfield Deermouse  ______
    Peromyscus polionotus

  48. Florida Deermouse  ______  FL
    Podimys floriddanus

  49. Golden Mouse ______  NC
    Ochrotomys nuttalli

  50. Southern Red-backed Vole  ______  NJ  PA
    Clethrionomys gapperi

    Called the Gapper's Wood Vole, or Red-back Mouse, by Rhoads in 1903, with then the scientific name Evotomys gapperi
    The subspecies Evotomys gapperi rhoadsi, the New Jersey Wood Vole, or Red-back Mouse, was named after Samuel Rhoads.  

  51. Meadow Vole  (ph)  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Microtus pennsylvanicus

    Called the Pennsylvania Meadow Vole, or Common Meadow Vole, by Rhoads in 1903. 

    Meadow Vole
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  52. Woodland Vole ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  (another name is Pine Vole
    (or Pitymys) pinetorum

    Called the Northern Pine-woods Vole, or Mole Mouse, by Rhoads in 1903.

  53. Rock Vole  ______  PA(rare)
    Microtus chrotorrhinus
    Microtus chrotorrhinus carolinensis 
    Southern Rock Vole   ______  MD
    (very rare)

  54. Southern Bog Lemming  ______  MD  NJ  PA
    Synaptomys cooperi

    Called the Cooper's Lemming by Rhoads in 1903, when also the subspecies Synaptomys cooperi stonei, the Stone's Lemming, was noted.

    The "Stone's Lemming" was described in 1893, with the type locality being May's Landing, in Atlantic County, New Jersey. Synaptomys cooperi stonei is restricted to higher elevations in the southern portion of the species' range.

    Throughout its range, the Southern Bog Lemming has populations that are localized and may change with time.

    The subspecies in the Dismal Swamp of Virginia/North Carolina, Synaptomys cooperi helaletes, was recently re-discovered after a hiatus of 83 years. (1981)    

  55. Northern Bog Lemming  ______
    Synaptomys borealis


  56. Mexican Free-tailed Bat  (ph)  ______  NC
    Tadarida brasiliensis

  57. Seminole Bat  ______  NC(*)  PA(rare)
    Lasiurus seminolus

  58. Eastern Red Bat  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ(*)  PA
    Lasiurus borealis

    Called the Northern Red Bat, or Tree Bat, by Rhoads in 1903.

    An Eastern Red Bat, in a tree, during the day
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  59. Hoary Bat ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Lasiurus cinereus

  60. Northern Yellow Bat  ______  FL  NJ(very rare)
    Lasiurus intermedius

  61. Silver-haired Bat  (ph)  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ(*)  PA
    Lasionycterius noctivagans

    Called the Silvery Black Bat by Rhoads on 1903.

    A Silver-haired Bat photographed during a FONT pelagic trip,
    on a boat at sea, offshore from New Jersey

  62. Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat ______  NC
    Corynorhinus rafinesquii

  63. Northern Myotis ______  MD  NC  NJ  PA(rare)  (also called Keen's Myotis)  
    Myotis septentrionalis 

  64. Little Brown Myotis  ______  DE(*)  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Myotis lucifugus 

    Called the LeContes' Little Brown Bat by Rhoads in 1903. 

    White-nose Syndrome has recently been a deadly disease in North America bats, especially the Little Brown Myotis. The disease has been spreading rapidly since its discovery in 2006 in New York State.
    Thus far, bat declines in the northeastern US have exceeded 80 per cent.

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and partner institutions have identified the cause of White-nose Syndrome as a fungus appropriately known as Geomyces destructans.
    The research has further demonstrated that the fungus can be spread through contact between individual bats during hibernation.        

  65. Gray Myotis ______  NC
    Myotis grisescens

  66. Eastern Small-footed Myotis  ______  MD(very rare)  NJ  PA(rare)
    Myotis leibii

  67. Southeastern Myotis ______  NC
    Myotis austroriparius

  68. Indiana Myotis ______  MD(very rare)  NC  NJ(very rare)  PA(very rare)
    Myotis sodalis

    Myotis sodalis
    is classified as endangered in Pennsylvania.

  69. Eastern Pipistrelle  ______  DE(*)  MD  NC  NJ  PA 
    Pipistrellus subflavus

    Called the Pigmy Bat by Rhoads in 1903.

  70. Big Brown Bat ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Eptesicus fuscus

    Called the Northeastern Large Brown Bat, or the House Bat, by Rhoads in 1903.

    A Big Brown Bat photographed in Delaware in January 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  71. Evening Bat ______  MD  NC  PA(rare)
    Nycticeius humeralis

    Called the Rafinesque's Little Brown Bat by Rhoads in 1903. 


  72. Bobcat  (ph)  ______  MD  NC(*)  NJ(very rare)  PA(rare)
    Lynx rufus

    Called the Eastern Bay Lynx, or Wild Cat, by Rhoads in 1903.

    A Bobcat photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  73. Canadian Lynx  ______  PA(extirpated)
    Lynx canadensis

  74. Puma  (ph)  ______  PA(extirpated)
    Puma concolor

    Called the Alleghenian Cougar, or Panther, by Rhoads in 1903, when noting that the type locality of this species was in "Pennsylvania". Rhoads also noted the scientific name as Felis couguar.   

    A Puma, that was first noted in Greenwich, Connecticut on June 20, 2011, was later roadkilled on July 20, 2011 in Milford, Connecticut.
    That animal went to Connecticut on its own from the Black Hills of South Dakota. In June 2010, it was in Minnesota and Wisconsin. To get to Connecticut. it traveled 1,500 miles. 


  75. Red Fox  (ph)  ______  DE(*)  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Vulpes vulpes

    Red Fox
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  76. Gray Fox ______  DE(rare)(*)  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Urocyon cinereoargenteus

  77. Coyote  (ph)  ______   DE(*)  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Canis latrans

  78. Eastern Wolf  ______  MD(extirpated)  PA(extirpated)
    Canis lycaon

    Called the Appalachian Gray Wolf by Rhoads in 1903.

    The Eastern Wolf is now said to be a distinct species, although it has also been said to be a subspecies of the Gray Wolf or the Red Wolf. Science has shown that it is closely related to them, but that is not the same species as either of them.

    The Eastern Wolf is a small to medium sized wolf with a light brown or reddish coat. They also have some longer hairs in their coat that are usually black. As Eastern Wolves gets older, they develop more of those long black hairs. 

    Eastern Wolves are often mistaken for Coyotes due to their coloring and build.

    Well known are the Eastern Wolves in the area of the Algonquin Provincial Park in Ontario, Canada. They have a large home range. It is believed that packs of Eastern Wolves follow the movements of White-tailed Deer, as a way to have plenty to eat, especially in the winter months.

    Eastern Wolves are said to be very dependent upon the social aspects of their pack. They are quite loyal to each other and will do all they can to keep other packs of wolves out of their territory. That is why they are often heard howling, so as to publicize and protect their territories.  

    Eastern Wolves are most active at night but they can also be seen out during the day.

    The Eastern Wolf has a diverse diet. Sometimes animals hunt on their own, but most of the time they hunt with their pack. Some of their prey when they hunt alone include rodents, beaver, and muskrat. Prey when they hunt in their pack includes deer and moose. In some instances, they have even been able to successfully kill a Black Bear.

    The alpha and beta animals mate in February, with the young born about two months later.

    The Eastern Wolf has been known to mate with different types of Coyotes in their areas. That can definitely affect the overall genetics of the species (see below the results of a recent study)
    It is interesting behavior because otherwise wolves have often been known to aggressively run off Coyotes, and in the case of the Gray Wolf in the west, even kill them.            

    In a recent genetic study, published in May 2011, and adding fuel to a longstanding debate, it was determined that wolves in the eastern United States are hybrids of Gray Wolves and Coyotes, while Coyotes in that region are actually wolf-coyote-dog hybrids
    There were 16 researchers involved in the study from around the globe. It was said to be the most detailed genetic study of any wild vertebrate species to date.

    The study is not likely to have any impact on the management of the endangered Red Wolf in North Carolina and the Eastern Wolf in Ontario, but it offers some fresh insight into their genetic make-up and concludes that those wolves are hybrids that developed over the last few hundred years.

    On the other hand, some scientists have argued that the Red Wolf, Canis rufus, and the Eastern Wolf, Canis lycaon, evolved from an ancient wolf species distinct from the larger Gray Wolf, Canis lupus, of western North America.

    The recent study, referred to above, showed a gradient of hybridization in wolves, as follows:

    In western North America, wolves were pure wolf.
    In the western Great Lakes region, they averaged 85 percent wolf and 15 percent Coyote.
    Wolves in Algonquin Park in eastern Ontario averaged 58 percent wolf.
    The Red Wolf in North Carolina, which as been the subject of extensive preservation and restoration efforts, was found to be 24 percent wolf and 75 percent coyote.

    Coyotes, in the northeastern US, which only colonized in the region in the past 60 years, were found to be 82 percent coyote, 9 percent dog, and 9 percent wolf.

    In a study, last year, museum specimens and genetic samples were used to show that Coyotes migrating eastward bred with wolves to evolve into a larger form that has become the top predator in the Northeast US, filling a niche left when native eastern wolves were hunted out of existence. This hybridization allowed Coyotes to evolve from the smaller mouse-eater of western grasslands to a larger deer-hunter in eastern forest.

    Still a question is how it is that Gray Wolves don't typically breed with Coyotes, but kill them. In the West, wolves don't hybridize with Coyotes, even in the circumstance when single wolves looking for mates have dispersed into the middle of "Coyote country".

  79. Red Wolf (i)  ______  NC(*)
    Canis rufus

    Some say that the Red Wolf is a "historical hybrid" between the Gray Wolf, Canis lupus, and the Coyote, Canis latrans. It was introduced into eastern North Carolina from the Southwest US.

    7 Red Wolves were seen during a FONT North Carolina tour, early one morning, in August 1998. 

  80. Arctic Fox  ______
    Alopex lagopus


  81. American Black Bear  (ph)  ______  MD  NC(*)  NJ  PA
    Urus americanus

    Called the East American Black Bear by Rhoads in 1903.  

    Black Bears were seen during nearly all land-birding excursions during FONT tours west of Manteo in August 1997, 1998, & 1999. With usually more than one bear per outing. They were seen on dirt roads and "surfing" in nearby fields of soy beans.

    American Black Bear
    (photo by Peter Burke)

  82. Polar Bear  ______
    Ursus maritimus

    Raccoon and Mustelids

  83. Northern Raccoon  (ph)  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA(*)
    Procyon lotor

    The Northern Raccoon, or "Coon" as it was also called by Rhoads in 1903, was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    Northern Raccoon
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  84. Northern River Otter  ______  DE(*)  MD  NC  NJ(*)  PA(rare)
    Lontra canadensis

  85. American Mink  (ph)  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ(*)  PA
    Mustela vison

    In 1903, Rhoads gave the scientific name of the American Mink as Putorius vison, with the nominate subspecies being the Northeastern Mink, and Putorius vison lutreocephalus being the Southeastern Mink.  

    American Mink
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  86. American Marten  ______  PA(extirpated)
    Martes americana

    Also called the American Sable by Rhoads in 1903. 

  87. Fisher  ______  MD  PA
    Martes pennanti

    Also called the Pennant's Marten, or the Pekan, by Rhoads in 1903.

    The Fisher has been re-introduced in Pennsylvania.

  88. Wolverine  ______  PA(extirpated)  (now extirpated in the northeastern US) 
    Gula gula 

    Also called the Glutton, or Carcajou, by Rhoads in 1903. The species was described by Linnaeus in 1766, when it was said by him to be in the genus Ursus, that of the bears.

    Rhoads (in 1903) stated that the Wolverine was the rarest animal in Pennsylvania in the early 1800s, when it was only found in the most boreal localities in that state as a straggler.

    The type locality was by Hudson Bay in Canada. Today, in eastern North America, the species is only found in northern Canada. It has generally been in the Hudsonian and Canadian Zones, but historically it been found as far south as Pennsylvania and Colorado.  

  89. Ermine  ______  MD  NJ  PA  (in Europe, also called the Stoat; the species is widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere)
    Mustela erminea

    Called the Short-tailed Weasel, or the Bonaparte's Weasel, by Rhoads in 1903, with the scientific name Putorius cicognani.
    When describing it (in North America), in 1838, by Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte (the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte) gave it the scientific name Mustela cicognani. Charles Bonaparte (minus his other 3 names) lived in New Jersey, near Philadelphia (the location of the Academy of Natural Sciences).    

  90. Least Weasel ______  MD(rare)  NC  PA(rare)
    Mustela nivalis

    Called the Alleghenian Least Weasel by Rhoads in 1903, when he noted that the species was described in Washington County, Pennsylvania in 1900, and was given the scientific name Putorius allegheniensis.     

  91. Long-tailed Weasel ______  DE(*)  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Mustela frenata

    Also called the New York Weasel, or the Common Weasel, by Rhoads in 1903, with the scientific name Putorius noveboracensis.  

  92. Eastern Spotted Skunk ______  MD(very rare)  NC  PA(rare)
    Spilogale putorius

  93. Striped Skunk  (ph)  ______  DE(*)  MD  NC  NJ  PA
    Mephitis mephitis

    Called the Southeastern Skunk by Rhoads in 1903, referring to Mephitis mephitis putida.

    Striped Skunk
    (photo by Howard Eskin)


  94. Harbor Seal  (ph)  ______  DE(*)  MD  NJ  VA(*)
    Phoca vitulina

    Also referred to as the "Sea Dog" by Rhoads in 1903. The species was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    Above & below: Harbor Seals
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

    Below, a sequence of 3 photographs taken in New Jersey in January 2015
    (same seal, same photographer: Howard Eskin)    

  95. Harp Seal  ______  NJ(very rare)
    Phoca greenlandica

  96. Hooded Seal  ______  NJ(very rare)
    Cystophora cristata

    Also called Bladdernose by Rhoads in 1903.  

  97. Gray Seal  ______  MD(very rare)  NJ(very rare)
    Halichoerus grypus

    A Gray Seal was photographed on a jetty in Ocean City, Maryland on May 14, 2011. The species is said to be expanding its range south. 

  98. Caribbean Monk Seal  ______  (now extinct, formerly occurred in Florida)
    Monachus tropicalis


  99. White-tailed Deer  (ph)  ______  DE(*)  MD(*)  NC(*)  NJ(*)  PA(*)  VA(*) 
    Odocoileus virginianus

    Called the Virginia Deer by Rhoads in 1903, when it was Odocoileus americanus.

    White-tailed Deer
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  100. Moose  (ph)  ______  PA(extirpated)
    Alces alces

    A Moose photographed during a FONT tour

  101. Elk  (ph)  ______  PA(reintroduced)
    Cervus elaphus

    Called the Eastern Wapiti, or Elk, by Rhoads in 1903, when it was Cervus canadensis.

    Elk were once numerous in Pennsylvania up to the beginning of the 19th Century in the entire Alleghenian mountain system east of the Allegheny River. They were rare in the state in the Blue Ridge and Cumberland Ranges, and they were once common on the Pocono Plateau. By the end the 19th Century, they were extirpated in Pennsylvania, primarily due to over-hunting.

    Elk occur in northwestern Pennsylvania now. They are descendents of Rocky Mountain animals that the Pennsylvania Game Commission brought in between 1913 and 1926.
    The current-day range of the Elk in Pennsylvania is believed to extend into parts of Elk, Cameron, McKean, Potter, Clinton, Centre, and Clearfield Counties, with the central point of the herd being in Elk County (appropriately), and specifically near Benezette.
    The population now in Pennsylvania probably numbers slightly more than 500.

    (photo by Doris Potter)

  102. Sika Deer (i) (ph)  ______  MD  VA(*)
    Cervus nippon

    Sika Deer
    were introduced on Assateague Island in Maryland in the 1920s. It is now locally common elsewhere on the Lower Eastern Shore of Maryland, especially in Dorchester County.  

  103. Caribou  (ph)  ______
    Rangifer tarandus


  104. American Bison  ______  PA(extirpated)  (now extinct in eastern North America) 
    Bison bison 

    Called the Buffalo, or American Bison, by Rhoads in 1903. The species was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    In the 1903 book by Rhoads:

    "The American Bison was once normally found in Pennsylvania in the valleys and mountain glades of the Ohio, Monongahela, and Allegheny Rivers, whence it passed sparingly eastward across the Allegheny passes into the tributary valleys of the Susquehanna, thence reaching the Delaware Valley as only a straggler."

    In 1903, there were the words "whence" and "thence".


  105. West Indian Manatee  (ph)  ______  MD(very rare)  FL
    Trichechus manatus

    The West Indian Manatee in eastern North America is normally in Florida.

    Occasionally, it is found further north, as when one was in Calvert County, Maryland on July 15, 2011 at the St. Leonard Marina.   
    A West Indian Manatee (but assumed to be from Florida) was seen in Delaware on July 23, 2015, in the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. That canal, in northern Delaware, connects the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays.
    About 2 weeks earlier, a manatee (either the same or another) was reported in the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland.      

    A West Indian Manatee photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 


Marine Mammals:

Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoise 

  1. Gray Whale  ______  (now extinct in the Atlantic Ocean)
    Eschrichtius robustus

    The Gray Whales that formerly occurred in the North Atlantic Ocean were hunted to extinction by the 17th or 18th Century.

  2. North Atlantic Right Whale (p) (ph)  ______  MD(rare)  NJ(rare)(*)
    Balaena (or Enbalaena) glacialis   

    Called the Black Right Whale by Rhoads in 1903. 

    In the 1903 book by Rhoads, this account was written in 1865:

    "The Right Whale was formerly abundant about the mouth of the Delaware River. A letter of William Penn dated 1683 states that 11 were taken that year about the Capes (May & Henlopen)."
    The type specimen of Cope's Balaena cisarctica, now considered a synonym of Balaena glacialis, was taken in 1862 in the Delaware River opposite Philadelphia. The skeleton was mounted in the museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia.   

    The North Atlantic Right Whale is today a rare creature, but the following was already written in 1903:
    "Once abundant in the North Atlantic. Recently, nearing extinction."
    Fortunately, the whale, though rare, still survives.   

    Two photos of the rare & endangered North Atlantic Right Whale

  3. Great Sperm Whale (p) (ph)  ______  MD(rare)  NC(*)  NJ(rare)  
    Physeter catodon

    Called the Sperm Whale or Cachalot by Rhoads in 1903. The species was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    Great Sperm Whales were seen during FONT North Carolina pelagic trips in May & August 1998 with calves. At times close to the boat.

    2 photos of Great Sperm Whales, as seen during FONT pelagic trips 
    off the North Carolina Coast

  4. Dwarf Sperm Whale  (ph)  ______  MD(rare)  NJ
    Kogia simus

    A Dwarf Sperm Whale photographed during a FONT tour in the Caribbean.

  5. Pygmy Sperm Whale  (ph)  ______  MD(rare)  NJ
    Kogia breviceps

    Called Pigmy Sperm Whale by Rhoads in 1903.

    Pygmy Sperm Whale
    (photo courtesy of Alan Brady)

  6. Humpback Whale  (p) (ph)  ______  MD(rare)  NJ(rare)(*)
    Megaptera novacangliae

    Called the New England Humpback Whale by Rhoads in 1903. 

    The following, about the Humpback Whale, is from the book by Rhoads that same year:

    ""Owing to the poor quality of this whale, it is avoided by whalers. It is distinguished from the Rorqual (the Fin Whale) by the great length and size of its fins.
    The hump-like form of the dorsal fin gives it the common name.
    They are extremely variable in color, with black, white, and gray being variously combined. 
    The Megapteras (Humpbacks) are the only baleen whales that "breach" or leap clear of the water. They are very playful, striking each other resounding whacks with their immense flippers and thrashing about in and out of the water so as to be heard miles away in favorable weather. 
    They have been known to spout twenty feet high in calm weather. 
    The young number one to two. 
    They feed on crustaceans and fish."   

    Above: a Humpback Whale breaching

    Above: a Humpback Whale by the boat, during a FONT tour

    Above: 2 Humpback Whales, with their humped backs

    Above & below: Tails of Humpback Whales 
    (photographs by Armas Hill)

  7. Blue Whale  (ph)  ______  MD(rare)  NJ(rare)
    Balaenoptera musculus

    Called the Great Blue Whale by Rhoads in 1903. The species was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    Blue Whale
    (photo by Armas Hill) 

  8. Fin Whale  (p) (ph)  ______  DE(rare)(*)  MD(rare)(*)  NC(*)  NJ(rare)(*)
    Balaenoptera physalus

    Called the Great Finback by Rhoads in 1903. This species was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Two photos of Fin Whales during a FONT pelagic trips off the coast of eastern North America 

  9. Northern Minke Whale (p) (ph)  ______  MD  NC  NJ(*)   
    Balaenoptera acutorostrata

    Called Little Piked Whale by Rhoads in 1903.

    A Northern Minke Whale photographed during a FONT pelagic trip 

  10. Bryde's Whale  ______
    Balaenoptera edeni

  11. Sei Whale  ______  MD(rare)  NJ(rare)
    Balaenoptera borealis

  12. Cuvier's Beaked Whale (p) (ph)  ______  MD  NC(*)  NJ  (another name is Goose-beaked Whale
    Ziphius cavirostris 

    Cumulatively, during 3 August 1998 FONT North Carolina pelagic trips, 9 Cuvier's Beaked Whales were seen.

    During FONT North Carolina pelagic trips in May 1999, 3 species of beaked whales were seen: Cuvier's, Blainville's, and True's.

    Cuvier's Beaked Whale

  13. Blainville's Beaked Whale (p)  ______  NC(*)  NJ  (another name is Dense Beaked Whale)  
    Mesoplodon densirostris

  14. True's Beaked Whale (p)  ______  MD  NC(*)   NJ
    Mesoplodon mirus

  15. Sowerby's Beaked Whale  ______
    Mesoplodon bidens

  16. Gervais' Beaked Whale  ______  NJ
    Mesoplodon europaeus 

  17. Northern Bottlenose Whale  ______
    Hyperoodon ampullatus

  18. False Killer Whale (p)  ______  NC(*)   
    Pseudorca crassidens

    6 False Killer Whales were seen at sea during a FONT North Carolina pelagic trip in June 1996.

  19. Pygmy Killer Whale  ______
    Feresa attenuata

  20. Killer Whale (or Orca)  (ph)  ______  MD(very rare)  NJ(rare)
    Orcinus orca

    Called the White-bellied Killer by Rhoads in 1903. The species was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

  21. Melon-headed Whale  ______  MD
    Peponocephala electra 

  22. Gray Grampus (or Risso's Dolphin) (p) (ph)  ______  MD  NC  NJ(*)   
    Grampus griseus

    Called the Grampus, or Cow Fish, by Rhoads in 1903. 

    Gray Grampus
    (or Risso's Dolphin)

  23. Beluga  ______  NJ(very rare)(*)
    Delphinapterus leucas  

    A single Beluga was in the Delaware River (between Pennsylvania & New Jersey) in April 2005. It traveled as far north in the river as the fall line at Trenton.

    The Beluga, named "Helis" by NOAA (the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration), was from the Saint Lawrence River Beluga population in eastern Canada, He spent the week of April 11 in the river between Trenton and Philadelphia, before heading south. He was seen in the middle of the Delaware Bay on April 18.

    "Helis" was said to be an old Beluga, somewhere around 27 to 30 years of age.     

  24. (Short-beaked) Common Dolphin  (p) (ph)  ______  MD  NC(*)  NJ(*)  (another name has been Saddle-backed Dolphin)
    Delphinus delphis

    This species was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    A Common Dolphin during a FONT pelagic trip
    (photo by Andy Smith)

  25. Common Bottlenose Dolphin (p) (ph)  ______  MDE(*)  MD(*)  NC(*)  NJ(*)  
    Tursiops truncatus

    A Common Bottlenose Dolphin during a FONT pelagic trip

  26. Atlantic Spotted Dolphin (p)  ______  MD  NC(*)   NJ
    Stenella frontalis 
    (has also been Stenella plagiodon)

  27. Pantropical Spotted Dolphin  ______
    Stenella attenuata

  28. Spinner Dolphin  ______
    Stenella longirostris

  29. Clymene (or Short-snouted Spinner) Dolphin (p) (ph)  ______  NC(*) 
    Stenella clymene 

    Clymene (or Short-snouted Spinner) Dolphins, during the August 10, 1998 FONT pelagic trip, were said to be the first for North Carolina offshore waters.  

    Clymene Dolphins during a FONT pelagic trip offshore from the coast of North Carolina 

  30. Striped Dolphin  ______  MD  NJ
    Stenella coeruleoalba

  31. Rough-toothed Dolphin  ______
    Steno bredanensis

  32. Atlantic White-sided Dolphin  ______  MD  NJ(*)
    Lagenorhynchus acutus

  33. White-beaked Dolphin  ______
    Lagenorhynchus albirostris 

  34. Short-finned Pilot Whale (p)  ______  MD  NC(*)  NJ(*) 
    Globicephala macrorhynchus

    Called the Southern Blackfish by Rhoads in 1903, when it was Globicephala brachyptera. 

    Short-finned Pilot Whales during a FONT pelagic trip

  35. Long-finned Pilot Whale  (p) (ph)  ______  MD  NJ(*)
    Globicephala melas

    Called the Northern Blackfish by Rhoads in 1903. 

    A Long-finned Pilot Whale during a FONT pelagic trip

  36. Harbor Porpoise  ______  MD(rare)  NJ(rare)
    Phocoena phocoena 

    Called the Harbor Porpoise, or Herring Hog, by Rhoads in 1903. The species was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

Reference for the above mammal lists includes the book: "Mammals of North America" by Roland W. Kays & Don E. Wilson, published by Princeton Univ Press, 2002. 

Also "The Encyclopedia of Mammals" edited by Dr. Donald Macdonald, updated in 2006


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