PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876


and the 
North Atlantic Ocean

including Marine Mammals,
 Fish, Jellyfish, Mollusks,
 and Anthropods


A listing compiled by Armas Hill

A Blue Whale during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2012 - 1 of 2 Blue Whales seen during that tour.
Actually, in the photo, a small portion of a very large whale. 
With most of the tail, the very rear portion of the back, and part of the fin still above the water,
as the whale began a deep dive.   
(photo by Gabi Hauser)

Links, in the following list, to:

Sea Turtle    Marine Mammals   Fish    Jellyfish

Mollusks (including Shells):   Gastropods    Bivalves    Squids

Crustaceans   Echinoderms   

Additional Links:

A Listing of scheduled Focus On Nature Tours    FONT Past Tour Highlights

Birds found in Iceland during FONT tours    A Complete List of Iceland Birds

Wildflowers and some Other Plants in Iceland  (with some photos) 

Photo Galleries of Icelandic Nature, Scenery and Culture 
from FONT tours in:    June 2006    June 2009    June 2012    Sep/Oct 2013    June 2015



refers to plate number of photo in the "National Audubon Society Field Guide to Seashore Creatures"

refers to the page with an illustration in the book "A Field Guide to Coastal Fishes, from Maine to Texas", by Val Kells & Kent Carpenter, 2011. 

refers to the plate with an illustration in the book "Peterson Field Guide, Atlantic Coast Fishes", by C. Richard Robins & G. Carleton Ray, with illustrations by John Douglass & Rudolf Freund, 1986.   

refers to the plate with an illustration in the book "Peterson Field Guide, Atlantic Seashore", by Kenneth Gosner, 1978,   

These classifications by the ICUN (International Union for Conservation of Nature)
of Threatened & Near-threatened species; 
(t1):  critically endangered
(t2):  endangered
(t3);  vulnerable  
(nt):  near-threatened 

(*):     seen during FONT tours 
(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website 

    MARINE TURTLE  (a Reptile)

  1. Leatherback (Sea) Turtle  (t1) (ph)  ______ 
    Dermochelys coriacea

    The Leatherback Sea Turtle is the only marine reptile that has been known to occur in Icelandic waters.
    It is world's largest turtle. It can weigh half a ton. It is a deep diver, able to go to a depth of about 5,000 feet.

    In Icelandic waters, the Leatherback Sea Turtle has both been sighted alive in the ocean and found dead on the beach. However,  it is very rare in Icelandic waters as it is too cold there for it to be on regular basis. 
    The turtle, that nests in the Caribbean for example, where the water is warm, is able to maintain a relatively high internal temperature during its distant travels. 

    An excellent book about sea turtles is "Voyage of the Turtle - in Pursuit of the Earth's Last Dinosaurs", by Carl Safina, Owl Books, 2007.  


    At least 12 species of CETACEANS occur regularly in Icelandic waters. 5 of them are BALEEN WHALES and 7 are TOOTHED WHALES, including DOLPHINS and a PORPOISE.
    In addition, 11 species have been found sporadically. 

  2. North Atlantic Right Whale  (t2) (ph)  ______
    Balaena glacialis

    The North Atlantic Right Whale was once widespread, but it is now rare everywhere in its range, in the Northern Hemisphere. due to extensive hunting. 
    It has, during recent decades, been very occasionally seen near Iceland in the summer, and virtually never near the coast. 

    North Atlantic Right Whale

  3. Bowhead Whale  ______  (described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Balaena mysticetus

    The Bowhead Whale has never been very common around Iceland. It has now been virtually exterminated by hunting, and recorded in Icelandic waters only very occasionally.  

  4. Fin Whale  (t2) (ph) (*)  ______  (described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Balaenoptera physalus

    The population of the Fin Whale has been decimated by whaling, but it is still fairly common in Icelandic waters.
    It occurs all around the country, though usually in deeper water. It first appears in March, but the main numbers arrive at the end of May or the beginning of June.

    Two photos of Fin Whales, taken during FONT tours
    (photos by Armas Hill)

  5. Blue Whale  (t2) (ph) (*)  ______  (described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Balaenoptera musculus

    Back in the 19th Century, the Blue Whale was said to be numerous around the Iceland coast and even in some of the deeper fjords.
    It still occurs in Icelandic waters, but it is now rare there, as it is worldwide, and only occasionally seen. It probably arrives around Iceland in late April or in May.

    Blue Whale
    (photo by Armas Hill)

    There is another photograph of a Blue Whale, that was taken during a FONT tour in Iceland in June 2012,
    at the top of this list. 

  6. Northern Minke Whale  (ph) (*)  ______
    Balaenoptera acutorostrata

    The Northern Minke Whale is fairly common around Iceland. It is sometimes seen close to land as it is mostly an inshore species.

    A Northern Minke Whale photographed during a FONT tour

  7. Sei Whale  ______
    Balaenoptera borealis  

    The Sei Whale is said to be fairly common in Icelandic waters, though numbers fluctuate considerably from year to year. 
    Occasionally it is seen near the coast. off southeastern and southern Iceland, usually in the late summer.

  8. Humpback Whale  (ph)  ______
    Megaptera novaeangliae

    The Humpback Whale is fairly common in Icelandic waters. It is occasionally seen from ships, particularly off the east and southeast coasts of the country. Occasionally it is seen close to land. 

    A Humpback Whale photographed during a FONT tour, showing the "humps" on its back.
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  9. Northern Bottlenose Whale  ______
    Hyperoodon ampullatus

    The Northern Bottlenose Whale is found all around Iceland in the summer and autumn, but it is not common. 
    It is more often in deep offshore waters, where it is mostly found in the sea between Iceland and Jan Mayen.
    It is, however, occasionally near the Iceland coast in July. There have been some strandings.   

  10. beaked whale sp.  ______
    Mesoplodon sp.

    Beaked whales
    are probably rare visitors to Iceland waters from the south. But over the years there have been only very few verified occurrences.
    There were some specimens during the 20th Century from strandings and incidental catches by whalers.  

  11. Narwhal  ______
    Monodon monoceros

    The Narwhal has been a rare visitor from the Arctic that has occasionally been seen in deeper waters around Iceland, mostly off the north and northwest coasts of the country.   

  12. Beluga  ______
    Delphinapterus leucas

    The Beluga has been a rare visitor from the Arctic rarely seen in shallow waters around Iceland.

  13. Great Sperm Whale  (ph)  ______
    Physeter macrocephalus

    The Great Sperm Whale is occasionally seen from the coast all around Iceland, but mostly in the west. It nearly always is at the edge of the shelf. Most sightings are from the late spring through the early autumn.

    The Great Sperm Whales around Iceland are exclusively males. The females rarely venture into latitudes higher than 45 degrees north, and Iceland is roughly between 63 and 67 degrees north.
    More than 2,500 Great Sperm Whales were killed off the coast of Iceland from 1948 to 1982, and not a single one was a female.
    Females with calves have been sighted, on several occasions, from 52 to 54 degrees north, during recent research surveys.

    The Great Sperm Whale is believed to dive deeper, and for longer, than any other mammal. They dive to such deep depths for squid, octopuses, and fish. Large individuals can eat more than a ton of food every day.
    The largest "Giant Squid" known to have been taken by a Great Sperm Whale was 47 feet and 7 inches long including its tentacles.
    Male Great Sperm Whales grow to a length of about 59 feet.     

    Photographed during a FONT tour, a Great Sperm Whale showing its diagonal spout

  14. Harbor Porpoise  (*)  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Phocoena phocoena

    The Harbor Porpoise is common all around Iceland. It is particularly common off the south and southwest coasts in the spring when they pursue Capelin that are visiting the coasts to spawn. They often chase Herring into bays and fjords in the summer. They mostly leave Iceland in the winter, but some remain.   
    At times, Harbor Porpoises can easily be spotted as they are vocal and demonstrative, and splash at the surface of the water. 

  15. Long-finned Pilot Whale  (ph) (*)  ______
    Globicephala melaena

    The Long-finned Pilot Whale is well known around Iceland. At times they get stranded on the shore, but mostly they are in deeper waters.
    They approach the northwest and west coasts of Iceland from August to October, seemingly in search of squid.
    They are normally seen during those months in Faxafloi, Breidafjordur, and Hunafloi.

    In the autumn of 1983, hundreds of Long-finned Pilot Whales were stranded near a small fishing village on the west coast. Most of them were kept alive and successfully returned to the sea by the villagers.

    A Long-finned Pilot Whale photographed during a FONT tour  

  16. Orca  (ph)  ______  (another name is Killer Whale)
    Orcinus orca

    The Orca, or Killer Whale is particularly common in Icelandic waters, and is often seen close to land. It is most often seen in the summer and autumn, when they follow shoals of herring to inshore waters near the coast, but Orcas can be seen in Icelandic waters at any time of year.

    Orcas are most readily seen in Icelandic waters in the East Fjords, around the Westmann Islands, by the Rekjanes Peninsula, and in the West Fjords.

    A survey in the North Atlantic in 1987 estimated a total population of nearly 7,000 Orcas in the area around Iceland and the Faeroe Islands. That number is an approximation.
    In recent years, several hundred individuals have been identified in Icelandic costal waters, mainly in the East Fjords.

    Worldwide, Orcas occur from the polar ice-edges to the equator. However, they are most often in cooler regions of mid to high latitudes, and are most common in near-shore waters over the continental shelf.
    They do not undertake a north-south migration as the larger whales do, although in the polar regions, they have to move north and south with the sea ice. Their food supply dictates daily, weekly, and monthly movements.

    For more than 2 decades, Iceland was a major source of live Orcas for Sea World and other marine parks around the world. From 1974 to 1989, a total of 64 animals were captured for live display. Since then, however, none have been taken.     

  17. White-beaked Dolphin  (*)  ______
    Lagenorhynchus albirostris

    The White-beaked Dolphin is the most common dolphin in coastal waters around Iceland in the summer. Found mainly in the southwest and northeast, it can be seen however almost anywhere around the country. 
    It can occur in pods of several hundred individuals. Smaller groups of less than 50 individuals are more common, especially in western Iceland.   

    Lagenorhynchus albirostris is a large and robust dolphin. It eats squid, octopus, a variety of fish including cod, herring, and haddock, and sometimes bottom-dwelling crustaceans.
    It is often found in the company of whales, in the Denmark Strait between Iceland and Greenland, feeding on capelin.    

  18. Atlantic White-sided Dolphin  ______
    Lagenorhynchus acutus

    The Atlantic White-sided Dolphin has a geographic distribution that is similar to its close relative, the White-beaked Dolphin (above).
    Lagenorhynchus acutus is found in cool temperate and subarctic waters of the North Atlantic Ocean. It occurs in two distinct regions: one to the north and east (including Iceland), and the other further west centered around Newfoundland and Nova Scotia in Canada.
    In Iceland, it is near the northern edge of its range, and the Atlantic White-sided Dolphin is considerably more rare there than the White-beaked Dolphin.    

  19. Common Dolphin  (ph)  ______
    Delphinus delphis

    Despite its English name, the Common Dolphin is not at all common in Icelandic waters, which are at extreme northern edge of its range. There were very few records for it there in the 20th century, but some were either dead specimens that were washed ashore or others that had the misfortune of being caught in nets.    

  20. Walrus  (ph)  ______
    Odobenus rosmarus
    Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus  ______ 
    North Atlantic Walrus 

    The Walrus has occasionally appeared along Iceland's coasts. They come from their breeding grounds in Greenland and further north.
    Over the years, they have generally moved north or south with the southern edge of the ice pack (that is north of Iceland).
    Normally the Greenland ice begins advancing south in October. So it has been said that most Walruses have been sighted in the winter, but read the following, from the "Iceland Review On Line" from September 27, 2013:

    A Walrus was spotted sprawling on the beach Hofstrandarsandur by the Borgarfjordur estuary in far-northeastern eastern Iceland yesterday (September 26).
    It is thought to be the same Walrus that whale watchers observed elsewhere in northern Iceland, off Husavik, the previous Wednesday.
    Eyewitnesses described the half-grown Walrus (when it was on the beach) as calm. A number of people made the trip to Hofstrandarsandur to go "walrus watching".
    The captain of the whale watching boat from which the Walrus was seen (on that Wednesday) said he had never seen a Walrus before, and he thought it was a seal at first glance. He said "that it was not afraid of us at all, and stayed by our boat and mostly on the surface of the water. We spent some 20 minutes with it."
    While Walruses are rare in Icelandic waters - they are not native in the country - they have been spotted unusually often lately, at least 5 times since June. However, some sightings were likely to be of the same animal."

    During the FONT Iceland tour in September 2013, we were at that dark sandy beach Hofstrandarsandur, in remote northeastern Iceland, one day after that Walrus was there. But even without the Walrus, what a picturesque place, with a little village by the sea. 
    That same area is also where a beautiful drake Steller's Eider was, for years, associating with Harlequin Ducks.  

    During the entire 20th Century, some 30 to 40 Walruses were sighted in Iceland.

    The Walrus on the beach Hofstrandarsandur the day before we were there
    during our FONT Iceland Tour in September 2013

  21. Harbor Seal  (ph) (*)  ______
    Phoca vitulina
    Phoca vitulina vitulina  ______ 
    Eastern Atlantic Harbor Seal

    The Harbor Seal is the most common of the two species of seals that breed in Iceland. 
    In Iceland, it the subspecies known as the Eastern Atlantic Harbor Seal which also breeds on the coasts of Scandinavia, Holland, Britain, and Ireland.
    Along the southern shores of Iceland, there about 25,000 Harbor Seals, out of the approximately 40,000 in Iceland overall. That is over half of the world's total population.  

    Above & below: Harbor Seals
    Above: in the water, during a FONT tour  
    (photo by James Schieb)
    Below: on a rock 
    (photo by Howard Eskin)    

    And a sequence below of 3 more photos.
    (same seal, same photographer: Howard Eskin)   

  22. Gray Seal  (*)  ______
    Halichoerus grypus

  23. Bearded Seal  ______
    ignathus barbatus

  24. Hooded Seal  ______
    Cystophora cristata

  25. Harp Seal  ______
    Pagophilus groenlandicus

  26. Ringed Seal  ______
    Pusa hispida

  27. Polar Bear  ______
    Ursus maritimus

    As Polar Bears feed almost exclusively on ice-associated seals, most of their lives are spent on drift ice in the ocean. 
    Thus, they are classified as marine mammals. They are also quite good swimmers if necessary.
    Polar Bears are not native to Iceland, but they are occasional "guests", especially in cold years associated with drift ice.
    However, on the other hand, 2 Polar Bears visited Iceland in the summer of 2008, which was a rather warm year with little or no drift ice near Iceland.
    A Polar Bear appeared in northwest Iceland at Haelavik/Hornstrandir on May 2, 2011. 
    During the 20th Century, about 50 visits by Polar Bears to Iceland were noted.


    Click the above link to a list of marine fish of eastern North America, including those that occur as north as Iceland. 
    560 species are in that list. 

    The following, here, are FISH that occur in Icelandic oceanic waters:

  28. Sea Lamprey  ______  (FGCF:63)   in the family PETROMYZONIDAE   (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Petromyzon marinus

  29. Atlantic Hagfish  ______  (FGCF:63)   in the family MYXINIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Myxine glutinosa

  30. Basking Shark  (t3)  ______  (FGCF:67)  in the family CETORHINIDAE
    Cetorbinus maximus

    The Basking Shark is the world's second largest fish, after the Whale Shark. It can more over 30 feet long and weigh more than 4 tons, and it can jump completely out of the water. 

  31. Porbeagle  (t3)  ______  (FGCF:67)  in the family LAMNIDAE
    Lamna nasus

  32. Six-gilled Shark  ______  in the family HEXANCHIDAE
    Hexanchus griseus  

  33. Tiger Shark  ______  (FGCF:75)  in the family CARCHARHINIDAE 
    Galeocerdo cuvier

    The Tiger Shark grows up to 18 feet in length.

  34. Tope  ______  in the family CARCHARHINIDAE 
    Galeorhinus galeus

  35. Deepsea Catshark  ______  in the family SCYLIORHINIDAE
    Apisturus laurussonii

  36. Galeus murinus  ______  a catshark in the family SCYLIORHINIDAE

  37. Scyliorhinus canicula  ______  a catshark in the family SCYLIORHINIDAE

  38. False Cat Shark  ______  in the family PSEUDOTRIAKIDAE
    Pseudotriakis microdon

  39. Spiny Dogfish  (t3)  ______  (FGCF:79)   in the family SQUALIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Squalus acanthus

    Another name for Squalus acanthus is Spurdog.

  40. Birdbeak Dogfish  ______  in the family SQUALIDAE
    Deania calceus 

  41. Black Dogfish Shark  ______  in the family ETMOPTERIDAE
    Centroscyllium fabricii

    Species in the genus Centroscyllium and Etmopterus princeps (below) are "lantern sharks". 

  42. Centroscyllium crepidater  ______  in the family ETMOPTERIDAE 

  43. Centroscyllium obscurus  ______  in the family ETMOPTERIDAE

  44. Etmopterus princeps  ______  in the family ETMOPTERIDAE

  45. Portuguese Shark  (nt)  ______  (FGCF:81)  in the family SOMNIOSIDAE
    Centroscymnus coelolepis 

    Centroscymnus coelolepis and Somniosus microcephalus (below) are "sleeper sharks".

  46. Greenland Shark  (nt)  ______  (FGCF:81)  in the family SOMNIOSIDAE
    Somniosus microcephalus

    The Greenland Shark grows to 21 feet in length.  

  47. Rabbitfish  ______  in the family CHIMAERIDAE
    Chimaera monstrosa

  48. Deepwater Chimaera  ______  (FGCF:63)  in the family CHIMAERIDAE
    Hydrolagus affinis

  49. Ratfish  ______  in the family CHIMAERIDAE
    Hydrolagus mirabilis

  50. Longnose Chimaera  ______  in the family RHINOCHIMAERIDAE
    Harriotta raleighana

  51. Atlantic Spearnose Chimaera  ______  (FGCF:63)  in the family RHINOCHIMAERIDAE
    Rhinochimaera atlantica  

    Fish in the family PLATYROCTIDAE (below) are the TUBESHOULDERS. They were formerly in the family SEARIIDAE.

  52. Koefoed's Searsid  ______  in the family PLATYTROCTIDAE   (species described in 1937)
    Searsia koefoedi

  53. Bighead Searsid  ______  in the family PLATYTROCTIDAE   (species described in 1980)
    Holtbyrnia anomala

  54. Holtbyrnia macrops  (was Holtbyrnia problematica ______  in the family PLATYTROCTIDAE  (species described in 1957)

  55. Maul's Searsid  ______  in the family PLATYTROCTIDAE  (species described in 1960)  
    Holtbyrnia mauli 

  56. Multipore Searsid  ______  in the family PLATYTROCTIDAE   (species described in 1951)
    Normichthys operosus islandica

  57. Schnakenbeck's Searsid  ______  in the family PLATYTROCTIDAE   (species described in 1953)
    Sagamichthys schnakenbecki

    Sagamichthys schnakenbecki
    has been Searsia schnakenbecki and Holtbyrnia schnakenbacki
  58. Thorny Skate  (t3)  ______  (FGCF:85) (PAF:6)   in the family RAJIDAE
    Amblyraja radiata
      (was Raja radiata)

    Another name for Amblyraja radiata is Starry Ray. 

  59. Shagreen Ray  ______   in the family RAJIDAE 
    Raja fullonica

  60. Raja fyllae  ______   in the family RAJIDAE

  61. Raja hyperborea  ______   in the family RAJIDAE

  62. Pale Ray  ______   in the family RAJIDAE
    Raja lintea

  63. Raja nidarosiensis  ______  in the family RAJIDAE  

  64. Soft Skate  ______  in the family RAJIDAE
    Raja spinacidermis  

  65. Spinytail Skate  ______  (PAF:6)  in the family RAJIDAE
    Bathyraja spinicauda
      (or Raja spinicauda

    In addition to being in waters off Iceland, the Spinytail Skate ranges south from western Greenland to waters off the Georges Bank, as well being in the Barents Sea. 

  66. Agassiz' Slickhead  ______  in the family ALEPOCEPHALIDAE
    Alepocephalus agassizi

  67. Baird's Slickhead  ______  in the family ALEPOCEPHALIDAE
    Alepocephalus bairdii

  68. Xenodermichthys socialis  ______  in the family ALEPOCEPHALIDAE   

  69. European Sea Sturgeon  (t1)  ______  in the family ACIPENSERIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  
    Acipenser sturio  

    There have been no recent occurrences of the European Sea Sturgeon in Iceland waters. 

  70. European Eel  (t1)  ______  in the family ANGUILLIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Anguilla anguilla

  71. European Conger Eel  ______  in the family CONGRIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Conger conger

  72. Twaite Shad  ______  in the family CLUPEIDAE
    Alosa fallax fallax

  73. Atlantic Herring  ______  (FGCF:111)  in the family CLUPEIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Clupea harengus harengus  

  74. Sardina pilchardus  ______  a sardine  in the family CLUPEIDAE

  75. Veiled Anglemouth  ______  in the family GONOSTOMATIDAE (Deepsea Brsitlemouths) 
    Cyclothone microdon

    Fish in the genus Cyclothone are known as "Minnows of the Deep".  

  76. Gonostoma bathyphilum  (or Sigmops bathyphilum)  ______  in the family GONOSTOMATIDAE (Deepsea Bristlemouths)

  77. Elongated Bristlemouth Fish  ______  in the family GONOSTOMATIDAE (Deepsea Bristlemouths)
    Gonostoma elongatum

  78. Giant Hatchetfish  ______  in the family STERNOPTCHIDAE (Deepsea Hatchetfish)
    Argyropelecus gigas

    The name "giant" is relative. The standard length of the fish is 4.3 inches.

  79. Half-naked Hatchetfish  ______  in the family STERNOPTCHIDAE (Deepsea Hatchetfishes)
    Argyropelecus hemigymnus

    1.5 inches in length, the Half-naked Hatchetfish feeds on zooplankton, particularly ostracods and copepods.    

  80. Argyropelecus olfersi  ______  in the family STERNOPTCHIDAE (Deepsea Hatchetfishes) 

  81. Silvery Lightfish  ______   in the family STERNOPTCHIDAE (Deepsea Hatchetfish)
    Maurolicus muelleri  

    Other names for Maurolicus muelleri are Mueller's Pearlside, or simply Pearlside. 

  82. Capelin  (*)  ______  (FGCF:117)  in the family OSMERIDAE
    Mallotus villosus

    The Capelin is a critical component of the diet of the Atlantic Puffin, a bird that nests on cliffs by the North Atlantic Ocean.
    The food favored by the Puffin varies a bit regionally, but everywhere their diet is made up almost entirely of one or two species.
    In the northwestern Atlantic, the Capelin is the Puffin's preferred prey, sometimes accounting for up to 95 per cent of their diet.

    The Capelin is a small silvery fish with a key role in the food chain. They feed on plankton, and they are fed upon by a range of birds, mammals, and other fish. 
    The Capelin is a schooling species that lives in cold, open waters of the arctic and sub-arctic.

    Commercial Capelin fisheries catch the fish, that are used mainly for fish meal and oil industry products, and only to a lesser extent for food. Species such as the Atlantic Cod and the Atlantic Puffin are competing with the fisheries for a main food source in their diet.        

    Capelin grow to 10 inches in length.

    The Capelin is a favored food of the Atlantic Puffin.

  83. Atlantic Salmon  (*)  ______  (FGCF:117) (PAF:8)  in the family SALMONIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Salmo salar

    The Atlantic Salmon has a relatively complex life history that includes spawning, juvenile rearing in rivers, and extensive feeding migrations in the ocean. This fish has its greatest feeding and growth in salt water.

    Atlantic Salmons have an extraordinary sense of returning back to the same stream where they were hatched, and doing so it has mystified biologists for hundreds of years.

    The coloration of the Atlantic Salmon changes as it grows older. In freshwater, blue and red spots can be marked on their skin, and as they mature those spots disappear and the fish develops a silver blue sheen. At their time of reproduction, the skin color changes to green or red.

    Atlantic Salmons spend their first few years in freshwater (small streams and rivers). feeding on aquatic insects and other food that comes in the current. At that stage in their life, they are known as "parr". Most of their time at that stage goes in fighting for food. When spring comes and they reach if size of about 4 inches, they become "smolts" and begin migrating to the ocean.

    There are generally 3 recognized groups of Atlantic Salmon: North America, European, and Baltic. 
    Atlantic Salmon reproduce in coastal rivers of northeastern North America, Iceland, Europe, and northwestern Russia. Then the smolts migrate through various parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. At sea, the European and North American types are known to intermingle.
    The Atlantic Salmon has remained a popular fish for human consumption.

    Generally throughout its native range, the Atlantic Salmon in the wild is now rare. It is now extensively farmed in Norway, Scotland, and Chile, which provides a good source for a demanding market worldwide.

    The striking silver-scaled skin of the Salmon is speckled with black spots. The firm, oily, flamingo-pink flesh of the fish has a delicious flavor. It is available whole and cleaned, filleted or cut into steaks, with or without skin.
    Salmon should be scaled before cooking because the scales will otherwise loosen and stick to the flesh. If filleted, the pinbones should be removed.
    Fresh salmon has a moist, flaky texture and suits a variety of cooking methods including poaching and pan-frying and grilling (broiling) and roasting.   
    A salmon steak requires only 8 to 10 minutes to cook through, and the tail end of the salmon, popular because it is boneless, requires only 4 to 5 minutes cooking. Also salmon can be enjoyed either cold, or hot smoked.

  84. Arctic Char  (ph)  ______  (PAF:8)   in the family SALMONIDAE 
    Salvelinus alpinus

    A serving of Arctic Char at a dinner during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2015.
    Many meals during the tour were very good, but this was one of the best,
    at the Hotel Ork in the town of Hveragerdi.   
    (photo by Marie Gardner)   

  85. Pink Salmon  ______   in the family SALMONIDAE
    Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

  86. European Hake  ______   in the family MERLUCCIIDAE  
    Merluccius merluccius

    Merluccius merluccius
    is called the "Herring Hake", as it often feeds on Atlantic Herring, at times voraciously, devouring them in great numbers.
    The European Hake is a night predator. During the day it generally stays at depths from 90 to 1200 feet, although it can be as far down as 3,000 feet below the surface of the water.   

  87. Four-beard Rockling  ______  in the family PHYCIDAE   (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Rhinonemus cimbrius

  88. Greater Forkbeard  ______  in the family PHYCIDAE
    Phycis blennoides

  89. White Hake  ______  (PAF:15)  in the family PHYCIDAE
    Urophycis tenuis

    In the western Atlantic Ocean, the White Hake occurs south to North Carolina.

  90. Polar Cod  (or Arctic Cod)  ______  in the family GADIDAE 
    Boreogadus saida

    A different species is also known as both Polar Cod, or Arctic Cod. It is Arctogadus glacialis, which occurs pelagically from northern Greenland to the northern Baffin Bay.

  91. Cusk (or Torsk)  _____  (FGCF:127) (PAF:15)  in the family GADIDAE 
    Brosme brosme

    Brosme brosme
    is a bottom-dwelling fish that occurs from Greenland south in both the eastern and western Atlantic. In the western Atlantic, it ranges south to New Jersey.

  92. Five-beard Rockling  ______  in the family LOTIDAE
    Ciliata mustela

  93. Norway Rockling  ______  in the family LOTIDAE 
    Ciliata septentrionalis

  94. Silvery Pout  ______  in the family GADIDAE
    Gadiculus argenteus thori

  95. Atlantic Cod  (t3)  ______  (FGCF:127)   in the family GADIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Gadus morbua

    Along the north Iceland coast, in the fishing town of Saudarkrokur, 
    by old wooden racks that have been used for drying fish,
    Armas Hill of FONT is looking out to sea for birds.
    During FONT tours, we've stayed in that town, in the oldest hotel in Iceland,
    where we've had many good meals with fish and other seafood.
    Fish noted here in this list have been dried on those racks.
    Birds that we've seen at this place have included both the Iceland Gull
    and the Glaucous Gull, often together.   
    (photo by Cheryl Pearce)

    The above picture was taken in 2006. Nearly 10 years later, the photograph below
    was taken during the FONT tour in Iceland in June 2015.
    (photo by Rise Hill)

  96. Haddock  (t3)  ______  (FGCF:127)  in the family GADIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Melanogrammus aeglefinus

    is a rather large codfish, usually 20 to 25 inches in length. The largest ever caught in Icelandic waters was 44 inches long.

    Haddock is found commonly all around Iceland. During cold periods, it is rather rare in the colder waters off the north coast, but in warmer periods it can be more common in the north than in the south. Mostly it occurs over soft bottom surfaces at depths from 30 to 600 feet.

    Haddock is the fish most commonly eaten by Icelanders. They usually prefer it over Cod.
    That may be because over the years Cod, the more common fish in Icelandic waters, has been better suited for salting, and therefore better suited for export.

    The processing methods for Haddock are actually fairly similar to those for Cod (apart from the salting).. 
    A large portion of the catch is filleted and frozen at sea by freezer trawlers, or iced at sea and subsequently filleted and frozen in factories on shore.
    A portion of the catch can also be iced at sea and then exported fresh in containers by air. The two major markets for exported Icelandic Haddock are the United Kingdom and the United States.      

  97. Whiting  ______  in the family GADIDAE
    Merlangius merlangus merlangus

  98. Blue Whiting  ______  in the family GADIDAE
    Micromesistius poutassou

  99. Blue Ling  ______  in the family LOTIDAE 
    Molva dypterygia dypterygia 

  100. Ling  ______  in the family LOTIDAE
    Molva molva

  101. Onogadus (or now Gaidropsanus) argentatus  ______  "codfish"   in the family LOTIDAE 

  102. Atlantic Pollack  ______  in the family GADIDAE   (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Pollachius pollachius

  103. Pollack  (or Saithe ______  (FGCF:127)  in the family GADIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Pollachius virens

  104. Norway Pout  ______  in the family GADIDAE
    Trisopterus esmarki

  105. Threespine Stickleback  ______  in the family GASTEROSTEIDAE
    Gasterosteus aculeatus

  106. Snake Pipefish  ______  in the family SYNGNATHIDAE
    Entelurus aequoreus

  107. Blackbelly Rosefish  ______  (FGCF:179)  in the family SCORPAENIDAE
    Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus

  108. Atlantic Redfish  ______  in the family SCORPAENIDAE
    Sebastes marinus

  109. Beaked Redfish  ______  in the family SCORPAENIDAE
    Sebastes metella

  110. Norway Redfish  ______  in the family SCORPANIDAE
    Sebastes viviparus

  111. Grey Gurnard  ______  in the family TRIGLIDAE
    Eutrigla gurnardus

  112. Atlantic Hookear Sculpin  ______  (FGCF:189)  in the family COTTIDAE 
    Artediellus atlanticus atlanticus

  113. Arctic Staghorn Sculpin  ______  (FGCF:189)  in the family COTTIDAE
    Gymnacanthus tricuspis

  114. Twohorn Sculpin  ______  in the family COTTIDAE 
    Icelus bicornis

  115. Shorthorn Sculpin  ______  (FGCF:191)  in the family COTTIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Myoxocephalus scorpius scorpius

    Another name for Myoxocephalus scorpius is "Father-lasher".

  116. Sea Scorpion  ______  in the family COTTIDAE 
    Taurulus bubalis  

  117. Norway Bullhead  ______  in the family COTTIDAE
    Taurulus lilljeborgi

  118. Moustache Sculpin  ______  (FGCF:191)  in the family COTTIDAE
    Triglops murrayi

  119. Cottunculoides subspinosus  ______  in the family COTTUNCULIDAE 

  120. Polar Sculpin  ______  (FGCF:193)  in the family COTTUNCULIDAE 
    Cottunculus microps

  121. Pallid Sculpin  ______  in the family COTTUNCULIDAE
    Cottunculus thomsoni

  122. Lumpfish  ______  (FGCF:193)  in the family CYCLOPTERIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Cyclopterus lumpus

  123. Atlantic Spiny Lumpsucker  ______  (FGCF:193) (PAF:52)  in the family CYCLOPTERIDAE
    Eumicrotremus spinosus

  124. Careproctus reinhardti  ______  in the family LIPARIDAE

  125. Gelatinous Seasnail  ______  (PAF:52)   in the family LIPARIDAE
    Liparis fabrici  

  126. Common Seasnail  ______   in the family LIPARIDAE
    Liparis liparis

  127. Montagu's Seasnail  ______   in the family LIPARIDAE
    Liparis montagui

  128. Black Seasnail  ______  in the family LIPARIDAE  
    Paraliparis bathybius

  129. Threadfin Seasnail  ______   in the family LIPARIDAE
    Rhodichthys regina

  130. European Sea Bass  ______  in the family MORONIDAE, was SERRANIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Dicentrarchus labrax

  131. Atlantic Wreckfish  ______  (FGCF:197) (PAF:24)  in the family POLYPRIONIDAE, was SERRANIDAE
    Polyprion americanus

    Another name for Polyprion americanus has been Stonebass.

  132. Common Remora  ______  (FGCF:241)  in the family ECHENEIDIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Remora remora

  133. Atlantic Horse Mackerel  ______   in the family CARANGIDAE
    Trachurus trachurus

    Trachurus trachurus
    is also known as Scad.

  134. Atlantic Pomfret  ______  (FGCF:253)   in the family BRAMIDAE
    Brama brama

    Another name for Brama brama is Ray's Bream.

  135. Rough Pomfret  ______   in the family BRAMIDAE
    Taractes asper

  136. Atlantic Fanfish  ______  (FGCF:255)   in the family BRAMIDAE
    Pterycombus brama

    Pterycombus brama
    is also known as Bream.

  137. Blackspot Seabream  ______  in the family SPARIDAE
    Pagellus bogarareo

    Another name for Pagellus bogarareo is Red Sea Bream.

  138. Meagre  ______     in the family SCIAENIDAE
    Argyrosomus regius

  139. Northern Sand-eel  ______  in the family AMMODYTIDAE  
    Ammodytes dubius

    The Northern Sand-eel (or Northern Sand Lance as it is called in North America) is said to occur in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and in the western Atlantic from Greenland south to North Carolina.

    SAND-EEL is the common name used in Europe for a number of species of fish, mostly in the genera: AMMODYTES, GYMNAMMODYTES, and HYPEROPLUS, all in the family AMMODYTIDAE. 
    Some of the species are found off the western coasts of Europe from Spain to Scotland, and as far north as Iceland, and also in the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas.
    Some other species in the above genera, found in oceans other than the European North Atlantic, are not usually called Sand-eels, but instead Sand Lance, as they are called in North America.  
    Sand-eels are not related to the true eels (earlier in this list).

    are an important food source for seabirds, including puffins and kittiwakes.

    The bird, the Atlantic Puffin, in the northwest Atlantic Ocean,
    feeds on

  140. Raitt's Sand-eel  ______   in the family AMMODYTIDAE  (species described in 1934)
    Ammodytes marinus

  141. Lesser Sand-eel  ______  in the family AMMODYTIDAE   (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Ammodytes tobianus

  142. Great Sand-eel  ______   in the family AMMODYTIDAE
    Hyperoplus lanceolatus

  143. Black Gemfish  ______  (FGCF:377)   in the family GEMPYLIDAE
    Nesiarchus nasutus

    Nesiarchus nasutus
    is generally south of Icelandic waters, in warmer temperate seas. 

  144. Atlantic Mackerel  ______  (FGCF:381)   in the family SCOMBRIDAE  (described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Scomber scombrus

  145. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna  (t2)  ______  (FGCF:385)   in the family SCOMBRIDAE, formerly THUNNIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Thunnus thynnus

    Another name for Thunnus thynnus is Tunny. It grows up to 11 feet in length.

    The Atlantic Bluefin Tuna is pelagic, highly migratory, and a very fast swimmer. Juveniles stay in warm water. Adults enter cold water.  

  146. Swordfish  ______  (FGCF:385)  in the family XIPHIIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Xiphias gladius

    prefer water temperatures between 64 and 72 degrees F., but it does have the widest tolerance among the billfish, and it can be found in water as cold as 41 degrees.
    it is a highly migratory species that typically moves toward colder regions to feed during the summer.  

    The Swordfish grows up to 14.7 feet in length.

  147. Witch Flounder  ______  (FGCF:403) (PAF:57)   in the family PLEURONECTIDAE   (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Glyptocephalus cynoglossus

  148. American Plaice  ______  (FGCF:403) (PAF:57)   in the family PLEURONECTIDAE  (Right-eye Flounders)
    Hippoglossoides platessoides

  149. Atlantic Halibut  (t2)  ______  (FGCF:403) (PAF:57)  in the family PLEURONECTIDAE   (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Hippoglossus hippoglossus

    The Atlantic Halibut has been the largest flatfish in the North Atlantic Ocean, reaching 8 feet in length and weighing up to 700 pounds. Now, it seldom reaches 400 pounds in weight.

  150. Common Dab  ______   in the family PLEURONECTIDAE   (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Limanda limanda

  151. Lemon Sole  ______   in the family PLEURONECTIDAE   
    Microstomus kitt

    Lemon Sole
    is a misnomer, as the fish is not a real sole, nor does it have the taste of lemon.

  152. European Plaice  ______   in the family PLEURONECTIDAE   (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Pleuronectes platessa

  153. Greenland Halibut  ______  (FGCF:405) (PAF:57)   in the family PLEURONECTIDAE
    Reinhardtius hippoglossoides

    The Greenland Halibut is also called Greenland Turbot. It occurs to a depth of a mile below sea level, and in cold waters of about 32 degrees F. It grows to 40 inches in length, and to 25 pounds in weight. 

  154. Ocean Sunfish  (ph)  ______  (FGCF:427) (PAF:61)   in the family MOLIDAE   (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Mola mola

    The Ocean Sunfish grows to 11.5 feet in length, and can weigh up to 2 tons. It is the largest bony fish in the world.

    Preferring warmer water further south, the Ocean Sunfish does not normally occur in Icelandic waters. But in early September 2004, one was caught near Reykjavik. The fish was dying before it was pulled from the sea.


    those of the OPEN OCEAN:

    COMB JELLIES  (Class Nuda)   
    gelatinous zooplankton

  155. Beroe cucumis  ______  (PAS:32)  a comb jelly   in the phylum CTENOPHORA, the order BEROIDA, the family BEROIDAE 

    CNIDARIANS (including jellyfish)  
    CNIDARIA is a phylum

    JELLYFISH  (in the subphylum MEDUSOZOA)

    Class STAUROZOA 
       Staurozoans are "stalked jellyfish"

  156. Haliclystus octoradiatus  ______   a stalked jellyfish, in the order STAUROMEDUSAE

  157. Halimocyathus legena  ______  in the order STAUROMEDUSAE

    Class SCYPHOZOA   
    are "true jellyfish"

  158. Lion's Mane  (ph)  ______  (ASC:514) (PAS:31)   in the order SEMAEOSTOMEAE 
    Cyanea capillata

    The Lion's Mane is the largest jellyfish in the world. Specimens up to 8 feet wide have been found.

    In Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's story, "The Adventure of the Lion's Mane", Sherlock Holmes solves a homicide caused by contact between the victim and this medusa in a tidepool.

    Lion's Mane

  159. Blue Jellyfish  ______   in the order SEMAEOSTOMEAE
    Cyanea lamarckii

    Cyanea lamarckii
    is of occasional occurrence in Icelandic waters.

  160. Moon Jellyfish  (ph) (*)  ______  (ASC:502) (PAS:31)  in the order SEMAEOSTOMEAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Aurelia aurita

    Moon Jellyfish
    Above on a beach; below in the water 

  161. Atolla parva  ______   a crown jellyfish, in the order CORONATAE

    Atolla parva
    is said to occur deep in Iceland waters.

  162. Helmet Jellyfish  ______  in the order CORONATAE
    Periphylla periphylla

    The Helmet Jellyfish is in deeper offshore Icelandic waters, mostly off the southern and southwestern coasts of the country. 

    MOLLUSKS  (SHELLS)  in the Phylum MOLLUSCA

    SEASHELLS are made by MOLLUSKS

    MOLLUSKS are invertebrate animals that produce shells of one or two pieces that wholly or partially enclose a soft body.

    SHELLS are the skeletons of MOLLUSKS. Like the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of a mammal, the external skeleton (exoskeleton) of mollusks function both for protection and as a place for muscle attachment. 
    A SHELL found on a beach is the skeletal remnant of a dead MOLLUSK.

    MOLLUSKS are either snail-like animals with one shell (UNIVALVES, or GASTROPODS),  or clam-like animals with two shells (BIVALVES). The two shells of a BIVALVE are held tightly together when the animal is alive.

    A third group of MOLLUSKS are the CEPHALOPODS, including SQUIDS and OCTOPUSES. These animals lack external shells, having instead internal or rudimentary shells.  

    CHITONS  (Class Polyplacophora)

  163. Greater Marbled Chiton  ______  in the family ISCHNOCHITONIDAE 
    Tonicella marmorea

    GASTROPODS  (Class Gastropoda):
    snail-like mollusks with a one-part shell

  164. Greenland Wentletrap  ______  (ASC:394)  ranges from the Arctic south to Long Island, NY 
    Epitonium greenlandicum

  165. Rough Periwinkle  ______  (PAS:20)   in the family LITTORINIDAE 
    Littorina saxatilis

    The Rough Periwinkle has been a common inhabitant of Icelandic shores since the last glacial period.
    It is found down to a water depth of about 1800 feet.  

  166. Iceland Moon Shell  ______   ranges south from the Arctic Ocean, in the western Atlantic to Virginia
    Amauropsis islandica

    The Iceland Moon Shell occurs in moderately deep water.  

  167. Nassarius (or Hinia) incrassatus  ______

    species are Dog Whelks  (PAS:20).

  168. Nassarius macrodon  ______

  169. Common Whelk  ______  (ASC:408) (PAS:22)  in the family BUCCINIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Buccinum undatum

    Another name for Buccinum undatum is Waved Whelk. It occurs in the Arctic, and in North America as far south as New Jersey.
    In Europe and Britain, it is the common edible whelk.

    Masses of egg capsules of Buccinum undatum (called "Sea Wash Balls") found on beaches produce a soapy lather if scrubbed with water.

    The Common Whelk is a scavenger on dead fish. 

  170. Neptune Whelk  ______
    Neptunea despecta

  171. Atlantic Dogwinkle  ______  (PAS:20)  (also called Dogwhelk in the family MURICIDAE 
    Thais (or Nucella) lapillus

    Thais lapillus
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758. It ranges in the Arctic, also in northern Europe, and in North America as far south as Long Island.

    The Dogwinkle is a drill, mainly intertidal. It favors rocky shores, where it eats mussels and Striped (or Acorn) Barnacles. 

    Several other species of whelks occur in Iceland waters.

    BIVALVES  (Class Bivalva) 

    MUSSELS are popular bivalve molluscs that have oval blue-black shells. The mussel meat varies in color from a deep ochre to pale taupe, depending on where they have been harvested. 
    Mussels are harvested in the wild, but they are also extensively farmed on ropes or stakes and in sheltered beds. They are commonly regarded as one of the most sustainable types of seafood.

    Available year-round, mussels are at times sold live in the shell, while at other times and places precooked or canned in brine or vinegar. Smoked mussels are also available.

    Although most commercially available mussels are farmed, which guarantees a high level of cleanliness, they should still be thoroughly scrubbed under cold, running water, but not left to soak in the water.

    Mussels should be discarded if they broken or damaged shells or open ones that do not shut immediately when sharply tapped (referring to live mussels).

    With a sweet flavor and creamy texture, mussels can be steamed with lemon and parsley, or stuffed and baked to make a classic antipasti.
    A substitute for mussels can be clams.

  172. Blue Mussel  (ph)  ______  (ASC:293) (PAS:24)  in the family MYTILIDAE
    Mytilus edulis

    Another name for Mytilus edulis is Common Mussel. It is circumpolar in distribution. In the western Atlantic Ocean, it occurs south to South Carolina. 

    Myytilus edulis compete with barnacles and seaweeds to cover intertidal rocks and pilings.

    The Blue Mussel is deliciously edible.  

    Above: shells of Blue Mussel
    Below: not only do people enjoy the taste of mussels,
    so do cats, including this one named Herman.
    (lower photo by Rise Hill)

  173. Northern Horse Mussel  ______  in the family MYTILIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Modiolus modiolus 

    The following genus, Chlamys, is in the family PECTINIDAE, the SCALLOPS.

    With pretty fan-shaped corrugated shells, scallops are an appreciated shellfish found in most oceans of the world.
    Scallops are bivalve molluscs, but unlike others, they live in deeper waters and move freely by expelling water from their shells.

    Scallops are both harvested in the wild and farmed in some countries. Harvesting by hand-divers is more environmentally sound than dredging.

    A freshly opened scallop reveals a fill or skirt around the edge, gills and intestinal sac, all of which are discarded.
    The edible jewels are the white disc of meat (abductor muscle) and the coral-colored roe. The white meat is sweet, succulent and tender, while the coral has a stronger flavor. In some countries, the coral is either dried for use in sauces or discarded altogether.
    Scallop dishes are often served in the shells so even if one is buying prepared scallops, it's worth asking the fish store for the upper, curved half-shell.

    The simplest way of enjoying scallops is to pan-fry them, which sears the outside and makes the scallops particularly sweet. They may be served with mayonnaise or with oil and lemon juice, or even skewered with vegetables.          

  174. Iceland Scallop  ______  (ASC:355)   occurs from the Arctic Ocean south to Maine, and locally to Cape Cod. 
    Chlamys islandicus

  175. Black Clam  ______  (ASC:339) (PAS:28)   occurs south to Cape Cod, and offshore in deeper water to North Carolina 
    Arctica islandica

    Another name for Arctica islandica is Ocean Quahog. The species was described by Linnaeus in 1767. 

    A key characteristic of Arctica islandica is its amazing lifespan. Scientists at Bangor University have recently found a specimen that lived for more than 500 years, making the species the longest-lived non-colonial animal so far discovered. 
    As with trees, Arctica islandica deposits annual bands in its shell and these can be used to determine its age. From the bands, changes can be analyzed relating to sea temperatures over the centuries, and because Arctica islandica is apparently resistant to some common indictors of ageing, it has the potential for research into that process in various forms of life.


    Above & below: Black Clam 
    In the lower photo, showing the black outside
    and the white inside  


  176. Common Cockle  ______  in the family CARDIIDAE  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Cardium edule

    The Common Cockle is really no so common in Iceland.

  177. Iceland Cockle  ______  (PAS:26)  in the family CARDIIDAE   occurs from Greenland and Iceland south to Massachusetts
    Climcardium ciliatum 

    Called the Iceland Cockle, but the range of Climcardium ciliatum in the North Atlantic is said to be from Greenland to Massachusetts. It also occurs in the North Pacific from Alaska to Puget Sound in Washington State. 

    Iceland Cockle

    CLAMS have a round, meaty body with a small amount of roe, and they come in a myriad of sizes and colors.

    Clams as seafood are usually sold live because they deteriorate rapidly after death. Some, however, are cooked, extracted from the shell and canned in brine or juice or packed in vinegar.
    When obtained live, clams should either be cooked immediately or stored briefly in a refrigerator. Water should not be added as it would kill them.

    To prepare clams, they should be rinsed thoroughly under cold, running water to remove as much grit as possible. The shells should be closed, or close immediately when sharply tapped. Any that either remain open or have cracked or damaged shells should be discarded. 

    Clams can be eaten raw if they are properly treated when harvested or if they come from very clean water. 
    After shucking, they can be served with a sauce or lemon juice.

    Clams are often steamed in a small quantity of liquid, such as stock, wine, or water, for 2 to 3 minutes, or until the shell has opened completely. If cooked too long, they become tough. 
    They may be eaten straight from the shell or removed to be with sauces or salads. 
    The cooking liquid is a flavorsome addition to calm dishes, but should be filtered through a strainer to remove any traces of grit.

    In the eastern US, clam chowders of various kinds, are popular.                       

  178. Soft-shelled Clam  ______  (ASC:316) (PAS:28)   from the Subarctic south to Cape Hatteras, NC 
    Mya arenaria

    Mya arenaria
    is also known, in various places, as the Long Neck Clam or Steamer Clam.

    SQUIDS  (Class Cephalopoda)

    Several cephalopod species have been found to be in Icelandic waters.  

  179. Giant Squid  ______
    Architeuthis sp.

  180. European Flying Squid  ______   
    Todaroides sagittatus  


  181. Striped Barnacle  ______  in the family BALANOIDES 
    Amphibalanus amphitrite

    Other names for Amphilbalanus amphitrite are Purple Acorn Barnacle or Amphitrite's Rock Barnacle.

  182. Northern Rock Barnacle (or Common Rock Barnacle)  ______  (ASC:278,286) (PAS:18)  in the family ARCHAEOBALANIDAE
    Balanus (or Semibalanus) balanoides

    In North America, Balanus balanoides occurs as far south as Delaware. 

  183. Balanus crenatus  ______   in the family ARCHAEOBALANIDAE

  184. Pelagic Gooseneck Barnacle  ______  (PAS:17)   in the family LEPADIDAE
    Lepas anatifera

    Other names for Lepas anatifera are Smooth Gooseneck Barnacle and Common Gooseneck Barnacle.

    Lepas anatifera
    is found attached to floating timber. Also, the hulls of ships, piers, pilings, seaweed and flotsam.
    The range of the species includes Iceland, the Faeroe Islands, Spitzbergen, Norway, and the Shetland Islands.

    During FONT tours, a considerable amount of floating timber has been noted along the northern shoreline in Iceland.


    There are 7 species, in 4 genera, of ISOPODS in offshore Iceland oceanic waters.

  185. Aega arctica  ______

  186. Aega psora  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  the 3rd most common isopod in Icelandic waters

  187. Aega ventrosa  ______  the most common isopod in Icelandic waters

  188. Cirolana borealis  ______  the 2nd most common isopod in Icelandic waters

  189. Eurydica affinis  ______

  190. Speckled Sea Louse  ______
    Eurydica pulchra  

  191. Northern Krill  (or Horned Krill)  ______  (ASC:605)   (in north-west Iceland in the Isafjord-Deep)
    Meganyctiphanes norvegica 

  192. Thysanoessa inermis  ______  (in north-west Iceland in the Isafjord-Deep)

  193. Thysanoessa raschi  ______  (in northwest-Iceland in the Isafjord-Deep) 

  194. Spiny Lebbeid  (or Greenland Shrimp)  ______  (ASC:612)  
    Lebbeus groenlandicus

    Lebbeus groenlandicus i
    s a common benthic shrimp of the circum-Arctic and far-northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

  195. Norway Lobster  (ph)  ______  (known in Iceland as "Scampi", other names are noted below) 
    Nephrops norvegicus  

    Closely related to the genus Homarus (the lobsters in northeastern North America and mainland Europe) is the genus Nephrops, a genus now with a single species in Europe, Nephrops norvegicus, known as the Norwegian Lobster and other names including scampi, lobsterettes, and langoustine.

    LANGOUSTINE (Nephrops norvegicus) are coral in color and become paler upon cooking. Most of its weight is made up of shell, with slender claws, tiny legs, and a long carapace (head shell).
    Langoustine is not commonly available in the United States, and it can be replaced with large fresh shrimp (prawns) of crawfish.

    The only edible part of langoustines is the tail, which is sweet, succulent, and tender, not unlike a lobster.

    Langoustines may be poached in a bouillon, roasted, or split in half, brushed with butter or oil and grilled (broiled) to be enjoyed straight from the shell, again much like a lobster in the genus Homarus. 

    Langoustines, or Scampi, is small compared to other lobster species and is in fact not considered a "lobster" by everyone.
    The Scampi in Iceland, however, is larger, compared to the Nephrops in other European waters. Fully grown, males in Icelandic waters are about 9.8 inches from the eyes to the tail. Females are smaller, rarely more than 7 inches. 

    In Iceland, Scampi, "the Delicacy of the North", is found in the warmer waters off the southern, southwestern, and southeastern coasts.
    The town of Hofn is called the "Scampi capital" of Iceland. 
    Hofn has a long and proud history of history of harvesting and processing shellfish. 

    During our FONT tours in Iceland, we've stayed overnight in that coastal town of Hofn, and we have enjoyed a number of meals there, including the good seafood.       

    The "Scampi", or Norway Lobster, the "Langoustine", 
    painted on the side of a fishery building in Iceland.
    Why the words are in French? No idea.
    (photo by Rise Hill during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2015)


    There are several species of CRABS around Iceland, but there is no significant harvesting.
    The legs and claws of seemingly the most common Icelandic crab, the Spider Crab, are small, not providing much crab meat.  Otherwise, the Spider Crab is suitable for soup making. 

  196. Common Green Crab  ______  (ASC:664) (PAS:61)   occurs south in North America to New Jersey
    Carcinus maenas

  197. Spider Crab  ______  (ASC:660,661) (PAS:60)   occurs south in North America to Rhode Island 
    Hyas araneus

    The Spider Crab is abundant around Iceland. In other places, south of Iceland, Hyas araneus is known as the Toad Crab. 

  198. Spiny Crab  ______  (PAS:60)
    Lithodes maja

    The Spiny Crab occurs in low numbers in deeper Icelandic waters, at depths of about 200 feet or more. It is sometimes brought in by fisherman due to its unusual appearance. 
    Its shell is strongly spined. Its abdomen is asymmetrical. Lithodes maja grows to be 4 inches long.  

  199. Atlantic Rock Crab  ______  (ASC:650,654) (PAS:61)  occurs south in North America to South Carolina
    Cancer irrotatus

    The Atlantic Rock Crab occurs in shallower waters around Iceland. They give more meat than Spider Crabs, but in Iceland they are rarer.


    ASTEROIDS  in the Class Stelleroidea: including SEA STARS

    "Sea Star" is preferred to "Star Fish" as that term is a misnomer as "fish" are finny vertebrates.

  200. Common Sea Star  ______  (ASC:547,559)
    Asterias rubens 
    (has been Asterias vulgaris)

    Class Echinoidea: SEA URCHINS and SEA CUCUMBER
  201. Green Sea Urchin  ______  (ASC:523)
    Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis

    The Green Sea Urchin is relatively common all around Iceland. 
    Fisheries for this and the following species (the Sea Cucumber) are now relatively low in Iceland. Sea Urchin fisheries reached 1500 tons in 1994, but soon afterwards the market collapsed and since then catches have been low.
    In Iceland, Sea Urchin roe is frozen. 

  202. Sea Cucumber  ______  
    Cucumaria frondosa

    The Sea Cucumber is relatively common all around Iceland. 
    In Iceland, Sea Cucumbers are smoked (as in "smoked salmon", a type of preparation, not "smoked" as a cigarette).  

References include:

"Sea Life - A Complete Guide to the Marine Environment", edited by Geoffrey Waller, with principal contributors Marc Dando & Michael Burchett, 1996.  

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