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Iceland Wildflowers 
and other plants

with those during 
Focus On Nature Tours
noted with an (*) 

1996 thru 2015

during the months of May, June, 
September, and October



A List of Iceland Wildflowers and some Other Plants
compiled by Armas Hill 



Photo at upper right:  EUROPEAN CARDAMINE, Cardamine pratensis angustifolia
formerly LADY SMOCK, Cardamine nymanii  
(photograph by Gerin Hood) 

Many of the photos in the list that follows were taken during the June 2009 FONT Iceland Tour by participant, Gerin Hood.
And she also took the time to do many of the identifications. Thanks Gerin! 

A fine book about the plant life of Iceland is
"A Guide to the Flowering Plants and Ferns of Iceland" by Hordur Kristinsson, first published in 1986 and more recently, revised in 2010 and 2013. There is a version in English.
That book is the source of much of the information in this list.



There have been 19 FONT tours in Iceland. 



In this List:

Wildflowers by colors:   BLUE to VIOLET    VIOLET    REDDISH / PINK    WHITE   YELLOW    GREEN

Other plant groupings:   TREES    FERNS    CLUBMOSSES    RUSHES     SEDGES     GRASSES    

MOSSES and LICHENS
    SEAWEED and other ALGAE

MOONWORTS and SPLEENWORTS are among the FERNS.  
COTTONGRASS
is included in the SEDGES. 
 

The months noted in the list below indicate when the plants flower in Iceland. 

AT THE END OF THE LIST HERE, THERE IS ANOTHER:

A List of Common Names of Icelandic Flowering Plants alphabetically in English

FOLLOWING THAT LIST:  Groupings of Plants by Habitats  


Additional Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in Iceland
     Upcoming FONT Tours Elsewhere  

Highlights from Some Previous FONT Iceland Tours


Photo Galleries of Icelandic Nature, Scenery, and Culture
from FONT tours in:
   
June 2006    June 2009    June 2012    Sep/Oct 2013    June 2015  

Birds during FONT Iceland Tours
    Iceland Birds - a Complete List    Marine Life of Iceland

Northern Wildflowers & some Other Plants, by Family, in Iceland, Alaska, & Hokkaido, Japan
(including Medicinal Plants)

Other Photo Galleries of Plants     Directory of Photos in this Website

(ph): species with a photo in the FONT website



A List of Icelandic Wildflowers and Other Plants:

       
     
Those with a BLUE to VIOLET coloration:

  1. Harebell ______  in the Bellflower family   July-August   common in eastern Iceland, rare elsewhere  
    Campanula rotundifolia
     
     

  2. Arctic Harebell ______  in the Bellflower family  July   very rare in Iceland
    Campanula uniflora 


  3. Tufted Vetch ______  in the Legume, or Pea family, Fabaceae   July 
    Vicia cracca 

  4. Bush Vetch  ______  in the Legume, or Pea family, Fabaceae
    Vicia sepium

  5. Marsh Pea  ______   in the Legume, or Pea family, Fabaceae  very rare in Iceland and rarely flowers there
    Lathyrus palustris

  6. Nootka Lupin  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Legume, or Pea family, Fabaceae   June
    Lupinus nootkatensis 

    Lupinus nootkatensis
    is introduced in Iceland. Another name for the flower has been Alaska Lupin.

     

    Above & below: Nootka Lupin, photographed during FONT Iceland Tours
    Above, in June 2009; below, in June 2015 
    (upper photo by Gerin Hood, lower photo by Marie Gardner)




  7. Rock Speedwell ______  in the Figwort family   June 
    Veronica fruticans

  8. Alpine Speedwell  ______  in the Figwort family    June-July
    Veronica alpina

  9. Thyme-leaved Speedwell  ______  in the Figwort family  June
    Veronica serpyllifolia

     
  10. Germander Speedwell  _____  in the Figwort family   June-July 
    Veronica chamaedrys  

  11. Common Field-speedwell  ______  introduced in Iceland, in south and southwest
    Veronica persica 

  12. Alpine Gentian  ______   in the Gentian family   June-July
    Gentiana nivalis

  13. Slender Gentian  ______  in the Gentian family   June-July
    Gentianella tenella
     

  14. Marsh Felwort  ______  in the Gentian family   July
    Lomatogonium rotatum

    Another name for Lomatogonium rotatum is Arctic Felwort.

    Lomatogonium rotatum
    is one of the American species of plants that grows naturally in Iceland, not known to occur anywhere else in Europe.
    It has an attractive overall bluish tint and is occasionally found on riverbanks in most of the country. 

  15. Field Forget-me-not  ______   in the Borage family   June-July
    Myosotis arvensis 


  16. Water Forget-me-not  ______   in the Borage family   July  
    Myosotis scorpioides 

  17. Strict Forget-me-not  ______  in the Borage family   June -July
    Myosotis stricta

  18. Changing Forget-me-not  ______  in the Borage family  
    Myosotis discolor

  19. Oysterplant  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Borage family, Boraginaceae   June
    Mertensia maritima 



    Oysterplant
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour) 

  20. Perennial Cornflower  ______  in the Daisy family
    Centaurea montana

  21. Devil's-bit Scabious  ______   in the Teasel family   July-August  
    Succisa pratensis
      

  22. Field Scabious  ______  a rare alien in Iceland, only at a few places
    Knautia arvensis

     
     
  23. Arctic Bartsia  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Figwort family, Scrophulareaceae  June-July
    Bartsia alpina 



    Alpine Bartsia
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT June '09 Iceland Tour)

  24. Pyramidal Bugle  ______   in the Mint family   June-July
    Ajuga pyramidalis 

    The Pyramidal Bugle is a protected plant in Iceland.

  25. Heath Dog-violet  ______   in the Violet family   June
    Viola canina 

  26. Common Dog-violet  ______  rare in Iceland
    Viola riviniana

    In Iceland, where the Common Dog-violet is not common, it is a protected plant.

  27. Wild Pansy  (*)   ______   in the Violet Family   June
    Viola tricolor 

  28. Alpine Marsh Violet  ______   in the Violet family   May
    Viola palustris 

  29. Northern Marsh Violet  ______  in the Violet family
    Viola epipsila

  30. Common Butterwort  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Bladderwort family, Lentibulariaceae  June
    Pinguicula vulgaris

     

    Common Butterwort
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)


    Those with a VIOLET coloration: 

  31. Common Speedwell  ______   in the Figwort family   July
    Veronica officinalis
      

    Veronica officinalis
    was called Heath Speedwell.

  32. Blue Water-speedwell  ______   in the Figwort family   July-August 
    Veronica anagalis-aquatica
     

  33. Marsh Speedwell  ______   in the Figwort family   July
    Veronica scutellata  
     

  34. Selfheal  ______    in the Mint family   June-July
    Prunella vulgaris 


  35. Alpine Meadow-rue  ______   in the Buttercup family   May-June
    Thalictrum alpinum
      

  36. Wood Crane's-bill  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Geranium family, Geraniaceae   June
    Geranium sylvaticum 



    Wood Crane's-bill
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  37. Field Gentian   ______   in the Gentian family   July-August
    Gentianella campestris 


     
  38. Golden Dwarfgentian   ______    in the Gentian family   June-July 
    Gentianella aurea   

    Gentianella aurea was called Northern Gentian.
     
  39. Blue Heath  ______   in the Heath family   June-July 
    Phyllodoce coerulea    

    Rare in Iceland, the Blue Heath is one of the more striking plants in the country. its distribution is restricted to the outer districts on both sides of Eyjafjordur in northern Iceland, where snow covers the ground throughout the winter, and also in the area near Lodmundarfjorur in eastern Iceland.   

  40. Beach Pea  (*)  ______   in the Legume, or Pea family   June
    Lathyrus japonicus maritimus 

    Lathyrus japonicus maritimus
    was called Sea Pea.


    Those with a REDDISH or PINK coloration:

  41. Blue Mountain Heath  ______   in the Heath family   June-July
    Phyllodoce coerulea

    Rare in Iceland, the Blue Mountain Heath is one of the more striking plants in the country. Its distribution is restricted to the outer districts on both sides of Eyjafjordur in northern Iceland, where snow covers the ground throughout the winter, and also in the area near Lodmundarfjordur in eastern Iceland. 

  42. Purple Saxifrage  ______   in the Saxifrage family   April-May (sometimes starts to bloom in late March) 
    Saxifraga oppositifolia 

      
  43. Heath Spotted Orchid  ______    in the Orchid family   June-July 
    Dactylorhiza maculata 
    Dactylorhiza maculata islandica  ______ 
    Icelandic Spotted Orchid  
    the subspecies in Iceland

  44. Creeping Thistle  (*)  ______     in the Daisy, or Aster family   August-September 
    Cirsium arvense   

    Cirsium arvense
    is a rather rare, but naturalized alien in Iceland. It grows in dense, long-lasting stands.

  45. Melancholy Thistle  ______   in the Daisy family
    Cirsium heterophyllum

  46. Water Mint  ______   in the Mint family   introduced in Iceland
    Mentha aquatica

  47. Red Dead-nettle  ______   in the Mint family   June-July
    Lamium purpureum
     
     
  48. Henbit Dead-nettle  ______   in the Mint family
    Lamium amplexicaule

  49. Wild Thyme  (*)  ______  in teh Mint family   June-July   very common in Iceland
    Thymus praecox arcticus

  50. Alpine Catchfly  ______    in the Pink family   July 
    Lychnis alpina 

  51. Ragged Robin  ______  occurs locally in southern Iceland, in Myrdalur and Eyjafjoli, rare elsewhere.
    Lychnis flos-cuculi 

  52. Great Burnet  ______    in the Rose family   July
    Sanguisorba officinalis  
     

  53. Alpine Burnet  ______   in the Rose family
    Sanguisorba alpina

  54. Red Campion  ______   in the Pink family
    Silene dioica

  55. Rosebay Willowherb  ______    in the Willowherb family   July-August 
    Epilobium angustifolium  
     

  56. Arctic Riverbeauty   ______    in the Willowherb family   July
    Epilobium latifolium
     

    The Arctic Riverbeauty is one of the American plants that grows naturally in Iceland, not known to occur anywhere else in Europe.
    It is a purple willowherb that grows densely on gravelly river banks, in river gorges, or in gravelly dried-out riverbeds in many parts of Iceland.  

  57. Chickweed Willowherb  ______   in the Willowherb family   June-July
    Epilobium alsinifolium 

  58. Hornemann's Willowherb  ______   in the Willowherb family   June-July
    Epilobium hornemanni  

  59. American Willowherb  ______   in the Willowherb family    July
    Epilobium watsonii 

    The American Willowherb is an alien in Iceland, occurring mainly in and around Reykjavik.

  60. Cliff Willowherb  ______   in the Willowherb family   July
    Epilobium collinum 


  61. Marsh Willowherb  ______   in the Willowherb family   July-August
    Epilobium palustre 

  62. Alpine Willowherb  ______   in the Willowherb family   June-July
    Epilobium anagallidifolium  


  63. Marsh Cinquefoil  (*)  ______   in the Rose family   June   common in Iceland, in moist pastures, meadows, and bogs
    Potentilla palustris 

  64. Common Hemp-nettle  ______   in the Mint family   July
    Galeopsis tetrahit 

  65. Strict Primrose  ______  in the Primrose family   May-June   very rare in Iceland
    Primula stricta

  66. Small Cranberry  ______    in the Heath family   June-July   in northern and northeastern Iceland  
    Vaccinium microcarpum 

  67. Trailing Azalea  (*)  ______   in the Heath family   June
    Loiseleuria procumbens 

  68. Water Avens  ______  in the Rose family   June-July   common on grassy heathland and hillsides, with moderate moisture 
    Geum rivale islandicum  ______ 
    subspecies in Iceland

  69. Red Clover  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Legume, or Pea family   June-August
    Trifolium pratense  

    In Iceland, Trifolium pratense is introduced and partly naturalized. It occurs in grassy pastures and cultivated homefields. It is rather rare in Iceland.



    Red Clover
    (photo courtesy of Doris Potter)

  70. Zigzag Clover  ______   in the Legume, or Pea family
    Trifolium medium

  71. Hairy Stonecrop  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Stonecrop family, Crassulaceae   June
    Sedum villosum 

     

    Hairy Stonecrop
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  72. Heather  (*)  ______  in the Heath family   August-September   common in Iceland, on heathland and slopes
    Calluna vulgaris

  73. Cross-leaved Heath  ______   in the Heath family
    Erica tetralix

  74. Moss Campion  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Pink family, Caryophyllaceae   May-June
    Silene acaulis 



    Above & below: Moss Campion photographed during FONT Iceland Tours
    (upper photo by Gerin Hood, during the June 2009 tour,
     lower photo by Rise Hill, during the June 2015 tour)  



  75. Thrift  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Sea Lavender family   June
    Almeria maritima 

     

    Thrift
    (photographed during the June 2006 FONT Iceland Tour by Cheryl Pearce)

  76. European Cardamine  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Mustard family, Brassicadeae, formerly Cruciferae   May-June
    Cardamine pratensis angustifolia

    The European Cardamine is also called the Cuckoo Flower. 

    Cardimine pratensis angustifolia in Iceland has been said to be Cardamine nymanii, the Lady Smock.
    If the are separated, they are very closely related.

    In Iceland, European Cardamine (or formerly Lady Smock) is a common plant of pastures and grasslands.
    It can also be found in marshy areas.
    It occurs in almost all regions of Iceland, except for some dry desert areas north of Vatnajokull.   



    Lady Smock
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT June '09 Iceland Tour)

     
  77. Common Valerian ______   in the Valerian family   July-August
    Valeriana officinalis   

  78. Hill Valerian  ______   in the Valerian family
    Valeriana sambucifolia

  79. Water Mudwort  ______   in the Figwort family   July-August 
    Limosella aquatica   

  80. Sea-milkwort  ______   in the Primrose Family   July-August   
    Glaux maritima 

  81. Amphibious Bistort  ______   in the Dock family   July
    Persicaria amphibia

    The Amphibious Bistort (also known as Amphibious Knotweed) is a protected plant in Iceland.

  82. Redshank  ______  related to the Amphibious Bistort, it is a non-aquatic alien in Iceland
    Persicaria maculata  (or Polygonum persicaria)

    The plant known as the Redshank (not the bird) occurs at several locations in Iceland in thermal soil, near hot springs and warm streams, and also as a weed around greenhouses.

    Other names for the plant known as the Redshank are Redleg and Lady's Thumb.

  83. Glaucous Dog-rose  ______  in the Rose family   
    Rosa dumalis

    The Glaucous Dog-rose is very rare in Iceland. It has not been found flowering in natural habitats in the country, but it blooms in gardens.     
    In Iceland, it is a protected plant.

  84. Bilberry  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Heath family, Ericaceae    June
    Vaccinium myrtillus 



    Bilberry
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  85. Bog Bilberry  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Heath family, Ericaceae   May-June
    Vaccinium uliginosum 

     

    Bog Bilberry
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  86. Water Pygmyweed  ______   in the Stonecrop family 
    Tillaea aquatica

  87. Alpine Fleabane  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June
    Erigeron borealis
     

  88. Arctic Alpine Fleabane  ______  in the Daisy, or Aster family   June-July
    Erigeron humilis

    Erigeron humilis was called Snow Fleabane.
     
      
  89. One-flower Fleabane _______  in the Daisy, or Aster family   June-July
    Erigeron uniflorus 
     

    Erigeron uniflorus was called Dwarf Fleabane. 


    Those with mostly or all WHITE coloration:  

  90. Glacier Buttercup  ______   in the Buttercup family   June
    Ranunculus glacialis  

  91. Common Daisy  ______
    Bellis perennis
     
  92. Sea Mayweed  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Daisy, or Aster family   June-July
    Tripleurospermum maritimum phaeocephalum

     

    Sea Maywood
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, from during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  93. Oxeye Daisy  (*)  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June-July
    Leucanthemum vulgare   


  94. Mountain Avens  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Rose family, Rosaceae   May-June
    Dryas octopetala 

    Dryas octopetala
    has some other names. "Holtasoley", meaning "Heath Buttercup" is used at flowering time.
    "Harbruda", meaning "hairy doll", is used after the fruit has matured.
    The leafy shoots, found in all seasons, are called "Rjupnalauf" meaning "ptarmigan leaves".   



    Mountain Avens
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour) 

  95. Burnet Rose  ______   in the Rose family   July
    Rosa pimpinellifolia 

  96. Northern Grass of Parnassus  ______    in the Parnassus Grass family, related to the Saxifrages   June-July
    Parnassia palustris 

  97. Wild Strawberry  (ph)  ______   in the Rose family   July  
    Fragaria vesca 



    Not the flower, but what follows.
    Fragaria vesca, the Wild Strawberry


  98. Dwarf Cornel  ______   in the Dogwood family   July   rare in Iceland
    Cornus suecica
     
     
  99. Sea Campion  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Pink family, Caryophyllaceae   June
    Silene uniflora 






    Two photos of Sea Campion
    (both taken during FONT Iceland Tours 
    upper photo in June 2006 by Cheryl Pearce; lower photo in June 2009 by Gerin Hood)
     
  100. Alpine Mouse-ear  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Pink family, Caryophyliaceae   May-June
    Cerastium alpinum  

     
     

    Alpine Mouse-ear
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland Tour - June 2009)

  101. Arctic Mouse-ear  ______    in the Pink family   June-July
    Cerastium arcticum   
     
  102. Starwort Mouse-ear  ______   in the Pink family   June
    Cerastium cerastoides   


  103. Chickweed Wintergreen  ______   in the Primrose family   July
    Trientalis europaea   

  104. Wood-sorrel  ______  in the Wood-sorrel family
    Oxalis acetosella

    The Wood-sorrel is a protected plant in Iceland.

  105. Bogbean  ______   in the Bogbean family   June   
    Menyanthes trifoliata   

  106. Mossy Saxifrage  ______  in the Saxifrage family   June
    Saxifraga hypnoides 

  107. Drooping Saxifrage  ______   in the Saxifrage family   June-July
    Saxifraga cernua  

  108. Irish Saxifrage  ______   in the Saxifrage family   
    Saxifraga rosalea


  109. Meadow Saxifrage  ______  a rare alien in Iceland
    Saxifraga granulata  

  110. Tufted Saxifrage   ______   in the Saxifrage family   May-June
    Saxifraga caespitosa 

  111. Starry Saxifrage  ______    in the Saxifrage family   June-July
    Saxifraga stellaris 

  112. Leafsystem Saxifrage  ______  in Iceland only found at high altitudes, closely related to the Starry Saxifrage 
    Saxifraga foliolosa 

    Saifraga foliolosa has been called Foliolose Saxifrage. 
    It is a protected species in Iceland.

  113. Lesser Stitchwort  ______   in the Pink family   June-July 
    Stellaria graminea 

  114. Thread-leaved Water-crowfoot  ______   in the Buttercup family   July-August
    Ranunculus trichophyllus 

  115. Diapensia  ______   in the Diapensia family   June
    Diapensia lapponica 

  116. Pyramidal Saxifrage  ______   in the Saxifrage family   July
    Saxifraga cotyledon 


  117. Silver Saxifrage  ______   in the Saxifrage family   July
    Saxifraga paniculata  

  118. Alpine Brook Saxifrage ______   in the Saxifrage family   June-July
    Saxifraga rivularis 

  119. Alpine Snow Saxifrage  ______   in the Saxifrage family   June-July  
    Saxifraga nivalis  


  120. Slender Snow Saxifrage  ______   closely related to the Alpine Snow Saxifrage, but smaller
    Saxifraga tenuis
      
  121. Common Mouse-ear  ______  in the Pink family   May-June
    Cerastium fontanum 

  122. Sticky Mouse-ear  ______  rather rare in Iceland
    Cerastium glomeratum

  123. Corn Spurrey  ______   in the Pink family   July  
    Spergula arvensis 

  124. Lesser Sea-spurrey   ______   in the Pink family   very rare in Iceland
    Spergularia salina

    Spergularia salina is a protected plant in Iceland.

  125. Arctic Sandwort  ______  in the Pink family   June 
    Arenaria norvegica   


  126. Sea Sandwort  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Pink family, Caryophyllaceae  June
    Honckenya peploides 



    Sea Sandwort
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  127. Mountain Sandwort  ______   in the Pink family   June-July
    Minuartia rubella 

  128. Teesdale Sandwort  ______   in the Pink family   June-July
    Minuartia stricta  

  129. Northern Sandwort  ______   in the Pink family   June
    Minuartia biflora 

    Minuartia biflora was called Two-flowered Sandwort,


  130. Alpine Pearlwort  ______    in the Pink family   June
    Sagina saginoides   

  131. Heath Pearlwort  ______   found sparingly on gravel slopes and cliffsides along the seashore 
    Sagina subulata

  132. Knotted Pearlwort  ______   in the Pink family   June-July
    Sagina nodosa 

  133. Tufted Pearlwort  ______  rare in Iceland
    Sagina caespitosa

  134. Common Chickweed  (*)  ______   in the Pink family   May-November
    Stellaria media   

  135. Fairy Flax  ______   in the Flax family   July
    Linum catharticum

  136. Fleshy Stitchwort  ______   in the Pink family   July
    Stellaria crassifolia

  137. Northern Stitchwort  ______   rare in Iceland
    Stellaria calycantha  

    The Northern Stitchwort is a protected plant in Iceland.

  138. Saltmarsh Stitchwort  ______   in the Pink family   July 
    Stellaria humifusa

    Stellaria humifusa was called Low Stichwort.

  139. Trailing Stichwort  ______   in the Pink family
    Stellaria alsine

  140. Iceland-purslane  ______   in the Dock family   June-July
    Koenigia islandica

  141. Alpine Bistort  (*)  ______   in the Dock family   June-July   very common in Iceland 
    Bistoria vivipara

  142. Knotgrass  ______   in the Dock family   June
    Polygonum aviculare

  143. Round-leaved Sundew  (ph)  ______   in the Sundew family, DROSERACEAE   July
    Drosera rotundifolia



    Round-leaved Sundew 

  144. Marsh Pennywort  ______   in the Parsley family   July-August 
    Hydrocotyle vulgaris

  145. Stone Bramble  ______   in the Rose family   July
    Rubus saxatilis

  146. Meadowsweet  ______   in the Rose family   July
    Filipendula ulmaria

  147. Rowan  ______   in the Rose family   June
    Sorbus aucuparia

  148. Garden Angelica  ______   in the Parsley family   July-August
    Angelica archangelica

  149. Wild Angelica  (*)  ______   in the Parsley family   June-July   in Iceland, widespread in the lowlands
    Angelica sylvestris

  150. Scots Lovage  ______   in the Parsley family   June-July
    Ligusticum  scoticum

  151. Caraway  ______   in the Parsley family   May-June   naturalized in southern Iceland
    Carum carvi

    The fruit of the Caraway splits into two, curved, grayish-brown merocarps, 0.1 inches long.
    The Caraway merocarps have a strong taste, and are used in Iceland as a condiment in bread and cheese.

  152. Sweet Cicely  ______  in the Parsley family   June   an alien in Iceland around farms, gardens, and in villages  
    Myrrhis odorata

  153. Cow Parsley  ______   in the Parsley family   June   a widespread alien in Iceland, in gardens, near houses and farms, or in waste places
    Anthriscus sylvestris

  154. Ground Elder  ______
    Aegopodium podagraria

  155. Yarrow  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June   common in much of Iceland, but not so in the south 
    Achillea millefolium

  156. Sneezewort  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   in Iceland a rather rare, localized alien 
    Achillea ptarmica

  157. Alpine Rock-cress  ______   in the Mustard family   May-June   widespread in Iceland
    Arabis alpina

  158. Northern Rock-cress  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Mustard family, Brassicaceae, formerly Cruciferae   May-June
    Cardaminopsis petraea

    Cardaminopsis petraea is one of the most common wildflowers in Iceland in both the lowlands and highlands. It occurs in areas of gravel hills, screes, sand and lava fields. 



    Northern Rock-cress
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  159. Sea Rocket  ______   in the Mustard family   June-July
    Cakile arctica

    Sea Rocket is one of the American species of plants that grows naturally in Iceland, not known to occur anywhere else in Europe. In Iceland, it is common in the south, southwest, and northwest. 

  160. Hoary Whitlowgrass  ______   in the Mustard family   May-June
    Draba incana

  161. Rock Whitlowgrass  ______   in the Mustard family   May-June
    Draba norvegica

  162. Snow Whitlowgrass  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Mustard family, Brassicaceae, formerly Cruciferae   June-July
    Draba nivalis 

    Draba nivalis is rather rare in Iceland, found at rock outcrops and cairns in the northern and eastern parts of the island.



    Snow Whitlowgrass
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  163. Shepherd's Purse  ______   in the Mustard family   May-September
    Capsella bursa-pastoris

  164. Hairy Bitter-cress  ______   in the Mustard family   widespread in southern and southwestern Iceland
    Cardamine hirsuta

  165. Alpine Bitter-cress  ______   in the Mustard family   widespread in Iceland, at high altitudes
    Cardamine bellidifolia

  166. Common Scurvygrass  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Mustard family, Brassicaceae, formerly Cruciferae   May-June
    Cochlearia officinalis

    Cochlearia officinalis is widespread in Iceland, found at bird-cliffs and rocky shores. 



    Common Scurvygrass
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  167. Awlwort  ______   in the Mustard family   July
    Subularia aquatica

  168. Common Whitlowgrass  ______   in the Mustard family   April-May
    Erophila verna 

  169. Milky Willowherb  ______   in the Willowherb family   June-July 
    Epilobium lactiflorum

  170. Snow Pearlwort  ______   in the Pink family   June-July
    Sagina nivalis

  171. Blinks  ______   in the Purslane family   June
    Montia fontana

  172. Scottish Asphodel  ______   in the Bunchflower family   June
    Tofieldia pusilla

  173. Northern Bedstraw  ______   in the Madder family   July
    Galium boreale

  174. Slender Bedstraw  ______   in the Madder family   June
    Galium normanii
    Galium normanii islandicum  ______ 
    Icelandic Bedstraw

  175. Fen Bedstraw  ______   in the Madder family   July
    Galium uliginosum

  176. Small Bedstraw  ______   in the Madder family   July
    Galium trifidum

  177. Marsh Bedstraw  ______  very rare in Iceland, only at a few localities in the southwest
    Galium palustre

    The Marsh Bedstraw is a protected plant in Iceland.

  178. Mossy Mountain-heather  ______  in the Heath family   May-June
    Harrimanella hypnoides

    Harrimanella hypnoides was Cassiope hypnoides, called Cassiope.

  179. Bearberry  (*) (ph)  ______ in the Heath family, Ericaceae   May-June
    Arctostaphylos uva-ursi



    Bearberry
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  180. Cowberry  ______  very rare in Iceland, only at a few localities in the east and northeast 
    Vaccinium vitas-idaea

  181. Bog Rosemary  ______  very rare in Iceland, recently discovered in the northern area of the eastern fjords
    Andromeda polifolia

  182. Common Wintergreen  ______  in the Wintergreen family   July
    Pyrola minor

  183. Arctic Wintergreen  ______   in the Wintergreen family   July-August
    Pyrola grandiflora

    Arctic Wintergreen is one of the American species of plants that grows naturally in Iceland, not known to occur anywhere else in Europe. In Iceland, it is found at a few sites in the north. 

  184. Serrated Wintergreen  ______   in the Wintergreen family   July-August   widespread in Iceland, more common in the north and northwest  
    Orthilia secunda

  185. Autumn Gentian  ______   in the Gentian family   August
    Gentianella amarella

  186. Cold Eyebright  ______   in the Figwort family   July-August
    Euphrasia frigida

  187. Drug Eyebright  ______   in the Figwort family    July
    Euphrasia stricta

  188. White Dead-nettle  ______  in the Mint family   June
    Lamium album

  189. White Clover  ______   in the Legume, or Pea family   June-July
    Trifolium repens

  190. Alsike Clover  ______  an alien in Iceland, around farms and cultivated areas
    Trifolium hybridum


    Those with a YELLOW coloration:

  191. Marsh-marigold  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Buttercup family, Ranunculaceae   May-June
    Caltha palustris



    Above & below: the Marsh-marigold in Iceland
    In the upper photo, on little islands in a rushing stream 
    during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2015    
    (upper photo by Rise Hill, 
     lower photo by Gerin Hood, during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2009)




  192. Monkey Flower  ______
    Mimulus guttatus

  193. Alpine Cinquefoil  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Rose family, Rosaceae   May-June
    Potentilla crantzii



    Alpine Cinquefoil
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, from during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  194. Tormentil  ______  in the Rose family
    Potentilla erecta

    The Tormentil is a protected plant in Iceland.

  195. Silverweed  (*)  ______   in the Rose family   June
    Potentilla anserina
    Potentilla anserina egedii  ______ 
    Seaside Silverweed  
    restricted to salt marshes along the seashore

  196. Meadow Buttercup  ______   in the Buttercup family    May-June 
    Ranunculus acris

  197. Creeping Buttercup  ______   in the Buttercup family   June
    Ranunculus repens

  198. Goldilocks Buttercup  ______  rare in Iceland
    Ranunculus auricomus

  199. Marsh Saxifrage  ______   in the Saxifrage family   June-July
    Saxifraga hirculus

  200. Yellow Saxifrage  ______   in the Saxifrage family   July   widespread in eastern Iceland
    Saxifraga aizoides

  201. Arctic Poppy  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Poppy family, Papaveraceae   June
    Papaver radicatum
    Papaver radicatum stefanssonii  ______ 
    Steffansson's Icelandic Poppy

    The variety of the Arctic Poppy, Papaver radicatum stefanssonii, with white and pink flowers, is a protected plant in Iceland. 



    Arctic Poppy

    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)


  202. Iceland Poppy  ______   in the Poppy family
    Papaver croceum

    Despite its name, the Iceland Poppy is not native to Iceland. It has been cultivated in gardens from where it escaped.
    Papaver croceum 
    is a boreal flowering plant, native to the subpolar regions of Europe, Asia, and North America, and the mountains of central Asia. 
    Synonyms for
    Papaver croceum are: Papaver nudicaule, Papaver miyabeanum, Papaver amurense, Papaver macounii. 

  203. Biting Stonecrop  ______   in the Stonecrop family   July-August
    Sedum acre

  204. Annual Stonecrop  ______   in the Stonecrop family   June
    Sedum annuum

  205. Creeping Spearwort  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Buttercup family, Ranunculaceae   June-July
    Ranunculus reptans

    Ranunculus reptans is found in moist soil.



    Creeping Spearwort
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  206. Pygmy Buttercup  ______   in the Buttercup family   July-August
    Ranunculus pygmaeus

  207. Arctic Buttercup  ______   in the Buttercup family   June 
    Ranunculus hyperboreus

  208. Creeping Sibbaldia  ______   in the Rose family   June 
    Sibbaldia procumbens

  209. Northern Yellowcress  ______   in the Mustard family   July
    Rorippa islandica

    Another name for Rorippa islandica has been Marsh Yellowcress. 

  210. European Wallflower  ______   in the Mustard family   July
    Erysimum strictum

  211. Small-flowered Winter-cress  ______   in the Mustard family   July    
    Barbarea stricta

  212. Alpine Whitlowgrass  ______   in the Mustard family   July   one of the rarer plants in the high country in Iceland
    Draba alpina 

  213. Roseroot  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Stonecrop family, Crassulaceae   June
    Rhodiola rosea



    Roseroot
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  214. Lady's Bedstraw  ______  in the Madder family   June-July
    Galium verum

  215. Meadow Vetchling  ______   in the Legume, or Pea family   July-August
    Lathyrus pratensis

  216. Small Cow-wheat  ______   in the Figwort family   July   rare in Iceland, found under birches
    Melampyrum sylvaticum

  217. Common Toadflax  ______
    Linaria vulgaris

  218. Red-tipped Lousewort  ______   in the Figwort family   June
    Pedicularis flammea

    Pedicularis flammea was called Upright Lousewort.

  219. Yellow-rattle  ______   in the Figwort family   June-July
    Rhinanthus minor

  220. Kidney Vetch  ______   in the Legume, or Pea family   June-July
    Anthyllis vulneraria

  221. Dandelion  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Daisy, or Aster family, Asteraceae, formerly Composite   April-Jun
    Taraxacum spp.



    Above & below:  Dandelions
    As can be seen in the above photograph, Dandelions grow well in Iceland.
    (upper photo by Rise Hill during the FONT June 2015 Iceland Tour,
     
    lower photo by Gerin Hood during the FONT June 2009 Iceland Tour)




  222. Hillside Hawkweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family    
    Hieracium thaectolepium

  223. Alpine Hawkweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June-July
    Hieracium alpinum

  224. Hearth Hawkweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   
    Hieracium aquiliforme

  225. Stain-leaved Hawkweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family
    Hieracium stictophyllum

  226. Bush Hawkweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family
    Hieracium holopleurum

  227. Grand Hawkweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family
    Hieracium elegantiforme  

  228. Icelandic Hawkweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June-July
    Pilosella islandica

  229. Autumn Hawkbit  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   July-August
    Leontodon autumnalis

  230. Marsh Hawk's-beard  ______   very rare in Iceland
    Crepis paludosa

  231. Colt's-foot  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   April-May
    Tussilago farfara

  232. Groundsel  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June-September
    Senecio vulgaris

  233. Pineapple Weed  ______  in the Daisy, or Aster family   July-September
    Chamomilla suaveolens 


    Mostly GREEN:

  234. Alpine Lady's-mantle  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Rose family, Rosaceae   June
    Alchemilla alpina

    Alchemilla alpina is found in depressions in slopes, snowbeds, screes, and erosive soil.



    Alpine Lady's-mantle
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  235. Lady's-mantle  ______   in the Rose family   June
    Alchemia mollis

  236. Faeroeic Lady's-mantle  ______   in the Rose family   June-July
    Alchemilia faeroensis

  237. Hairy Lady's-mantle  ______   in the Rose family    
    Alchemia filicaulis

  238. Clustered Lady's-mantle  ______   in the Rose family
    Alchemia glomerulans

  239. Rock Lady's-mantle  ______   in the Rose family
    Alchemia wichurae

  240. Smooth Lady's-mantle  ______   in the Rose family
    Alchemia glabra 


  241. Procumbent Pearlwort  ______   in the Pink family   June-July
    Sagina procumbens     

  242. Northern Green Orchid ______   in the Orchid family   June
    Platantherea hyperborea

    The Northern Green Orchid is one of the American species of plants that grows naturally in Iceland, not known to occur anywhere else in Europe.
    It has sweetly-scented flowers and lives on grassy slopes in lowlands throughout the country.

  243. Small-white Orchid  (or White Orchid ______   in the Orchid family   June
    Pseudorchis albida  

  244. White Currant  ______
    Ribes x pallidum

  245. Herb-Paris  ______  in the Birch Root family   July   rare in Iceland
    Paris quadrifolia

    Herb-Paris is a protected plant in Iceland.

  246. Various-leaved Pondweed  ______   in the Pondweed family   July-August
    Potamogeton gramineus

  247. Red Pondweed  (or Reddish Pondweed______  in the Pondweed family   July
    Potamogeton alpinus

  248. Broad-leaved Pondweed  ______   in the Pondweed family   July-August
    Potamogeton natans

  249. Perfoliate Pondweed  ______   in the Pondweed family   July-August
    Potamogeton perfoliatus

    Another name for Potamogeton perfoliatus is Clasping-leaved Pondweed.

  250. Long-stalked Pondweed  ______   in the Pondweed family   July-August
    Potamogeton praelongus

  251. Slender-leaved Pondweed  ______   in the Pondweed family   June-July
    Potamogeton filiformis

  252. Small Pondweed  ______   in the Pondweed family   June-July
    Potamogeton berchtoldii

  253. Horned Pondweed  ______   in the Pondweed family   July  
    Zannichellia palustris   

  254. Beaked Tasselweed  ______  (also called Wigeon Grass or Ditch Grass in the RUPPIACEAE family
    Ruppia maritima

    Ruppia maritima
    occurs in lagoons with brackish water. Very rare in Iceland.

  255. Shoreweed  ______  in the Plantain family, PLANTAGINACEAE   July   widespread in southwest Iceland
    Littorella uniflora

    Littorella uniflora has been treated as conspecific with Littorella americana, the American Shoreweed of northern North America, but molecular data has shown otherwise.
    Littorella uniflora ranges from Iceland east in Europe to the Black Sea.

  256. Vernal Water-starwort  ______   in the Plantain family, PLANTAGINACEAE   June-July
    Callitriche palustris
    (or Callitriche verna)

    Callitriche palustris has been called Spiny Water-starwort.

  257. Intermediate Water-starwort  ______  in the Plantain family   June-July
    Callitriche hamulata

    Callitriche hamulata was called Hook-tipped Water-starwort. 

  258. Pedunculate Water-starwort  ______   in the Plantain family   very rare in Iceland
    Callitriche brutia

    The Pedunculate Water-starwort is a protected plant in Iceland.

  259. Common Water-starwort  ______   in the Plantain family   July
    Callitriche stagnalis

  260. Autumnal Water-starwort  ______   in the Plantain family   rather rare in Iceland
    Callitriche hermaphroditica

    Callitriche hermaphroditica
    differs distinctly from other starworts. It is totally submerged in water at the bottom of ponds or streams.

  261. Alternate Water-milfoil  ______  in the Water-milfoil family, HALORAGACEAE)
    Myriophyllum alterniflorum


    Another name for Myriophyllum alterniflorum is Loose-flowered Water-milfoil.

  262. Common Water-milfoil  ______  in the Water-milfoil family, HALORAGACEAE
    Myriophyllum sibiricum

  263. Lesser Bladderwort  ______  in the Bladderwort family, LENTIBULARIACEAE   August
    Utricularia minor

  264. Mare's-tail _____   in the Plantain family   July
    Hippuris vulgaris

  265. Four-leaved Mare's-tail  ______   in the Plantain family   
    Hippuris tetraphylla 

  266. Water Horsetail _____   in the Horsetail family, EQUISETACEAE
    Equisetum fluviatile

  267. Marsh Horsetail _____   in the Horsetail family, EQUISETACEAE
    Equisetum palustre 

  268. Field Horsetail _____   in the Horsetail family   very common in Iceland
    Equisetum arvense
    Equisetum arvense borealis  ______ 
    Northern Horsetail

  269. Shady Horsetail  (*) (ph)  _____   in the Horsetail family   (during a FONT in June)
    Equisetum pratense



    Shady Horsetail
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  270. Wood Horsetail  ______   in the Horsetail family   very rare in Iceland
    Equisetum sylvaticum

  271. Variegated Horsetail ______   in the Horsetail family
    Equisetum variegatum

  272. Rough Horsetail ______   in the Horsetail family 
    Equisetum hymale

  273. Common Nettle (or Stinging Nettle______  in the Nettle family, URTICACEAE
    Urtica dioeca

  274. Small Nettle (or Burning Nettle)   ______   in the Nettle family, URTICACEAE
    Urtica urens

  275. Greater Plantain  ______   in the Plantain family   June-July
    Plantago major

  276. Ribwort Plantain  ______   in the Plantain family   July
    Plantago lanceolata

  277. Sea Plantain  ______   in the Plantain family   June
    Plantago maritima

  278. Babington's Orache  ______   in the Goosefoot family   June-July
    Atriplex glabriusscula

    Another name for Atriplex glabriusscula has been Smoothish Orache.

  279. Common Sorrel  ______   in the Dock family   May-June   very common in Iceland
    Rumex acetosa

  280. Sheep's Sorrel  ______   in the Dock family   June
    Rumex acetosella

  281. Northern Dock  ______   in the Dock family   June-July
    Rumex longifolius

  282. Mountain Sorrel  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Dock family   May-June
    Oxyria digyna

    Oxyria digyna occurs commonly in Iceland, at ravines, cliffs, gravelly slopes, and rocky ground. 



    Mountain Sorrel
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  283. Frog Orchid ______   in the Orchid family   June-July
    Coeloglossum viride
    Coeloglossum virride islandicum  ______ 
    Icelandic Frog Orchid

  284. Coralroot Orchid  (or Coralroot) ______   in the Orchid family   June-July
    Corallorhiza trifida

  285. Lesser Twayblade ______   in the Orchid family   July
    Listeria cordata

  286. Common Twayblade ______   in the Orchid family   June-July
    Listera ovata

    The Twayblade, Listera ovata, is a protected plant in Iceland.

  287. Highland Cudweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   July
    Omalotheca novergica

  288. Heath Cudweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   July
    Omalotheca sylvatica

  289. Dwarf Cudweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June
    Omalotheca supina

  290. Marsh Cudweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   July-August
    Filaginella uliginosa

  291. Alpine Everlasting  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June
    Antennaria alpina 

    Antennaria alpina was called Alpine Cat's-foot.

  292. Crowberry  ______   in the Crowberry family   April-May   very common in Iceland
    Empetrum nigrum 


    Other Plants

    Trees

  293. Dwarf Birch  (*)  ______  in the Birch family, Betulaceae
    Betula nana

  294. Downy Birch  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Birch family, Betulaceae
    Betula pubescens  

    The Downy Birch is the only forest-forming tree species in Iceland to have returned to the present interglacial period.

    Another name for Betula pubescens is European White Birch. 



    Above & below: Downy Birch

    Above, the bark; below, the catkin and leaves
    Photographed during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2015
    (photos by Marie Gardner)





  295. Dwarf Willow  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Willow family, Salicaceae   June
    Salix herbeacea



    Dwarf Willow
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  296. Woolly Willow  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Willow family, Salicaceae   June
    Salix lanata 



    Woolly Willow
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  297. Goat Willow  ______   in the Willow family, Salicaceae
    Salix caprea

  298. Feltleaf Willow   ______   
    Salix alaxensis

  299. Boreal Willow  ______
    Salix myrsinifolia borealis

  300. Tea-leaved Willow  (*)  ______   in the Willow family, Salicaceae
    Salix phylicifolia

    The Tea-leaved Willow is abundant in Iceland. Compared to the Woolly Willow and the Bluish Willow, the Tea-leaved Willow grows where it is wetter. 

  301. Arctic Willow  ______  in the Willow family, Salicaceae
    Salix arctica 

    The Arctic Willow is the northernmost woody plant in the world. It has a circumpolar distribution around the Arctic Ocean. It occurs far above the tree line to the northern limit of land on the north coast of Greenland. 

    The following, what was Salix callicarpea, has been merged into the Arctic Willow:

    Bluish Willow  (or Broad-leaved) Willow   ______    
    Salix callicarpaea

    Salix callicarpaea was said to be one of the American plants growing naturally in Iceland, not known to occur anywhere else in Europe.   

  302. European Aspen  ______   in the Willow family, SAlicaceae
    Populus tremula

    The European Aspen is very rare in Iceland, said to occur naturally at only a very few locations.

  303. Black Cottonwood  ______
    Populus trichocarpa

  304. Juniper  ______   in the Cypress family, Cupressaceae   common in Iceland
    Juniperus communis

  305. Sitka Spruce  ______
    Picea sitchensis

  306. Lodgepole Pine  ______
    Pinus contorta

  307. Siberian Larch  ______
    Larix sibirica


    Ferns

  308. Hard Fern  ______   in the Hardfern family   rather rare in Iceland
    Blechnum spicant

    Blechnum spicant var. fallax,
    a variety of Hard Fern restricted to hot springs, is a protected plant in Iceland. 

  309. Holly Fern  ______   in the Fern family
    Polystichum lonchitis

    Like the Hard Fern (above), the Holly Fern grows in snowbeds, but it is less dependent upon the snow cover, and therefore in Iceland it is more widespread.  

  310. Green Spleenwort  ______   in the family ASPLENIACEAE, a family of ferns
    Asplenium viride

    The Green Spleenwort is a protected plant in Iceland.

  311. Maidenhair Spleenwort  ______  in the family ASPLENIACEAE, a family of ferns
    Asplenium trichomanes

    The Maidenhair Spleenwort is a protected plant in Iceland.

  312. Forked Spleenwort  ______  in the family ASPLENIACEAE, a family of ferns
    Asplenium septentrionale

  313. Common Moonwort  ______  in the Adder's-tongue family, OPHIOGLOSSACEAE, a family of ferns
    Botrychium lunaria

  314. Glossy Moonwort  ______   a small, rare species in Iceland
    Botrychium simplex 

    The Glossy Moonwort is a protected plant in Iceland.

  315. Northern Moonwort  ______   in the Adder's-tongue family
    Botrychium boreale

  316. Lance-leaved Moonwort  ______  in the Adder's-tongue family
    Botrychium lanceolatum

  317. Mingan Moonwort  ______   in the Adder's-tongue family
    Botrychium minganense 


  318. Small Adder's Tongue  ______   in the Adder's-tongue family   Very rare in Iceland
    Ophioglossum azoricum

  319. Common Polypody  ______   in POLYPODIACEAE, a family of polypod ferns
    Polypodium vulgare  

  320. Oblong Woodsia  (or Fragrant Woodsia ______  in the Filmy-fern family
    Woodsia ilvensis

  321. Alpine Woodsia  ______   rare in Iceland, only found in lava fields
    Woodsia alpina

  322. Wilson's Filmy-fern  ______   only known at one locality in Iceland, in the south, a small and delicate fern
    Hymenophyllum wilsoni

    Other than in Iceland, the Wilson's Filmy-fern is in western Europe and the Macaronesian islands. 

    In Iceland, the Wilson's Filmy-fern is a protected plant.  

  323. Alpine Lady-fern  ______  in the Lady-fern family
    Athyrium distentifolium 

  324. Lady-fern  ______  in the Lady-fern family
    Athyrium filix-femina

  325. Brittle Bladder-fern  ______  in the Lady-fern family
    Cystopteris fragilis

    Cystopteris fragilis is now said to include the Dickie's Bladder-fern, Cystopteris dickieana.

  326. Northern Buckler-fern  ______  in the Lady-fern family
    Dryopteris expansa 
    (was Dryopteris assimilis)

  327. Male-fern  ______  in the Lady-fern family
    Dryopteris filix-mas

  328. Oak Fern  ______  in the Lady-fern family
    Gymnocarpium dryopteris

  329. Beech Fern  ______  in the Beech-fern family
    TPhegopteris connectilis 
    (was Thelypteris phegopteris)

  330. Parsley Fern  ______  in the Parsley Fern family
    Cryptogamma crispa

    The Parsley Fern is a protected plant in Iceland.


    Clubmosses

  331. Alpine Clubmoss  ______  in the Clubmoss family, Lycopodiophyta
    Lycopodium
    (or Diphazium) alpinium

  332. Stag's-horn Clubmoss  ______  in the Clubmoss family, Lycopodiophyta
    Lycopodium clavatum 

    The Stag's-horn Clubmoss is a protected plant in Iceland.

  333. Fir Clubmoss  ______  in the Clubmoss family, Lycopodiophyta
    Lycopodium
    (or Huperzia) selago

  334. Interrrupted Clubmoss  ______  in the Clubmoss family, Lycopodiophyta
    Lycopodium annotinum

  335. Lesser Clubmoss  ______  in the Spikemoss family, Selaginellaceae
    Selaginella selaginoides

    Selaginella is the only genus in the Spikemoss family, the spikemosses or lesser clubmosses.


    Rushes

  336. Alpine Rush  ______   in the Rush family   June-July
    Juncus alpinoarticulatus alpestris

  337. Iceland Rush  ______   in the Rush family   common in Iceland
    Juncus arcticus intermedius

  338. Jointed Rush  ______   in the Rush family   July
    Juncus articulatus

  339. Baltic Rush  ______   in the Rush family
    Juncus balticus

  340. Two-flowered Rush  ______   in the Rush family   June
    Juncus biglumis

  341. Toad Rush  ______   in the Rush family   July-August
    Juncus bufonius

  342. Bulbous Rush  ______  in the Rush family   July
    Juncus bulbosus

  343. Chestnut Rush  ______   in the Rush family   June-July   rather rare in Iceland
    Juncus castaneus

  344. Thread Rush  ______   in the Rush family   June-July   common in Iceland, except in much of the south where it does not occur
    Juncus filiformis

  345. Saltmarsh Rush  ______   in the Rush family   very rare in Iceland, found only at one locality in the southwest
    Juncus gerardi

    The Saltmarsh Rush is a protected plant in Iceland.

  346. Frog Rush  ______   in the Rush family   July-August
    Juncus ranarius

  347. Heath Rush  ______   in the Rush family
    Juncus squarrosus 


  348. Three-leaved Rush  (*)  ______   in the Rush family   June-July   very common in Iceland, tussocks in dry grassland
    Juncus trifidus   

    Another name for Juncus trifidus is Highland Rush.

  349. Three-flowered Rush  ______   in the Rush family   June
    Juncus triglumis

  350. Curved Wood-rush  ______   in the Rush family   June-July
    Luzula arcuata

  351. Northern Wood-rush  ______  
    Luzula confusa

  352. Heath Wood-rush  ______   in the Rush family   very common in Iceland
    Luzula multiflora
    Luzula multiflora frigida  ______ 
    Northern Heath Wood-rush

  353. Spiked Wood-rush  ______   in the Rush family
    Luzula spicata

  354. Sudetan Wood-rush  ______   in the Rush family
    Luzula sudetica



    Sedges


  355. Circumpolar Sedge  ______
    Carex adelostoma

  356. Black Alpine-sedge  ______
    Carex atrata

  357. Bicolored Sedge  ______
    Carex bicolor

  358. Stiff Sedge  ______
    Carex bigelowii

  359. Brownish Sedge  ______   rare in Iceland
    Carex brunnescens

  360. Club Sedge  ______   rare in Iceland
    Carex buxbaumi 

  361. Silvery Sedge  ______
    Carex canescens


  362. Hair Sedge  ______
    Carex capillaris

  363. Capitate Sedge  ______
    Carex capitata

  364. Spring Sedge  ______   in Iceland found only on the southern Reykjanes Peninsula
    Carex caryophyllea 

  365. String Sedge  ______
    Carex chordorrhiza

  366. White Sedge  ______
    Carex curta

  367. Green Yellow-sedge  ______   In Iceland, its distribution is not well known
    Carex demissa   

  368. Lesser Tussock-sedge  ______   rare in Iceland
    Carex diandra

  369. Dioecious Sedge  ______
    Carex dioeca

  370. Star Sedge  ______
    Carex echinata

  371. Glaucous Sedge  ______
    Carex flacca

  372. Large Yellow-sedge  ______  very rare in northern Iceland
    Carex flava

    Large Yellow-sedge is a protected plant in Iceland.

  373. Glacier Sedge  ______
    Carex glacialis

  374. Lesser Saltmarsh Sedge  ______
    Carex glareosa

  375. Hudson Bay Sedge  ______   grows in wet bogs in the interior of northern Iceland
    Carex helenastes 

    Hudson Bay Sedge is a protected plant in Iceland.

  376. Krause's Sedge  ______   rather common in the interior of northern and northeastern Iceland
    Carex krausei

    Carex krausei was called Porsild's Sedge.


  377. Hare's-foot Sedge  ______
    Carex lachenalii

  378. Common Bog-sedge  ______
    Carex limosa

  379. Livid Sedge  ______
    Carex livida

  380. Lyngbye's Sedge  ______
    Carex lyngbyei

    The Lyngbye's Sedge is one of the American species of plants that grows naturally in Iceland, not known to occur anywhere else in Europe.
    In Iceland, it dominates large areas in marshland along rivers and estuaries. It was, in the past, much harvested for hay.   
    It is a tall and beautiful plant.

  381. Norway Sedge  ______
    Carex mackenziei

  382. Thick-head Sedge  ______
    Carex macloviana

  383. Tall Bog-sedge  ______
    Carex magellanica

  384. Curved Sedge  ______
    Carex maritima

  385. Bristle Sedge  ______
    Carex microglochin

  386. Nard Sedge  ______
    Carex nardina

  387. Common Sedge  ______
    Carex nigra 
    Carex nigra juncella  ______ 
    Common Tufty Sedge

  388. Close-headed (or Club-headed) Alpine-sedge  ______
    Carex norvegica

  389. Pale Sedge  ______  only found at two localities in Iceland
    Carex pallescens

  390. Carnation Sedge  ______
    Carex panicea

  391. Tall Bog-sedge  ______
    Carex paupercula


  392. Pill Sedge  ______
    Carex pilulifera 

  393. Flea Sedge  ______
    Carex pulicaris

  394. Mountain Bog-sedge  ______
    Carex rariflora

  395. Ramensk's Sedge  ______
    Carex remenskii


  396. Bottle Sedge  ______
    Carex rostrata

  397. Red Sedge  ______
    Carex rufina

  398. Rock Sedge  ______
    Carex rupestris

  399. Saltmarsh Sedge  ______
    Carex salina

  400. Russet Sedge  ______
    Carex saxatilis

  401. Small-fruited Yellow-sedge  ______
    Carex serotina

  402. Hoppner's Sedge  ______
    Carex subspathacea

  403. Sheathed Sedge  ______
    Carex vaginata

  404. Small-fruited Yellow-sedge  ______
    Carex viridula


  405. Needle Spike-rush  ______
    Eleocharis acicularis

  406. Common Spike-rush  ______
    Eleocharis palustris

  407. Few-flowered Spike-rush  ______
    Eleocharis quinqueflora

  408. Slender Spike-rush  ______   generally found in bogs, especially near the sea
    Eleocharis uniglumis

  409. Common Cottongrass  ______
    Eriophorum angustifolium

  410. Scheuchzer's Cottongrass  (ph)  ______  June   (elsewhere in its large range called Alaska Cotton)
    Eriophorum scheuchzeri



    Scheuchzer's Cottongrass, or as its called in Iceland: Hrafnafifa
    photographed during the FONT birding and nature tour
    in Iceland in June 2012   
    (photo by Gabi Hauser) 

  411. Bellard's Kobresia  ______  
    Kobresia myosuroides

  412. Deergrass  ______
    Trichophorum caespitosum


    Grasses

  413. Common Eelgrass  ______  (also called Seawrack  in the family ZOSTERACEAE
    Zostera marina

    Zostera marina is the most widespread marine flowering plant in the Northern Hemisphere. It grows as far north as the Arctic region, and endures several months of ice cover per year.

  414. Northern Bur-reed  ______   in the family TYPHCEAE in the order POALES, which includes sedges and grasses  
    Sparganium hyperboreum

  415. Least Bur-reed  ______
    Sparganium minimum

  416. Floating Bur-reed  ______
    Sparganium angustifolium 

  417. Spring Quillwort  ______  in the family ISOETACEAE in the order ISOETALES
    Isoetes echinospora

  418. Lake Quillwort  ______
    Isoetes lacustris 

  419. Marsh Arrowgrass  ______   in the Arrowgrass family
    Triglochin palustris

  420. Sea Arrowgrass  ______   in the Arrowgrass family
    Triglochin maritinus   

  421. Wood Millet  ______   in the Grass family
    Milium effusum

  422. Tufted Hair-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Deschampsia cespitosa

  423. Bering's Tufted Hair-grass  ______
    Deschampsia beringensis


  424. Alpine Hair-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Deschampsia alpina

  425. Wavy Hair-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Deschampsia flexuosa

  426. Common Bent  ______   in the Grass family
    Agrostis capillaris

  427. Brown Bent  ______   in the Grass family
    Agrostis vinealis

    Agrostis vinealis has been called Velvet Bent.

  428. Creeping Bent  ______   in the Grass family
    Agrostis stolonifera  

  429. Narrow Small-reed  ______   in the Grass family
    Calamagrostis stricta

  430. Northern Saltmarsh-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Puccinellia coarctata

  431. Reflexed Saltmarsh-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Puccinellia capillaris 
    (was Puccinellia distans)

  432. Water Whorl-grass  (or simply Whorl-grass ______   in the Grass family 
    Catabrosa aquatica

  433. Floating Sweet-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Glyceria fluitans

  434. Downy Alpine Oat-grass  ______
    Avenula pubescens


  435. Yorkshire-fog  ______   in the Grass family
    Holcus lanatus

  436. Holy-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Hierochloe odorata

  437. Smooth Meadow-grass  (or Common Meadow-grass)  ______   in the Grass family
    Poa pratensis

  438. Rough Meadow-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Poa trivialis

  439. Alpine Meadow-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Poa alpina

  440. Wavy Meadow-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Poa flexuosa

  441. Glaucous Meadow-grass  (or Blue Meadow-grass ______   in the Grass family
    Poa glauca

  442. Wood Meadow-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Poa nemoralis

  443. Annual Meadow-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Poa annua

  444. Jemtland Meadow-grass  ______   
    Poa x jemlandica


  445. Cock's-foot  ______   in the Grass family
    Dactylis glomerata

  446. Quaking Grass  ______
    Briza media


  447. Arctic Fescue  (or Richardson's Fescue)  ______   in the Grass family
    Festuca richardsonii

  448. Meadow Fescue  ______   in the Grass family   a very rare alien in Iceland
    Festuca pratensis

  449. Red Fescue  ______
    Festuca rubra

    The Red Fescue is closely related to Arctic Fescue (above), and is often considered the same species.   


  450. Viviparous Sheep's Fescue  ______   in the Grass family
    Festuca vivipara

    Festuca vivpara has been called Proliferous Fescue.

  451. Icegrass  ______   in the Grass family   rather rare in Iceland, only at high altitudes or in the Central Highlands
    Phippsia algida  

    Phippsia algida has been called Snow Goosegrass.
    It is a colonizer of revegetating river beds.

  452. Hungarian Brome  ______   in the Grass family   rather rare in Iceland
    Bromus inermis

  453. Sweet Vernal-grass  ______   in the Grass family   common in Iceland
    Anthoxanthum odoratum

  454. Narrow False-oat  ______   in the Grass family
    Trisetum spicatum

    Trisetum spicatum was called Spiked Oatgrass.

  455. Three-flowered False-oat  ______   in the Grass family
    Trisetum triflorum 


  456. Blue Moor-grass  ______   in the Grass family   rare in Iceland
    Sesieria albicans

  457. Meadow Foxtail  ______   in the Grass family   common in cultivated homefields
    Alopecurus pratensis

  458. Marsh Foxtail  ______   in the Grass family
    Alopecurus geniculatus

  459. Orange Foxtail  ______   in the Grass family   widespread in Iceland
    Alopecurus aequalis

  460. Timothy Cat's-tail  (or just Timothy)  ______   in the Grass family   common in Iceland
    Phleum pratense

  461. Alpine Cat's-tail  ______   in the Grass family
    Phleum alpinum

  462. Bearded Couch  (or Bearded Wheatgrass ______   in the Grass family
    Elymus alopex  (formerly Elymus caninus)

  463. Northern Couch  ______   in the Grass family
    Elymus kropokensis borealis

  464. Common Couch  (or Couchgrass)  ______   in the Grass family
    Elymus
    (was Agropyorn) repens

    Couch, or Couchgrass is also known as Wheat-grass. 

  465. European Lyme-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Leymus arenarius

  466. Perennial Rye-grass  ______   in the Grass family   very rare in Iceland
    Lolium perenne

  467. Mat-grass  ______  in the Grass family
    Nardus stricta


    Mosses and Lichens 

    Among non-flowering plants in Iceland, there are about 550 different species of BRYOPHYTES, the MOSSES and LIVERWORTS.
    They are more abundant in Iceland than anywhere in northern Scandinavia or Greenland, and particularly common on older lava flows, forming an almost continuous carpet in the absence of vascular plants   
    Not all of the MOSSES in Iceland are Arctic species. To the contrary, there are even more temperate BRYOPHYTES in Iceland than there are temperate species in the vascular groups.

    Iceland also has about 450 different species of LICHENS, generally Scandinavian in character, that are with the MOSSES on some of their lava carpets, and on parts of otherwise bare mountains.

    Here, in this list, there are a few species, but no where near the 550 species of BRYOPHYTES or 450 species of LICHENS..    




    Lava in Iceland covered with Moss 
    (photograph by Alan Mitchnick during the FONT tour in September 2013)

  468. Clay Earth-moss  ______  a geothermal species in Iceland, in the family ARCHIDIACEAE
    Archidium alternifolium

  469. Lesser Smoothcap  ______  a geothermal species in Iceland, in the family ARCHIDIACEAE
    Atrichum angustatum

  470. Sword Moss  ______  in the family BRYOXIPHIACEAE
    Bryoxiphium norvegicum

  471. Rusty Swan-neck Moss  ______  a geothermal species in Iceland, in the family DICRANACEAE
    Campylopus flexuosus

  472. Campylopus introflexus  ______  a geothermal species in Iceland, in the family DICRANACEAE

    Campylopus introflexus
    is not native to Iceland (or Europe). It is from the Southern Hemisphere.   

  473. Iceland Moss  ______  in the family PARMELIACEAE
    Cetraria islandica

    Although called Iceland Moss, Cetraria islandica is actually a LICHEN giving the appearance of a moss. 

  474. "Dog-Lichen"  ______  in the family PELTIGERACEAE 
    Pectigera canina

    Dog-Lichens
    are often terricolous, that is growing on soil, but they also can occur on moss, trees, rocks, and other substrates.
    Pectigera canina was described by Linnaeus in 1753, when all known lichens were grouped into a genus LICHEN.
    The species was so named "canina" due to its resemblance to a dog. 

  475. Northern Haircap  ______  in the family POLYTRICHACEAE
    Polytrichum sexangulare

    Mosses
    in POLYTRICHACEAE tend to be larger than other mosses, with a thickened central stem.

  476. Hoary Fringe-moss  ______  in the family GRIMMIACEAE
    Racomitrium canescens

    There are some beautifully developed "moss carpets", in southern Iceland and also in the area of Lake Myvatn, mostly of Racomitrium lanuginosum (below), with some Racomitrium canescens (above)
    Along with luxuriant growths of ferns, herbs, and grasses, they make up a spectacle to be found in sheltered crevices and depressions.    

  477. Woolly Fringe-moss  (or "Rock-moss")  ______  in the family GRIMMIACEAE
    Racomitrium lanuginosum

  478. Purple Crystalwort  ______  a geothermal species in Iceland, in the family RICCIACEAE
    Riccia beyrichiana

  479. Aquatic mosses are at Lake Myvatn.



    Seaweed and other Algae


    SEAWEED
    is macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae. In Iceland, there are about 200 species of SEAWEED with a luxuriant growth of them around most of the island's coastline.



    One of the 200 or so species of seaweed in Iceland,
    Photographed during the FONT Iceland Tour in June 2015
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  480. Alaria esculenta  ______  in the family ALARIACEAE

    Alaria esculenta is said to be the second best known edible seaweed in Iceland, after "Sol" (below).

    Names for Alaria esculenta include Dabberlocks and Badderlocks. 

  481. Alaria pylaiei  ______  in the family ALARIACEAE

  482. Chrondrus crispus  ______  a red algae, in the family GARTINACEAE

    A name for Chrondrus crispus is "Carrageen Moss". 

  483. Fucus distichus  ______  in the family FUCACEAE, a family of black algae

  484. Bladderwrack  ______  in the family FUCACEAE, a family of black algae 
    Fucus vesiculosus   

    Other names for Fucus vesiculosus include: Black Tang and Rockweed. 

  485. Gigartina mamillosa  ______  in the family GARTINACEAE

    Gigartina mamillosa
    grows mainly in southern and southwestern Iceland. It is picked with "Sol" (below), but generally eaten only during hard seasons. 

  486. Laminaria digitata  ______  a brown algae, in the family LAMINARIACEAE

    Names for Laminaria digitata are Fingered Tangle and Oarweed. 

  487. Laminaria saccharina  ______  in the family LAMINARIACEAE

    Names for Laminaria saccharina are Sugar Sea Belt, or Devil's Apron.  

  488. Porphyra umbilicalis  ______  in the family BANGIACEAE

  489. Palmaria palmata (formerly Rhodymenia palmata ______  in the family PALMARIACEAE

    Names for Palmaria palmata include Red Dulse and Sea Lettuce Flakes.
    But it is called "Sol" in Iceland, where it has been (and still is) a well known snack food.

    According to Icelandic saga, Palmaria palmata or as it was Rhodymenia palmaa, or "Sol", has been known to be edible since at least the year 961.
    Over the years, "Sol" has been highly valued in Iceland as a palatable, healthy, and nourishing food, and as a cure for many ailments such as nausea, indigestion, and seasickness.
    Nowadays, "Sol" is still collected and dried, but not as much as in the past.     

  490. Green algae are in Lake Myvatn.




    COMMON NAMES OF ICELANDIC PLANTS ALPHABETICALLY IN ENGLISH

    With those IN THE LIST ABOVE a number is given noting where it is in the list.
    For those NOT IN THE LIST ABOVE, there is a sequential number here in red with a symbol #.

    PH: with a photo in the FONT website

  491. Adder's Tongue, Small  ______  Ophioglossum azoricum   Adder's-tongue family

  492. Angelica Garden  ______  137  Angelica archangelica   Parsley family

  493. Angelica, Wild  ______  138  Angelica sylvestris    Parsley family

  494. Arrowgrass, Marsh  ______  385  Triglochin palustris   Arrowgrass family

  495. Arrowgrass, Sea  ______  386  Trigglochin maritinus   Arrowgrass family

  496. Aspen, European  ______  278  Populus tremula   Willow family

  497. Asphodel  (or Asphodel, Scottish)  ______  162  Tofieldia pusilla   Bunchflower family

  498. Avens, Mountain  ______  83  PH  Dryas octopetala   Rose family

  499. Avens, Water  ______  62  Geum rivale islandicum   Rose family

  500. Awlwort  ______  156  Subularia aquatica   Mustard family

  501. Azalea, Mountain (or Trailing)  ______  61  Loiseleuria procumbens   Heath family

  502. Bartsia, Alpine  ______  21  PH  Bartsia alpina   Heath family

  503. Bearberry, Common  ______  169  PH  Arctostaphylos uva-ursi   Heath family

  504. Bedstraw, Icelandic  ______  164  Galium normanii islandicum   Madder family
    (a subspecies of Slender Bedstraw)

  505. Bedstraw, Fen  ______  165  Galium uliginosum   Madder family

  506. Bedstraw, Lady's  ______  203  Galium verum   Madder family

  507. Bedstraw, Marsh  ______  167  Galium palustre   Madder family

  508. Bedstraw, Northern  ______  163  Galium borealis   Madder family

  509. Bedstraw, Small  ______  166  Galium trifidum   Madder family

  510. Beech Fern  ______  303  Thelypteris phegopteris   Beech-fern family

  511. #452  Bentgrass, Brown  (or Brown Bent)  ______  Agrostis canina   Grass family  

  512. Bentgrass, Common  (or Common Bent)  ______  391  Agrostis capillaris   Grass family

  513. Bentgrass, Fiorin  (or Creeping Bent)  ______  393  Agrostis stolonifera   Grass family

  514. #453  Bentgrass, Large  (or Large Bent)  ______  Agrostis gigantea   Grass family

  515. Bentgrass, Velvet  ______  392  Agrostis vinealis   Grass family

  516. Bilberry  ______  75  PH  Vaccinium myrtillus   Heath family

  517. Birch, Downy  ______  276  Betula pubescens   Birch family

  518. Birch, Dwarf  ______  275  Betula nana   Birch family

  519. Bistort, Alpine  ______  130  Bistoria vivipara   Dock family

  520. Bistort, Amphibious  (or Amphibious Knotweed)  ______  72  Persicaria amphibia (was Polygonum amphibium)

  521. Bittercress, Alpine  ______  154  Cardamine bellidifolia   Mustard family

  522. Bittercress, Arctic  (or Lady Smock)  ______  68  PH  Cardamine nymanii   Mustard family

  523. Bittercress, Hairy  ______  153  Cardamine hirsuta   Mustard family


    Bitterwort, Alpine  ______  Draba alpina  
    in this list as Whitlowgrass, Alpine   Mustard family

  524. #454  Bitterwort, Arctic  ______  Draba fladnizensis   Mustard family

  525. Bitterwort, Norwegian  (or Rock Whitlowgrass)  ______  149  Draba norvegica   Mustard family

  526. Bitterwort, Snow  (or Snow Whitlowgrass)  ______  150  PH  Draba nivalis   Mustard family

  527. Bitterwort, Twisted  (or Hoary Whitlowgrass)  ______  148  Draba incana   Mustard family

  528. Bladder-fern, Brittle  ______  299  Cystopteris fragilis   Lady-fern family

  529. #455  Bladder-fern, Dickie's  ______  Cystopteris dickieana   Lady-fern family

  530. Bladderwort, Lesser  ______  242  Utricularia minor   Bladderwort family

  531. Blinks  ______  161  Montia fontana   Purslane family

  532. Bogbean  ______  95  Menyanthes trifoliata   Bogbean family

  533. Bramble, Rock  (or Bramble, Stone)  ______  134  Rubus saxatilis   Rose family

  534. Brome, Hungarian  ______  414  Bromus inermis   Grass family

  535. #456  Buckler-fern  ______  Dryopteris dilatata   Lady-fern family

  536. #457  Buckler-fern, Broad  ______  Dryopteris austriaca   Lady-fern family

  537. Buckler-fern, Northern  ______  300  Dryopteris assimilis   Lady-fern family

  538. Bugle, Pyramidal  ______  22  Ajuga pyramidalis   Mint family

  539. Burnet, Salad (or Great)  ______  46  Sanguisorba officinalis   Rose family

  540. Bur-reed, Floating  ______  382  Sparganium angustifolium   in family TYPHCEAE

  541. Bur-reed, Northern  ______  380  Sparganium hyperboreum   in family TYPHCEAE 

  542. Bur-reed, Small (or Least)  ______  381  Sparganium minimum   in family TYPHCEAE 

  543. Buttercup, Arctic  ______  195  Ranunculus hyperboreus   Buttercup family

  544. Buttercup, Creeping  ______  186  Ranunculus repens   Buttercup family

  545. Buttercup, Glacier  ______  80  Ranunculus glacialis   Buttercup family

  546. Buttercup, Meadow  ______  185  Ranunculus acris   Buttercup family

  547. Buttercup, Pygmy  ______  194  Ranunculus pygmaeus   Buttercup family

  548. #458  Butterwort, Alpine  ______  Pinguicula alpina   Bladderwort family

  549. Butterwort, Common  ______  27  PH  Pinguicula vulgaris   Bladderwort family

  550. Campion, Moss  ______  66  PH  Silene acaulis   Pink family

  551. Campion, Sea  ______  88  PH  Silene uniflora   Pink family

  552. Caraway  ______  140  Carum carvi   Parsley family

  553. Cassiope  (or Moss Bell Heather)  ______  169  Harrimanella (or Cassiope) hypnoides   Heath family

  554. Catchfly, Alpine  (or Red Alpine Cat's-foot)  ______  43  Lychnis alpina (was Viscaria alpina)   Pink family

  555. Cats-foot, Alpine  (or Mountain Alpine Everlasting)  ______  273  Antennaria alpina   Daisy, or Aster family

  556. Cats-tail, Alpine  ______  422  Phleum alpinum   Grass family

  557. Cats-tail, Timothy  ______  421  Phleum pratense   Grass family

  558. Chickweed, Common  ______  124  Stellaria media   Pink family

  559. Cicely, Sweet  ______  141  Myrrhis odorata   Parsley family

  560. Cinquefoil, Alpine  ______  182  PH  Potentilla crantzii   Rose family

  561. Cinquefoil, Marsh  ______  56  Potentilla palustris  Rose family

  562. Clover, Alsike  ______  181  Trifolium hybridum   Legume, or Pea family

  563. Clover, Red  ______  63  PH  Trifolium pratense   Legume, or Pea family

  564. Clover, White  ______  179  Trifolium repens   Legume, or Pea family

  565. Clubmoss, Alpine  ______  305  Lycopodium alpinium   Clubmoss family

  566. Clubmoss, Fir  (or Clawmoss)  ______  307  Lycopodium selago (or Huperzia selago)   Clubmoss family

  567. Clubmoss, Interrupted  ______  308  Lycopodium annotinum   Clubmoss family

  568. Clubmoss, Lesser  ______  309  Seleginella selaginoides   Spikemoss family 

  569. Clubmoss, Stag's-horn  ______  306  Lycopodium clavatum   Clubmoss family

  570. Cock's-foot  ______  408  Dactylis glomerata   Grass family

  571. Colt's-foot  ______  215  Tussilago farfara   Daisy, or Aster family

  572. Coralroot  (or Coralroot Orchid)  ______  266  Corallorrhiza trifida   Orchid family

  573. Cornel, Dwarf  ______  87  Cornus suecica   Dogwood family

  574. Cotton-grass, Common  ______  375  Eriophorum angustifolium   Sedge family

  575. Cotton-grass, Schewchzer's  ______  376  PH  Eriophorum scheuchzeri   Sedge family

  576. Couch, Bearded  ______  423  Elymus caninus   Grass family

  577. Couchgrass  (or Common Couch)  ______  425  Elymus (was Agropyron) repens   Grass family

    Couch,
    or Couchgrass is also known as Wheat-grass.

  578. Cowberry  ______  170  Vaccinium vitas-idaea   Heath family

  579. Cow-wheat, Wood  (or Cow-wheat, Small)   ______  205  Melampyrum sylvaticum   Figwort family

  580. Cranberry, Small  ______  60  Vaccinium microcarpum   Heath family

  581. Crane's-bill, Wood  ______  33  PH  Geranium sylvaticum   Geranium family   

  582. Crowberry  ______  274  Empetrum nigrum   Crowberry family

  583. Crowfoot, Thread-leaved Water  ______  103  Ranunculus trichophyllus   Buttercup family

  584. Cudweed, Dwarf  ______  271  Omalotheca supina   Daisy, or Aster family

  585. Cudweed, Heath  ______  270  Omalotheca sylvatica   Daisy, or Aster family

  586. Cudweed, Highland  ______  269  Omalotheca novergica   Daisy, or Aster family

  587. Cudweed, Marsh  ______  272  Filaginella uliginosa   Daisy, or Aster family

  588. #459  Cudweed, Wood  ______  Omalotheca silvatica   Daisy, or Aster family

  589. #460  Currant, Red  ______  Ribes rubrum   Currant family

  590. Daisy, Oxeye  ______  82  Leucanthemum vulgare   Daisy, or Aster family

  591. Dandelion, Common  ______  209  PH  Taraxacum sp.   Daisy, or Aster family

  592. Deadnettle, Red  ______  42  Lamium purpureum   Mint family

  593. #461  Deadnettle, Intermediate  ______  Lamium molucellifolium   Mint family

  594. Deadnettle, White  ______  178  Lamium album   Mint family

  595. Deergrass  ______  378  Trichophorum caespitosum   Sedge family

  596. #462  Dewcup, Cluster  ______  Alchemilla glomerulans   Rose family

    Alchemilla glomerulans
    is now considered a subspecies of the Common Lady's-mantle, Alchemilla vulgaris glomerulans.

  597. #463  Dewcup, Kidney-shaped  ______  Alchemilla murbeckiana   Rose family

  598. #464  Dewcup, Scalloped  ______  Alchemilla subcrenata   Rose family 

  599. #465  Dewcup, Silvery  ______  Alchemilla wichurae   Rose family

    Alchemilla wichurae
    is now considered a subspecies of the Common Lady's-mantle, Alchemilla vulgaris wichurae. 

  600. #466  Dewcup, Slope  ______  Alchemilla glabra   Rose family 

  601. #467  Dewcup, Thread-stemmed  ______  Alchemilla filicaulis   Rose family

    Others in the genus Alchemilla is listed here as Lady's Mantles. 

  602. Diapensia  ______  104  Diapensia lapponica   Diapensia family

  603. #468  Ditchgrass  ______  Ruppia cirrhosa

  604. #469  Dock, Broad-leaved  ______  Rumex obtusifolius   Dock family

  605. Dock, Curled  ______  263  Rumex crispus   Dock family

  606. Dock, Garden (or Northern)  ______  263  Rumex longifolius   Dock family

  607. #470  Dog-rose, Glaucous   ______  Rosa dumalis   Rose family

    The Glaucous Dog-rose is a protected species in Iceland.  

  608. Eelgrass, Common  ______  379  Zostera marina   in family ZOSTERACEAE

  609. Eyebright, Cold  ______  176  Euphrasia frigida   Figwort family

  610. #471  Eyebright, Davidson's  ______  Euphrasia davidsonii   Figwort family

  611. #472  Eyebright, Round-leaved  ______  Euphrasia rotundifolia   Figwort family

  612. #473-476  Eyebright  sp.  ______  an additional 4 species in Iceland in Euphrasia: calida, curta, nemorosa, stricta  

    The Eyebright species Euphrasia calida is a protected plant in Iceland. It is a hot-spring variety. 
     
  613. Felwort, Marsh (or Arctic)  ______  14  Lomatogonium rotatum   Gentian family

  614. Fern, Parsley  ______  304  Cryptogamma crispa   Parsley Fern family

  615. Fescue, Creeping (or Red)  ______  410  Festuca rubra   Grass family

  616. Fescue, Meadow  ______  411  Festuca pratensis   Grass family

  617. Fescue, Proliferous (or Vivparous)  ______  412  Festuca vivipara   Grass family

  618. Fescue, Richardson's (or Arctic)  ______  409  Festuca richardsonii   Grass family

  619. #477  Fescue Sheep's  ______  Festuca ovina   Grass family

  620. Filmy-fern, Wilson's  ______  296  Hymenophyllum wilsonii

  621. #478  Fireweed, Arctic  ______  Linium angustifolium intermedium   Flax family
    Fireweed, Common  ______  Linium angustifolium angustifolium

  622. Flax, Purging  (or Fairy Flax)  ______  125  Linum catharticum   Flax family

  623. Fleabane, Boreal (or Alpine)  ______  77  Erigeron borealis   Daisy, or Aster family

  624. Fleabane, Dwarf  ______  79  Erigeron uniflorus   Daisy or Aster family

  625. Fleabane, Lowly (or Snow)  ______  78  Erigeron humilis   Daisy, or Aster family

  626. #479  Fleabane, Woolly-headed  ______  Erigeron uniflorus   Daisy, or Aster family

  627. Flixweed  ______  198  Descurainia sophia   Mustard family

  628. Flotegrass  (or Floating Sweet-grass)  ______  398  Glyceria fluitans   Grass family

  629. Fog, Yorkshire  ______  399  Holcus lanatus   Grass family

  630. Forget-me-not, Common (or Field)  ______  15  Myosotis arvensis  Borage family

  631. #480  Forget-me-not, Early  ______  Myosotis ramosissima   Borage family

  632. Forget-me-not, Strict  ______  18  Myosotis stricta   Borage family

  633. Forget-me-not, Water  ______  16  Myosotis scorpioides   Borage family

  634. #481  Forget-me-not, Yellow and Blue  ______  Myosotis discolor   Borage family

  635. Foxtail, Marsh  ______  419  Alopecurus geniculatus   Grass family

  636. Foxtail, Meadow  ______  417  Alopecurus pratensis   Grass family

  637. Foxtail, Orange  ______  420  Alopecurus aequalis   Grass family

  638. #482  Garlic, Field  ______   Allium oleraceum

    Field Garlic
    is a protected species in Iceland.

  639. Gentian, Alpine  ______  12  Gentiana nivalis   Gentian family

  640. Gentian, Autumn  ______  175  Gentianella amarella   Gentian family

  641. Gentian, Field  ______  35  Gentianella campestris   Gentian family

  642. Gentian, Northern (or Golden)  ______  36  Gentianella aurea   Gentian family

  643. Gentian, Serrate  ______  34  Gentianella detonsa   Gentian family

  644. Gentian, Slender  ______  13  Gentianella tenella   Gentian family

  645. #483  Gentian, Small  ______  Gentianella nivalis   Gentian family

  646. #484  Gold-of-pleasure, Common  ______   Camelina sativa   Mustard family

  647. #485  Gold-of-pleasure, Hairy  ______   Camelina microcarpa   Mustard family

  648. Goldilocks  ______  187   Ranunculus auricomus islandicus   Buttercup family

  649. #486  Goosegrass, Northern  ______  Phippsia distans borealis   Grass family

  650. Goosegrass, Snow  ______  413  Phippsia algida   Grass family

  651. Grape-fern, Glossy  (or Glossy Moonwort)  ______  290  Botrychium simplex   Adder's-tongue family

  652. Grape-fern, Lance-leaved  (or Lance-leaved Moonwort)  ______  292  Botrychium lanceolatum   Adder's-tongue family

  653. Grass, Alpine Hair  ______  389  Deschampsia alpina   Grass family

  654. #487  Grass, Heath  ______   Sieglingia decumbens   

  655. Grass, Tufted Hair  ______  388  Deschampsia caespitosa   Grass family

  656. Grass, Wavy Hair  ______  390  Deschampsia flexuosa   Grass family

  657. Grass-of-Parnassus  ______  85  Parnassia palustris   Parnassus-grass family

  658. Groundsel  ______  216  Senecio vulgaris   Daisy, or Aster family

  659. Hard Fern  ______  284  Blechnum spicant   Hardfern family

  660. Harebell, Arctic  ______  2  Campanula uniflora   Bellflower family

  661. Harebell, Greenland  ______  1  Campanula rotundifolia   Bellflower family

  662. Hawkbit, Autumn  ______  213  Leontodon autumnalis   Daisy, or Aster family

  663. Hawk's-beard, Marsh  ______  214  Crepis paludosa   Daisy, or Aster family

  664. #488  Hawk's-beard, Mire  ______  Taraxacum paludosum   Daisy, or Aster family

  665. Hawkweed, Alpine  ______  211  Hieracium alpinum   Daisy, or Aster family

  666. #489  Hawkweed, Blackening  ______   Hieracium nigrescens   Daisy, or Aster family

  667. Hawkweed, Icelandic  ______  212  Pilosella islandica   Daisy, or Aster family

  668. #490  Hawkweed, Mouse-ear  ______  Hieracium pilosella    Daisy, or Aster family

  669. Heath, Blue  ______  37  Phyllodoce coerulea   Heath family

    Other names for Phyllodoce coerulea are Purple Mountain Heather in America, and Mountain Heath. 

  670. Heather  ______  65  Calluna vulgaris   Heath family

    Another name for Calluna vulgaris is Ling. 

  671. #491  Heath-grass  ______  Sieglingia decumbens (was Danthonia decumbens)

    Heath-grass
    is a protected plant in Iceland.

  672. Hempnettle, Common  ______  57  Galeopsis tetrahit   Mint family

  673. #492  Henbit  ______  Lamium amplexicaule   Mint family 

  674. Holly Fern  ______  285  Polystichum lonchitis   Fern family

  675. Holy-grass  ______  400  Hierochloe odorata   Grass family

  676. Horsetail, Common (or Field)  ______  247  Equisetum arvense   Horsetail family
    Horsetail, Northern  ______  Equisetum arvense borealis 

  677. Horsetail, Marsh  ______  246  Equisetum palustre   Horsetail family

  678. Horsetail, Rough  ______  251  Equisetum hyemale   Horsetail family

  679. Horsetail, Shady  ______  248  PH  Equisetum pratense   Horsetail family

  680. Horsetail, Variegated  ______  250  Equisetum variegatum   Horsetail family

  681. Horsetail, Water  ______  245  Equisetum fluviatile   Horsetail family

  682. Horsetail, Wood  ______  249  Equisetum sylvaticum   Horsetail family

  683. #493  Icecup  ______   Beckwithia glacialis 

  684. Juniper, Common  ______  277  Juniperus communis   Cypress family

  685. Knautia, Field  (or Scabious, Field)  ______  20  Knautia arvensis   Teasel family

  686. Knotgrass, Common  ______  131  Polygonum aviculare   Dock family

  687. Kobresia, Bellard's  ______  377  Kobresia myosuroides   Grass family 

  688. Koenigia, Iceland  (or Iceland-purslane)  ______  129  Koenigia islandica   Dock family

  689. #494  Ladder, Jacob's  ______  Polemonium caeruleum

  690. Lady-fern  ______  298  Athyrium filix-femina   Lady-fern family

  691. Lady-fern, Alpine  ______  297  Athyrium distentifolium   Lady-fern family

  692. Lopgrass  (or Hungarian Brome)  ______  413  Bromus hordeaceus

  693. Lousewort, Upright  ______  206  Pedicularis flammea   Figwort family

  694. Lovage, Northern (or Scots)  ______  139  Ligusticum scoticum   Parsley family

  695. Lupin, Alaskan  ______  6  PH  Lupinus nootkatensis   Legume, or Pea Family 

  696. Lymegrass, American  ______  427  Leymus mollis   Grass family 

  697. Lymegrass, European  ______  426  Leymus arenarius   Grass family

  698. Male-fern  ______  301  Dryopteris filix-mas   Lady-fern family

  699. #495  Male-fern  ______  Dryopteris abbreviata   Lady-fern family

  700. Mantle, Alpine Lady's  ______  218  PH  Alchemia alpina   Rose family

  701. Mantle, Common Lady's  ______  219  Alchemilla vulgaris   Rose family

  702. Mantle, Faeroeic Lady's  ______  220  Alchemilla faeroensis   Rose family

  703. Mares-tail, Common  ______  243  Hippuris vulgaris   Plantain family

  704. Mares-tail, Four-leaved  ______  244  Hippuris tetraphylla  Plantain family

  705. #496  Marigold, Arctic  ______  Caltha minor   Buttercup family

  706. Marigold, Marsh  ______  181  PH  Caltha palustris   Buttercup family

  707. Mat-grass  ______  428  Nardus stricta   Grass family

  708. #497  Mayweed, Pineapple  ______  Matricaria matricarioides   Daisy, or Aster family

  709. #498  Mayweed, Scentless  ______  Matricaria maritima   Daisy, or Aster family

  710. Mayweed, Sea  ______  81  PH  Matricaria maritima  (was Tripleurospermum maritimum)  Daisy, or Aster family

  711. Meadow-grass, Alpine  ______  403  Poa alpina   Grass family

  712. Meadow-grass, Annual  ______  407  Poa annua   Grass family

  713. #499  Meadow-grass, Arctic  ______  Poa arctica   Grass family

  714. #500  Meadow-grass, Black  ______  Poa balfourii   Grass family

  715. Meadow-grass, Blue (or Glaucous)  ______  405  Poa glauca   Grass family

  716. Meadow-grass, Common (or Smooth)  ______  401  Poa pretensis   Grass family

  717. #501  Meadow-grass, Narrow-leaved  ______  Poa angustifolia   Grass family

  718. Meadow-grass, Rough  ______  402  Poa trivialis   Grass family

  719. #502  Meadow-grass, Spreading  ______  Poa subcoerulea   Grass family

  720. Meadow-grass, Wavy  ______  404  Poa flexuosa   Grass family

  721. Meadow-grass, Wood  ______  406  Poa nemoralis   Grass family

  722. Meadow-rue, Alpine  ______  32  Thalictrum alpinum   Buttercup family   

  723. Meadowsweet  ______  135  Filipendula ulmaria   Rose family

  724. Milkwort, Sea  ______  71  Glaux maritima   Primrose family

  725. Millet, Wood  ______  387  Milium effusum  Grass family

  726. Moonwort, Common  ______  288  Botrychium lunaria   Adder's-tongue family 

  727. Moonwort, Glossy  ______  289  Botrychium simplex   Adder's-tongue family

  728. Moonwort, Lance-leaved  ______  291  Botrychium lanceolatum   Adder's-tongue family

  729. Moonwort, Northern  ______  290  Botrychium boreale   Adder's-tongue family 

  730. Moorgrass, Blue  ______  417  Sesieria caerulea   Grass family

  731. #503  Moorgrass, White  ______  Sesleria albicans   Grass family

  732. Moss, Stag's horn  ______  306  Lycopodium clavatum   Clubmoss family

  733. Mouse-ear, Alpine  ______  89  PH  Cerastium alpinum   Pink family

  734. Mouse-ear, Arctic  ______  91  Cerastium arcticum   Pink family

  735. Mouse-ear, Common  ______  111  Cerastium fontanum   Pink family
    Mouse-ear, Nordic  ______  Cerastium fontanum scandicum

  736. Mouse-ear, Smooth  ______  90  Cerastium glabratum   Pink family

  737. Mouse-ear, Starwort  (or Mountain Chickweed)   ______  92  Cerastium cerastoides   Pink family

  738. Mouse-ear, Sticky  ______  112  Cerastium glomeratum   Pink family

  739. Mudwort  ______  70  Limosella aquatica   Figwort family

  740. Nettle, Burning (or Small)  ______  253  Urtica urens   Nettle family

  741. Nettle, Stinging  (or Common)  ______  252  Urtica dioeca   Nettle family

  742. Oak-fern  ______  302  Gymnocarpium dryopteris   Lady-fern family

  743. #504  Oat  ______  Avena sativa

  744. #505  Oatgrass, False  ______  Arrhenatherum elatius

  745. #506  Oatgrass, Hairy  ______  Helictotrichon pubescens

  746. Oatgrass, Spiked  ______  Trisetum spicatum   Grass family 

  747. #507  Orache, Common  ______  Atriplex patula   Goosefoot family

  748. Orache, Longfoot (or Long-stalked)  ______  257  Atriplex longipes   Goosefoot family

  749. Orache, Smoothish (or Babington's)  ______  258  Atriplex glabriuscula   Goosefoot family

  750. #508  Orchid, Broad-leaved Marsh  ______  Dactylorhiza majalis   Orchid family

  751. #509  Orchid, Common Spotted  ______  Dactylorhiza fuchsii   Orchid family

  752. Orchid, Frog  ______  265  Coeloglossum viride   Orchid family
    Orchid, Icelandic Frog  ______  Coeloglossum viride islandicum

  753. Orchid, Icelandic Spotted  ______  40  Dactylorbiza maculata islandica   Orchid family 
    a subspecies of the Heath Spotted Orchid

  754. Orchid, Northern Green  ______  222  Platantherea hyperborea   Orchid family

  755. Orchid, White  (or Small-white Orchid)  ______  223  Pseudorchis albida   Orchid family

  756. Oysterplant  (or Northern Shorewort)  ______  17  PH  Mertensia maritima   Borage family

  757. Pansy, Wild  ______  25  Viola tricolor   Violet family

  758. Paris, Herb  ______  224  Potamogeton gramineus   Birchroot family

  759. Parsley, Cow  ______  142  Anthriscus sylvestris   Parsley family

  760. Pea, Marsh  ______  5  Lathyrus palustris   Legume or Pea family

  761. Pea, Sea  ______  38  Lathyrus japonicus maritimus   Legume or Pea family

  762. Pearlplant (or Pearlwort), Knotted  ______  122  Sagina nodosa   Pink family

  763. Pearlplant (or Pearlwort), Snow  ______  160  Sagina nivalis   Pink family

  764. Pearlplant (or Pearlwort), Tufted  ______  123  Sagina caespitosa   Pink family

  765. Pearlwort, Alpine  ______  120   Sagina saginoides   Pink family

  766. Pearlwort, Procumbent  ______  221  Sagina procumbens   Pink family

  767. Pearlwort, Sharp-leaved (or Heath)  ______  121  Sagina subulata   Pink family

  768. Pennycress, Field  (or Field Bittercress)  ______  152  Thiaspi arvense

  769. Pennywort, Marsh  ______  132  Hydrocotyle vulgaris   Parsley family

  770. #510  Pepperwort  ______  Lepidium campestre

  771. Plantain, Great (or Greater)  ______  254  Plantago major   Plantain family

  772. Plantain, Ribwort  (or simply Ribwort)   ______  255  Plantago lanceolata   Plantain family

  773. Plantain, Sea  ______  256  Plantago maritima   Plantain family

  774. Polypody. Common  ______  293  Polypodium vulgare   in POLYPODIACEAE, a family of polypod ferns

  775. Pondweed, Broad-leaved  ______  227  Potamogeton natans   Pondweed family

  776. Pondweed, Clasping-leaved (or Perfoliate)  ______  228  Potamogeton perfoliatus   Pondweed family

  777. Pondweed, Horned  ______  232  Zannichellia palustris   Horned Pondweed family

  778. Pondweed, Lesser  ______  231  Potamogeton pusillus   Pondweed family

  779. Pondweed, Long-stalked  ______  229  Potamogeton praelongus   Pondweed family

  780. Pondweed, Reddish  (or Red)  ______  226  Potamogeton alpinus   Pondweed family

  781. Pondweed, Slender-leaved  ______  230  Potamogeton filiformis   Pondweed family

  782. #511  Pondweed, Small  ______  Potamogeton berchtoldii   Pondweed family

  783. #512  Pondweed, Tassel  ______  Ruppia spiralis

  784. Pondweed, Various-leaved  ______  225  Potamogeton gramineus   Pondweed family

  785. Poppy, Arctic  ______  190  PH  Papaver radicatum   Poppy family
    Poppy, Stefansson's Icelandic  ______  Papaver radicatum stefanssonii  

  786. Primrose, Greenland  ______  59  Primula egaliksensis   Primrose family

  787. Primrose, Strict  ______  58  Primula stricta   Primrose family

  788. Purse, Shepard's  ______  151  Capsella bursa-pastoris   Mustard family

  789. Pygmyweed  ______  157  Crassula aquatica   Stonecrop family

  790. #513  Quackgrass  ______  Elytrigia repens

  791. #514  Quillwort  ______  Isoetes setacea

  792. Quillwort, Lake  ______  384  Isoetes lacustris

  793. Quillwort, Spring-spored  ______  383  Isoetes echinospora

  794. Redshank  (or Redleg)  ______  73  Persicaria maculosa  (or Polygonum persicaria)

  795. #515  Reedgrass  ______  Phalaroides arundinacea

  796. Riverbeauty, Arctic  ______  48  Epilobium latifolium   Willowherb family 

  797. Robin, Ragged  ______  44  Lychnis flos-cuculi   Pink family

  798. Rockcress, Alpine  ______  145  Arabis alpina   Mustard Family

  799. Rockcress, Northern  (or Gravelcress)  ______  146  PH  Cardaminopsis petraea   Mustard family

  800. #516   Rockcress, Purple  ______  Braya glabella purpurescens   Mustard family

  801. Rocket, Sea  ______  147  Cakile arctica   Mustard family

  802. #517  Rocket, Tall  ______  Sisymbrium altissimum

  803. Rocketcress, Yellow  ______   202  Barbarea vulgaris   Mustard family

    Also called simply Rocketcress, or Bittercress, or Wintercress 

  804. Rose, Burnet  ______  84  Rosa pimpinellifolia   Rose family

  805. #518  Rose, Taeckholm's  ______  Rosa taeckholmii   Rose family

  806. #519  Rose, Prickly  ______  Rosa vosagiaca   Rose family

  807. Rosemary, Bog  ______  172  Andromeda polifolia   Heath family

  808. Roseroot  ______  202  PH  Rhodiola rosea   Stonecrop family

  809. Rowan  ______  136  Sorbus aucuparia   Rose family

  810. Rush, Alpine  ______  310  Juncus alpinus   Rush family

  811. Rush, Arctic  ______  Juncus arcticus   Rush family
    Rush, Iceland  ______  311  Juncus arcticus intermedius

  812. Rush, Bulbous  ______  315  Juncus bulbosus   Rush family

  813. Rush, Chestnut  ______  316  Juncus castaneus   Rush family

  814. Rush, Highland (or Three-leaved)  ______  320  Juncus trifidus   Rush family

  815. Rush, Jointed  ______  312  Juncus articulatus   Rush family

  816. Rush, Saltmarsh (or Mud)  ______  318  Juncus gerardi   Rush family

  817. Rush, Thread  ______  317  Juncus filiformis   Rush family

  818. Rush, Three-flowered  ______  321  Juncus trigumis   Rush family

  819. Rush, Toad  ______  314  Juncus bufonius   Rush family

  820. Rush, Two-flowered  ______  313  Juncus biglumis   Rush family

  821. Salt Marsh Grass, Common  ______  395  Puccinellia maritima   Grass family

  822. Salt Marsh Grass, Reflexed  ______  396  Puccinellia distans   Grass family

  823. Sandwort, Mountain  ______  117  Minuartia rubella   Pink family

  824. Sandwort, Norwegian (or Arctic)  ______  115  Arenaria norvegica   Pink family

  825. Sandwort, Sea  ______  116  PH  Honckenya peploides   Pink family

  826. Sandwort, Two-flowered  ______  119  Minuartia biflora   Pink family

  827. Sandwort, Teesdale  ______  118  Minuartia stricta   Pink family

  828. Saxifrage, Alpine Snow  ______  109  Saxifraga nivalis   Saxifrage family

  829. Saxifrage, Alpine Brook  ______  106  Saxifraga rivularis   Saxifrage family

  830. Saxifrage, Arctic Brook  ______  107  Saxifraga hyperborea   Saxifrage family

  831. Saxifrage, Drooping  ______  97  Saxifraga cernua   Saxifrage family

  832. Saxifrage, Foliolose  ______  101  Saxifrage foliolosa   Saxifrage family

  833. #520  Saxifrage, Lifelong  ______  Saxifraga aizoon   Saxifrage family

  834. Saxifrage, Meadow  ______  98  Saxifraga granulata   Saxifrage family

  835. Saxifrage, Mossy  ______  96  Saxifraga hypnoides   Saxifrage family

    Another name for Saxifraga hypnoides is Dovedale Moss.

  836. Saxifrage, Purple  ______  39  Saxifraga oppositifolia   Saxifrage family

  837. Saxifrage, Pyramidal  ______  105  Saxifraga cotyledon   Saxifrage family

  838. #521  Saxifrage, Rosy  ______  Saxifraga rosacea   Saxifrage family

  839. Saxifrage, Silver  ______  106  Saxifraga paniculata   Saxifrage family

  840. Saxifrage, Slender Snow  ______  110  Saxifraga tenuis   Saxifrage family

  841. Saxifrage, Starry  ______  100  Saxifraga stellaris   Saxifrage family

  842. Saxifrage, Tufted  ______  99  Saxifraga caspitosa   Saxifrage family

  843. Saxifrage, Yellow Marsh (or Marsh)  ______  188  Saxifraga hirculus   Saxifrage family

  844. Saxifrage, Yellow Mountain (or Yellow)  ______  189  Saxifraga aizoides   Saxifrage family

  845. Scurvygrass, Common  ______  155  PH  Cochlearia officinalis   Mustard family

  846. #522  Scurvywort  ______  Cochleariopsis groenlandica

  847. #523  Seapink  ______  Armeria maritima planifolia

  848. Sedge, Bicolored  ______  328  Carex bicolor   Sedge family

  849. Sedge, Black Alpine  ______  327  Carex atrata   Sedge family

  850. Sedge, Bottle  ______  363  Carex rostrata   Sedge family

  851. Sedge, Bristle  ______  354  Carex microglochin   Sedge family

  852. Sedge, Brownish  ______  330  Carex brunnescens   Sedge family

  853. Sedge, Capitate  ______  333  Carex capitata   Sedge family

  854. Sedge, Carnation  ______  359  Carex panicea   Sedge family

  855. Sedge, Club  ______  331  Carex buxbaumi   Sedge family

  856. Sedge, Club-headed (or Close-headed) Alpine  ______357  Carex norvegica   Sedge family

  857. Sedge, Common  ______  356  Carex nigra   Sedge family
    Sedge, Common Tufty  ______  Carex nigra juncella  

  858. Sedge, Common Bog  ______  347  Carex limosa   Sedge family

  859. Sedge, Curved  ______  353  Carex maritima   Sedge family

  860. Sedge, Dioecious  ______  338  Carex dioeca   Sedge family

  861. Sedge, Flea  ______  361  Carex pulicaris   Sedge family

  862. Sedge, Glacier  ______  343  Carex glacialis   Sedge family

  863. Sedge, Glaucous  ______  340  Carex flacca   Sedge family

  864. #524  Sedge, Goodenough's  ______  Carex goodenoughii   Sedge family

  865. #525  Sedge, Gravel  ______  Carex glareosa   Sedge family

  866. Sedge, Hair  ______  332  Carex capillaris   Sedge family

  867. Sedge, Hare's-foot  ______  346  Carex lachenalii  Sedge family

  868. Sedge, Hoppner  ______  369  Carex subspathacea   Sedge family

  869. Sedge, Hudson Bay  ______  344  Carex helenastes   Sedge family

  870. Sedge, Large Yellow  (or Common Yellow Sedge)  ______  341  Carex flava   Sedge family

  871. Sedge, Lesser Tussock  ______  337  Carex diamndra   Sedge family

  872. Sedge, Livid  ______  348  Carex livida   Sedge family

  873. #526  Sedge, Loose-flowered Alpine  ______  Carex rariflora

  874. Sedge, Lyngbye's  ______  349  Carex lyngbyei   Sedge family

  875. #527  Sedge, Mud  ______  Carex limosa   Sedge family

  876. Sedge, Mountain Bog  ______  362  Carex rariflora   Sedge family 

  877. Sedge, Nard  ______  355  Carex nardina   Sedge family

  878. Sedge, Norway  ______  350  Carex machenziei   Sedge family

  879. Sedge, Pale  ______  358  Carex pallescens   Sedge family

  880. Sedge, Pill  ______  360  Carex pilulifera   Sedge family

  881. Sedge, Porsild's  ______  345  Carex krausei   Sedge family

  882. Sedge, Red  ______  364  Carex rufina   Sedge family

  883. Sedge, Rock  ______  365  Carex rupestris   Sedge family

  884. Sedge, Russet  ______  367  Carex saxatilis   Sedge family

  885. Sedge, Saltmarsh  ______  366  Carex salina   Sedge family

  886. Sedge, Sheathed  ______  370  Carex vaginata   Sedge family

  887. Sedge, Small-fruited Yellow  ______  368  Carex serotina   Sedge family

  888. #528  Sedge, Somber  ______  Carex pallescens   Sedge family

  889. Sedge, Spring  ______  334  Carex caryophyllea   Sedge family

  890. Sedge, Star  ______  339  Carex echinata   Sedge family

  891. Sedge, Stiff  ______  329  Carex bigelowii   Sedge family 

  892. Sedge, String  ______  335  Carex chorodorrhiza   Sedge family

  893. Sedge, Tall Bog  ______  352  Carex magellanica   Sedge family 

  894. Sedge, Thick-headed  ______  351  Carex mackloviana   Sedge family

  895. #529  Sedge, Common Tufty  ______  Carex nigra juncella   Sedge family

  896. Sedge, White  ______  336  Carex curta   Sedge family

  897. Selfheal, Common  ______  31  Prunella vulgaris   Mint family

  898. Shoreweed  ______  234  Littorella uniflora   Plantain family

  899. Sibbaldia, Creeping  ______  196  Sibbaldia procumbens   Rose family

  900. Silverweed  ______  184  Potentilla anserina   Rose family

  901. Small-reed, Narrow  ______  394  Calamagrostis stricta   Grass family

  902. Sneezewort  ______  144  Achillea ptarmica   Daisy or Aster family

  903. Sorrel, Common  ______  260  Rumex acetosa   Dock family

  904. Sorrel, Mountain  ______  264  Oxyria digyna   Dock family

  905. Sorrel, Sheep's  ______  261  Rumex acetosella   Dock family

  906. Spearwort, Adder's-tongue  (or Small Adder's-tongue)  ______  293  Ophioglossum azoricum  Adder's-tongue family

  907. Spearwort, Creeping  ______  193  PH  Ranunculus reptans   Buttercup family 

  908. Speedwell, Alpine  ______  8  Veronica alpina  Figwort family

  909. Speedwell, Common (or Heath)  ______  28  Veronica officinalis   Figwort family

  910. Speedwell, Germander (or Birdseye)  ______  10  Veronica (or Veronicella) chamaedrys   Figwort family

  911. Speedwell, Marsh  ______  30  Veronica scutellata   Figwort family

  912. Speedwell, Rock  ______  7  Veronica fruticans   Figwort family

  913. Speedwell, Thyme-leaved  (or Thyme-leaved Brooklime)  ______  9  Veronica serpyllifolia   Figwort family

  914. Speedwell, Blue Water  ______  29  Veronica anagalis-aquatica   Figwort family

  915. Spike-rush, Common  ______  372  Eleocharis palustris   Sedge family

  916. Spike-rush, Few-flowered  ______  373  Eleocharis quinqueflora   Sedge family

  917. Spike-rush, Needle  ______  371  Eleocharis acicularis   Sedge family

  918. Spike-rush, Slender, or Swamp  ______  374  Eleocharis uniglumis   Sedge family

  919. #530  Spleenwort, Forked  ______  Asplenium septentrionale

    Forked Spleenwort
    is a protected species in Iceland.

  920. Spleenwort, Green  ______  286  Asplenium viride   a FERN

  921. Spleenwort, Maidenhair  ______  287  Asplenium trichomanes   a FERN

  922. #531  Spurrey, Cliff  ______  Spergula salina   Pink family

  923. Spurrey, Corn  ______  113  Spergula arvensis   Pink family

  924. Spurrey, Sea  (or Lesser)  ______  114  Spergularia marina   Pink family

  925. Starwort, Common Water  ______  238  Callitriche stagnalis   Plantain family

  926. Starwort, Hook-tipped Water  ______236  Callitriche hamulata   Plantain family

  927. #532  Starwort, Intermediate  ______  Callitriche intermedia   Plantain family

  928. Starwort, Northern  (or Autumn Water-starwort)  ______  240  Callitriche hermaphroditica   Plantain family

  929. Starwort, Pedunculate Water  ______  237   Callitriche brutia   Plantain family

  930. Starwort Water, Spiny  (or Vernal Starwort)  ______  235  Callitriche palustris (or Callitriche verna)   Plantain family

  931. Stitchwort, Fleshy  ______  126  Stellaria crassifolia   Pink family

  932. #533  Stitchwort, Lesser  ______  Stellaria graminea   Pink family

  933. Stitchwort, Low  ______  128  Stellaria humifusa   Pink family

  934. Stitchwort, Northern  ______  127 Stellaria calycantha   Pink family

  935. Stonecrop, Annual  ______  192  Sedum annuum   Stonecrop family

  936. Stonecrop, Biting  ______  191  Sedum acre   Stonecrop family

  937. Stonecrop, Hairy  ______  64  PH  Sedum villosum   Stonecrop family

  938. Strawberry, Wild  ______  86  PH  Fragaria vesca   Rose family

  939. Succisa, Devil's-bit  (or Devil's-bit Scabious)   ______  19  Succisa pretensis   Teasel family

  940. Sundew, Round-leaved  (or Common)  ______  132  PH  Drosera rotundifolia   Sundew family


    Sweet-grass, Floating  ______ 
    in this list as Flotegrass

  941. Tasselweed, Beaked  ______  233  Ruppia maritima   in family RUPPIACEAE  (Ditch Grass)

  942. Thistle, Creeping  ______  41  Cirsium arvense   Daisy, or Aster family

  943. Thrift  ______  67  Armeria maritima   Sea Lavender family

  944. Thyme, Arctic  ______  45  Thymus praecox arcticus   Mint family

  945. #534  Thyme, Hairy  ______  Thymus praecox   Mint family

  946. #535  Tillaea, Water  ______  Crassula aquatica


    Timothy  ______   see Cat's-tail, Timothy

  947. Tormentil  ______  183  Potentilla erecta   Rose family

  948. Treaclemustard, Hawkweed-leaved  ______  199   Mustard family

  949. #536  Trefoil, Birdsfoot  ______  Lotus corniculatus

    Another name, in North America, is Birdfoot Deervetch.

  950. #537  Trisetum, Soft Hairy  ______  Trisetum triflorum

  951. #538  Trisetum, Spike  ______  Trisetum spicatum

  952. Twayblade, Common  ______  268   Listera ovata   Orchid family

  953. Twayblade, Lesser  ______  267  Listera cordata   Orchid family 

  954. #539  Twitch, Don's  ______  Agropyron donianum

  955. Valerian, Common  ______  69  Valeriana officinalis   Valerian family

  956. #540  Velvetgrass  ______  Holcus lantus

  957. Vernal-grass, Sweet  ______  415  Anthoxanthum odoratum   Grass family

  958. Vetch, Bush  ______  4  Vicia sepium   Legume, or Pea family

  959. Vetch, Common Kidney  ______  208  Anthyllis vulneraria   Legume, or Pea family

  960. Vetch, Tufted  ______  3  Vicia cracca   Legume, or Pea family

  961. Vetchling, Meadow  ______  204  Lathyrus pratensis   Legume, or Pea family

  962. Violet, Alpine Marsh  ______  26  Viola palustris   Violet family

  963. Violet, Common  ______  24  Viola riviniana   Violet family

  964. Violet, Heath Dog  ______  23  Viola canina   Violet family

  965. Violet, Northern Marsh  ______  Viola epipsila   Violet family

  966. Water-milfoil, Loose-flowered  (or Alternate Water-milfoil)  ______  240  Myriophyllum alterniflorum  Water-milfoil family

  967. Water-milfoil, Spiked  ______  241  Myriophyllum spicatum   Water-milfoil family

  968. Weed, Pineapple  ______  217  Chamomilia suaveolens   Daisy, or Aster family

  969. Wheatgrass, Bearded  ______  423  Elymus caninus

  970. Whitlow-grass, Alpine  ______  201  Draba alpina   Mustard family

    Other whitlow-grasses in this alphabetical list as bitterworts. 

  971. Whitlow-grass, Common  ______  158  Erophila verna   Mustard family

  972. Whorlgrass, Water  ______  397  Catabrosa aquatica

  973. Whortleberry, Bog  (or Bog Bilberry)  ______  76 PH  Vaccinium uliginosum   Heath family

  974. Willow, Arctic  ______  283  Salix arctica   Willow family

  975. Willow, Broad-leaved (or Bluish)  ______  281  Salix callicarpaea   Willow family

  976. Willow, Dwarf (or Least)  ______  279  Salix herbacea   Willow family

  977. Willow, Tea-leaved  ______  282  Salix phylicifolia   Willow family

  978. Willow, Woolly  ______  280  Salix lanata   Willow family

  979. #541  Willowherb, Alpine  ______  Epilobium anagallidifolium   Willowherb family

  980. #542  Willowherb, American  ______  Epilobium adenocaulon   Willowherb family

  981. Willowherb, Chickweed  ______  49   Epilobium alsinifolium   Willowherb family

  982. #543  Willowherb, Cliff  ______  Epilobium collinum   Willowherb family

  983. Willowherb, Hornemann's  ______  50  Epiloblum hornemanni   Willowherb family

  984. #544  Willowherb, Marsh  ______  Epilobium palustre   Willowherb family

  985. Willowherb, Milky-flowered (or Milky)  ______  159  Epilobium lactiflorum   Willowherb family

  986. Willowherb, Rosebay  ______  47  Epilobium angustifolium   Willowherb family

  987. Wintergreen, Arctic  ______  173  Pyrola grandiflora   Wintergreen family

  988. #545  Wintergreen, Chickweed  ______  Trientalis europaea

  989. Wintergreen, Common  ______  172  Pyrola minor   Wintergreen family

  990. Wintergreen, Serrated  ______  174  Orthilia secunda   Wintergreen family

  991. Wood-rush, Curved  ______  322  Luzula arcuata   Rush family

  992. Wood-rush, Many-headed  (or Heath Wood-rush)  ______  324
    Wood-rush, Northern Many-headed  ______   Luzula multiflora frigida  
    Rush family

  993. Wood-rush, Northern  ______  323  Luzula confusa   Rush family

  994. Wood-rush, Spiked  ______  325  Luzula spicata   Rush family

  995. Wood-rush, Sudetan  ______  326  Luzula sudetica   Rush family

  996. Woodsia, Alpine  ______  296  Woodsia alpina   a FILMY FERN

  997. Woodsia, Fragrant (or Oblong)  ______  294  Woodsia ilvensis   a FILMY FERN

  998. Wood-sorrel  ______  94  Oxalia acelosella   Wood-sorrel family

  999. #546  Yarrow, Common  ______  Achillea millefolium

  1000. Yellowcress, Northern  (or Marsh Yellowcress)  ______  197  Rorippa islandica   Mustard family

  1001. Yellowrattle, Small  ______  207  Rhinanthus minor   Figwort family  




    GROUPINGS OF PLANTS IN ICELAND BY HABITAT    
     



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