PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876

Website:  www.focusonnature.com


Japan Birds

from Pheasants 
to Pittas

noting those during 
Focus On Nature Tours
with an (*)

1994 thru 2015

during the months of 
January, February, April, May, June,
July, October, November, and December

Part 1 of a List of Japan Birds with some photos,
compiled by Armas Hill, the leader of FONT tours in Japan

Upper right photo:  RED-CROWNED CRANES in Hokkaido, as seen during the FONT Winter Tours
(The RED-CROWNED CRANE is also known as the JAPANESE CRANE)  


Part #2 of this List of Japan Birds: Minivets to Buntings

There have been 24 FONT Fall & Winter birding & nature tours in Japan: FW

There have been 13 FONT Spring & Summer birding & nature tours in Japan: SS

During our 37 FONT tours in Japan, 397 species of birds have cumulatively been found. 

In the following list, Japanese bird names follow English names.


(i):  an introduced species in Japan

(t): a globally threatened or rare species, designated by Birdlife International.
  (t1): critical
  (t2): endangered
  (t3): vulnerable
(nt): considered a near-threatened species globally

(JAr):       rare in Japan
(JArs):     rare in Japan in spring/summer
(JArw):    rare in Japan in winter

(JAe):      Japanese endemic
(JAeb):    Japanese endemic breeder
(JAneb):  Japanese near-endemic breeder

FW: Seen during FONT Fall & Winter Japanese birding tours.
SS: Seen during FONT Spring & Summer Japanese birding tours.

In the list that follows, relating to birds during FONT tours, the Japanese islands & the months are noted.
HN:    on Honshu
HI:     on Hegura Island (Hegura-jima) in the Sea of Japan off Honshu.
(Hegura Island visited during our Spring tours) 
HK:    on Hokkaido
KY:    on Kyushu
AM:   on Amami 
OK:    on Okinawa

:    in the southern Japanese islands of Nansei Shoto (other than Amami & Okinawa). 

(p):    following the 2-letter island code, indicates also during an offshore pelagic trip
(po):  following the 2-letter island code. indicates only during an offshore pelagic trip
(ph):  species with a photo in this FONT web-site 

Links to Bird Groupings in this List:

Waterfowl    Loons (or Divers)    Seabirds    Grebes    Storks, Ibises, Spoonbills     

Bitterns, Herons, Egrets
     Boobies, Cormorants     Raptors     Rails, Crakes, Allies     

Skuas, Gulls, Terns     Alcids     Pigeons & Doves     Cuckoos     

Owls & Nightjar
     Swifts     Kingfishers, Dollarbird, Hoopoe     Woodpeckers     Pittas 

Other Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in Japan     Upcoming FONT Tours Elsewhere

FONT Past Tour Highlights     Photo Galleries & Narratives from past FONT tours

Birds during Previous FONT Japan tours on various islands: 

Honshu  (over 300 species)     Hegura Island  (with some photos)

the Island of Amami     the island of Okinawa

Rare Birds of Japan, including those during FONT Tours 
(with some photos)

Japanese Mammals  (with some photos)     Japanese Butterflies  (with some photos)

Directory of Photos in this Website

List of Japan Birds, noting those during Focus On Nature Tours (Part #1):

  1. Copper Pheasant   (Yamadori = mountain bird)  (nt) (JAe) (*) (ph) ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,apr,may  KY:jan,may,dec
    Syrmaticus soemmerringii
    Syrmaticus s. subrufus 
    (subspecies on Honshu)
    Syrmaticus s. ijimae 
    (subspecies on Kyushu)

    Copper Pheasants have been seen during FONT tours in Honshu & Kyushu
  2. Green Pheasant  (Kiji)  (JAe) (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,apr,may,jun,oct  KY:jan,feb,nov,dec 
    Phasianus versicolor
    Phasianus v. tohkaidi 
    (subspecies on Honshu)
    Phasianus v. tanensis 
    (subspecies on Kyushu)

    The Green Pheasant has been considered conspecific with the Common Pheasant, native to Eurasia, Phasianus colchicus.
  3. Common (or Ring-necked) Pheasant  (i)  ______
    Phasianus colchicus

    In Japan, Phasianus colchicus is only in Hokkaido.

  4. Hazel Grouse  (Ezo-raicho = Hokkaido ptarmigan)  ______
    Tetrastes bonasia vicinitas

  5. Rock Ptarmigan  (Raicho = thunder bird)  (ph)  ______
    Lagopus muta japonica 

  6. Japanese Quail  (Uzura) ______
    Coturnix japonica 

  7. Barred Buttonquail  (Mifu-uzura)  ______
    Turnix suscitator okinavensis  

  8. Chinese Bamboo Partridge  (Kojukei = small ribbon fowl, and imitative of its call-note)  (i) (*) ______ FW  KY:jan,feb,may,dec
    Bambusicola t. thoracica


  9. Lesser Whistling Duck  (Ryukyu-gamo)  (JAr)  ______
    Dendrocygna javanica

    Now an accidental visitor in Japan, the Lesser Whistling Duck was formerly a resident.

  10. Mute Swan  (Kobu-hakucho = wen swan)  (i) (*) (ph) ______ SS,FW  HN:jan,feb,may,jun,dec  HK:jun,dec  KY:jan,nov
    Cygnus olor 

  11. Black Swan  (i)  ______  FW  HN:jan
    Cygnus atratus

  12. Whooper Swan  (O-hakucho = big white bird)  (*) (ph) ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,nov  HK:jan,feb,nov,dec
    Cygnus cygnus

    Whooper Swans photographed in Hokkaido 
    during a FONT Winter Tour in Japan
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  13. "Bewick's" Tundra Swan  (Ko-hakucho = smaller white bird)  (*)  ______ FW  HN:jan  HK:nov  KY:jan,feb,nov  
    columbianus bewickii

    The "Bewick's" Tundra Swan is conspecific with the "Whistling" Tundra Swan of North America.

  14. Trumpeter Swan  (JAr)  ______
    Cygnus buccinators 

    The Trumpeter Swan has wintered in northern Japan.

  15. Greylag Goose  (Haiiro-gan = ash-colored, or gray goose)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW  HK:may,dec
    Anser anser rubrirostris

  16. Greater White-fronted Goose  (Ma-gan = true goose)  (*) ______ FW   HN:jan,nov  HK:nov,dec  KY:jan
    Anser albifrons frontalis

  17. Bean Goose  (Hishikui = eater of water chestnuts)  (*) ______ FW  HN:jan,feb,nov  HK:nov  KY:jan
    Anser fabalis middendorffii:  Taiga Bean Goose
    Anser fabalis serrirostris: 
    Tundra Bean Goose

  18. Snow Goose  (Haku-gan = white goose)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______  FW  HN:jan,nov
    (formerly Chen) caerulescens hyperboreus

  19. Swan Goose  (Sakatsura = tipsy-faced goose)  (t2) (JAr)  ______
    Anser cygnoides 

  20. Lesser White-fronted Goose  (Karigane = strong-voiced goose)  (t3) (JAr)  ______
    Anser erythropus 

  21. Emperor Goose  (Mikado-gan)  (nt) (JAr)  ______
    (formerly Chen) canagicus  (monotypic)

    In Asia, the Emperor Goose is extremely rare south of Kamchatka. It has occurred as an accidental in Japan.  

  22. Bar-headed Goose  (Indo-gan)  (JAr)  ______
    Anser indicus 

    The Bar-headed Goose, that breeds at high altitudes in central Asia, has occurred as a straggler in Japan.

  23. "Black" Brant (or Brent Goose (Koku-gan = black goose)  (*) ______ FW  HK:jan,nov
    Branta bernicla nigricans

  24. (Greater) Canada Goose  (Shijukara-gan = titmouse goose)  (JAr)  ______
    Branta canadensis 

    A very large, apparently wild goose in Hokkaido in 2006 was seemingly Branta canadensis parvipes.  

  25. Cackling (or Lesser Canada) Goose  (JAr)  ______
    Branta hutchinsii minima  (Cackling Goose)
    Branta hutchinsii leucopareia  (
    Aleutian Goose)

    The "Aleutian Goose" formerly bred in northeast Russia. In Alaska, with the eradication of foxes at its breeding grounds, its population has been increasing.
    In Japan, it has been a very rare, but now increasing, visitor from October to April.

  26. Common Shelduck   (Tsukushi-gamo = duck of ancient Kyushu)  (*) ______ FW   KY:jan,feb  AM:jan
    Tadorna tadorna 

  27. Ruddy Shelduck  (Aka-tsukushi-gamo)  (JAr)  ______
    Tadorna feruginea

  28. Crested Shelduck  (Kanmuri-tsukushi)  ______  (now presumed globally extinct)  
    Tadorna cristata  

    The last reliable sighting of the Crested Shelduck was of 1 male and 2 females on an island off eastern Russia in May 1964.  

  29. Mandarin Duck  (Oshidori)  (nt) (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,oct,nov,dec  HK:jun  KY:jan,feb,nov,dec  OK:nov  
    Aix galericulata

    Regarding the MANDARIN DUCK, go to:  RARE BIRDS OF JAPAN

    A Pair of Mandarin Ducks photographed during a FONT tour in Japan

  30. Cotton Pygmy Goose  (Nankinoshi)  (JAr)  ______  (also called Cotton Teal)
    Nettapus c. coromandelianus

  31. Eurasian Wigeon  (incl green-faced form)  (Hidori-gamo = red bird duck)  (*) (ph) ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,oct,nov,dec  HI:may  HK:jan,feb,may,jun,nov,dec  KY:jan,feb,nov,dec  AM:jan,feb,nov,dec  
    Anas penelope 

    A Eurasian Wigeon, photographed during FONT's 
    January/February 2009 Tour in Japan
    (photo by Karl Frafjord)

  32. American Wigeon  (Amerika-hidori)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______ FW  HN:jan,feb  HK:dec  KY:feb
    Anas americana

  33. Falcated Duck  (Yoshi-gamo = marsh-reed duck)  (nt) (*) (ph) ______ SS,FW  HN:jan,feb,may,nov  HK:jan,feb,nov,dec  KY:jan,nov,dec
    Anas falcata 

    The Falcated Duck is one of the attractive Asian species of waterfowl
    seen during FONT tours in Japan.

  34. Baikal Teal  (Tomoe-gamo = resembling a "tomoe")  (t3) (*) (ph) ______ FW  HN:jan,feb,nov  KY:jan
    Anas formosa 

    A tomae is a Japanese abstract shape described as a swirl that resembles a comma or the usual form of a macatoma.
    It is a common design element in Japanese family emblems and corporate logos. 

    The now-rare Baikal Teal has been seen during FONT Winter Tours
    in Honshu & Kyushu

  35. Eurasian Teal  (Ko-gamo = little duck)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW  HN:jan,feb,apr,may,oct,nov,dec  HK:jan,feb,nov,dec  KY:jan,feb,nov,dec  AM:jan  OK:jan,feb,nov  
    Anas c. crecca 

    The Eurasian Teal has been considered conspecific with the Green-winged Teal of North America.

    Eurasian Teal
    (photo by Howard Eskin)
  36. Garganey  (Shimaaji = striped teal, also "tasty duck")  (*) ______ SS   HN:apr,may
    Anas querquedula

  37. Gadwall  (Okayoshi-gamo = upland reed duck)  (*) (ph) ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,dec  HK:jun,dec  KY:jan,feb,dec  AM:jan  OK:jan
    Anas s. strepera

  38. Mallard  (Ma-gamo = true duck)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,oct,nov,dec  HI:may  HK:jan,feb,may,jun,nov,dec  KY:jan,feb,may,jul,nov,dec  AM:jan,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb
    Anas p. platyrhynchos

  39. Eastern Spot-billed Duck  (Karu-gamo = light-weight duck)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,oct,nov,dec  HI:apr,may  HK:jan,feb,may,jun  KY:jan,feb,may,jul,nov,dec  AM:jan,feb,jul,nov,dec  OK:may,nov 
    Anas zonorhyncha

    Eastern Spot-billed Ducks photographed during the Jan/Feb 2009 FONT Japan Tour
    (photo by Karl Frafjord)

  40. Northern Pintail  (Onaga-gamo = long-tailed duck)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW  HN:jan,feb,apr,may,oct,nov,dec  HK:jan,feb,may,nov,dec  KY:jan,nov,dec  AM:feb,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may
    Anas acuta 

    A Pair of Northern Pintails in flight
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  41. Northern Shoveler  (Hashibiro-gamo = broad-billed duck)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW  HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,oct,dec  HK:jan,feb,nov,dec  KY:jan,dec  AM:jan,dec  OK:feb,nov
    Anas clypeata 

  42. Philippine Duck  (Akanodo-karugmo)  (JAr)  ______
    Anas luzonica

  43. Red-crested Pochard  (Akahashi-hajiro)  (JAr) (*) ______ FW  HN:feb
    Netta rufina 

  44. Common Pochard  (Hoshi-hajiro = star white-wing)  (*) (ph) ______  SS,FW  HN:jan,feb,apr,may,oct,nov,dec  HK:jan,feb  KY:jan,dec  OK:jan
    Aythya ferina 

  45. Baer's Pochard  (Aka-hajiro = red scaup)  (t1) (JAr) (*) ______ FW  HN:jan
    Aythya baeri 

  46. Ring-necked Duck  (Kubiwa-kinkuro)  (JAr) (*) (ph) ______ FW  HN:jan
    Aythya collaris 

  47. Tufted Duck  (Kinkuro-hajiro = golden black scaup)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,oct,nov,dec  HK:jan,feb,jun,nov,dec  KY:jan,dec  OK:jan
    Aythya fuligula 

  48. Greater Scaup  (Suzu-gamo = bell duck, from the whistle of the wings)  (*) ______ SS,FW  HN:jan,feb,apr,may,oct,nov  HK:jan,feb,jun,nov,dec  KY:nov,dec
    Aythya marila mariloides

  49. Lesser Scaup  (Ko-suzu-gamo)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Aythya affinis 

  50. Redhead  (Amerika-hoshi-hajiro)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Aythya americana 

  51. Ferruginous Duck  (Mejiro-gamo)  (nt)  (JAr)  ______
    Aythya nyoca 

    The Ferruginous Duck is also called the White-eyed Pochard. 

  52. Steller's Eider  (Ko-kewata-gamo = small quilt duck)   (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______
    Polysticta stelleri 

  53. Harlequin Duck  (Shinori-gamo = aurora duck)  (*) (ph) ______  SS,FW  HN:jan,may,dec  HK:jan,feb,jun,nov,dec
    Histrionicus histrionicus (pacificus) 
    (now  monotypic, with pacificus merged) (the single member of its genus) 

    Harlequin Ducks are usually seen in large numbers 
    during late-fall & winter FONT Japan tours in Hokkaido.
    Here, in this photo, two males.
    (photo by James Greenwood)

  54. Long-tailed Duck  (Kori-gamo = ice duck)  (t3) (*) (ph)  ______ FW   HK:jan,feb,nov,dec 
    Clangula hyemalis 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    The Long-tailed Duck was called Oldsquaw in North America. 

    The Long-tailed Ducks is yet another attractive species of waterfowl
    seen nicely during late-fall & winter FONT Japan tours in Hokkaido.
    (photo by Kim Steininger) 

  55. Black Scoter  (Kuro-gamo = black duck)  (nt) (*) (ph) ______  SS,FW  HN(p):jan,feb,apr,may  HK:jan,feb,apr,jun,nov,dec
    Melanitta americana

    The Black Scoter was considered conspecific with the Common Scoter of Europe, Melanitta nigra.

  56. Asian White-winged Scoter  (Birodo-kinkuro = velvet gold-back)  (*) ______ FW  HK:jan,feb,nov,dec
    Melanitta stejnegeri

    The Asian White-winged Scoter was conspecific with the American White-winged Scoter, Melanitta deglandi, and previously was so with the Velvet Scoter of Europe, Melanitta fusca.
  57. Surf Scoter  (Aranami-kinkuro)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Melanitta perspicillata

  58. Bufflehead  (Hime-hajiro = princess or dainty scaup)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______ FW  HK:jan
    Bucephala albeola

  59. Common Goldeneye  (Hojiro-gamo = white-cheeked duck)  (*) (ph)  ______ FW  HN:jan,feb  HK:jan,feb,nov,dec  KY:jan
    Bucephala c. clangula

    A female Common Goldeneye

  60. Smew  (Miko-aisa = son of god merganser)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,dec  HK:jan,feb,nov,dec  KY:jan
    (formerly Mergus) albellus  (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) 

  61. Red-breasted Merganser  (Umi-aisa = sea merganser)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW  HN:jan,feb,apr,may  HI:may  HK:jan,feb,nov,dec  KY:jan
    Mergus serrator 

  62. Scaly-sided (or Chinese) Merganser  (Korai-aisa)  (t3) (JAp) (*)  ______  FW  HN:jan
    Mergus squamatus 


  63. Common Merganser (or Goosander (Kawa-aisa = river merganser)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW  HN:jan,feb,may  HK:jan,feb,may,jun,nov,dec
    Mergus m. merganser  


  64. Yellow-billed Loon (or White-billed Diver)  (Hashijiro-abi = white-billed loon)  (JAr) (*)  ______ FW  HN(po);jan  HK:jan
    Gavia adamsii 

  65. Red-throated Loon (or Red-throated Diver)  (Abi)  (*) (ph)  ______  FW  HN:jan  HK:jan,nov
    Gavia stellata 

  66. Pacific Loon (or Pacific Diver)  (Shiroeri-ohamu)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW  HN(p):jan,feb,apr,may,nov,dec  HI:may  HK:jan,feb,jun,nov,dec
    Gavia pacifica 

    A Pacific Loon

  67. Arctic Loon (or Black-throated Diver (Ohamu)  (*)  ______ FW  HN(p):jan,apr  HK:jan,nov
    Gavia arctica viridigularis


  68. Black-footed Albatross  (Kuroashi-ahodori = black-footed fool bird)  (t3) (*)  ______  SS,FW  HN(po):jan,apr,may.jun,nov
    (formerly Diomedea) nigripes

  69. Laysan Albatross  (Ko-ahodori = small fool bird)  (nt) (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN(po):jan.feb,may,jun,nov,dec
    (formerly Diomedea) immutabilis

    Laysan Albatross
    (photo courtesy of Cameron Rutt)

  70. Short-tailed (or Steller's) Albatross  (Ahodori = fool bird)  (t2) (JAeb) (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW  HN(po):jan,apr,may
    (formerly Diomedea) albatrus


    Short-tailed Albatross
    (photo courtesy of Cameron Rutt)

  71. Wandering Albatross  (Watori-ahodori)  (t3) (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Diomedea exullans

    2 Wandering Albatrosses were captured near the Senkaku Islands in November 1970.  

  72. Northern Fulmar  (Furuma-kamome = fulmar gull)  (*) (ph) ______ SS,FW  HN(po):jan,feb,may,jun,nov,dec
    Fulmarus glacialis rodgersii

  73. Bonin Petrel  (Shirohara-mizunagidori = white-bellied shearwater)  (*) (ph)  ______ FW  HN(po):jan,nov
    Pterodroma hypoleuca

    Bonin Petrel
    (photo courtesy of Cameron Rutt)

  74. White-necked Petrel  (t3) (JAr)  ______
    Pterodroma cervicalis 

    From its breeding grounds northeast of New Zealand, the White-necked Petrel migrates to warmer waters of the northern Pacific Ocean.
    It is rare in Japanese subtropical waters, particularly off the Ogasawara Islands, from mid-July to late November.

  75. Black-winged Petrel  (JAr)  ______
    Pterodroma nigripennis 

    The Black-winged Petrel is a migrant to the northwestern Pacific Ocean, from June to November.
    It has only been recorded in offshore Japanese Pacific waters, off Hokkaido, infrequently and after a typhoon, but it should be looked for off northeastern and eastern Japan during the summer.

  76. Kermadec Petrel  (JAr)  ______
    Pterodroma n. neglecta

    The Kermadec Petrel is a scarce migrant to the northern Pacific Ocean from is breeding grounds on oceanic islands across the southwestern and central Pacific Ocean.
    It has been found in very small numbers in deep waters east of Japan, from Honshu north to Hokkaido, most often in September.

  77. Stejneger's Petrel  (Hime-shirohara mizunagadori = dainty white-bellied shearwater) (t3) JAr)  ______
    Pterodroma longirostris 

    Although the Stejneger's Petrel is rarely recorded in waters off the Japanese coast, from northern Honshu to Okinawa, it occurs in very large numbers not that far to the east.
    The species is a migrant to the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is most likely to be found in offshore Japanese waters from May to October. 

  78. Providence Petrel  (t3) (JAr)  ______
    Pterodroma solandri 

    The Providence Petrel is a migrant to the northern Pacific Ocean from its breeding grounds off eastern Australia.
    It has been encountered in very small numbers in deep waters east of Japan, north to Hokkaido and the southern Kuril Islands, from June to October.

  79. Mottled Petrel  (JAr)  ______
    Pterodroma inexpectata

    From its breeding grounds off New Zealand, the Mottled Petrel is a common migrant to deeper waters of the northern Pacific Ocean north into the Bering Sea, where it occurs in the summer.
    It is rare in Japanese offshore Pacific waters, but common between Kamchatka (eastern Siberia) and the Commander Islands, and even more common from there east to the Aleutian Islands.

  80. Hawaiian Petrel  (t3) (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Pterodroma sandwichensis 

    The Hawaiian Petrel has strayed to Japanese Pacific waters off Honshu on a few occasions.

  81. Juan Fernandez Petrel  (t3) (JAr)  ______
    Pterodroma externa 

    The Juan Fernandez Petrel breeds off western South America, and migrates, outside its breeding season, to the northern Pacific Ocean.
    It has been a post-typhoon accidental to Japanese Pacific waters.   

  82. Bulwer's Petrel  (Anadori = hollow bird)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS  NS(po):may
    Bulweria bulwerii 

    Bulwer's Petrels have been seen from ferries during FONT Tours
    in Southern Japan in the Spring

  83. Streaked Shearwater  (O-mizunagidori = large bird that mows water)  (JAneb) (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN(po):jan,apr,may,jun.nov,dec  HI:may  KY(po):may,jul  AM(po):may  NS(po):may
    Calonectris leucomelas 

  84. Wedge-tailed Shearwater  (Onaga-mizunagadori = long-tailed shearwater)  ______  
    Puffinus pacificus  

    The Wedge-tailed Shearwater breeds in Japan in the Ogasawara & Izo Islands from late March to early October.  

  85. Buller's Shearwater  (Minami-onaga-mizunagidori)  (t3) (JAr) (*) ______ SS  HN(po):may,jun
    Puffinus bulleri 
    (monotypic)  (The scientific name of the Buller's Shearwater may be changed to Ardenna bulleri.)

  86. Bannerman's Shearwater  (Seguro-mizunagidori)  (JAeb)  ______
    Puffinus bannermani

    The Bannerman's Shearwater is an endemic breeder on the Ogasawara Islands. It was considered part of the Audubon's Shearwater (That species is now restricted to the Atlantic Ocean.)  
    Other names have been Baillon's Shearwater and Tropical Shearwater.

  87. Byran's Shearwater  ______  
    Puffinus bryani

    Byran's Shearwater
    was described in 2011, from a specimen that had been collected in 1963 on Midway Atoll, northwest of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean.
    At that time, that small shearwater was thought to be a Little Shearwater.
    Later, a second specimen was tagged and recorded on Midway in 1990.

    In February of 2012, DNA tests on 6 specimens of Puffinus bryani found in the Ogasawara Islands of Japan, alive and dead between 1997 and 2011, determined the birds to be Bryan's Shearwaters. It is assumed that the species still survives in the uninhabited Japanese Ogasawara Islands.   

  88. Flesh-footed Shearwater  (Akaashi-mizunagidori = reddish footed shearwaer)  (*) ______ SS,FW   HN(po):may,jun,nov  AM(po):may  NS(po):may
    Puffinus carneipes 

  89. Sooty Shearwater  (Haiiro-mizunagidori = gray shearwater)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS   HN(p):apr,may,jun  NS(po):may
    Puffinus griseus 

  90. Short-tailed Shearwater  (Hashiboso-mizunagidori = slender-billed shearwater)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN(p):jan,apr,may,jun,nov,dec  HK(po):apr  AM(po):may  NS(po):may
    Puffinus tenuirostris 

    A Short-tailed Shearwater photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  91. Kiritimati Shearwater  (Mizunagadori = shearwater)  (JAr)  ______
    Puffinus nativitatus

    Puffinus nativitatus
    has also been called the Christmas Island Shearwater, or the Christmas Shearwater.
    It breeds in the central Pacific in Hawaii from Kiritimati to Marqueasa, and has occurred rarely off the Pacific coast of Honshu, particularly in the area of Sagami Bay, usually with Puffinus tenuirostris, the Short-tailed Shearwater. 

  92. Tristram's (or Sooty) Storm Petrel  (Oston-umitsubame = Owston's sea-swallow)  (nt) (*)  ______ SS,FW  HN(po):jan,may,dec
    Oceanodroma tristrami 

    The Tristram's Storm Petrel breeds on Toroshima in the Izu Islands and on Kita-Iwajima in the Bonin Islands.
    It nests in the winter, with the birds arriving on the islands mostly in December, sometimes earlier. Eggs are laid in January, and the birds leave the nesting sites by early April.
    Then they move north and occur off the Pacific coast of Japan.  

  93. Swinhoe's Storm Petrel  (Hime-kuro-umitsubame)  (nt) (*)  ______ SS  NS(po):may
    Oceanodroma monorhis 

  94. Fork-tailed (or Grey) Storm Petrel  (Haiiro-umitsubame = gray sea swallow)  (*) ______ FW  HN(po):jan,feb,nov,dec 
    Oceanodroma f. furcata

  95. Leach's Storm Petrel  (Koshijiro-umitsubame = white-rumped petrel)  ______
    Oceanodroma leucorhoa

  96. Band-rumped Storm Petrel  (Kuro-koshijiro-umitsubame = black white-rumped petrel)  ______
    Oceanodroma castro

  97. Matsudaira's Storm Petrel  (Kuro-umitsubame = black petrel)  ______
    Oceandroma matsudairae 

    The Matsudaira's Storm Petrel is a breeder on the Ogasawara and Izo Islands, occurring mostly from mid-January to mid-June.

  98. Wilson's Storm Petrel  (Ashinaga-umitsubame)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Oceanites oceanicus


  99. Little Grebe (or "Dabchick")  (Kaitsuburi)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,oct,nov,dec  HI:may  HK:jan,may,nov  KY:jan,feb,nov,dec  AM:jan,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb
    Tachybaptus ruficollis poggei

    A Little Grebe, at the moat of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo 

  100. Black-necked Grebe (or Eared Grebe) (Hajiro-kaitsuburi = white-winged grebe)  (*) (ph)  ______  FW   HN:jan,feb,oct,nov  KY:jan
    Podiceps n. nigricollis

  101. Horned Grebe (or Slavonian Grebe) (Mimi-kaitsuburi = horned grebe)  (*) (ph)  ______ FW  HN:jan,feb,oct  HK:jan,feb,nov,dec  KY:feb 
    Podiceps a. auritus

    A Horned Grebe in non-breeding plumage
    (photo by Kim Steininger)

  102. Red-necked Grebe  (Akaeri-kaitsuburi = red-necked grebe)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW  HN:jan,apr  HK:jan,nov
    Podiceps grisegena holboellii

  103. Great Crested Grebe  (Kanmuri-kaitsuburi - crested grebe)  (*)  ______ SS,FW  HN:jan,feb,apr,may,oct,nov  HI:apr  HK:nov  KY:jan,nov
    Podiceps c. cristatus


  104. Oriental Stork  (Konotori)  (t2) (JAr) (*)  ______ FW  KY:jan,feb
    Ciconia boyciana 

  105. Black Stork  (Nabeko = pot stork)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Ciconia nigra 

  106. Crested Ibis  (Toki = a pale color, "toki-ro")  (t1) (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Nipponia nippon 

    Regarding the CRESTED IBIS, go to: RARE BIRDS OF JAPAN

    Crested Ibis

  107. Black-headed Ibis  (Kuro-toki = black ibis)  (nt) (JAr)  ______
    Threskiornis melanocephalus 

  108. Eurasian Spoonbill  (Herasagi = spatula heron)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______ FW  KY:jan,feb,dec  AM:jan  OK:feb,nov
    Platalea l. leucorodia

    A Eurasian Spoonbill in flight

  109. Black-faced Spoonbill  (Kurotsura-herasagi = black-faced spatula heron)  (t1) (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______  FW  HN:jan  KY:jan,feb,dec  AM:dec  OK:jan,feb,nov
    Platalea minor 


    Every year, some Black-faced Spoonbills winter in Japan.
    During our FONT Japan tours in the winter, we've seen 
    this very rare species usually on the southern Japanese islands 
    (Kyushu, Amami, & Okinawa), but in January 2007 we saw it, 
    for the first time, on Honshu. 


  110. Eurasian Bittern  (Sankano-goi = house in the mountains bittern)  (*)  ______ FW  HN:jan
    Botaurus s. stellaris

  111. Black-crowned Night Heron  (Goi-sagi = heron of the fifth imperial rank)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HI:apr,may  KY:jan,may,jul,nov,dec  OK:jan,may,nov
    Nycticorax n. nycticorax

  112. Rufous Night Heron  (Hashibuto-goi)  ______  (now extinct in Japan)
    Nycticorax caledonicus manillensis

    When it was in Japan, the Rufous Night Heron was only in the Ogasawara Islands. It was first discovered in Japan in 1827, and apparently became extinct there by 1889. The species occurs in the Philippines.

  113. Japanese Night Heron  (Mizo-goi = ditch bittern)  (t2)  ______
    Gorsachius goisagi 

  114. Malayan Night Heron  (Zuguro-mizogoi)  ______
    Gorsachius melanolophus 

  115. Eastern Cattle Egret  (Ama-sagi = orang-utang heron)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,may  HI:may  KY:jan,feb,may,nov,dec  AM:jan,may,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,jul  NS:may
    Bubulcus coromandus

    The Eastern Cattle Egret is in eastern Asia. The Western Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis, is in Africa, parts of Europe, and the Americas.

  116. Little Egret  (Ko-sagi = small heron)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,nov,dec  HI:apr,may  KY:jan,feb,may,jul,nov,dec  AM:jan,feb,may,jul,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,jul,nov
    Egretta g. garzetta

    Little Egret
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  117. Chinese (or Swinhoe's) Egret  (Kara-shira-sagi)  (t2) (JAr) (*) _______ SS   HN:may  HI:may
    Egretta  eulophotes 

  118. Intermediate Egret  (Chu-sagi = middle-sized heron)  (*) ______  SS,FW   HN:apr,may,nov  HI:may  KY:jan,may,jul,nov,dec  AM:jan,feb,may,jul,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,jul,nov  NS:may
    (formerly Egretta) i. intermedia

  119. Great Egret  (Dai-sagi = great heron)  (*) (ph)   ______  SS,FW  HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,oct,nov,dec  HI:apr,may  HK:jan,feb,nov,dec  KY:jan,feb,may,jul,nov,dec  AM:jan,may,jul,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,jul,nov
    Ardea a. alba 
    (was Casmerodius a. alba)

  120. Grey Heron  (Ao-sagi = blue heron)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,jul,oct,nov,dec  HI:apr,may  HK:jan,feb,may,jun,nov  KY:jan,feb,may,jul,nov.dec  AM:jan,may,jul,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,jul,nov
    Ardea cinerea jouyi

    Grey Heron
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  121. Purple Heron  (Murasaki-sagi = purple heron)  (JAr) (*)  ______ SS   HI:may
    Ardea purpurea manilensis

  122. Striated Heron  (Sasa-goi = "sasa" in bamboo grass)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN:may,jun  HI:may  KY:jan,may,nov  AM:jan,nov  OK:feb,may,nov,
    Butorides striatus amurensis

  123. Pacific (or Eastern) Reef Heron  (Kuro-sagi = black heron)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN:may  HI:may  KY:feb  AM:jan,feb,may,jul,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,jul 
    Egretta s. sacra

  124. Chinese Pond Heron  (Akagashira-sagi = red-headed heron)  (JAr) (*)  ______  SS   HI:may
    Ardeola bacchus 

  125. Cinnamon (or Chestnut) Bittern  (Ryukyu-yoshi-goi)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   AM:jul  OK:jan,feb,may,nov
    Ixobrychus cinnamomeus 

  126. Yellow (or Chinese Little) Bittern  (Yoshi-goi = reed bittern)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   AM:jul,nov  OK:nov
    Ixobrychus sinensis 
    (now monotypic)

  127. Schrenck's Bittern  (O-yoshi-goi = greater reed bittern)  (JAr)  ______
    Ixobrychus eurhythmus 

  128. Black Bittern  (Takasago-kuro-sagi)  (JAr)  ______
    Dupetor flavicollis


  129. Red-tailed Tropicbird  (Akao-nettaicho = red-tailed tropicbird)  ______
    Phaethon rubricauda melanornynchus

  130. White-tailed Tropicbird  (Shirao-nettaicho = white-tailed tropicbird) (ph)  ______
    Phaethon lepturus dorotheae

  131. Lesser Frigatebird  (Ko-gunkandori = warship bird) (JAr)   ______
    Fregata a. ariel


  132. Great White Pelican  (Momo-iro-perikan) (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Pelecanus onocrotalus 

  133. Dalmatian Pelican  (Garancho = cathedral bird)  (JAr)  ______
    Pelecanus crispus 


  134. Brown Booby  (Katsuodori = bonito bird)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   KY:jan  AM:feb,nov  NS(po):may
    Sula leucogaster plotus

  135. Masked Booby  (Aotsura-katsuodori)  ______
    Sula dactylatra personata

  136. Red-footed Booby  (Akaashi-katsuodori)  (ph)  ______
    Sula sula rubripes

  137. Great Cormorant  (Kawa-u = river cormorant)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,oct,nov,dec  KY:jan
    Phalacrocorax carbo hanedae
    (often considered synonymous with P. c. sinensis)

  138. Temminck's (or Japanese) Cormorant  (Umi-u = sea cormorant)  (JAneb) (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN(p):jan,feb,apr,may,oct,nov  HI:apr,may  HK:jan,feb,jun,nov,dec  KY:jan,feb,may,nov,dec  AM:jan,feb,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb  NS:jan
    Phalacrocorax capillatus 

    Temminck's, or Japanese Cormorant, photographed in Kyoto in 2015
    (photo by James Greenwood)  

  139. Pelagic Shag (or Cormorant)  (Hime-u = dainty cormorant)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN(p):jan,feb,apr,may,nov,dec  HI:apr,may  HK:jan,feb,jun,nov,dec  
    Phalacrocorax p. pelagicus

  140. Red-faced Shag (or Cormorant (Chishima-ugarasu = Kurile cormorant-crow)  (JAr) (*)  ______ FW   HK:jan
    Phalacrocorax urile 


  141. Osprey  (Misago)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,apr,may,oct  HI:may  KY:jan,feb,may,dec  AM:jan,feb,may,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,jul  NS:jan
    Pandion h. haliaetus 
    (the single member of its genus) 

  142. Oriental Honey Buzzard  (Hachikuma = bee bear)  (*)  ______ SS   HI:may
    Pernis orientalis 

  143. Black-eared Kite  (Tobi)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,oct,nov  HI:apr,may  HK:jan,feb,may,jun,nov,dec  KY:jan,feb,may,jul,nov,dec  OK:jan
    Milvus (migrans) lineatus

    The Black-eared Kite has been part of the Black Kite of western Eurasia & Africa.
  144. White-tailed Eagle  (Ojiro-washi = white-tailed eagle)  (nt) (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW  HN:jan  HK:jan,feb,jun,nov,dec
    Haliaeetus a. albicilla 

    Another name for the White-tailed Eagle has been the White-tailed Sea Eagle.

    White-tailed Eagles have been seen during FONT tours 
    in Honshu in the winter, and in Hokkaido in the winter & spring.
    The upper photo here is an adult bird. The lower photo, of an immature,
    was taken during the FONT Japan tour in January/February 2009. 
    (photo below by Karl Frafjord)


  145. Steller's Sea Eagle  (O-washi = great eagle)  (t3) (*) (ph)  ______ FW   HN:jan  HK:jan,feb,nov,dec  
    Haliaeetus p. pelagicus 

    The Steller's Sea Eagle has also been called Steller's Fish Eagle.
    A morph, at one time called H. p. niger, all-black except for a white tail, in Korea & adjacent Siberia, may now be extinct.  

    Regarding the STELLER'S SEA EAGLE, go to:  RARE BIRDS OF JAPAN   

    The presence of the Steller's Sea Eagle is a wonderful aspect of the Hokkaido winter.
    During that season, the species occurs there in large numbers, having come from its
    breeding grounds in Siberia. 

    The Steller's Sea-Eagle is only in Japan in the winter, Nearly all of them winter in Hokkaido, 
    but we have seen the species rarely during that season in Honshu by Lake Biwa.  
    (Both of these photos were taken during FONT winter tours in Japan.)

  146. Hen Harrier  (Haiiro-chuhi = gray harrier)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,oct  HI:may  HK:jan,nov  KY:jan,feb
    Circus cyaneus 
    (now said to be monotypic)

  147. Northern Harrier  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Circus hudsonius 
    (now said to be monotypic)

    The Northern Harrier, of North America, has been considered conspecific with the Hen Harrier of Eurasia.     

  148. Eastern Marsh Harrier  (Chuhi)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,apr,may  HI:may
    Circus spilonotus
      (now said to be monotypic) 

    The Eastern Marsh Harrier has been considered by some as conspecific with the Western Marsh Harrier of Europe, and was the called the Northern Marsh Harrier.

  149. Pied Harrier  (Madara-chuchi)  (JAr)  ______
    Circus melanoleucos 

    The Pied Harrier has bred rarely in Japan. Normally it breeds in northeast mainland Russia.  

  150. Northern Goshawk  (O-taka = great hawk)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr  HK;jan,dec  OK:jan
    Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae
    Accipiter gentilis albidus:
    a very pale, mainly white race of eastern Siberia has occurred as a vagrant in northern Japan.

  151. Eurasian Sparrowhawk  (Hai-taka = ashy hawk)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,may,nov,dec  HI:may  HK:jan,jun,nov  KY:jan,feb,dec  AM:jan  OK:jan
    Accipiter nisus nisosimilis

  152. Japanese Sparrowhawk  (Tsumi, the male; Essai, the female)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HI:may  KY:may  AM:jan,feb,may,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,nov
    Accipiter gularis iwasakii 
    (subspecies on the islands of Amami & Okinawa)
    Accipiter g. gularis 
    (subspecies on the main Japanese islands of Honshu & Kyushu)

  153. Chinese Sparrowhawk  (Akahara-daka)  ______   
    Accipiter soloensis 

    The Chinese Sparrowhawk has also been known as the Horfield's Sparrowhawk or the Chinese Goshawk.
    It occurs as a migrant in Kyushu & Nansei Shoto in May & Sep/Oct.  

    Only relatively recently has it been noticed that the Chinese Sparrowhawk migrates in rather large numbers in western Japan, Now most of the routing of the species in its migration is known. 
    Normally, in the fall, the species flies south through the Korean Peninsula, across to Tsushima Island, and then it arrives on the northwestern coast of Nagasaki, where Mount Hiyamizu is a good spot to see the bird, before it continues south along the Nagasaki coastline.     

  154. Eastern Buzzard  (Nosuri)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,oct,nov  HI:may  HK:jan,feb,may,jun,nov,dec  KY:jan,dec
    Buteo j. japonicus 
    (subspecies in most of Japan)
    Buteo japonicus toyoshimai 
    (endemic subspecies in the Ogasawara Islands)     

    The Eastern Buzzard has been part of the Common Buzzard, Buteo buteo.

  155. Rough-legged Buzzard  (Kaeshi-nosuri = hair-legged buzzard)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan  HK:jan,feb,nov,dec 
    Buteo lagopus menzbieri
    Buteo lapopus kamatschatensis

    The Rough-legged Buzzard is called the Rough-legged Hawk in the New World.

  156. Upland Buzzard  (O-nosuri= great buzzard)  (JAr)  ______
    Buteo hemilasius 

  157. Grey-faced Buzzard  (Sashiba. "Frog Hawk")  (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN:nov  HI:may  AM:jan,feb,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,nov
    Butastur indicus 

  158. Greater Spotted Eagle  (Karafuto-washi)  (JAr) (*)  ______ FW  KY:jan
    Aquila clanga 

  159. Golden Eagle  (Inu-washi = dog eagle)  ______
    Aquila chrysaetos japonica

  160. Imperial Eagle  (Katashiro-washi = white-shouldered eagle)  (JAr)  ______
    Aquila heliaca

  161. Mountain Hawk-Eagle  (Kuma-taka = bear hawk)  (*) ______ FW   HN:jan  HK:dec  KY:jan,feb,dec
    Spizaetus nipalensis orientalis 
    (this subspecies of Japan rather distinct from populations on mainland Asia)

  162. Ryukyu Serpent Eagle  (Kanmuri-washi)  ______
    Spilornis perplexus

    The Ryukyu Serpent Eagle was part of the Crested Serpent Eagle.

  163. Eurasian Kestrel  (Chogenbo)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,may,oct,dec  HI:may  HK:jan  KY:jan,feb,nov,dec  AM:jan,feb,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,jul,nov
    Falco tinnunculus interstinctus

  164. Lesser Kestrel  (Hime-chogenbo)  (JAr)  ______
    Falco naumanni

  165. Merlin  (Ko-chogenbo = small kestrel)  (*) (ph)  ______  FW  HN:feb  HK:jan  KY:jan
    Falco columbarius pacificus

  166. Northern Hobby  (Chigo-hayabusa = child falcon)  (*) ______ SS, FW   HN:jan,may,nov(p)  HI:may  KY:jan,jul  AM:jan
    Falco s. subbuteo

  167. Amur Falcon  (Akaashi-chogenbo)  (JAr) (*)  ______  SS   HI:may
    Falco amurensis

    Another name for the Amur Falcon has been the Eastern Red-footed Falcon.

    During a FONT tour on Hegura island, on May 17, 2010, an Amur Falcon was seen, first circling overhead, and then flying out over the sea to the north and where the species breeds in far-eastern Russia and northeastern China.
    The interesting thought, when watching that bird fly, was thinking about how far it travels. Its wintering area is very far away from where it breeds, and very far from where we were on Hegura. The Amur Falcon winters in SOUTHERN AFRICA, migrating via India. Wow! 

  168. Peregrine Falcon  (Hayabusa)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,may,oct,dec  HI:may  HK:feb  KY:jan,feb,nov  AM:jan,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,nov
    Falco peregrinus japonensis

  169. Gyrfalcon  (Shiro-hayabusa = white falcon)  (*) (ph)  ______ FW   HN(po):jan  HK:jan,feb
    Falco rusticolus 
    (monotypic, but with a variation in color)


  170. Swinhoe's (or Asian Yellow) Rail  (Shima-kuina = striped rail)  (*)  ______ FW   AM:dec
    Coturnicops exquisitus 

  171. Eastern Water Rail  (Kuina)  (*)  ______ FW  KY:jan
    Rallus indicus

    The Eastern Water Rail was considered a race of the Water Rail, Rallus aquaticus.

  172. Slaty-legged Crake  (O-kuina)  ______
    Rallina eurizonoides sepiaria

    The Slaty-legged Crake has also been called the Banded Crake.

  173. Okinawa Rail  (Yambaru-kuina)  (t2) (JAe) (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   OK:jan,feb,may,jul,nov
    Gallirallus okinawae 

    An Okinawa Rail photographed during a FONT tour.
    The species is endemic to northern Okinawa.  

  174. Ruddy-breasted Crake  (Hi-kuina = red rail)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan  HI:may  KY:jan,nov  AM:jul  OK:jan,may
    Porzana fusca erythrothorax

  175. Baillon's Crake  (Hime-kuina = princess or dainty rail)  (*)  ______ FW   AM:jan,nov  OK:jan
    Porzana p. pusilla

  176. White-breasted Waterhen  (Shirohara-kuina = white-bellied rail)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   AM:jan  OK:jan,feb,may,jul,nov
    Amaurornis p. phoenicurus

  177. Common Moorhen  (Ban)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,dec  HI:may  KY:jan,feb,may,nov,dec  AM:jan,feb,may,jul,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,jul,nov
    Gallinula chloropus indica

  178. Watercock  (Tsuru-kuina = crane-rail)  (*)   ______  SP   AM:jul
    Gallicrex cinerea 

  179. Eurasian Coot  (O-ban = great moorhen)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,oct,nov  HI:may  HK:jan  KY:jan,feb,dec  AM:jan,feb,nov
    Fulica a. atra


  180. Common Crane  (Kuro-zuru = black crane)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______ FW   KY:jan,feb,nov,dec
    Grus grus lilfordi

  181. Hooded Crane  (Nabe-zuru = pot crane)  (t3) (*) (ph)  ______  FW   KY:jan,feb,nov,dec
    Grus monachus 

    Hooded Cranes (front left & right), & a Sandhill Crane (front center)
    with White-naped Cranes in the background.
    Photographed during a FONT Winter Tour in Kyushu, Japan.

  182. Sandhill Crane  (Kanada-zuru)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______  FW   KY:jan,feb,nov,dec
    Grus c. canadensis

  183. White-naped Crane  (Mana-zuru = "mana" is fresh fish offered to deity, hence crane to be so offered)  (t3) (*) (ph)  ______  FW   KY:jan,feb,nov,dec
    Grus vipio 

    Historically, the White-naped Crane bred in Hokkaido.

    White-naped Cranes photographed during a FONT tour in Kyushu 

  184. Red-crowned (or Japanese) Crane  (Tancho = red-poll)  (t2) (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HK:jan,feb,jun,nov,dec  KY:feb  
    Grus japonensis 

    Two photos above of Red-crowned Cranes,
    taken during FONT Winter Tours in Hokkaido

  185. Siberian Crane   (Sodeguro-zuru = black-sleeved crane)  (t1) (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______  FW   KY:jan,feb
    Grus leucogeranus

    Regarding the SIBERIAN CRANE, go to:  RARE BIRDS OF JAPAN

    Two photos of Siberian Cranes taken during FONT Japan Winter Tours in Kyushu,
    the upper photo in 2000; the lower photo in 2004

  186. Demoiselle Crane  (Aneha-zuru = older sister feathered crane)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______  FW   KY:jan,feb
    (formerly Anthropoides) virgo  (monotypic)

    A Demoiselle Crane, with Hooded Cranes, in Kyushu 
    during a FONT Winter Tour in Japan in 2000
    (photo by Trevor Ford)


  187. Pheasant-tailed Jacana  (Renkaku)  (JAr) (*)  ______ FW   OK:nov
    Hydrophasianus chirurgus 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  188. Greater Painted Snipe  (Tama-shigi = jewel snipe)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   KY:jan  OK:jan,feb,may
    Rostratula b. benghalensis 
    (the single member of its genus)

  189. Eurasian Oystercatcher  (Miyakodori = bird of the capital city)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW  HN:apr  KY:jan
    Haematopus ostralegus osculans

  190. Black-winged Stilt  (Seitaka-shigi = tall snipe)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW  HN:jan,apr,may,oct,dec  KY:jan  AM:jul  OK:may 
    Himantopus h. himantopus 

    Black-winged Stilts photographed during a FONT tour in Japan
    (photo by Paul West)

  191. Pied Avocet  (Sorihashi-seitaka-shigi)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______ FW   KY:jan  OK:jan
    Recurvirostra avosetta 

  192. Oriental Pratincole  (Tsubame-chidori = swallow plover)  (*)  ______ SS   AM:may
    Glareola maldivarum 

  193. Long-billed Plover  (Ikaru-chidori = grosbeak plover)  (nt) (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,may,jun,oct  KY:jan,nov  AM:jan,feb
    Charadrius placidus japonicus

  194. Little Ringed Plover  (Ko-chidori = little plover)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun  HI:apr  HK:may  KY:jan,nov,dec  AM:jan,feb,may,jul,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,nov
    Charadrius dubius curonicus

  195. Common Ringed Plover  (Hajiro-ko-chidori = white-winged small plover)  (JArw) (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,may,dec  HI:may  KY:jan  AM:dec
    Charadrius hiaticula tundrae

  196. Kentish Plover  (Shiro-chidori = white plover)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,dec  KY:jan,feb,nov,dec  AM:jan,feb,may,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb
    Charadrius alexandrinus dealbatus 

    The Kentish Plover was considered conspecific with the Snowy Plover of North America & South America. 

  197. Lesser Sand Plover  (Medai-chidori = large-eyed plover)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:apr,may  HI:may  AM:jan,feb,may,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb  
    Charadrius mongolus stegmanni  

    The Lesser Sand Plover has been called the Mongolian Plover.

    Lesser Sand Plover

  198. Greater Sand Plover  (O-medai-chidori = great large-eyed plover)  (JAr) (*)   ______ SS,FW   AM:jan,may
    Charadrius l. leschenaultii

  199. Eurasian Dotterel  (Kobashi-chidorui = small-billed plover)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Charadrius morinellus 

  200. Oriental Plover  (O-chidori = large plover)  (JAr)  ______
    Charadrius veredus 

  201. Pacific Golden Plover  (Munaguro = black breast)  (*) (ph) ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,apr,may  HI:may  HK:jun   KY:jan  AM:jan,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,nov
    Pluvialis fulva 

    Pacific Golden Plover
    (photo courtesy of Cameron Rutt)

  202. American Golden Plover  (Amerika-munaguro)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Pluvialis dominica 

  203. Grey (or Black-bellied) Plover  (Daizen)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,apr,may,dec  KY:jan,feb,dec  AM:jan,may,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may
    Pluvialis s. squatarola

  204. Grey-headed Lapwing  (Keri)  (nt) (*)  ______  SS,FW  HN:jan,feb,may,jun,nov  KY:dec  OK:feb
    Vanellus cinereus 

  205. Northern Lapwing  (Tageri = paddy lapwing)  (*) (ph)  ______  FW  HN:jan,feb  KY:jan,feb,nov,dec  AM:jan  OK:jan
    Vanellus vanellus 

  206. Great Knot  (Oba-shigi = tail-feather snipe)  (t3) (*)  ______ SS   HN:apr,may
    Calidris tenuirostris 

  207. Red Knot  (Ko-oba-shigi = little tail feather snipe)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______ SS  HN:may  HI:may  AM:may
    Calidris canutus rogersi

  208. Temminck's Stint  (Ojiro-tonen = white-tailed stint)  (*)  ______ FW   KY:jan,nov,dec  OK:feb
    Calidris temminckii

  209. Red-necked Stint  (Tonen = stint, translates to "this year")  (JArw) (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:apr,may,dec  HI:may  KY:jan  AM:jan,feb,may,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb
    Calidris ruficollis 

    A Red-necked Stint in Japan
    in non-breeding plumage

  210. Little Stint  (Yoroppa-tonen)  (JAr) (*)  ______  SS   AM:may 
    Calidris minuta 

  211. Long-toed Stint  (Hibari-shigi = lark sandpiper)  (*) (ph)  ______ FW   HI:may  OK:jan,feb  
    Calidris subminuta 

    A Long-toed Stint in the spring

  212. Sanderling  (Miyubi-shigi = three-toed sandpiper)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW  HN(p):jan,apr,may,dec  HI:may  KY:jan,nov  AM:jan,may,nov
    Calidris alba rubida

  213. Sharp-tailed Sandpiper  (Uzura-shigi = quail sandpiper)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS  HN:may  AM:may  
    Calidris acuminata 

    A Sharp-tailed Sandpiper in Japan.
    This species has been seen during FONT Japan Tours in the Spring.

  214. Curlew Sandpiper  (Saruhama-shigi = monkey-beach sandpiper)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS  HN:may  AM:may
    Calidris ferruginea

    Curlew Sandpiper
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  215. Dunlin  (Hama-shigi = beach sandpiper)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,apr,may,dec  HK:jan,feb  KY:jan,feb,nov,dec  AM:jan,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb 
    Calidris alpina sakhalina 
    (other subspecies also occur in Japan: C. a. arcticola from Alaska, and C. a. kistchinskii & C. a. actites, both of these from further north in east Asia)  

  216. Pectoral Sandpiper  (Amerika-uzura-shigi = American quail sandpiper)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Calidris melanotos 

  217. Rock Sandpiper  (Chishima-shigi)  (JAr)  ______
    Calidris ptilocnemis quarta
    (including kurilensis)

  218. Western Sandpiper  (Hime-hama-shigi)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Calidris mauri 

    The Western Sandpiper occurs in Japan during both spring and autumn passages, but mostly from August to October.

  219. Least Sandpiper  (Amerika-hibari-shigi)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Calidris minutilla 

  220. White-rumped Sandpiper  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Calidris fiscicollis 

    The White-rumped Sandpiper has occurred as an accidental species in Japan. 

  221. Baird's Sandpiper  (Hime-uzura-shigi)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Calidris bairdii 

  222. Stilt Sandpiper  (Ashinage-shigi)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    (formerly Micropalama) himantopus 

  223. Spoon-billed Sandpiper  (Hera-shigi = spatula sandpiper)  (t3) (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______  FW  AM:nov
    Eurynorhynchus pygmeus 

    The now very rare Spoon-billed Sandpiper has been a rare migrant along the Asian Pacific coast from Kamchatka to Taiwan.

    In Japan, the Spoon-billed Sandpiper was seen during 1 FONT tour on the southern island of Amami.

    Regarding the SPOON-BILLED SANDPIPER, go to:  RARE BIRDS OF JAPAN      

    A Spoon-billed Sandpiper in non-breeding plumage. 

  224. Broad-billed Sandpiper  (Kirai = pair of gimlets)  (*)   ______ SS   HN:may
    Limicola falcinellus sibirica 
    (the single member of its genus)

  225. Ruddy Turnstone  (Kyojo-shigi = city-girl sandpiper)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN:apr,may  HI:may  AM:jan,feb,may,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may  NS:may
    Arenaria i. interpres 

  226. Ruff / Reeve  (Erimaki-shigi = muffler snipe)  (*) (ph)  ______ FW   KY:jan  OK:jan,nov
    Philomachus pugnax 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  227. Buff-breasted Sandpiper  (Komon-shigi = dotted sandpiper)  (nt) (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Tryngites subruficollis 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  228. Eurasian Woodcock  (Yama-shigi = mountain snipe)  (*)  ______ FW  HN:jan  AM:dec  OK:jan,nov
    Scolopax rusticola 

  229. Amami Woodcock  (Amami-yama-shigi)  (t3) (JAe) (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   AM:jan,feb,jul,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,nov
    Scolopax mira 

    An Amami Woodcock, as seen during numerous FONT tours on the island of Amami.
    The species has also been seen, though less often, during FONT tours in Okinawa. 

  230. Latham's (or Japanese) Snipe  (Oji-shigi = large ground snipe)  (nt) (JAneb) (*)  ______  SS  HI:may  HK:jun
    Gallinago hardwickii 

  231. Common Snipe  (Ta-shigi = paddy snipe)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,apr,may  HI:apr,may  KY:jan,nov  AM:jan,may  OK:jan,feb,nov 
    Gallinago g. gallinago

    The Common Snipe has been conspecific with the Wilson's Snipe of North America, Gallinago delicata.  

  232. Solitary Snipe  (Ao-shigi = green sandpiper)  (*)   ______ FW   HN:jan,oct  AM:feb
    Gallinago solitaria japonica

  233. Pin-tailed Snipe  (Hario-shigi)  (JAr) (*)  ______ FW  OK:jan,feb,nov
    Gallinago stenura 

  234. Swinhoe's Snipe  (Chuji-shigi = medium-sized ground snipe)  (JAr) (*)  ______ FW  OK:jan,feb,nov
    Gallinago megola 

  235. Jack Snipe  (Ko-shigi = little snipe)  (JAr) (*)  ______ SS  HI:apr
    Lymnocryptes minimus 
    (monotypic, with nipponensis merged) (the single member of its genus) 

  236. Long-billed Dowitcher  (Ohasi-shigi = big-billed snipe)  (JAr)  ______
    Limnodromus scolopaceus 

  237. Short-billed Dowitcher  (JAr)  ______
    Limnodromus griseus caurinus
    (presumably)  (the subspecies that breeds in southern Alaska)

    The Short-billed Dowitcher has occurred as an accidental in Japan.  

  238. Asian Dowitcher  (Shiberia-ohasi-shigi)  (nt) (JAr)  ______
    Limnodromus semipalmatus 

  239. Spotted Redshank  (Tsuru-shigi = crane sandpiper)  (JArw) (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN:may  OK:jan
    Tringa erythropus 

  240. Common Redshank  (Akaashi-shigi = red-legged sandpiper)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______ SP,FW   HN:may  AM:may  OK:jan,feb,may,jul,nov
    Tringa totanus eurhinus  

  241. Common Greenshank  (Aoashi-shigi = green-legged sandpiper)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,apr,may  HI:may  KY:jan,nov  AM:jan,feb,may,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,jul,nov
    Tringa nebularia 

  242. Nordmann's Greenshank  (Karafuto-aoashi-shigi)  (t2) (JAr)  ______  (another name is Spotted Greenshank)
    Tringa guttifer 

  243. Marsh Sandpiper  (Ko-aoasi-shigi = small green-legged sandpiper)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   AM:feb,may  OK:jan,may,nov 
    Tringa stagnatilis

  244. Green Sandpiper  (Kusa-shigi = grass sandpiper)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,apr,may  HI:apr,may  KY:jan,feb,nov,dec  AM:jan,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,nov 
    Tringa ochropus 

  245. Wood Sandpiper  (Takabu-shigi = hawk-patterned sandpiper)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HI:may  KY:may  AM:jul  OK:jan,feb,may,jul,nov
    Tringa glareola 

    Wood Sandpiper
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  246. Greater Yellowlegs  (O-kiashi-shigi)  (JAr)  ______
    Tringa melanoleuca 

  247. Lesser Yellowlegs  (Ko-kiashi-shigi)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Tringa flavipes 

  248. Terek Sandpiper  (Sorihashi-shigi = upward curve-billed sandpiper)  (*)  ______  SS   HN:may  HI:may  HK:jun  AM:may  OK:may,jul
    Xenus cinereus 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  249. Grey-tailed (or Polynesian) Tattler  (Kiashi-shigi = yellow-legged sandpiper)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:may  HI:may  HK:jun  KY:may  AM:jan,may,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,jul,nov  NS:jan,may  
    Heteroscelus brevipes 

    Grey-tailed Tattler
    (photo courtesy of Cameron Rutt)

  250. Wandering Tattler  (Meriken-kiashi-shigi)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Heteroscelus incanus

  251. Common Sandpiper  (Iso-shigi = beach sandpiper)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,oct,dec  HI:apr,may  KY:jan,feb,nov,dec  AM:jan,feb,may,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may  NS:may
    Actitis hypoleucos 

  252. Eastern Black-tailed Godwit  (Oguro-shigi = black-tailed sandpiper)  (*)  ______ SS  HI:may  OK:may
    Limosa melanuroides

  253. Bar-tailed Godwit  (O-sorihashi-shigi = large up-curve billed snipe)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW  HN:apr,may  AM:may  OK:jan,feb,may  
    Limosa lapponica baueri 


    Bar-tailed Godwits photographed during a FONT tour in Japan
    (photo by Paul West)

  254. Eurasian Curlew  (Daishaku-shigi + "shaku" is a wooden dipper with a long curved handle)  (*)  ______  SS,FW  HN:may,dec  KY:jan  AM:jan  OK:jan,feb
    Numenius arquata orientalis

  255. Eastern Curlew  (Horoku-shigi = clay-pipe snipe)  (t3) (*)  ______ SS,FW  HN:apr,may  OK:jan,feb
    Numenius madagascariensis 

    The Eastern Curlew has been called the Far Eastern Curlew.
  256. "Eurasian" Whimbrel  (Chushaku-shigi = middle-sized curlew)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN:apr,may  HI:may  AM:may  OK:jan,may,jul,nov  
    Numenius phaeopus variegatus

  257. Little Curlew  (Koshaku-shigi = small curlew)  (JAr)  ______
    Numenius minutus 

  258. Bristle-thighed Curlew  (Harimomo-chushaku = needle-thighed curlew)  (nt) (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Numenius tahitiensis 

  259. Slender-billed Curlew  (t1) (JAr)  ______
    Numenius tenuirostris 

    The now extremely rare, possibly extinct Slender-billed Curlew strayed on occasion to Japan in the early 20th Century.
    It has been (or was) a central Asian species that wintered in northern Africa.   

  260. Red-necked Phalarope  (Haiiro-hireashi-shigi = red-necked web-footed snipe)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN(p):jan.may,jun,nov  HI:may
    Phalaropus lobatus 

  261. Red (or Grey) Phalarope  (Haiiro-hireashi-shigi = gray web-footed snipe)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS   HN(po):apr,may,jun
    Phalaropus fulicarius 

  262. Wilson's Phalarope  (JAr)  ______
    Phalaropus tricolor 

    The Wilson's Phalarope, an American bird, has strayed to Japan.


  263. Parasitic Jaeger (or Arctic Skua)  (Kuro-tozokukamome = black thief gull)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS   HN(po):apr
    Stercorarius parasiticus 

  264. Pomarine Jaeger (or Pomarine Skua (Tozokukamome = thief gull)  (*) (ph)  ______  FW   HN(po):jan,apr,nov,dec
    Stercorarius pomarinus 

  265. Long-tailed Jaeger  (or Long-tailed Skua)  (Shirohara-tozokukamome = white-bellied thief gull)  (ph)  ______
    Stercorarius longicaudus

  266. South Polar Skua  (O-tozokukamo = great thief gull)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS  HN(po):jun 
    (or Stercorarius) maccormicki  (monotypic)

    The South Polar Skua is among the many pelagic species 
    seen during our spring Japan tours, when we've been 
    on the ferry
    offshore from northern Honshu.

  267. Pallas's (or Great Black-headed) Gull  (*)  (O-zuguro-kamone)  (*) ______ FW   KY:jan
    (formerly Larus) ichthyaetus  (monotypic)

  268. Saunder's Gull  (t3) (*)  (Zuguro-kamome = black-headed gull)  (t3) (*)  ______ FW   KY:jan,feb  AM:jan,nov  OK:jan,feb,nov
    (formerly Larus) saundersi  (monotypic)

  269. Relict Gull  (Gobi-zukin-kamome)  (t3) (JAr)  ______
    Ichthyaetus relictus 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) 

  270. Black-headed Gull  (*) (ph)  (Yuri-kamome = lily gull)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,oct,nov,dec  HI:may  HK:jan,feb,nov,dec  KY:jan,feb,dec  AM:nov  OK:jan,feb
    (formerly Larus) ridibundus  (monotypic)

    Black-headed Gulls are seen during FONT Japan Tours
    in the winter
    (above), and in the spring (below).
    (photos by Armas Hill)

  271. Brown-headed Gull  (JAr)  ______
    (formerly Larus) brunnicephalus  (monotypic)

  272. Bonaparte's Gull  (Bonaparuto-kamone)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    (formerly Larus) philadelphia  (monotypic)

  273. Franklin's Gull  (Amerika-zuguro-kamome)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    (formerly Larus) pipixcam  (monotypic)

  274. Black-tailed (or Japanese) Gull  (Umineko = sea cat)  (JAneb) (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,jul,oct,nov,dec  HI:apr,may  HK:jan,nov  KY:jan,feb,dec  AM:jan,feb  OK:jan,feb  NS:jan   
    Larus crassirostris 

    Black-tailed Gull
    (photo by James Scheib)

  275. "Kamchatka Gull"  (Kamome)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN(p):jan,feb,apr,dec  HK:jan,feb,nov,dec  KY:jan,feb
    Larus canus kamtschatschensis

    The "Kamchatka Gull" is part of the Common Gull of Eurasia, that's called the Mew Gull in North America.  

  276. Vega Gull  (Seguro-kamome)  (*) (ph)  _______  SS,FW   HN(p):jan,feb,apr,may,jun,oct,nov,dec  HI:apr,may  HK(p):jan,feb,nov,dec  KY:jan,feb,nov,dec  AM:jan  
    Larus (argentatus) vegae 

    The Vega Gull is considered by some distinct from the Herring Gull of Europe, Larus argentatus, and the American Herring Gull, Larus a. smithsonianus.  

    Upper photo: a first-year Vega Gull
    Lower photo: an adult Vega Gull (left) & an adult Slaty-backed Gull (right)

  277. "Heuglin's" Gull  (*)  ______ FW   KY:feb,dec
    Larus heuglini

    The "Heuglin's" Gull has been part of the Herring Gull, Larus argentatus, and by some considered part of the Lesser Black-backed Gull.

  278. "Mongolian" Gull  (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN:apr  KY:jan,feb,nov,dec  
    Larus mongolicus

    The "Mongolian" Gull has been part of the "Caspian" or "Pontic" Gull, of the Yellow-legged Gull, Larus cachinnans.

  279. Thayer's Gull  (Kanada-kamome)  (*)  ______  FW   HN:feb  HK:nov
    Larus thayeri 

    The Thayer's Gull is a somewhat controversial species that has been considered as a race of the "American" Herring Gull, or the Iceland Gull with which it hybridizes.   

  280. Slaty-backed Gull  (O-seguro-kamome = large black-backed gull)  (*)  (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN(po):jan,feb,apr,may,jun,oct,nov,dec  HI:may  HK(p):Jan,feb,jun,nov,dec   KY:jan,feb,dec   
    Larus schistisagus 

    A first-year Slaty-backed Gull

  281. Glaucous-winged Gull  (Washi-kamome = eagle gull)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN(p):jan,feb,may,nov,dec  HI:may  HK:jan,feb,nov
    Larus glaucescens 

  282. Glaucous Gull  (Shiro-kamome = white gull)  (*) (ph) ______ SS,FW   HN(p):jan,feb,apr,may,jun,dec  HK(p):jan,feb,apr,jun,nov,dec  KY:jan
    Larus hyperboreus pallidissimus
    Larus hyperboreus barrovianus: 
    a smaller subspecies of North America that occurs rarely in Japan in the winter.

  283. Iceland Gull  (Aisurando-kamome)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______ FW   HK:jan
    Larus glaucoides kumlieni

  284. California Gull  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Larus californicus 
    (subspecies of this vagrant in Japan is uncertain)

  285. Ring-billed Gull  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Larus delawarensis 

  286. Little Gull  (Hime-kamome)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    (formerly Larus) minutus  (monotypic)

  287. Sabine's Gull  (Kubiwa-kamome = ring-necked gull)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Xema sabini 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  288. Ross' Gull  (Hime-kubiwa-kamone)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______ FW  HN:dec
    Rhodostethia rosea  (monotypic) 

    This 1st-winter Ross's Gull, a rarity on Honshu,
    was seen in Tokyo during one of our Japan winter tours.

  289. Ivory Gull  (Zoge-kamome = ivory gull)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Pagophila eburnea 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) 

  290. Black-legged Kittiwake  (Mitsuyubi-kamome = three-toed gull)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN(p):jan,feb,apr,nov,dec  HK:jan,jun,nov
    Rissa tridactyla 
    (now monotypic, with pollicaris merged)

  291. Red-legged Kittiwake  (Akaashi-mitsuyubi-kamome)  (t3) (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Rissa brevirostris 

  292. Gull-billed Tern  (Hashibuto-ajisashi)  (*) (ph)  ______  FW  OK:nov
    (formerly Sterna) n. nilotica

  293. Roseate Tern  (Beni-ajisashi)  (nt) (*) (ph)  ______ SS  AM:may,jul  OK:may
    Sterna dougallii bangsi

  294. Black-naped Tern  (Eriguro-ajisashi = black-naped tern)  (*)  ______ SS  OK:may,jul
    Sterna s. sumatrana

  295. Common Tern  (Ajisashi = horse-mackerel tosser)  (*)  ______ SS   HN:may  HK:jun  KY:may
    Sterna hirundo longipennis

  296. Arctic Tern  (Kyoku-ajisashi)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Sterna paradisaea 

    The Arctic Tern is a common nester on the Kamchatka Peninsula north of Japan. Most leave there in migration going on to the eastern Pacific, where it is fairly common in the late summer. It is rare in the western Pacific south of the Kamchatka Peninsula. 
    The Arctic Tern has occurred as a vagrant in Japan, mostly in July & August.

  297. Aleutian Tern  (Koshijiro-ajisashi = white-rumped tern)  (JAr)  ______
    (formerly Sterna) aleuticus  (monotypic)

  298. Grey-backed (or Spectacled) Tern  (Nanyo-mamijiro-ajisashi)  (JAr)  ______
    (formerly Sterna) lunatus  (monotypic)

  299. Bridled Tern  (Mamijiro-ajisashi = white eye-browed tern)  (ph) ______
    Onychoprion a. anaethetus

  300. Sooty Tern  (Seguro-ajisashi = black-backed tern)  (ph)  ______
    Onychoprion fuscatus nubilosa 
    (in southern Nansei Shoto)
    Onychoprion fuscatus oahuensis 
    (on Ogasawara Is.)

  301. Little Tern  (Ko-ajisashi = little tern)  (*)  ______  SS  HN:apr,may,jun  AM:may  OK:may,jul  NS:may
    (formerly Sterna) albifrons sinensis

    The Little Tern is closely related to the Least Tern of North America.

  302. Greater Crested Tern  (O-ajisashi = great tern)  ______
    Thalasseus bergii cristatus

  303. Lesser Crested Tern  (JAr)  ______
    Thalasseus bengalensis torresii

  304. Caspian Tern  (O-ajisashi)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    (formerly Sterna) caspia  (monotypic)

  305. Whiskered Tern  (Kurohara-ajisashi = black-bellied tern)  (*)  ______  SP,FW   KY:may  AM(po):may  OK:jan,nov
    Chlidonias hybridus javanica

  306. White-winged Tern  (Hajiro-kurohara-ajisashi = white-winged black-bellied tern)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Chlidonias leucopterus 

  307. Black Tern  (Hasiguro-kurohara-ajisashi)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Chlidonias n. niger 

  308. Brown Noddy  (Hime-kuro-ajisashi = black tern)  ______
    Anous stolidus pileatus

  309. Black Noddy  (Hime-kuro-ajisashi)  (JAr) ______
    Anous minutus marcusi

  310. Blue Noddy  (Hairo-ajisashi)  (JAr)  ______  (has been called Grey, or Blue-grey, Noddy)
    Procelsterna cerulea saxatilis 

  311. White Tern  (Shiro-ajisashi = white tern)  ______  (has been called Fairy Tern)
    Gygus alba candida


  312. Common Murre (or Guillemot(Umigarasu = sea crow)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN(po):jan,feb,apr,may,dec  HK(p):jan,feb,apr,may
    Uria aalge inornata

    Common Murre - sometimes during FONT winter tours
    many murres are seen from the ferry between Honshu & Hokkaido  
    (photo by Kim Steininger)

  313. Thick-billed Murre (or Brunnich's Guillemot(Hashibuto-umigarasu = thick-billed sea crow)  (*) (ph)  ______ FW   HN(po):jan  HK(p):jan,feb
    Uria lomvia arra

    Thick-billed Murre - another species seen during FONT winter tours
    between Honshu & Hokkaido, and offshore from Hokkaido  
    (photo by Alan Brady)  

  314. Spectacled Guillemot  (Keimafuri)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN(po):jan  HK:jan,feb,jun,nov   
    Cepphus carbo 

  315. Pigeon Guillemot  (Umibato = sea pigeon)  (*)  ______  FW   HN(po):jan,dec  HK:jan
    Cepphus columba snowi

  316. Long-billed Murrelet  (Madara-umisuzume = mottled sea sparrow)  (nt) (*)  ______ FW   HN(po):jan  HK:feb
    Brachyramphus perdix 

  317. Ancient Murrelet  (Umisuzume = sea sparrow)  (*)  ______  SS,FW  HN(p):jan,feb,apr,may,dec  HI:may  HK(p):jan,feb,apr,nov  KY:feb  
    Synthliboramphus a. antiquus  (the other subspecies, S. a, microrhynchos, at Commander Is. in northeast Asia) 

  318. Japanese Murrelet  (Kanmuri-umisuzume = crested sea sparrow)  (t3) (JAe) (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW  HN(p):apr,may,dec  KY:feb
    Synthliboramphus wumizusume 

    Another English name for the Japanese Murrelet is the Crested Murrelet. In the Japanese name, the word "umisuzume" means "sea sparrow".    


    Japanese Murrelet
    This threatened species has been seen during the ferry trips to & from Hegura Island,
    in the Sea of Japan off the west coast of Honshu, during FONT Japan Tours in the Spring   

  319. Crested Auklet  (Etorofu-umisuzume = Iturup sea sparrow)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN(po):jan,apr  HK(po):jan,apr
    Aethia cristatella 

  320. Whiskered Auklet  (Shirahige-umisuzume)  (JAr)  ______
    Aethia pygmaea 

  321. Least Auklet  (Ko-umisuzume = small sea sparrow)  (*) (ph)  _____FW   HN(po):jan,feb  HK(p):jan,feb
    Aethia pusilla 

  322. Parakeet Auklet  (Umiomu = sea parrot)  (JAr)  ______  
    Cyclorrhynchus psittacula 

  323. Rhinoceros Auklet  (Utou)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN(po):jan,apr,may,jun,nov  HI:may  HK:apr,jun,nov
    Cerorhinca monocerata 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) 

  324. Horned Puffin  (Tsunomedori = horn-eye bird)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW  HN(po):jan  HK(po):apr
    Fratercula corniculata 

  325. Tufted Puffin  (Etopirika: from 2 Ainu words: eto = nose & pirica = pretty)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______  FW  HN(po):jan  HK(po):jan
    (formerly Lunda) cirrhata  (monotypic)


  326. Common (or Feral) Pigeon  (Dobato)  (i) (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,jul,oct,nov,dec  HI:apr,may  HK:jan,feb,may,jun,nov,dec  KY:jan,feb,may,jul,nov,dec  AM:jan,feb,may,jul,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,jul,nov  NS:may
    Columba l. livia

  327. Black Wood Pigeon  (Karasu-bato = crow pigeon)  (nt) (JAneb) (*)  ______  SS,FW   HI:may  AM:jan,feb,may,jul  OK:jan,feb,may,nov
    Columba j. janthina

  328. Bonin Woodpigeon  (Ogasawara-karasu-bato)  ______  (now globally extinct)
    Columba versicolor

  329. Ryukyu Woodpigeon  (Ryukyu-karasu-bato)  ______  (now globally extinct)
    Columba jouyi

  330. Oriental Turtle Dove  (Kiji-bato = pheasant dove)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   HN(p):jan,feb,apr,may,jun,oct,nov,dec  HI:apr,may  HK:feb,may,jun  KY:jan,feb,may,jul,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,jul,nov 
    Streotopelia orientalis
    Streotopelia o. orientalis 
    (subspecies on Hokkaido, Honshu, & Kyushu)
    Streotopelia o. stimpsoni 
    (subspecies on Amami & Okinawa)

  331. Red Turtle Dove  (Beni-bato = ruddy dove)  (JA)  ______
    Streptopelia tranquebarica humilis

  332. White-bellied Green Pigeon  (Ao-bato = green pigeon)  (nt) (*)  ______  SS,FW  HN:may,nov(p)  HK:jun  KY:feb,may  OK:jan
    (formerly Sphenurus) s. sieboldii

  333. Ryukyu Green Pigeon  (Zuaka-ao-bato)  (nt) (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW  AM:jan,feb,may,jul,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,jul  NS:jan 
    (formerly Sphenurus) riukiuensis   
    Treron riukiuensis permagnus
    (subspecies on Okinawa)
    Treron riukiuensis medioximus 
    (subspecies on other Japanese islands in Nansei Shoto) 

    The Ryukyu Green Pigeon was known as the Whistling Green Pigeon when it was conspecific with the Taiwan Green Pigeon, Treron formosae.
    It has also rather inappropriately been called the Red-capped Green Pigeon. 

    A Ryukyu Green Pigeon photographed during a FONT tour in Amami
  334. Emerald Dove  (Kin-bato)  ______
    Chalcophaps i. indica

  335. Rose-ringed (or Ring-necked) Parakeet  (Wakake-honsei-inko)  (i) (*)  ______ SS  HN:jun
    Psittacula krameri manillensis


  336. Eurasian Cuckoo  (Kakko: from the voice)  (*)  ______ SS  HN:may,jun  HI:may  HK:jun  KY:may  
    Cuculus canorus telephonus

    The Eurasian Cuckoo has been called the Common Cuckoo.

  337. Oriental Cuckoo  (Tsutsu-dori = piping bird)  (*)  ______ SS  HN:may  HI:may  HK;jun  KY:may    
    Cuculus optatus 
    (formerly C. saturatus(monotypic)

    The Oriental Cuckoo was conspecific with the Himalayan Cuckoo, Cuculus saturatus. Another name has been Horshield's Cuckoo.

  338. Lesser Cuckoo  (Hototo-gisu: from the voice)  (*)  ______ SS  HN:may,jun  HI:may  KY:may  OK:may  
    Cuculus poliocephalus 

    For the Lesser Cuckoo, a former alternate name of Little Cuckoo was inappropriate as there is a bird in South America with that common English name.

  339. Northern Hawk-Cuckoo  (Juichi: from the voice, but means "eleven")  (*)  ______ SS   HN:may  KY:may   
    Cuculus hyperythrus  

    The Northern Hawk-Cuckoo was part of the Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo.

  340. Chestnut-winged Cuckoo  (Kanmuri-kakko)  (JAr)  ______
    Clamator coromandus 

  341. Asian Koel  (JAr)  ______
    Eudynamys scolopaceus chinensis

    The Asian Koel, of China, has occurred as a vagrant in southern Japan, mostly in Yonaguni, the Yaeyama Islands, but also in Kyushu.   


  342. Eastern Grass Owl  (JAr)  ______
    Tyto longimembris pithecops

    The Eastern Grass Owl was part of the Grass Owl, Tyto capensis.  

  343. Blakiston's Fish Owl  (Shima-fukuro = island owl)  (t2) (*) (ph)  ______  FW   HK:jan,feb,nov,dec
    Bubo b. blakistoni 
    (now genus Bubo rather than Ketupa)

    Regarding the BLAKISTON'S FISH OWL, go to:  RARE BIRDS OF JAPAN   

    The big & rare Blakiston's Fish Owl has been seen 
    during FONT Japan Tours in Hokkaido in the Late-Fall & Winter

    Below, more photos of the Blakiston's Fish Owl.


  344. Eurasian Eagle Owl  (Washi-mimizuku = eagle eared-owl)  (JAr)  ______
    Bubo bubo borrisowi 

  345. Snowy Owl  (Shiro-fukuro = white owl)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    (formerly Nyctea) scandiaca  (monotypic)

  346. Japanese Scops Owl  (O-konoha-zuku = large tree-leaf owl)  (*)  ______ FW   HN:nov  HI:may  HK:jan  KY:may  OK:jan 
    Otus s. semitorques
    Otus semitorques pryeri: 
    resident on Nansei Shoto (Okinawa to Iriomote) & on Izu Islands. See note below.    

    The Japanese Scops Owl has been considered by some as part of the Collared Scops Owl of mainland Asia, Otus lettia.

    Otus semitorques pryeri
    may be a separate species. It is smaller and redder than O. s. semitorques, lacking toe feathers and has redder eyes. 
    Otus s. semitorques is perhaps only a summer visitor in Hokkaido. 
    Otus semitorques ussuriensis occurs in Hokkaido in the winter from further north.  

    All three of the above subspecies have been seen during FONT tours. 

  347. Oriental Scops Owl  (Konoha-zuku = tree-leaf owl)  (*)  ______  SS  AM:may,dec  OK:may  
    Otus sunia japonicus

    The Oriental Scops Owl was, at one time, treated as a subspecies of the Common Scops Owl, Otus scops.

  348. Elegant (or Ryukyu) Scops-Owl  (Ryukyu-konoha-zuku)  (nt) (JAneb) (*) ______ SS,FW   AM:jan,feb,may,jul,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,nov  
    Otus e. elegans
      (other subspecies are on islands off Taiwan and the Philippines)

    The Elegant, or Ryukyu, Scops Owl was, until recently, considered part of the Celebes, or Sulawesi, Scops Owl of southeast Asian islands, Otus manadensis. 
    Prior to that, it was considered part of the Oriental Scops Owl, and, at one time, treated as a subspecies of the Common Scops Owl, Otus scops.    

  349. Japanese Hawk-Owl  (or Northern Boobook (Aoba-zuku = green-leaf owl)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jun  HI:may  AM:jan,feb,may,jul,nov,dec  OK:jan,may,nov
    Ninox japonica japonica 
    (subspecies a summer visitor to Japan, southern Korea, & eastern China)
    Ninox japonica totogo 
    (subspecies a resident in the Ryukyu Islands, also in Taiwan, & Lanyu Is.)

    Some say that the above 2 subspecies should be split as full species from the following:

    Ninox japonica florensis 
    (subspecies a summer visitor to far-eastern Russia, northern Korea, northeastern & central China)

    The traditional, and wide-ranging Brown (or Oriental) Hawk-Owl has been an extremely polytypic species, having at least 10 subspecies in 3 groups:

    The Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata, in southern & southeastern Asia, in India, southern China, the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and other places.

    The Chocolate Boobook, Ninox randi, in the Philippines and other southeast Asian archipelagos.  

    The Japanese Hawk-Owl, or Northern Boobook, Ninox japonica, referred to with the 3 subspecies above.

    A vagrant Ninox japonica was found once in the area of the Ashmore Reef in the Timor Sea off northwestern Australia.     

  350. Ural Owl  (Fukuro)  (*) (ph)  _____SS,FW   HN:jan  HK:jan,feb  KY:jan,may
    Strix uralensis 
    Strix u. japonica  (subspecies on Hokkaido; on that island formerly S. u. hondoensis)
    Strix u. fuscescens 
    (subspecies on Kyushu)

  351. Northerrn Long-eared Owl  (Torafu-zuku = tiger striped owl)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   AM:jan,feb,may
    Asio o. otus

  352. Short-eared Owl  (Komini-zuku = small eared owl)  (*) (ph)  ______  FW  HN(p):jan,nov  HK:jan
    Asio f. flammeus

  353. Tengmalm's Owl  (Kinme-fukuro = golden-eyed owl)  (JAr) (ph)   ______  
    Aegolius funereus sibiricus

    The Tengmalm's Owl is called the Boreal Owl in North America. In Japan, it is a scarce resident in Hokkaido. 

  354. Grey Nightjar  (Yotaka = night hawk)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS   HN:may  HI:may  KY:may   
    Caprimulgus jotaka

    The Gray Nightjar was part of the Jungle Nightjar, Caprimulgus indicus

    A Grey Nightjar photographed during a FONT Japan Tour in May
    on Hegura Island


  355. White-throated (or Northern) Needletail  (Hario-amatsubame = needle-tailed rain-swallow)  (*)  ______ SS   OK:may
    Hirundapus c. caudacutus

  356. House Swift  (Hime-amatsubame)  (*)  ______ SS,FW   KY:jan,feb,jul,nov  AM:may,dec
    Apus nipalensis subfurcatus

  357. Pacific Swift  (Amatsu-bame = rain swallow)  (*)  ______ SS   HN:apr,may,jun  HI:may  HK:jun  OK:may,jul  
    Apus p. pacificus  

    Another name for the Pacific Swift is the Asian White-rumped Swift. 

  358. Common Swift  (JAr)  ______
    Apus apus pekinensis


  359. Ruddy Kingfisher  (Aka-shobin = red kingfisher)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS   HI:may  KY:may,jul  AM:may,jul  OK:may,jul 
    Halcyon coromanda
    Halcyon c. major 
    (subspecies on Kyushu)
    Halcyon c. bangsi 
    (subspecies on Amami & Okinawa)

    Ruddy Kingfishers have been seen during FONT Japan Tours in the Spring
    in Kyushu, Amami, & Okinawa (and once on Hegura Island)

  360. Black-capped Kingfisher  (Yama-shobin = mountain kingfisher)  (JAr) (*) (ph)  ______  SS   HI:may
    Halcyon pileata 

    A Black-capped Kingfisher on Hegura Island during a FONT tour 

  361. White-throated Kingfisher  (JAr)  ______
    Halcyon smyrnensis fokiensis
    (or fusca)

  362. Collared Kingfisher  (Nanyo-shobin)  (JAr)  ______
    Todiramphus chloris

    There are totally about 50 subspecies of Todiramphus chloris.

  363. Common Kingfisher  (Kawa-semi  = river kingfisher)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,nov,dec  HI:may  KY:jan,feb,may,nov,dec  AM:jan,feb,may,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,jul
    Alcedo atthis bengalensis

    The Common Kingfisher is a brilliant jewel
    (photo by Paul West)

  364. Crested Kingfisher  (Yama-semi = mountain kingfisher)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may  HK:may  KY:jan,feb,may,nov,dec 
    Ceryle lugubris
    Ceryle l. pallida 
    (subspecies on Hokkaido)
    Ceryle l. lugubris 
    (subspecies on Honshu & Kyushu)

    The Crested Kingfisher was called the Greater Pied Kingfisher.

  365. Oriental Dollarbird  (Bupposo)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS  HI:may  KY:may,jul  
    Eurystomus orientalis calonyx

    The Oriental Dollarbird is closely related to the Broad-billed Roller.

    An Oriental Dollarbird on Hegura Island during a FONT tour 

  366. Eurasian Hoopoe  (Yatsugashira = eight-headed bird)  (JAr) (*)  ______  SS   HI:apr,may
    Upupa e. epops 
    (as U. e. saturata now merged)


  367. Eurasian Wryneck  (Arisui = ant-sucker)  ______
    Jynx torquilla 

  368. Japanese Green Woodpecker  (Ao-gera = green woodpecker)  (JAe) (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun  KY:jan,may,jul,nov
    Picus awokera
    Picus a. awokera 
    (subspecies on Honshu)
    Picus a. horii 
    (subspecies on Kyushu)
    (birds are larger & lighter in the north, smaller & darker in the south) 

    Japanese Green Woodpecker,
    one of the country's endemic birds 

  369. Grey-headed Woodpecker  (Yama-gera = mountain woodpecker)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HK:jan.may,jun,nov
    Picus canus jessoensis

  370. Black Woodpecker  (Kuma-gera = bear woodpecker)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HK:jan,feb,jun
    Dryocopus m. martius

  371. Okinawa (or Pryer's) Woodpecker  (Noguchi-gera)  (t1) (JAe) (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   OK:jan,feb,may,jul
    (formerly Sapheopipo) noguchii  (monotypic)

    The Okinawa, or Pryer's, Woodpecker, one of the (if not the) rarest of woodpeckers.

  372. Amami (or Owston's) Woodpecker  (O-aka-gera)  (JAe) (*)  ______  SS,FW   AM:jan,feb,may,jul,nov,dec  
    Dendrocopos (formerly Picoides) (leucotos) owstoni

    The Amami (or "Owston's") Woodpecker, endemic to Amami Island, has been considered a race of the White-backed Woodpecker - the largest and darkest race of that wide-ranging species across the Palearctic.
    So distinctive is the bird on Amami, however, that it may be a full species.  

  373. White-backed Woodpecker  (O-aka-gera = great red woodpecker)  (*)  ______  SS,FW   HK:jan,may,jun  KY:may
    (formerly Picoides) leucotos 
    Dendrocopos leucotos subcirrus
      (subspecies on Hokkaido & the southern Kurile Is.)
    Dendrocopos leucotos stejnegeri  (subspecies in northern & central Honshu & Sado Is.)
    Dendrocopos leucotos namiyei  (subspecies in w. Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, & Oki I.)

  374. Great Spotted Woodpecker  (Aka-gera = red woodpecker)  (*) (ph)  ______ SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,oct  HK:jan,feb,may,jun,nov,dec  KY:may,dec
    (formerly Picoides) major japonicus

    The Japanese race of the Great Spotted Woodpecker,
    a widespread species across Eurasia

  375. Lesser Spotted Woodpecker  (Ko-aka-gera = small red woodpecker)  (*)  ______  FW  HK:jan,nov
    (formerly Dendrocopos; prior to that Picoides) minor amurensis

  376. Japanese Pygmy Woodpecker  (Ko-gera = little woodpecker)  (*) (ph)  ______  SS,FW   HN:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,oct,nov,dec  HK:jan,feb,may,jun,nov,dec  KY:jan,may,nov,dec  AM:jan,feb,may,nov,dec  OK:jan,feb,may,nov  
    (formerly Dendrocopos; prior to that Picoides) kizuki
    Yungipicus k. ijimae 
    (subspecies on Hokkaido)
    Yungipicus k. seebohmi  (subspecies on Honshu)
    Yungipicus k. amamii 
    (subspecies on Amami)
    Yungipicus k. kizuki 
    (subspecies on Kyushu & Okinawa)

    A Japanese Pygmy Woodpecker photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Paul West)

  377. Eurasian Three-toed Woodpecker  (Yeso-miyubi-gera = Hokkaido three-toed woodpecker)  (JAr) (ph)  ______
    Picoides tridactylus inouyei 
    (subspecies on Hokkaido, seems to be nearing extinction)

  378. Rufous-bellied Woodpecker  (JAr)  ______
    Hypopicus hyperythrus subrufinus

  379. White-bellied Woodpecker  (Kitataki = tree tapper)  ______   (has also been called Tristram's Woodpecker)  
    Dryocopus javensis richardsi

    The White-bellied Woodpecker is now extinct on Tsushima Island, off the west coast of Kyushu, Japan. It still exists in Korea and elsewhere in Asia.


  380. Fairy Pitta  (Yairocho = eight-colored bird)  (t3) (*)  ______  SS   KY:may,jul  
    Pitta nympha 

    The Fairy Pitta was, at one time, by some, considered conspecific with the Blue-winged Pitta, Pitta brachyura.  

  381. Hooded Pitta  (Zuguro-yairocho)  (JAr)  ______ 
    Pitta sordida cucullata

    The Hooded Pitta has occurred as an accidental visitor in southern Nansei Shoto.

    To Top of Page