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Iceland Wildflowers 
and other plants

with those during 
Focus On Nature Tours
noted with an (*) 

1996 thru 2014

during the months of May, June, 
September, and October



A List of Iceland Wildflowers and some Other Plants
compiled by Armas Hill 



Photo at upper right:  LADY SMOCK  (photograph by Gerin Hood) 

Many of the photos in the list that follows were taken during the June 2009 FONT tour in Iceland by tour participant, Gerin Hood. And she also took the time to do most of the identifications. Thanks Gerin! 

A fine book about the plant life of Iceland is
"A Guide to the Flowering Plants and Ferns of Iceland" by Hordur Kristinsson, first published in 1986 and more lately in 2010. There is a version in English.
That book is the source of much of the information in this list.



There have been 19 FONT tours in Iceland. 



In this List:

Wildflowers by colors:   BLUE to VIOLET    VIOLET    REDDISH / PINK    WHITE   YELLOW    GREEN

Other plant groupings:   TREES    FERNS    CLUBMOSSES    RUSHES     SEDGES     GRASSES    

MOSSES and LICHENS
    SEAWEED and other ALGAE

MOONWORTS and SPLEENWORTS are among the FERNS.  
COTTONGRASS
is included in the SEDGES. 
 

The months noted in the list below indicate when the plants flower in Iceland. 

AT THE END OF THE LIST HERE, THERE IS ANOTHER:

A List of Common Names of Icelandic Flowering Plants alphabetically in English

FOLLOWING THAT LIST:  Groupings of Plants by Habitats  


Additional Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in Iceland
     Upcoming FONT Tours Elsewhere  

Highlights from Some Previous FONT Iceland Tours


Photo Galleries of Icelandic Nature, Scenery, and Culture
from FONT tours in:
   
June 2006    June 2009    June 2012    Sep/Oct 2013        

Birds during FONT Iceland Tours
    Iceland Birds - a Complete List    Marine Life of Iceland

Northern Wildflowers & some Other Plants, by Family, in Iceland, Alaska, & Hokkaido, Japan
(including Medicinal Plants)

Other Photo Galleries of Plants     Directory of Photos in this Website

(ph): species with a photo in the FONT website



A List of Icelandic Wildflowers and Other Plants:

       
     
Those with a BLUE to VIOLET coloration:

  1. Harebell ______  in the Bellflower family   July-August   common in eastern Iceland, rare elsewhere  
    Campanula rotundifolia
     
     

  2. Arctic Harebell ______  in the Bellflower family  July   very rare in Iceland
    Campanula uniflora 


  3. Tufted Vetch ______  in the Legume, or Pea family, Fabaceae   July 
    Vicia cracca 

  4. Bush Vetch  ______  in the Legume, or Pea family, Fabaceae
    Vicia sepium

  5. Marsh Pea  ______   in the Legume, or Pea family, Fabaceae  very rare in Iceland and rarely flowers there
    Lathyrus palustris

  6. Alaska Lupin  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Legume, or Pea family, Fabaceae   June
    Lupinus nootkatensis 

    Lupinus nootkatensis
    is introduced in Iceland. 

     

    Alaska Lupin
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, from during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  7. Rock Speedwell ______  in the Figwort family   June 
    Veronica fruticans

  8. Alpine Speedwell  ______  in the Figwort family    June-July
    Veronica alpina

  9. Thyme-leaved Speedwell  ______  in the Figwort family  June
    Veronica serrpyllifolia

     
  10. Germander Speedwell  _____  in the Figwort family   June-July 
    Veronica chamaedrys  

  11. Common Field-speedwell  ______  introduced in Iceland, in south and southwest
    Veronica persica 

  12. Alpine Gentian  ______   in the Gentian family   June-July
    Gentiana nivalis

  13. Slender Gentian ______  in the Gentian family   June-July
    Gentianella tenella
     

  14. Arctic Felwort  ______  (another name is Marsh Felwort)   in the Gentian family   July
    Lomatogonium rotatum

    Lomatogonium rotatum
    is one of the American species of plants that grows naturally in Iceland, not known to occur anywhere else in Europe.
    It has an attractive overall bluish tint and is occasionally found on riverbanks in most of the country. 

  15. Field Forget-me-not  ______   in the Borage family   June-July
    Myosotis arvensis 


  16. Water Forget-me-not  ______   in the Borage family   July  
    Myosotis scorpioides 

  17. Oysterplant  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Borage family, Boraginaceae   June
    Mertensia maritima 



    Oysterplant
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour) 

  18. Strict Forget-me-not  ______    in the Borage family   June-July
    Myosotis stricta 

  19. Devil's-bit Scabious  ______   in the Teasel family   July-August  
    Succisa pratensis
      

  20. Field Scabious  ______  a rare alien in Iceland, only at a few places
    Knautia arvensis

     
     
  21. Arctic Bartsia  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Figwort family, Scrophulareaceae  June-July
    Bartsia alpina 



    Alpine Bartsia
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT June '09 Iceland Tour)

  22. Pyramidal Bugle  ______   in the Mint family   June-July
    Ajuga pyramidalis 

    The Pyramidal Bugle is a protected plant in Iceland.

  23. Heath Dog-violet  ______   in the Violet family   June
    Viola canina 

  24. Common Dog-violet  ______  rare in Iceland
    Viola riviniana

    In Iceland, where the Common Dog-violet is not common, it is a protected plant.

  25. Wild Pansy  (*)   ______   in the Violet Family   June
    Viola tricolor 

  26. Alpine Marsh Violet  ______   in the Violet family   May
    Viola palustris 

  27. Common Butterwort  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Bladderwort family, Lentibulariaceae  June
    Pinguicula vulgaris

     

    Common Butterwort
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)


    Those with a VIOLET coloration: 

  28. Heath Speedwell  ______   in the Figwort family   July
    Veronica officinalis
      

  29. Blue Water-speedwell  ______   in the Figwort family   July-August 
    Veronica anagalis-aquatica
     

  30. Marsh Speedwell  ______   in the Figwort family   July
    Veronica scutellata  
     

  31. Selfheal  ______    in the Mint family   June-July
    Prunella vulgaris 


  32. Alpine Meadow-rue  ______   in the Buttercup family   May-June
    Thalictrum alpinum
      

  33. Wood Crane's-bill  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Geranium family, Geraniaceae   June
    Geranium sylvaticum 



    Wood Crane's-bill
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  34. Serrate Gentian  ______     in the Gentian family   July-August
    Gentianella detonsa 


  35. Field Gentian   ______   in the Gentian family   July-August
    Gentianella campestris 


     
  36. Northern Gentian   ______    in the Gentian family   June-July 
    Gentianella aurea   
     
  37. Blue Heath  ______   in the Heath family   June-July 
    Phyllodoce coerulea    

    Rare in Iceland, the Blue Heath is one of the more striking plants in the country. its distribution is restricted to the outer districts on both sides of Eyjafjordur in northern Iceland, where snow covers the ground throughout the winter, and also in the area near Lodmundarfjorur in eastern Iceland.   

  38. Sea Pea  (*)  ______   in the Legume, or Pea family   June
    Lathyrus japonicus maritimus 


    Those with a REDDISH or PINK coloration:

  39. Purple Saxifrage  ______   in the Saxifrage family   April-May (sometimes starts to bloom in late March) 
    Saxifraga oppositifolia 

      
  40. Heath Spotted Orchid  ______    in the Orchid family   June-July 
    Dactylorhiza maculata 
    Dactylorhiza maculata islandica  ______ 
    Icelandic Spotted Orchid  
    the subspecies in Iceland

  41. Creeping Thistle  (*)  ______     in the Daisy, or Aster family   August-September 
    Cirsium arvense   

    Cirsium arvense
    is a rather rare, but naturalized alien in Iceland. It grows in dense, long-lasting stands.

  42. Red Dead-nettle  ______   in the Mint family   June-July
    Lamium purpureum
     
     
  43. Alpine Catchfly  ______    in the Pink family   July 
    Lychnis alpina 

  44. Ragged Robin  ______  occurs locally in southern Iceland, in Myrdalur and Eyjafjoli, rare elsewhere.
    Lychnis flos-cuculi 

  45. Wild Thyme  (*)  ______   in the Mint family   June-July   very common in Iceland  
    Thymus praecox arcticus  

  46. Great Burnet  ______    in the Rose family   July
    Sanguisorba officinalis  
     

  47. Rosebay Willowherb  ______    in the Willowherb family   July-August 
    Epilobium angustifolium  
     

  48. Arctic Riverbeauty   ______    in the Willowherb family   July
    Epilobium latifolium
     

    The Arctic Riverbeauty is one of the American plants that grows naturally in Iceland, not known to occur anywhere else in Europe.
    It is a purple willowherb that grows densely on gravelly river banks, in river gorges, or in gravelly dried-out riverbeds in many parts of Iceland.  

  49. Chickweed Willowherb  ______   in the Willowherb family   June-July
    Epilobium alsinifolium 

  50. Hornemann's Willowherb  ______   in the Willowherb family   June-July
    Epilobium hornemanni  

  51. American Willowherb  ______   in the Willowherb family    July
    Epilobium watsonii 

    The American Willowherb is an alien in Iceland, occurring mainly in and around Reykjavik.

  52. Broad-leaved Willowherb  ______  a very rare alien in Iceland
    Epilobium montanum   

  53. Cliff Willowherb  ______   in the Willowherb family   July
    Epilobium collinum 


  54. Marsh Willowherb  ______   in the Willowherb family   July-August
    Epilobium palustre 

  55. Alpine Willowherb  ______   in the Willowherb family   June-July
    Epilobium anagallidifolium  


  56. Marsh Cinquefoil  (*)  ______   in the Rose family   June   common in Iceland, in moist pastures, meadows, and bogs
    Potentilla palustris 

  57. Hemp-nettle  ______   in the Mint family   July
    Galeopsis tetrahit 

  58. Strict Primrose  ______  in the Primrose family   May-June   very rare in Iceland
    Primula stricta

  59. Greenland Primrose  ______  has been found in Iceland at only one place
    Primula egaliksensis 

    The Greenland Primrose is a protected plant in Iceland.

  60. Small Cranberry  ______    in the Heath family   June-July   in northern and northeastern Iceland  
    Vaccinium microcarpum 

  61. Trailing Azalea  (*)  ______   in the Heath family   June
    Loiseleuria procumbens 

  62. Water Avens  ______  in the Rose family   June-July   common on grassy heathland and hillsides, with moderate moisture 
    Geum rivale islandicum  ______ 
    subspecies in Iceland

  63. Red Clover  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Legume, or Pea family   June-August
    Trifolium pratense  

    In Iceland, Trifolium pratense is introduced and partly naturalized. It occurs in grassy pastures and cultivated homefields. It is rather rare in Iceland.



    Red Clover
    (photo courtesy of Doris Potter)

  64. Hairy Stonecrop  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Stonecrop family, Crassulaceae   June
    Sedum villosum 

     

    Hairy Stonecrop
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  65. Heather  (*)  ______  in the Heath family   August-September   common in Iceland, on heathland and slopes
    Calluna vulgaris  

  66. Moss Campion  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Pink family, Caryophyllaceae   May-June
    Silene acaulis 



    Moss Campion
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT June '09 Iceland Tour) 

  67. Thrift  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Sea Lavender family   June
    Almeria maritima 

     

    Thrift
    (photographed during the June 2006 FONT Iceland Tour by Cheryl Pearce)

  68. Lady Smock  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Mustard family, Brassicadeae, formerly Cruciferae   May-June
    Cardamine nymanii 



    Lady Smock
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT June '09 Iceland Tour)

     
  69. Common Valerian ______   in the Valerian family   July-August
    Valeriana officinalis   

  70. Mudwort  ______   in the Figwort family   July-August 
    Limosella aquatica   

  71. Sea-milkwort  ______   in the Primrose Family   July-August   
    Glaux maritima 

  72. Amphibious Bistort  ______   in the Dock family   July
    Persicaria amphibia

    The Amphibious Bistort (also known as Amphibious Knotweed) is a protected plant in Iceland.

  73. Redshank  ______  related to the Amphibious Bistort, it is a non-aquatic alien in Iceland
    Persicaria maculata  (or Polygonum persicaria)

    The plant known as the Redshank (not the bird) occurs at several locations in Iceland in thermal soil, near hot springs and warm streams, and also as a weed around greenhouses.

    Other names for the plant known as the Redshank are Redleg and Lady's Thumb.

  74. Glaucous Dog-rose  ______  in the Rose family   
    Rosa dumalis

    The Glaucous Dog-rose is very rare in Iceland. It has not been found flowering in natural habitats in the country, but it blooms in gardens.     
    In Iceland, it is a protected plant.

  75. Bilberry  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Heath family, Ericaceae    June
    Vaccinium myrtillus 



    Bilberry
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  76. Bog Bilberry  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Heath family, Ericaceae   May-June
    Vaccinium uliginosum 

     

    Bog Bilberry
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  77. Alpine Fleabane  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June
    Erigeron borealis
     

  78. Snow Fleabane  ______  in the Daisy, or Aster family   June-July
    Erigeron humilis
     
      
  79. Dwarf Fleabane _______  in the Daisy, or Aster family   June-July
    Erigeron uniflorus 
     


    Those with mostly or all WHITE coloration:  

  80. Glacier Buttercup  ______   in the Buttercup family   June
    Ranunculus glacialis  
     
  81. Sea Mayweed  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Daisy family, Asteraceae,  Composite   June-July
    Matricaria maritima
    formerly

     

    Sea Maywood
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, from during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  82. Oxeye Daisy  (*)  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June-July
    Leucanthemum vulgare   


  83. Mountain Avens  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Rose family, Rosaceae   May-June
    Dryas octopetala 

    Dryas octopetala
    has some other names. "Holtasoley", meaning "Heath Buttercup" is used at flowering time.
    "Harbruda", meaning "hairy doll", is used after the fruit has matured.
    The leafy shoots, found in all seasons, are called "Rjupnalauf" meaning "ptarmigan leaves".   



    Mountain Avens
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour) 

  84. Burnet Rose  ______   in the Rose family   July
    Rosa pimpinellifolia 

  85. Grass of Parnassus  ______    in the Parnassus Grass family, related to the Saxifrages   June-July
    Parnassia palustris 

  86. Wild Strawberry  (ph)  ______   in the Rose family   July  
    Fragaria vesca 



    Not the flower, but what follows.
    Fragaria vesca, the Wild Strawberry


  87. Dwarf Cornel  ______   in the Dogwood family   July   rare in Iceland
    Cornus suecica
     
     
  88. Sea Campion  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Pink family, Caryophyllaceae   June
    Silene uniflora 






    Two photos of Sea Campion
    (both taken during FONT Iceland Tours 
    upper photo in June 2006 by Cheryl Pearce; lower photo in June 2009 by Gerin Hood)
     
  89. Alpine Mouse-ear  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Pink family, Caryophyliaceae   May-June
    Cerastium alpinum  

     
     

    Alpine Mouse-ear
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland Tour - June 2009)

  90. Smooth Mouse-ear  ______  
    Cerastium glabratum 

  91. Arctic Mouse-ear  ______    in the Pink family   June-July
    Cerastium arcticum   
     
  92. Starwort Mouse-ear  ______   in the Pink family   June
    Cerastium cerastoides   


  93. Chickweed Wintergreen  ______   in the Primrose family   July
    Trientalis europaea   

  94. Wood-sorrel  ______  in the Wood-sorrel family
    Oxalis acetosella

    The Wood-sorrel is a protected plant in Iceland.

  95. Bogbean  ______   in the Bogbean family   June   
    Menyanthes trifoliata   

  96. Mossy Saxifrage  ______  in the Saxifrage family   June
    Saxifraga hypnoides 

  97. Drooping Saxifrage  ______   in the Saxifrage family   June-July
    Saxifraga cernua  

  98. Meadow Saxifrage  ______  a rare alien in Iceland
    Saxifraga granulata  

  99. Tufted Saxifrage   ______   in the Saxifrage family   May-June
    Saxifraga caespitosa 

  100. Starry Saxifrage  ______    in the Saxifrage family   June-July
    Saxifraga stellaris 

  101. Foliolose Saxifrage  ______  in Iceland only found at high altitudes, closely related to the Starry Saxifrage 
    Saxifraga foliolosa 

    Foliolose Saxifrage is a protected species in Iceland.

  102. Lesser Stitchwort  ______   in the Pink family   June-July 
    Stellaria graminea 

  103. Thread-leaved Water-crowfoot  ______   in the Buttercup family   July-August
    Ranunculus trichophyllus 

  104. Diapensia  ______   in the Diapensia family   June
    Diapensia lapponica 

  105. Pyramidal Saxifrage  ______   in the Saxifrage family   July
    Saxifraga cotyledon 


  106. Silver Saxifrage  ______   in the Saxifrage family   July
    Saxifraga paniculata  

  107. Alpine Brook Saxifrage ______   in the Saxifrage family   June-July
    Saxifraga rivularis 

  108. Arctic Brook Saxifrage   ______   rather rare in Iceland, usually above 2,700 feet
    Saxifraga hyperborea

    The Arctic Brook Saxifrage is small, reddish.  

  109. Alpine Snow Saxifrage  ______   in the Saxifrage family   June-July  
    Saxifraga nivalis  


  110. Slender Snow Saxifrage  ______   closely related to the Alpine Snow Saxifrage, but smaller
    Saxifraga tenuis
      
  111. Common Mouse-ear  ______  in the Pink family   May-June
    Cerastium fontanum 

  112. Sticky Mouse-ear  ______  rather rare in Iceland
    Cerastium glomeratum

  113. Corn Spurrey  ______   in the Pink family   July  
    Spergula arvensis 

  114. Lesser Spurrey   ______  (another name is Sea Spurrey)  very rare in Iceland
    Spergularia marina

    Spergularia marina is a protected plant in Iceland.

  115. Arctic Sandwort  ______  in the Pink family   June 
    Arenaria norvegica   


  116. Sea Sandwort  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Pink family, Caryophyllaceae  June
    Honckenya peploides 



    Sea Sandwort
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  117. Mountain Sandwort  ______   in the Pink family   June-July
    Minuartia rubella 

  118. Teesdale Sandwort  ______   in the Pink family   June-July
    Minuartia stricta  

  119. Two-flowered Sandwort  ______   in the Pink family   June
    Minuartia biflora 


  120. Alpine Pearlwort  ______    in the Pink family   June
    Sagina saginoides   

  121. Heath Pearlwort  ______   found sparingly on gravel slopes and cliffsides along the seashore 
    Sagina subulata

  122. Knotted Pearlwort  ______   in the Pink family   June-July
    Sagina nodosa 

  123. Tufted Pearlwort  ______  rare in Iceland
    Sagina caespitosa

  124. Common Chickweed  (*)  ______   in the Pink family   May-November
    Stellaria media   

  125. Fairy Flax  ______   in the Flax family   July
    Linum catharticum

  126. Fleshy Stitchwort  ______   in the Pink family   July
    Stellaria crassifolia

  127. Northern Stitchwort  ______   rare in Iceland
    Stellaria calycantha  

    The Northern Stitchwort is a protected plant in Iceland.

  128. Low Stitchwort  ______   in the Pink family   July 
    Stellaria humifusa

  129. Iceland-purslane  ______   in the Dock family   June-July
    Koenigia islandica

  130. Alpine Bistort  (*)  ______   in the Dock family   June-July   very common in Iceland 
    Bistoria vivipara

  131. Knotgrass  ______   in the Dock family   June
    Polygonum aviculare

  132. Round-leaved Sundew  (ph)  ______   in the Sundew family, DROSERACEAE   July
    Drosera rotundifolia



    Round-leaved Sundew 

  133. Marsh Pennywort  ______   in the Parsley family   July-August 
    Hydrocotyle vulgaris

  134. Stone Bramble  ______   in the Rose family   July
    Rubus saxatilis

  135. Meadowsweet  ______   in the Rose family   July
    Filipendula ulmaria

  136. Rowan  ______   in the Rose family   June
    Sorbus aucuparia

  137. Garden Angelica  ______   in the Parsley family   July-August
    Angelica archangelica

  138. Wild Angelica  (*)  ______   in the Parsley family   June-July   in Iceland, widespread in the lowlands
    Angelica sylvestris

  139. Scots Lovage  ______   in the Parsley family   June-July
    Ligusticum  scoticum

  140. Caraway  ______   in the Parsley family   May-June   naturalized in southern Iceland
    Carum carvi

    The fruit of the Caraway splits into two, curved, grayish-brown merocarps, 0.1 inches long.
    The Caraway merocarps have a strong taste, and are used in Iceland as a condiment in bread and cheese.

  141. Sweet Cicely  ______  in the Parsley family   June   an alien in Iceland around farms, gardens, and in villages  
    Myrrhis odorata

  142. Cow Parsley  ______   in the Parsley family   June   a widespread alien in Iceland, in gardens, near houses and farms, or in waste places
    Anthriscus sylvestris

  143. Yarrow  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June   common in much of Iceland, but not so in the south 
    Achillea millefolium

  144. Sneezewort  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   in Iceland a rather rare, localized alien 
    Achillea ptarmica

  145. Alpine Rock-cress  ______   in the Mustard family   May-June   widespread in Iceland
    Arabis alpina

  146. Northern Rock-cress  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Mustard family, Brassicaceae, formerly Cruciferae   May-June
    Cardaminopsis petraea

    Cardaminopsis petraea is one of the most common wildflowers in Iceland in both the lowlands and highlands. It occurs in areas of gravel hills, screes, sand and lava fields. 



    Northern Rock-cress
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  147. Sea Rocket  ______   in the Mustard family   June-July
    Cakile arctica

    Sea Rocket is one of the American species of plants that grows naturally in Iceland, not known to occur anywhere else in Europe. In Iceland, it is common in the south, southwest, and northwest. 

  148. Hoary Whitlowgrass  ______   in the Mustard family   May-June
    Draba incana

  149. Rock Whitlowgrass  ______   in the Mustard family   May-June
    Draba norvegica

  150. Snow Whitlowgrass  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Mustard family, Brassicaceae, formerly Cruciferae   June-July
    Draba nivalis 

    Draba nivalis is rather rare in Iceland, found at rock outcrops and cairns in the northern and eastern parts of the island.



    Snow Whitlowgrass
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  151. Shepherd's Purse  ______   in the Mustard family   May-September
    Capsella bursa-pastoris

  152. Field Bitter-cress  (or Field Pennycress ______  a rare alien in Iceland
    Thlaspi arvense

  153. Hairy Bitter-cress  ______   in the Mustard family   widespread in southern and southwestern Iceland
    Cardamine hirsuta

  154. Alpine Bitter-cress  ______   in the Mustard family   widespread in Iceland, at high altitudes
    Cardamine bellidifolia

  155. Common Scurvygrass  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Mustard family, Brassicaceae, formerly Cruciferae   May-June
    Cochlearia officinalis

    Cochlearia officinalis is widespread in Iceland, found at bird-cliffs and rocky shores. 



    Common Scurvygrass
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  156. Awlwort  ______   in the Mustard family   July
    Subularia aquatica

  157. Pygmyweed  ______  in the Stonecrop family   a very small and very rare aquatic plant, restricted to thermal soil   Crassula aquatica 

    The Pygmyweed is a protected plant in Iceland.

  158. Common Whitlowgrass  ______   in the Mustard family   April-May
    Erophila verna 

  159. Milky Willowherb  ______   in the Willowherb family   June-July 
    Epilobium lactiflorum

  160. Snow Pearlwort  ______   in the Pink family   June-July
    Sagina nivalis

  161. Blinks  ______   in the Purslane family   June
    Montia fontana

  162. Scottish Asphodel  ______   in the Bunchflower family   June
    Tofieldia pusilla

  163. Northern Bedstraw  ______   in the Madder family   July
    Galium boreale

  164. Slender Bedstraw  ______   in the Madder family   June
    Galium normanii
    Galium normanii islandicum  ______ 
    Icelandic Bedstraw

  165. Fen Bedstraw  ______   in the Madder family   July
    Galium uliginosum

  166. Small Bedstraw  ______   in the Madder family   July
    Galium trifidum

  167. Marsh Bedstraw  ______  very rare in Iceland, only at a few localities in the southwest
    Galium palustre

    The Marsh Bedstraw is a protected plant in Iceland.

  168. Cassiope  ______  in the Heath family   May-June
    Cassiope hypnoides

  169. Bearberry  (*) (ph)  ______ in the Heath family, Ericaceae   May-June
    Arctostaphylos uva-ursi



    Bearberry
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  170. Cowberry  ______  very rare in Iceland, only at a few localities in the east and northeast 
    Vaccinium vitas-idaea

  171. Bog Rosemary  ______  very rare in Iceland, recently discovered in the northern area of the eastern fjords
    Andromeda polifolia

  172. Common Wintergreen  ______  in the Wintergreen family   July
    Pyrola minor

  173. Arctic Wintergreen  ______   in the Wintergreen family   July-August
    Pyrola grandiflora

    Arctic Wintergreen is one of the American species of plants that grows naturally in Iceland, not known to occur anywhere else in Europe. In Iceland, it is found at a few sites in the north. 

  174. Serrated Wintergreen  ______   in the Wintergreen family   July-August   widespread in Iceland, more common in the north and northwest  
    Orthilia secunda

  175. Autumn Gentian  ______   in the Gentian family   August
    Gentianella amarella

  176. Cold Eyebright  ______   in the Figwort family   July-August
    Euphrasia frigida

  177. Arctic Eyebright  ______   very rare in Iceland
    Euphrasia arctica

  178. White Dead-nettle  ______  in the Mint family   June
    Lamium album

  179. White Clover  ______   in the Legume, or Pea family   June-July
    Trifolium repens

  180. Alsike Clover  ______  an alien in Iceland, around farms and cultivated areas
    Trifolium hybridum


    Those with a YELLOW coloration:

  181. Marsh-marigold  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Buttercup family, Ranunculaceae   May-June
    Caltha palustris



    Marsh-marigold
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, from during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  182. Alpine Cinquefoil  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Rose family, Rosaceae   May-June
    Potentilla crantzii



    Alpine Cinquefoil
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, from during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  183. Tormentil  ______  in the Rose family
    Potentilla erecta

    The Tormentil is a protected plant in Iceland.

  184. Silverweed  (*)  ______   in the Rose family   June
    Potentilla anserina
    Potentilla anserina egedii  ______ 
    Seaside Silverweed  
    restricted to salt marshes along the seashore

  185. Meadow Buttercup  ______   in the Buttercup family    May-June 
    Ranunculus acris

  186. Creeping Buttercup  ______   in the Buttercup family   June
    Ranunculus repens

  187. Goldilocks Buttercup  ______  rare in Iceland
    Ranunculus auricomus

  188. Marsh Saxifrage  ______   in the Saxifrage family   June-July
    Saxifraga hirculus

  189. Yellow Saxifrage  ______   in the Saxifrage family   July   widespread in eastern Iceland
    Saxifraga aizoides

  190. Arctic Poppy  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Poppy family, Papaveraceae   June
    Papaver radicatum
    Papaver radicatum stefanssonii  ______ 
    Steffansson's Icelandic Poppy

    The variety of the Arctic Poppy, Papaver radicatum stefanssonii, with white and pink flowers, is a protected plant in Iceland. 



    Arctic Poppy

    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)


    What is called the "Iceland Poppy", Papaver nudicaule, is a boreal flowering plant, native to the subpolar regions of Europe, Asia, and North America, and the mountains of central Asia - but NOT to Iceland.
    Synonyms for
    Papaver nudicaule are: Papaver croceum, Papaver miyabeanum, Papaver amurense, Papaver macounii. 

  191. Biting Stonecrop  ______   in the Stonecrop family   July-August
    Sedum acre

  192. Annual Stonecrop  ______   in the Stonecrop family   June
    Sedum annuum

  193. Creeping Spearwort  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Buttercup family, Ranunculaceae   June-July
    Ranunculus reptans

    Ranunculus reptans is found in moist soil.



    Creeping Spearwort
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  194. Pygmy Buttercup  ______   in the Buttercup family   July-August
    Ranunculus pygmaeus

  195. Arctic Buttercup  ______   in the Buttercup family   June 
    Ranunculus hyperboreus

  196. Creeping Sibbaldia  ______   in the Rose family   June 
    Sibbaldia procumbens

  197. Northern Yellowcress  (or Marsh Yellowcress ______   in the Mustard family   July
    Rorippa islandica

  198. Flixweed  ______  a very rare alien in Iceland
    Descurainia sophia

  199. Hawkweed-leaved Treaclemustard  ______   in the Mustard family   July
    Erysimum hieraciifolium

  200. Winter-cress  ______   in the Mustard family   July   an alien in Iceland near houses and farms
    Barbarea vulgaris 

    Other names for Barbarea vulgaris are Rocketcress, Yellow Rocketcress, or Bittercress.

  201. Alpine Whitlowgrass  ______   in the Mustard family   July   one of the rarer plants in the high country in Iceland
    Draba alpina 

  202. Roseroot  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Stonecrop family, Crassulaceae   June
    Rhodiola rosea



    Roseroot
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  203. Lady's Bedstraw  ______  in the Madder family   June-July
    Galium verum

  204. Meadow Vetchling  ______   in the Legume, or Pea family   July-August
    Lathyrus pratensis

  205. Small Cow-wheat  ______   in the Figwort family   July   rare in Iceland, found under birches
    Melampyrum sylvaticum

  206. Upright Lousewort  ______   in the Figwort family   June
    Pedicularis flammea

  207. Yellow-rattle, Small  ______   in the Figwort family   June-July
    Rhinanthus minor

  208. Kidney Vetch  ______   in the Legume, or Pea family   June-July
    Anthyllis vulneraria

  209. Dandelion  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Daisy, or Aster family, Asteraceae, formerly Composite   April-Jun
    Taraxacum spp.



    Dandelion
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, from during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  210. Hawkweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   July-August 
    Hieracium spp.

  211. Alpine Hawkweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June-July
    Hieracium alpinum

  212. Icelandic Hawkweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June-July
    Pilosella islandica

  213. Autumn Hawkbit  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   July-August
    Leontodon autumnalis

  214. Marsh Hawk's-beard  ______   very rare in Iceland
    Crepis paludosa

  215. Colt's-foot  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   April-May
    Tussilago farfara

  216. Groundsel  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June-September
    Senecio vulgaris

  217. Pineappleweed  ______  in the Daisy, or Aster family   July-September
    Chamomilla suaveolens 


    Mostly GREEN:

  218. Alpine Lady's-mantle  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Rose family, Rosaceae   June
    Alchemilla alpina

    Alchemilla alpina is found in depressions in slopes, snowbeds, screes, and erosive soil.



    Alpine Lady's-mantle
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  219. Common Lady's-mantle  ______   in the Rose family   June
    Alchemia vulgaris

  220. Faeroeic Lady's-mantle  ______   in the Rose family   June-July
    Alchemilia faeroensis

  221. Procumbent Pearlwort  ______   in the Pink family   June-July
    Sagina procumbens     

  222. Northern Green Orchid ______   in the Orchid family   June
    Platantherea hyperborea

    The Northern Green Orchid is one of the American species of plants that grows naturally in Iceland, not known to occur anywhere else in Europe.
    It has sweetly-scented flowers and lives on grassy slopes in lowlands throughout the country.

  223. Small-white Orchid  (or White Orchid ______   in the Orchid family   June
    Pseudorchis albida  

  224. Herb-Paris  ______  in the Birch Root family   July   rare in Iceland
    Paris quadrifolia

    Herb-Paris is a protected plant in Iceland.

  225. Various-leaved Pondweed  ______   in the Pondweed family   July-August
    Potamogeton gramineus

  226. Red Pondweed  (or Reddish Pondweed______  in the Pondweed family   July
    Potamogeton alpinus

  227. Broad-leaved Pondweed  ______   in the Pondweed family   July-August
    Potamogeton natans

  228. Clasping-leaved Pondweed  (or Perfoliate Pondweed)  ______   in the Pondweed family   July-August
    Potamogeton perfoliatus

  229. Long-stalked Pondweed  ______   in the Pondweed family   July-August
    Potamogeton praelongus

  230. Slender-leaved Pondweed  ______   in the Pondweed family   June-July
    Potamogeton filiformis

  231. Lesser Pondweed  ______   in the Pondweed family   June-July
    Potamogeton pusillus

  232. Horned Pondweed  ______   in the Pondweed family   July  
    Zannichellia palustris   

  233. Beaked Tasselweed  ______  (also called Wigeon Grass or Ditch Grass in the RUPPIACEAE family
    Ruppia maritima

    Ruppia maritima
    occurs in lagoons with brackish water. Very rare in Iceland.

  234. Shoreweed  ______  in the Plantain family, PLANTAGINACEAE   July   widespread in southwest Iceland
    Littorella uniflora

    Littorella uniflora has been treated as conspecific with Littorella americana, the American Shoreweed of northern North America, but molecular data has shown otherwise.
    Littorella uniflora ranges from Iceland east in Europe to the Black Sea.

  235. Spiny Water-starwort  ______  (also called Vernal Water-starwort  in the Plantain family, PLANTAGINACEAE June-July
    Callitriche palustris
    (or Callitriche verna)

  236. Hook-tipped Water-starwort  ______  in the Plantain family   June-July
    Callitriche hamulata

  237. Pedunculate Water-starwort  ______   in the Plantain family   very rare in Iceland
    Callitriche brutia

    The Pedunculate Water-starwort is a protected plant in Iceland.

  238. Common Water-starwort  ______   in the Plantain family   July
    Callitriche stagnalis

  239. Autumn Water-starwort  ______   in the Plantain family   rather rare in Iceland
    Callitriche hermaphroditica

    Callitriche hermaphroditica
    differs distinctly from other starworts. It is totally submerged in water at the bottom of ponds or streams.

  240. Alternate Water-milfoil  (or Loose-flowered Water-milfoil)  ______  in the Water-milfoil family, HALORAGACEAE)
    Myriophyllum alterniflorum

  241. Spiked Water-milfoil  ______  in the Water-milfoil family, HALORAGACEAE
    Myriophyllum spicatum

  242. Lesser Bladderwort  ______  in the Bladderwort family, LENTIBULARIACEAE   August
    Utricularia minor

  243. Mare's-tail _____   in the Plantain family   July
    Hippuris vulgaris

  244. Four-leaved Mare's-tail  ______   in the Plantain family   
    Hippuris tetraphylla 

  245. Water Horsetail _____   in the Horsetail family, EQUISETACEAE
    Equisetum fluviatile

  246. Marsh Horsetail _____   in the Horsetail family, EQUISETACEAE
    Equisetum palustre 

  247. Field Horsetail _____   in the Horsetail family   very common in Iceland
    Equisetum arvense
    Equisetum arvense borealis  ______ 
    Northern Horsetail

  248. Shady Horsetail  (*) (ph)  _____   in the Horsetail family   (during a FONT in June)
    Equisetum pratense



    Shady Horsetail
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  249. Wood Horsetail  ______   in the Horsetail family   very rare in Iceland
    Equisetum sylvaticum

  250. Variegated Horsetail ______   in the Horsetail family
    Equisetum variegatum

  251. Rough Horsetail ______   in the Horsetail family 
    Equisetum hymale

  252. Common Nettle (or Stinging Nettle______  in the Nettle family, URTICACEAE
    Urtica dioeca

  253. Small Nettle (or Burning Nettle)   ______   in the Nettle family, URTICACEAE
    Urtica urens

  254. Greater Plantain  ______   in the Plantain family   June-July
    Plantago major

  255. Ribwort Plantain  ______   in the Plantain family   July
    Plantago lanceolata

  256. Sea Plantain  ______   in the Plantain family   June
    Plantago maritima

  257. Long-stalked Orache  (or Longfoot Orache)  ______   in the Goosefoot family   June-July
    Atriplex longipes

  258. Smoothish Orache  (or Babington's Orache)  ______   in the Goosefoot family   June-July
    Atriplex glabriusscula

  259. Fat-hen  ______   an alien in Iceland
    Chenopodium album

  260. Common Sorrel  ______   in the Dock family   May-June   very common in Iceland
    Rumex acetosa

  261. Sheep's Sorrel  ______   in the Dock family   June
    Rumex acetosella

  262. Northern Dock  ______   in the Dock family   June-July
    Rumex longifolius

  263. Curled Dock  ______   in the Dock family   a rare alien at a few places in Iceland
    Rumex crispus

  264. Mountain Sorrel  (*) (ph)  ______  in the Dock family   May-June
    Oxyria digyna

    Oxyria digyna occurs commonly in Iceland, at ravines, cliffs, gravelly slopes, and rocky ground. 



    Mountain Sorrel
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  265. Frog Orchid ______   in the Orchid family   June-July
    Coeloglossum viride
    Coeloglossum virride islandicum  ______ 
    Icelandic Frog Orchid

  266. Coralroot Orchid  (or Coralroot) ______   in the Orchid family   June-July
    Corallorhiza trifida

  267. Lesser Twayblade ______   in the Orchid family   July
    Listeria cordata

  268. Common Twayblade ______   in the Orchid family   June-July
    Listera ovata

    The Twayblade, Listera ovata, is a protected plant in Iceland.

  269. Highland Cudweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   July
    Omalotheca novergica

  270. Heath Cudweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   July
    Omalotheca sylvatica

  271. Dwarf Cudweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June
    Omalotheca supina

  272. Marsh Cudweed  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   July-August
    Filaginella uliginosa

  273. Alpine Cat's-foot  ______   in the Daisy, or Aster family   June
    Antennaria alpina 

  274. Crowberry  ______   in the Crowberry family   April-May   very common in Iceland
    Empetrum nigrum 


    Other Plants

    Trees

  275. Dwarf Birch  (*)  ______  in the Birch family, Betulaceae
    Betula nana

  276. Downy Birch  (*)  ______  in the Birch family, Betulaceae
    Betula pubescens  

    The Downy Birch is the only forest-forming tree species in Iceland to have returned to the present interglacial period.

    Another name for Betula pubescens is European White Birch. 

  277. Juniper  ______  in the Cypress family, Cupressaceae   common in Iceland
    Juniperus communis

  278. European Aspen  ______  in the Willow family, Salicaceae
    Populus tremula

    The Aspen is rare in Iceland, said to occur naturally at only 6 locations. 

  279. Dwarf Willow  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Willow family, Salicaceae   June
    Salix herbeacea



    Dwarf Willow
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  280. Woolly Willow  (*) (ph)  ______   in the Willow family, Salicaceae   June
    Salix lanata 



    Woolly Willow
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT Iceland June '09 Tour)

  281. Bluish Willow  ______  (another name is Broad-leaved Willow)   in the Willow family, Salicaceae
    Salix callicarpaea

    Salix callicarpaea
    has been said to be one of the American plants that grows naturally in Iceland, not known to occur anywhere else in Europe.

  282. Tea-leaved Willow  (*)  ______   in the Willow family, Salicaceae
    Salix phylicifolia

    The Tea-leaved Willow is abundant in Iceland. Compared to the Woolly Willow and the Bluish Willow, the Tea-leaved Willow grows where it is wetter. 

  283. Arctic Willow  ______  in the Willow family, Salicaceae
    Salix arctica 

    The Arctic Willow is the northernmost woody plant in the world. It has a circumpolar distribution around the Arctic Ocean. It occurs far above the tree line to the northern limit of land on the north coast of Greenland. 


    Ferns

  284. Hard Fern  ______   in the Hardfern family   rather rare in Iceland
    Blechnum spicant

    Blechnum spicant var. fallax,
    a variety of Hard Fern restricted to hot springs, is a protected plant in Iceland. 

  285. Holly Fern  ______   in the Fern family
    Polystichum lonchitis

    Like the Hard Fern (above), the Holly Fern grows in snowbeds, but it is less dependent upon the snow cover, and therefore in Iceland it is more widespread.  

  286. Green Spleenwort  ______   in the family ASPLENIACEAE, a family of ferns
    Asplenium viride

    The Green Spleenwort is a protected plant in Iceland.

  287. Maidenhair Spleenwort  ______  in the family ASPLENIACEAE, a family of ferns
    Asplenium trichomanes

    The Maidenhair Spleenwort is a protected plant in Iceland.

  288. Common Moonwort  ______  in the Adder's-tongue family, OPHIOGLOSSACEAE, a family of ferns
    Botrychium lunaria

  289. Glossy Moonwort  ______   a small, rare species in Iceland
    Botrychium simplex 

    The Glossy Moonwort is a protected plant in Iceland.

  290. Northern Moonwort  ______   in the Adder's-tongue family
    Botrychium boreale

  291. Lance-leaved Moonwort  ______  in the Adder's-tongue family
    Botrychium lanceolatum

  292. Small Adder's Tongue  ______   in the Adder's-tongue family   Very rare in Iceland
    Ophioglossum azoricum

  293. Common Polypody  ______   in POLYPODIACEAE, a family of polypod ferns
    Polypodium vulgare  

  294. Oblong Woodsia  (or Fragrant Woodsia ______  in the Filmy-fern family
    Woodsia ilvensis

  295. Alpine Woodsia  ______   rare in Iceland, only found in lava fields
    Woodsia alpina

  296. Wilson's Filmy-fern  ______   only known at one locality in Iceland, in the south, a small and delicate fern
    Hymenophyllum wilsoni

    Other than in Iceland, the Wilson's Filmy-fern is in western Europe and the Macaronesian islands. 

    In Iceland, the Wilson's Filmy-fern is a protected plant.  

  297. Alpine Lady-fern  ______  in the Lady-fern family
    Athyrium distentifolium 

  298. Lady-fern  ______  in the Lady-fern family
    Athyrium filix-femina

  299. Brittle Bladder-fern  ______  in the Lady-fern family
    Cystopteris fragilis

  300. Northern Buckler-fern  ______  in the Lady-fern family
    Dryopteris assimilis

  301. Male-fern  ______  in the Lady-fern family
    Dryopteris filix-mas

  302. Oak Fern  ______  in the Lady-fern family
    Gymnocarpium dryopteris

  303. Beech Fern  ______  in the Beech-fern family
    Thelypteris phegopteris

  304. Parsley Fern  ______  in the Parsley Fern family
    Cryptogamma crispa

    The Parsley Fern is a protected plant in Iceland.


    Clubmosses

  305. Alpine Clubmoss  ______  in the Clubmoss family, Lycopodiophyta
    Lycopodium
    (or Diphazium) alpinium

  306. Stag's-horn Clubmoss  ______  in the Clubmoss family, Lycopodiophyta
    Lycopodium clavatum 

    The Stag's-horn Clubmoss is a protected plant in Iceland.

  307. Fir Clubmoss  ______  in the Clubmoss family, Lycopodiophyta
    Lycopodium
    (or Huperzia) selago

  308. Interrrupted Clubmoss  ______  in the Clubmoss family, Lycopodiophyta
    Lycopodium annotinum

  309. Lesser Clubmoss  ______  in the Spikemoss family, Selaginellaceae
    Selaginella selaginoides

    Selaginella is the only genus in the Spikemoss family, the spikemosses or lesser clubmosses.


    Rushes

  310. Alpine Rush  ______   in the Rush family   June-July
    Juncus alpinus

  311. Iceland Rush  ______   in the Rush family   common in Iceland
    Juncus arcticus intermedius

  312. Jointed Rush  ______   in the Rush family   July
    Juncus articulatus

  313. Two-flowered Rush  ______   in the Rush family   June
    Juncus biglumis

  314. Toad Rush  ______   in the Rush family   July-August
    Juncus bufonius

  315. Bulbous Rush  ______  in the Rush family   July
    Juncus bulbosus

  316. Chestnut Rush  ______   in the Rush family   June-July   rather rare in Iceland
    Juncus castaneus

  317. Thread Rush  ______   in the Rush family   June-July   common in Iceland, except in much of the south where it does not occur
    Juncus filiformis

  318. Saltmarsh Rush  ______   in the Rush family   very rare in Iceland, found only at one locality in the southwest
    Juncus gerardi

    The Saltmarsh Rush is a protected plant in Iceland.

  319. Frog Rush  ______   in the Rush family   July-August
    Juncus ranarius

  320. Three-leaved Rush  (*)  ______   in the Rush family   June-July   very common in Iceland, tussocks in dry grassland
    Juncus trifidus   

    Another name for Juncus trifidus is Highland Rush.

  321. Three-flowered Rush  ______   in the Rush family   June
    Juncus triglumis

  322. Curved Wood-rush  ______   in the Rush family   June-July
    Luzula arcuata

  323. Northern Wood-rush  ______  
    Luzula confusa

  324. Many-headed Wood-rush  (or Heath Wood-rush ______   in the Rush family   very common in Iceland
    Luzula multiflora
    Luzula multiflora frigida  ______ 
    Northern Many-headed Wood-rush

  325. Spiked Wood-rush  ______   in the Rush family
    Luzula spicata

  326. Sudetan Wood-rush  ______   in the Rush family
    Luzula sudetica



    Sedges


  327. Black Alpine-sedge  ______
    Carex atrata

  328. Bicolored Sedge  ______
    Carex bicolor

  329. Stiff Sedge  ______
    Carex bigelowii

  330. Brownish Sedge  ______   rare in Iceland
    Carex brunnescens

  331. Club Sedge  ______   rare in Iceland
    Carex buxbaumi 

  332. Hair Sedge  ______
    Carex capillaris

  333. Capitate Sedge  ______
    Carex capitata

  334. Spring Sedge  ______   in Iceland found only on the southern Reykjanes Peninsula
    Carex caryophyllea 

  335. String Sedge  ______
    Carex chordorrhiza

  336. White Sedge  ______
    Carex curta

  337. Common Yellow-sedge  ______   not at all common in Iceland, with the distribution there not known
    Carex demissa   

  338. Lesser Tussock-sedge  ______   rare in Iceland
    Carex diamndra

  339. Dioecious Sedge  ______
    Carex dioeca

  340. Star Sedge  ______
    Carex echinata

  341. Glaucous Sedge  ______
    Carex flacca

  342. Large Yellow-sedge  ______  very rare in northern Iceland
    Carex flava

    Large Yellow-sedge is a protected plant in Iceland.

  343. Glacier Sedge  ______
    Carex glacialis

  344. Hudson Bay Sedge  ______   grows in wet bogs in the interior of northern Iceland
    Carex helenastes 

    Hudson Bay Sedge is a protected plant in Iceland.

  345. Porsild's Sedge  ______   rather common in the interior of northern and northeastern Iceland
    Carex krausei

  346. Hare's-foot Sedge  ______
    Carex lachenalii

  347. Common Bog-sedge  ______
    Carex limosa

  348. Livid Sedge  ______
    Carex livida

  349. Lyngbye's Sedge  ______
    Carex lyngbyei

    The Lyngbye's Sedge is one of the American species of plants that grows naturally in Iceland, not known to occur anywhere else in Europe.
    In Iceland, it dominates large areas in marshland along rivers and estuaries. It was, in the past, much harvested for hay.   
    It is a tall and beautiful plant.

  350. Norway Sedge  ______
    Carex mackenziei

  351. Thick-headed Sedge  ______
    Carex mackloviana

  352. Tall Bog-sedge  ______
    Carex magellanica

  353. Curved Sedge  ______
    Carex maritima

  354. Bristle Sedge  ______
    Carex microglochin

  355. Nard Sedge  ______
    Carex nardina

  356. Common Sedge  ______
    Carex nigra 
    Carex nigra juncella  ______ 
    Common Tufty Sedge

  357. Close-headed (or Club-headed) Alpine-sedge  ______
    Carex norvegica

  358. Pale Sedge  ______  only found at two localities in Iceland
    Carex pallescens

  359. Carnation Sedge  ______
    Carex panicea

  360. Pill Sedge  ______
    Carex pilulifera 

  361. Flea Sedge  ______
    Carex pulicaris

  362. Mountain Bog-sedge  ______
    Carex rariflora

  363. Bottle Sedge  ______
    Carex rostrata

  364. Red Sedge  ______
    Carex rufina

  365. Rock Sedge  ______
    Carex rupestris

  366. Saltmarsh Sedge  ______
    Carex salina

  367. Russet Sedge  ______
    Carex saxatilis

  368. Small-fruited Yellow-sedge  ______
    Carex serotina

  369. Hoppner Sedge  ______
    Carex subspathacea

  370. Sheathed Sedge  ______
    Carex vaginata

  371. Needle Spike-rush  ______
    Eleocharis acicularis

  372. Common Spike-rush  ______
    Eleocharis palustris

  373. Few-flowered Spike-rush  ______
    Eleocharis quinqueflora

  374. Slender Spike-rush  ______   generally found in bogs, especially near the sea
    Eleocharis uniglumis

  375. Common Cottongrass  ______
    Eriophorum angustifolium

  376. Scheuchzer's Cottongrass  (ph)  ______  June   (elsewhere in its large range called Alaska Cotton)
    Eriophorum scheuchzeri



    Scheuchzer's Cottongrass, or as its called in Iceland: Hrafnafifa
    photographed during the FONT birding and nature tour
    in Iceland in June 2012   
    (photo by Gabi Hauser) 

  377. Bellard's Kobresia  ______  
    Kobresia myosuroides

  378. Deergrass  ______
    Trichophorum caespitosum


    Grasses

  379. Common Eelgrass  ______  (also called Seawrack  in the family ZOSTERACEAE
    Zostera marina

    Zostera marina is the most widespread marine flowering plant in the Northern Hemisphere. It grows as far north as the Arctic region, and endures several months of ice cover per year.

  380. Northern Bur-reed  ______   in the family TYPHCEAE in the order POALES, which includes sedges and grasses  
    Sparganium hyperboreum

  381. Least Bur-reed  ______
    Sparganium minimum

  382. Floating Bur-reed  ______
    Sparganium angustifolium 

  383. Spring-spored Quillwort  ______  in the family ISOETACEAE in the order ISOETALES
    Isoetes echinospora

  384. Lake Quillwort  ______
    Isoetes lacustris 

  385. Marsh Arrowgrass  ______   in the Arrowgrass family
    Triglochin palustris

  386. Sea Arrowgrass  ______   in the Arrowgrass family
    Triglochin maritinus   

  387. Wood Millet  ______   in the Grass family
    Milium effusum

  388. Tufted Hair-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Deschampsia caespitosa

  389. Alpine Hair-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Deschampsia alpina

  390. Wavy Hair-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Deschampsia flexuosa

  391. Common Bent  ______   in the Grass family
    Agrostis capillaris

  392. Velvet Bent  ______   in the Grass family
    Agrostis vinealis

  393. Creeping Bent  ______   in the Grass family
    Agrostis stolonifera  

  394. Narrow Small-reed  ______   in the Grass family
    Calamagrostis stricta

  395. Common Saltmarsh-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Puccinellia maritima

  396. Reflexed Saltmarsh-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Puccinellia distans

  397. Water Whorl-grass  (or simply Whorl-grass ______   in the Grass family 
    Catabrosa aquatica

  398. Floating Sweet-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Glyceria fluitans

  399. Yorkshire-fog  ______   in the Grass family
    Holcus lanatus

  400. Holy-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Hierochloe odorata

  401. Smooth Meadow-grass  (or Common Meadow-grass)  ______   in the Grass family
    Poa pratensis

  402. Rough Meadow-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Poa trivialis

  403. Alpine Meadow-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Poa alpina

  404. Wavy Meadow-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Poa flexuosa

  405. Glaucous Meadow-grass  (or Blue Meadow-grass ______   in the Grass family
    Poa glauca

  406. Wood Meadow-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Poa nemoralis

  407. Annual Meadow-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Poa annua

  408. Cock's-foot  ______   in the Grass family
    Dactylis glomerata

  409. Arctic Fescue  (or Richardson's Fescue)  ______   in the Grass family
    Festuca richardsonii

  410. Red Fescue  (or Creeping Fescue)  ______   in the Grass family   (often regarded as conspecific with Arctic Fescue, above)          
    Festuca rubra

  411. Meadow Fescue  ______   in the Grass family   a very rare alien in Iceland
    Festuca pratensis

  412. Viviparous Fescue  (or Proliferous Fescue)   ______   in the Grass family
    Festuca vivipara

  413. Snow Goosegrass  ______   in the Grass family   rather rare in Iceland, only at high altitudes or in the Central Highlands
    Phippsia algida  

    Snow Goosegrass
    is a colonizer of revegetating river beds.

  414. Hungarian Brome  ______   in the Grass family   rather rare in Iceland
    Bromus inermis

  415. Sweet Vernal-grass  ______   in the Grass family   common in Iceland
    Anthoxanthum odoratum

  416. Spiked Oatgrass  ______   in the Grass family
    Trisetum spicatum

  417. Blue Moor-grass  ______   in the Grass family   rare in Iceland
    Sesieria albicans

  418. Meadow Foxtail  ______   in the Grass family   common in cultivated homefields
    Alopecurus pratensis

  419. Marsh Foxtail  ______   in the Grass family
    Alopecurus geniculatus

  420. Orange Foxtail  ______   in the Grass family   widespread in Iceland
    Alopecurus aequalis

  421. Timothy Cat's-tail  (or just Timothy)  ______   in the Grass family   common in Iceland
    Phleum pratense

  422. Alpine Cat's-tail  ______   in the Grass family
    Phleum alpinum

  423. Bearded Couch  (or Bearded Wheatgrass ______   in the Grass family
    Elymus caninus

  424. Northern Couch  ______   in the Grass family
    Elymus alaskanus

  425. Common Couch  (or Couchgrass)  ______   in the Grass family
    Elymus
    (was Agropyorn) repens

    Couch, or Couchgrass is also known as Wheat-grass. 

  426. European Lyme-grass  ______   in the Grass family
    Leymus arenarius

  427. American Lyme-grass  ______   in the Grass family   very rare in Iceland
    Leymus mollis

  428. Mat-grass  ______  in the Grass family
    Nardus stricta


    Mosses and Lichens 

    Among non-flowering plants in Iceland, there are about 550 different species of BRYOPHYTES, the MOSSES and LIVERWORTS.
    They are more abundant in Iceland than anywhere in northern Scandinavia or Greenland, and particularly common on older lava flows, forming an almost continuous carpet in the absence of vascular plants   
    Not all of the MOSSES in Iceland are Arctic species. To the contrary, there are even more temperate BRYOPHYTES in Iceland than there are temperate species in the vascular groups.

    Iceland also has about 450 different species of LICHENS, generally Scandinavian in character, that are with the MOSSES on some of their lava carpets, and on parts of otherwise bare mountains.

    Here, in this list, there are a few species, but no where near the 550 species of BRYOPHYTES or 450 species of LICHENS..    




    Lava in Iceland covered with Moss 
    (photograph by Alan Mitchnick during the FONT tour in September 2013)

  429. Clay Earth-moss  ______  a geothermal species in Iceland, in the family ARCHIDIACEAE
    Archidium alternifolium

  430. Lesser Smoothcap  ______  a geothermal species in Iceland, in the family ARCHIDIACEAE
    Atrichum angustatum

  431. Sword Moss  ______  in the family BRYOXIPHIACEAE
    Bryoxiphium norvegicum

  432. Rusty Swan-neck Moss  ______  a geothermal species in Iceland, in the family DICRANACEAE
    Campylopus flexuosus

  433. Campylopus introflexus  ______  a geothermal species in Iceland, in the family DICRANACEAE

    Campylopus introflexus
    is not native to Iceland (or Europe). It is from the Southern Hemisphere.   

  434. Iceland Moss  ______  in the family PARMELIACEAE
    Cetraria islandica

    Although called Iceland Moss, Cetraria islandica is actually a LICHEN giving the appearance of a moss. 

  435. "Dog-Lichen"  ______  in the family PELTIGERACEAE 
    Pectigera canina

    Dog-Lichens
    are often terricolous, that is growing on soil, but they also can occur on moss, trees, rocks, and other substrates.
    Pectigera canina was described by Linnaeus in 1753, when all known lichens were grouped into a genus LICHEN.
    The species was so named "canina" due to its resemblance to a dog. 

  436. Northern Haircap  ______  in the family POLYTRICHACEAE
    Polytrichum sexangulare

    Mosses
    in POLYTRICHACEAE tend to be larger than other mosses, with a thickened central stem.

  437. Hoary Fringe-moss  ______  in the family GRIMMIACEAE
    Racomitrium canescens

    There are some beautifully developed "moss carpets", in southern Iceland and also in the area of Lake Myvatn, mostly of Racomitrium lanuginosum (below), with some Racomitrium canescens (above)
    Along with luxuriant growths of ferns, herbs, and grasses, they make up a spectacle to be found in sheltered crevices and depressions.    

  438. Woolly Fringe-moss  (or "Rock-moss")  ______  in the family GRIMMIACEAE
    Racomitrium lanuginosum

  439. Purple Crystalwort  ______  a geothermal species in Iceland, in the family RICCIACEAE
    Riccia beyrichiana

  440. Aquatic mosses are at Lake Myvatn.



    Seaweed and other Algae


    SEAWEED
    is macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae. In Iceland, there are about 200 species of SEAWEED with a luxuriant growth of them around most of the island's coastline.

  441. Alaria esculenta  ______  in the family ALARIACEAE

    Alaria esculenta is said to be the second best known edible seaweed in Iceland, after "Sol" (below).

    Names for Alaria esculenta include Dabberlocks and Badderlocks. 

  442. Alaria pylaiei  ______  in the family ALARIACEAE

  443. Chrondrus crispus  ______  a red algae, in the family GARTINACEAE

    A name for Chrondrus crispus is "Carrageen Moss". 

  444. Fucus distichus  ______  in the family FUCACEAE, a family of black algae

  445. Bladderwrack  ______  in the family FUCACEAE, a family of black algae 
    Fucus vesiculosus   

    Other names for Fucus vesiculosus include: Black Tang and Rockweed. 

  446. Gigartina mamillosa  ______  in the family GARTINACEAE

    Gigartina mamillosa
    grows mainly in southern and southwestern Iceland. It is picked with "Sol" (below), but generally eaten only during hard seasons. 

  447. Laminaria digitata  ______  a brown algae, in the family LAMINARIACEAE

    Names for Laminaria digitata are Fingered Tangle and Oarweed. 

  448. Laminaria saccharina  ______  in the family LAMINARIACEAE

    Names for Laminaria saccharina are Sugar Sea Belt, or Devil's Apron.  

  449. Porphyra umbilicalis  ______  in the family BANGIACEAE

  450. Palmaria palmata (formerly Rhodymenia palmata ______  in the family PALMARIACEAE

    Names for Palmaria palmata include Red Dulse and Sea Lettuce Flakes.
    But it is called "Sol" in Iceland, where it has been (and still is) a well known snack food.

    According to Icelandic saga, Palmaria palmata or as it was Rhodymenia palmaa, or "Sol", has been known to be edible since at least the year 961.
    Over the years, "Sol" has been highly valued in Iceland as a palatable, healthy, and nourishing food, and as a cure for many ailments such as nausea, indigestion, and seasickness.
    Nowadays, "Sol" is still collected and dried, but not as much as in the past.     

  451. Green algae are in Lake Myvatn.




    COMMON NAMES OF ICELANDIC PLANTS ALPHABETICALLY IN ENGLISH

    With those IN THE LIST ABOVE a number is given noting where it is in the list.
    For those NOT IN THE LIST ABOVE, there is a sequential number here in red with a symbol #.

    PH: with a photo in the FONT website

  452. Angelica Garden  ______  137  Angelica archangelica   Parsley family

  453. Angelica, Wild  ______  138  Angelica sylvestris    Parsley family

  454. Arrowgrass, Marsh  ______  384  Triglochin palustris

  455. Arrowgrass, Sea  ______  385  Trigglochin maritinus

  456. Aspen, European  ______  279  Populus tremula

  457. Asphodel  (or Asphodel, Scottish)  ______  162  Tofieldia pusilla

  458. Avens, Mountain  ______  83  PH

  459. Avens, Water  ______  62  Geum rivale islandicum

  460. Awlwort  ______  156  Subularia aquatica

  461. Azalea, Mountain (or Trailing)  ______  61  Loiseleuria procumbens

  462. Bartsia, Alpine  ______  21  PH

  463. Bearberry, Common  ______  169  PH

  464. Bedstraw, Icelandic  ______  164  Galium normanii islandicum
    (a subspecies of Slender Bedstraw)

  465. Bedstraw, Fen  ______  165  Galium uliginosum

  466. Bedstraw, Lady's  ______  204  Galium verum

  467. Bedstraw, Marsh  ______  167  Galium palustre

  468. Bedstraw, Northern  ______  163  Galium borealis

  469. Bedstraw, Small  ______  166  Galium trifidum

  470. Beech Fern  ______  304  Thelypteris phegopteris

  471. #452  Bentgrass, Brown  (or Brown Bent)  ______  Agrostis canina 

  472. Bentgrass, Common  (or Common Bent)  ______  390  Agrostis capillaris

  473. Bentgrass, Fiorin  (or Creeping Bent)  ______  392  Agrostis stolonifera

  474. #453  Bentgrass, Large  (or Large Bent)  ______  Agrostis gigantea

  475. Bilberry  ______  75  PH

  476. Birch, Downy  ______  277  Betula pubescens

  477. Birch, Dwarf  ______  276  Betula nana

  478. #454  Birdseye  ______  Veronicella chamaedrys

  479. Bistort, Alpine  ______  130  Bistoria vivipara

  480. Bistort, Amphibious  (or Amphibious Knotweed)  ______  72  Persicaria amphibia (was Polygonum amphibium)

  481. Bittercress, Alpine  ______  154  Cardamine bellidifolia

  482. Bittercress, Arctic  (or Lady Smock)  ______  68  PH  Cardimine nymanii 

  483. Bittercress, Hairy  ______  153  Cardamine hirsuta


    Bitterwort, Alpine  ______  Draba alpina  
    in this list as Whitlowgrass, Alpine 

  484. #455  Bitterwort, Arctic  ______  Draba fladnizensis

  485. Bitterwort, Norwegian  (or Rock Whitlowgrass)  ______  149  Draba norvegica

  486. Bitterwort, Snow  (or Snow Whitlowgrass)  ______  150  PH  Draba nivalis

  487. Bitterwort, Twisted  (or Hoary Whitlowgrass)  ______  148  Draba incana

  488. Bladder-fern, Brittle  ______  300  Cystopteris fragilis 

  489. #456  Bladder-fern, Dickie's  ______  Cystopteris dickieana

  490. Bladderwort, Lesser  ______  243  Utricularia minor

  491. Blinks  ______  161  Montia fontana   Purslane family

  492. Bogbean  ______  95  Menyanthes trifoliata   Bogbean family

  493. Bramble, Rock  (or Bramble, Stone)  ______  134  Rubus saxatilis

  494. #457  Brooklime, Thyme-leaved  ______  Veronica serpyllifolium

  495. #458  Buckler-fern  ______  Dryopteris dilatata

  496. #459  Buckler-fern, Broad  ______  Dryopteris austriaca

  497. Buckler-fern, Northern  ______  301  Dryopteris assimilis

  498. Bugle, Pyramidal  ______  22  Ajuga pyramidalis   Mint family

  499. Burnet, Salad (or Great)  ______  46  Sanguisorba officinalis

  500. Bur-reed, Floating  ______  381  Sparganium angustifolium

  501. Bur-reed, Northern  ______  379  Sparganium hyperboreum

  502. Bur-reed, Small (or Least)  ______  380  Sparganium minimum

  503. Buttercup, Arctic  ______  196  Ranunculus hyperboreus

  504. Buttercup, Creeping  ______  186  Ranunculus repens

  505. Buttercup, Glacier  ______  80  Ranunculus glacialis

  506. Buttercup, Meadow  ______  185  Ranunculus acris

  507. Buttercup, Pygmy  ______  195  Ranunculus pygmaeus

  508. Butterwort, Alpine  ______  Pinguicula alpina

  509. Butterwort, Common  ______  27  PH

  510. Campion, Moss  ______  66  PH

  511. Campion, Sea  ______  88  PH

  512. Caraway  ______  140  Carum carvi   Parsley family

  513. Cassiope  ______  169  Cassiope hypnoides

  514. Catchlily, Alpine  ______  43  Lychnis alpina

  515. Cats-foot, Alpine  ______  274  Antennaria alpina

  516. Cats-foot, Red Alpine  ______  Viscaria alpina

  517. Cats-tail, Alpine  ______  421  Phleum alpinum

  518. Cats-tail, Timothy  ______  420  Phleum pratense

  519. Chickweed, Common  ______  124  Stellaria media   Pink family

  520. Chickweed, Mountain  ______  Cerastium cerastoides

  521. Cicely, Sweet  ______  141  Myrrhis odorata   Parsley family

  522. Cinquefoil, Alpine  ______  182  PH

  523. Cinquefoil, Marsh  ______  56  Potentilla palustris  Rose family

  524. Clawmoss  ______  Huperzia selago

  525. Clover, Alsike  ______  181  Trifolium hybridum

  526. Clover, Red  ______  63  PH

  527. Clover, White  ______  179  Trifolium repens

  528. Clubmoss, Alpine  ______  305  Lycopodium alpinium   Clubmoss family

  529. Clubmoss, Fir  ______  307  Lycopodium selago   Clubmoss family

  530. Clubmoss, Interrupted  ______  308  Lycopodium annotinum   Clubmoss family

  531. Clubmoss, Lesser  ______  309  Seleginella selaginoides   Spikemoss family 

  532. Clubmoss, Stag's-horn  ______  306  Lycopodium clavatum   Clubmoss family

  533. Colt's-foot  ______  217  Tussilago farfara

  534. Coralroot  (or Coralroot Orchid)  ______  267  Corallorrhiza trifida

  535. Cornel, Dwarf  ______  87  Cornus suecica   Dogwood family

  536. Cotton-grass, Common  ______  374  Eriophorum angustifolium 

  537. Cotton-grass, Schewchzer's  ______  375  PH

  538. Couch, Bearded  ______  422  Elymus caninus

  539. Couchgrass  (or Common Couch)  ______  424  Elymus (was Agropyron) repens

    Couch,
    or Couchgrass is also known as Wheat-grass.

  540. Cowberry  ______  170  Vaccinium vitas-idaea   Heath family

  541. Cow-wheat, Wood  (or Cow-wheat, Small)   ______  206  Melampyrum sylvaticum   Figwort family

  542. Cranberry, Small  ______  60  Vaccinium microcarpum   Heath family

  543. Crane's-bill, Wood  ______  33  PH

  544. Crowberry  ______  275

  545. Crowfoot, Three-leaved Water  ______  103

  546. Cudweed, Dwarf  ______  272

  547. Cudweed, Heath  ______  271

  548. Cudweed, Highland  ______  270

  549. Cudweed, Marsh  ______  273

  550. Cudweed, Wood  ______  Omalotheca silvatica

  551. Currant, Red  ______  Ribes rubrum

  552. Daisy, Oxeye  ______  82  Leucanthemum vulgare

  553. Dandelion, Common  ______  210  PH

  554. Deadnettle, Red  ______  42

  555. Deadnettle, Intermediate  ______  Lamium molucellifolium

  556. Deadnettle, White  ______  178

  557. Deergrass  ______  379

  558. Dewcup, Cluster  ______  Alchemilla glomerulans

  559. Dewcup, Kidney-shaped  ______  Alchemilla murbeckiana

  560. Dewcup, Scalloped  ______  Alchemilla subcrenata

  561. Dewcup, Silvery  ______  Alchemilla wichurae

  562. Dewcup, Slope  ______  Alchemilla glabra

  563. Dewcup, Thread-stemmed  ______  Alchemilla filicaulis

    Others in the genus Alchemilla is listed here as Lady's Mantles. 

  564. Diapensia  ______  104

  565. Ditchgrass  ______  Ruppia cirrhosa

  566. Dock, Broad-leaved  ______  Rumex obtusifolius

  567. Dock, Curled  ______  264

  568. Dock, Garden (or Northern)  ______  263  Rumex longifolius

  569. Dog-rose, Glaucous   ______  Rosa dumalis

    The Glaucous Dog-rose is a protected species in Iceland.  

  570. Eelgrass, Common  ______  378

  571. Everlasting, Mountain Alpine  ______  Antennaria alpina

  572. Eyebright, Cold  ______  176

  573. Eyebright, Davidson's  ______  Euphrasia davidsonii

  574. Eyebright, Round-leaved  ______  Euphrasia rotundifolia

  575. Eyebright  sp.  ______  an additional 4 species in Iceland in Euphrasia: calida, curta, nemorosa, stricta  

    The Eyebright species Euphrasia calida is a protected plant in Iceland. It is a hot-spring variety. 
     
  576. Felwort, Marsh (or Arctic)  ______  14  Lomatogonium rotatum

  577. Fern, Parsley  ______  305

  578. Fescue, Creeping (or Red)  ______  409  Festuca rubra

  579. Fescue, Meadow  ______  410

  580. Fescue, Proliferous (or Vivparous)  ______  411  Festuca vivipara

  581. Fescue, Richardson's (or Arctic)  ______  408  Festuca richardsonii

  582. Fescue Sheep's  ______  Festuca ovina

  583. Filmy-fern, Wilson's  ______  297  Hymenophyllum wilsonii

  584. Fireweed, Arctic  ______  Linium angustifolium intermedium
    Fireweed, Common  ______  Linium angustifolium angustifolium

  585. Flax, Purging  (or Fairy Flax)  ______  125  Linum catharticum

  586. Fleabane, Boreal (or Alpine)  ______  77  Erigeron borealis

  587. Fleabane, Dwarf  ______  79

  588. Fleabane, Lowly (or Snow)  ______  78  Erigeron humilis

  589. Fleabane, Woolly-headed  ______  Erigeron uniflorus

  590. Flixweed  ______  199

  591. Flotegrass  (or Floating Sweet-grass)  ______  397  Glyceria fluitans

  592. Fog, Yorkshire  ______  398  Holcus lanatus

  593. Forget-me-not, Common (or Field)  ______  15  Myosotis arvensis

  594. Forget-me-not, Early  ______  Myosotis ramosissima

  595. Forget-me-not, Strict  ______  18

  596. Forget-me-not, Water  ______  16

  597. Forget-me-not, Yellow and Blue  ______  Myosotis discolor

  598. Foxtail, Marsh  ______  418

  599. Foxtail, Meadow  ______  417

  600. Foxtail, Orange  ______  419

  601. Garlic, Field  ______   Allium oleraceum

    Field Garlic
    is a protected species in Iceland.

  602. Gentian, Alpine  ______  12  Gentiana nivalis

  603. Gentian, Autumn  ______  175

  604. Gentian, Field  ______  35

  605. Gentian, Northern (or Golden)  ______  36  Gentianella aurea

  606. Gentian, Serrate  ______  34

  607. Gentian, Slender  ______  13

  608. Gentian, Small  ______  Gentianella nivalis

  609. Gold-of-pleasure, Common  ______   Camelina sativa

  610. Gold-of-pleasure, Hairy  ______   Camelina microcarpa

  611. Goldilocks  ______  187   Ranunculus auricomus islandicus   Buttercup family

  612. Goosegrass, Northern  ______  Phippsia distans borealis

  613. Goosegrass, Snow  ______  412

  614. Grape-fern, Glossy  (or Glossy Moonwort)  ______  290  Botrychium simplex

  615. Grape-fern, Lance-leaved  (or Lance-leaved Moonwort)  ______  292  Botrychium lnceolatum

  616. Grass, Alpine Hair  ______  388

  617. Grass, Heath  ______   Sieglingia decumbens

  618. Grass, Tufted Hair  ______  387

  619. Grass, Wavy Hair  ______  389

  620. Grass-of-Parnassus  ______  85

  621. Gravelcress  ______  Cardaminopsis petraea

  622. Groundsel  ______  217

  623. Hard Fern  ______  285

  624. Harebell, Arctic  ______  2

  625. Harebell, Greenland  ______  1  Campanula rotundifolia

  626. Hawkbit, Autumn  ______  214

  627. Hawk's-beard, Marsh  ______  215

  628. Hawk's-beard, Mire  ______  Taraxacum paludosum

  629. Hawkweed, Alpine  ______  212

  630. Hawkweed, Blackening  ______   Hieracium nigrescens

  631. Hawkweed, Icelandic  ______  213

  632. Hawkweed, Mouse-ear  ______  Hieracium pilosella

  633. Heath, Blue  ______  Phyllodoce coerulea

  634. Heath, Mountain  ______  Phyllodoce coerulea

  635. Heather  ______  65

  636. Heath-grass  ______  Sieglingia decumbens (was Danthonia decumbens)

    Heath-grass
    is a protected plant in Iceland.

  637. Hempnettle, Common  ______  57

  638. Henbit  ______  Lamium amplexicaule 

  639. Holly Fern  ______  286

  640. Holy-grass  ______  399

  641. Horsetail, Common (or Field)  ______  248  Equisetum arvense
    Horsetail, Northern  ______  Equisetum arvense borealis 

  642. Horsetail, Marsh  ______  247

  643. Horsetail, Rough  ______  253  Equisetum hyemale

  644. Horsetail, Shady  ______  249  PH

  645. Horsetail, Variegated  ______  251  Equisetum variegatum

  646. Horsetail, Water  ______  246

  647. Horsetail, Wood  ______  250

  648. Icecup  ______   Beckwithia glacialis 

  649. Juniper, Common  ______  278

  650. Knautia, Field  (or Scabious, Field)  ______  20  Knautia arvensis 

  651. Knotgrass, Common  ______  131

  652. Kobresia, Bellard's  ______  376

  653. Koenigia, Iceland  (or Iceland-purslane)  ______  129

  654. Ladder, Jacob's  ______  Polemonium caeruleum

  655. Lady-fern  ______  299

  656. Lady-fern, Alpine  ______  300

  657. Ling  ______  Calluna vulgaris

  658. Lopgrass  (or Hungarian Brome)  ______  413  Bromus hordeaceus

  659. Lousewort, Upright  ______  207  

  660. Lovage, Northern (or Scots)  ______  139  Ligusticum scoticum

  661. Lupin, Alaskan  ______  6  PH

  662. Lymegrass, European  ______  425

  663. Male-fern  ______  302  Dryopteris filix-mas

  664. Male-fern  ______  Dryopteris abbreviata

  665. Mantle, Alpine Lady's  ______  219  PH

  666. Mantle, Common Lady's  ______  220  Alchemilla vulgaris

  667. Mantle, Faeroeic Lady's  ______  221  Alchemilla faeroensis

  668. Mares-tail, Common  ______  244

  669. Mares-tail, Four-leaved  ______  245

  670. Marigold, Arctic  ______  Caltha minor

  671. Marigold, Marsh  ______  181  PH

  672. Mat-grass  ______  427

  673. Mayweed, Pineapple  ______  Matricaria matricarioides

  674. Mayweed, Scentless  ______  Matricaria maritima

  675. Mayweed, Sea  ______  81  PH  Tripleurospermum maritimum

  676. Meadow-grass, Alpine  ______  402

  677. Meadow-grass, Annual  ______  406

  678. Meadow-grass, Arctic  ______  Poa arctica

  679. Meadow-grass, Black  ______  Poa balfourii

  680. Meadow-grass, Blue (or Glaucous)  ______  404  Poa glauca

  681. Meadow-grass, Common (or Smooth)  ______  400  Poa pretensis

  682. Meadow-grass, Narrow-leaved  ______  Poa angustifolia

  683. Meadow-grass, Rough  ______  401

  684. Meadow-grass, Spreading  ______  Poa subcoerulea

  685. Meadow-grass, Wavy  ______  403  Pos flexuosa

  686. Meadow-grass, Wood  ______  405  Poa nemoralis

  687. Meadow-rue, Alpine  ______  32  Thalictrum alpinum

  688. Meadowsweet  ______  135

  689. Milkwort, Sea  ______  71

  690. Millet, Wood  ______  386

  691. Moonwort, Common  ______  289

  692. Moonwort, Northern  ______  291

  693. Moorgrass, Blue  ______  416

  694. Moorgrass, White  ______  Sesleria albicans

  695. Moss, Dovedale  ______  Saxifraga hypnoides 

  696. Moss, Stag's horn  ______  Lycopodium clavatum

  697. Mossplant  ______  Harrimanella hypnoides

  698. Mouse-ear, Alpine  ______  89  PH

  699. Mouse-ear, Arctic  ______  91

  700. Mouse-ear, Common  ______  111
    Mouse-ear, Nordic  ______  Cerastium fontanum scandicum

  701. Mouse-ear, Smooth  ______  90  Cerastium glabratum

  702. Mouse-ear, Starwort  ______  92

  703. Mouse-ear, Sticky  ______  112

  704. Mudwort  ______  70

  705. Nettle, Burning (or Small)  ______  254  Urtica urens

  706. Nettle, Stinging  (or Common)  ______  253

  707. Oak-fern  ______  303  Gymnocarpium dryopteris

  708. Oat  ______  Avena sativa

  709. Oatgrass, False  ______  Arrhenatherum elatius

  710. Oatgrass, Hairy  ______  Helictotrichon pubescens

  711. Orache, Common  ______  Atriplex patula 

  712. Orache, Longfoot (or Long-stalked)  ______  258  Atriplex longipes

  713. Orache, Smoothish (or Babington's)  ______  259  Atriplex glabriuscula

  714. Orchid, Broad-leaved Marsh  ______  Dactylorhiza majalis

  715. Orchid, Common Spotted  ______  Dactylorhiza fuchsii

  716. Orchid, Frog  ______  266  Coeloglossum viride
    Orchid, Icelandic Frog  ______  Coeloglossum viride islandicum

  717. Orchid, Icelandic Spotted  ______  40  Dactylorbiza maculata islandica
    a subspecies of the Heath Spotted Orchid

  718. Orchid, Northern Green  ______  223

  719. Orchid, White  (or Small-white Orchid)  ______  224

  720. Oysterplant  ______  17  PH

  721. Pansy, Wild  ______  25

  722. Paris, Herb  ______  225

  723. Parsley, Cow  ______  142  Anthriscus sylvestris

  724. Pea, Marsh  ______  5

  725. Pea, Sea  ______  38

  726. Pearlplant (or Pearlwort), Knotted  ______  122

  727. Pearlplant (or Pearlwort), Snow  ______  160

  728. Pearlplant (or Pearlwort), Tufted  ______  123

  729. Pearlwort, Alpine  ______  120

  730. Pearlwort, Procumbent  ______  222

  731. Pearlwort, Sharp-leaved (or Heath)  ______  121  Sagina subulata 

  732. Pennycress, Field  (or Field Bittercress)  ______  152  Thiaspi arvense

  733. Pennywort, Marsh  ______  132

  734. Pepperwort  ______  Lepidium campestre

  735. Plantain, Great (or Greater)  ______  255

  736. Plantain, Ribwort  ______  256

  737. Plantain, Sea  ______  257  Plantago maritima

  738. Polypody. Common  ______  294

  739. Pondweed, Broad-leaved  ______  228

  740. Pondweed, Clasping-leaved (or Perfoliate)  ______  230  Potamogeton perfoliatus

  741. Pondweed, Horned  ______  223

  742. Pondweed, Lesser  ______  232

  743. Pondweed, Long-stalked  ______  229

  744. Pondweed, Reddish  (or Red)  ______  227

  745. Pondweed, Slender-leaved  ______  231

  746. Pondweed, Small  ______  Potamogeton berchtoldii

  747. Pondweed, Tassel  ______  Ruppia spiralis

  748. Pondweed, Various-leaved  ______  226

  749. Poppy, Arctic  ______  190  PH  Papaver radicatum
    Poppy, Stefansson's Icelandic  ______  Papaver radicatum stefanssonii  

  750. Primrose, Greenland  ______  59

  751. Primrose, Strict  ______  58  Primula stricta

  752. Purse, Shepard's  ______  151

  753. Pygmyweed  ______  157 

  754. Quackgrass  ______  Elytrigia repens

  755. Quillwort  ______  Isoetes setacea

  756. Quillwort, Lake  ______  383

  757. Quillwort, Spring-spored  ______  Isoetes echinospora

  758. Redshank  (or Redleg)  ______  73  Persicaria maculosa  (or Polygonum persicaria)

  759. Reedgrass  ______  Phalaroides arundinacea

  760. Ribwort  ______  Plantago lanceolata

  761. Riverbeauty, Arctic  ______  48

  762. Robin, Ragged  ______  44

  763. Rockcress, Alpine  ______  145

  764. Rockcress, Northern  ______  146  PH

  765. #   Rockcress, Purple  ______  Braya glabella purpurescens   Mustard family

  766. Rocket, Sea  ______  147

  767. Rocket, Tall  ______  Sisymbrium altissimum

  768. Rocketcress, Yellow  ______   202  Barbarea vulgaris

    Also called simply Rocketcress, or Bittercress, or Wintercress 

  769. Rose, Burnet  ______  84

  770. Rose, Taeckholm's  ______  Rosa taeckholmii

  771. Rose, Prickly  ______  Rosa vosagiaca

  772. Rosemary, Bog  ______  172  Andromeda polifolia

  773. Roseroot  ______  203  PH

  774. Rowan  ______  136  Sorbus aucuparia

  775. Rush, Alpine  ______  312 

  776. Rush, Arctic  ______  Juncus arcticus
    Rush, Iceland  ______  311  Juncus arcticus intermedius

  777. Rush, Bulbous  ______  315

  778. Rush, Chestnut  ______  316

  779. Rush, Highland (or Three-leaved)  ______  320  Juncus trifidus

  780. Rush, Jointed  ______  312

  781. Rush, Saltmarsh (or Mud)  ______  318  Juncus gerardi

  782. Rush, Thread  ______  317

  783. Rush, Three-flowered  ______  321

  784. Rush, Toad  ______  314

  785. Rush, Two-flowered  ______  313

  786. Salt Marsh Grass, Common  ______  394

  787. Sandwort, Mountain  ______  117

  788. Sandwort, Norwegian (or Arctic)  ______  115  Arenaria norvegica

  789. Sandwort, Sea  ______  116  PH

  790. Sandwort, Two-flowered  ______  117

  791. Sandwort, Teesdale  ______  118

  792. Saxifrage, Alpine Snow  ______  109  Saxifraga nivalis 

  793. Saxifrage, Alpine Brook  ______  106

  794. Saxifrage, Arctic Brook  ______  107

  795. Saxifrage, Drooping  ______  97

  796. Saxifrage, Foliolose  ______  101

  797. Saxifrage, Lifelong  ______  Saxifraga aizoon

  798. Saxifrage, Meadow  ______  98

  799. Saxifrage, Mossy  ______  96

  800. Saxifrage, Purple  ______  39

  801. Saxifrage, Pyramidal  ______  105

  802. Saxifrage, Rosy  ______  Saxifraga rosacea

  803. Saxifrage, Silver  ______  106  Saxifraga paniculata

  804. Saxifrage, Slender Snow  ______  110

  805. Saxifrage, Starry  ______  100

  806. Saxifrage, Tufted  ______  99

  807. Saxifrage, Yellow Marsh (or Marsh)  ______  188  Saxifraga hirculus

  808. Saxifrage, Yellow Mountain (or Yellow)  ______  189  Saxifraga aizoides

  809. Scurvygrass, Common  ______  155  PH

  810. Scurvywort  ______  Cochleariopsis groenlandica

  811. Seapink  ______  Armeria maritima planifolia

  812. Sedge Alpine, Black  ______  326

  813. Sedge Alpine, Club-headed (or Close-headed)  ______  356  Carex norvegica

  814. Sedge Alpine, Loose-flowered  ______  Carex rariflora

  815. Sedge, Bicolored  ______  327

  816. Sedge Bog, Common  ______  346

  817. Sedge, Bottle  ______  362

  818. Sedge, Bristle  ______  353

  819. Sedge, Brownish  ______  329

  820. Sedge, Capitate  ______  332

  821. Sedge, Carnation  ______  358

  822. Sedge, Club  ______  330

  823. Sedge, Common  ______  355  Carex nigra
    Sedge, Common Tufty  ______  Carex nigra juncella  

  824. Sedge, Curved  ______  352

  825. Sedge, Dioecious  ______  338

  826. Sedge, Flea  ______  360

  827. Sedge, Glacier  ______  342

  828. Sedge, Glaucous  ______  340

  829. Sedge, Goodenough's  ______  Carex goodenoughii

  830. Sedge, Gravel  ______  Carex glareosa

  831. Sedge, Hair  ______  331

  832. Sedge, Hare's-foot  ______  345

  833. Sedge, Hoppner  ______  368

  834. Sedge, Hudson Bay  ______  343

  835. Sedge, Large Yellow  ______  341

  836. Sedge, Lesser Tussock  ______  337

  837. Sedge, Lyngbye's  ______  348

  838. Sedge, Mud  ______  Carex limosa

  839. Sedge, Nard  ______  354

  840. Sedge, Norway  ______  349

  841. Sedge, Pale  ______  357

  842. Sedge, Pill  ______  359

  843. Sedge, Porsild's  ______  344

  844. Sedge, Red  ______  363

  845. Sedge, Rock  ______  364

  846. Sedge, Russet  ______  366

  847. Sedge, Sheathed  ______  369

  848. Sedge, Small-fruited Yellow  ______  367

  849. Sedge, Somber  ______  Carex pallescens

  850. Sedge, Spring  ______  Carex caryophyllea

  851. Sedge, Star  ______  339

  852. Sedge, Stiff  ______  328

  853. Sedge, String  ______  334 

  854. Sedge, Thick-headed  ______  350

  855. Sedge, Common Tufty  ______  Carex nigra juncella

  856. Sedge, White  ______  335

  857. Selfheal, Common  ______  31

  858. Shoreweed  ______  235

  859. Shorewort, Northern  ______  Mertensia maritima

  860. Sibbaldia, Creeping  ______  197

  861. Silverweed  ______  184

  862. Small-reed, Narrow  ______  393

  863. Sneezewort  ______  144

  864. Sorrel, Common  ______  261

  865. Sorrel, Mountain  ______  265

  866. Sorrel, Sheep's  ______  262

  867. Spearwort, Adder's-tongue  (or Small Adder's-tongue)  ______  293  Ophioglossum azoricum

  868. Spearwort, Creeping  ______  194  PH

  869. Speedwell, Alpine  ______  8

  870. Speedwell, Common (or Heath)  ______  28  Veronica officinalis 

  871. Speedwell, Germander  ______  10  Veronica chamaedrys

  872. Speedwell, Marsh  ______  30

  873. Speedwell, Rock  ______  7

  874. Speedwell, Thyme-leaved  ______  9  Veronica serrphllifolia

  875. Speedwell Water, Blue  ______  29

  876. Spike-rush, Common  ______  371

  877. Spike-rush, Few-flowered  ______  372

  878. Spike-rush, Slender  ______  373

  879. Spike-rush, Swamp  ______  Eleocharis uniglumis

  880. Spleenwort, Forked  ______  Asplenium septentrionale

    Forked Spleenwort
    is a protected species in Iceland.

  881. Spleenwort, Green  ______  287

  882. Spleenwort, Maidenhair  ______  288

  883. Spurrey, Cliff  ______  Spergula salina

  884. Spurrey, Corn  ______  113  Spergula arvensis

  885. Spurrey, Sea  (or Lesser)  ______  114  Spergularia marina

  886. Starwort, Common Water  ______  240  Callitriche stagnalis

  887. Starwort, Intermediate  ______  Callitriche intermedia

  888. Starwort, Northern  (or Autumn Water-starwort)  ______  240  Callitriche hermaphroditica

  889. Starwort, Pedunculate Water  ______  238   Callitriche brutia

  890. Starwort, Vernal  ______  Callitriche verna

  891. Starwort Water, Spiny  ______  236

  892. Stitchwort, Fleshy  ______  126

  893. Stitchwort, Lesser  ______  Stellaria graminea

  894. Stitchwort, Low  ______  128

  895. Stitchwort, Northern  ______  127

  896. Stonecrop, Annual  ______  193

  897. Stonecrop, Biting  ______  192

  898. Stonecrop, Hairy  ______  64  PH

  899. Strawberry, Wild  ______  86  PH

  900. Succisa, Devil's-bit  (or Devil's-bit Scabious)   ______  19  Succisa pretensis

  901. Sundew, Round-leaved  (or Common)  ______  132  PH

  902. Tasselweed, Beaked  ______  234

  903. Thistle, Creeping  ______  41

  904. Thrift  ______  67

  905. Thyme, Arctic  ______  45  Thymus praecox arcticus

  906. Thyme, Hairy  ______  Thymus praecox

  907. Tillaea, Water  ______  Crassula aquatica


    Timothy  ______   see Cat's-tail, Timothy

  908. Tormentil  ______  183

  909. Treaclemustard, Hawkweed-leaved  ______  200

  910. Trefoil, Birdsfoot  ______  Lotus corniculatus

    Another name, in North America, is Birdfoot Deervetch.

  911. Trisetum, Soft Hairy  ______  Trisetum triflorum

  912. Trisetum, Spike  ______  Trisetum spicatum

  913. Twayblade, Common  ______  269   Listera ovata

  914. Twayblade, Lesser  ______  268

  915. Twitch, Don's  ______  Agropyron donianum

  916. Valerian, Common  ______  69  Valeriana officinalis

  917. Velvetgrass  ______  Holcus lantus

  918. Vernal-grass, Sweet  ______  414

  919. Vetch, Bush  ______  4

  920. Vetch, Common Kidney  ______  209

  921. Vetch, Tufted  ______  3

  922. Vetchling, Meadow  ______  205

  923. Violet, Alpine Marsh  ______  26

  924. Violet, Common  ______  24  Viola riviniana

  925. Violet, Heath Dog  ______  23  Viola canina

  926. Violet, Northern Marsh  ______  Viola epipsila

  927. Water-milfoil, Loose-flowered  (or Alternate Water-milfoil)  ______  241  Myriophyllum alterniflorum

  928. Water-milfoil, Spiked  ______  242

  929. Weed, Pineapple  ______  218

  930. Wheatgrass, Bearded  ______  Elymus caninus

  931. Whitlow-grass, Alpine  ______  202  Draba alpina

    Other whitlow-grasses in this alphabetical list as bitterworts. 

  932. Whitlow-grass, Common  ______  158  Erophila verna

  933. Whorlgrass, Water  ______  Catabrosa aquatica

  934. Whortleberry, Bog  (or Bog Bilberry)  ______  76 PH  Vaccinium uliginosum

  935. Willow, Arctic  ______  284  Salix arctica

  936. Willow, Broad-leaved (or Bluish)  ______  282  Salix callicarpaea

  937. Willow, Dwarf (or Least)  ______  280  Salix herbacea

  938. Willow Tea-leaved  ______  283

  939. Willow, Woolly  ______  281

  940. Willowherb, Alpine  ______  Epilobium anagallidifolium

  941. Willowherb, American  ______  Epilobium adenocaulon

  942. Willowherb, Chickweed  ______  49

  943. Willowherb, Cliff  ______  Epilobium collinum

  944. Willowherb, Hornemann's  ______  50

  945. Willowherb, Marsh  ______  Epilobium palustre

  946. Willowherb, Milky-flowered (or Milky)  ______  159

  947. Willowherb, Rosebay  ______  47

  948. Wintergreen, Arctic  ______  173

  949. Wintergreen, Chickweed  ______  Trientalis europaea

  950. Wintergreen, Common  ______  172

  951. Wintergreen, Serrated  ______  174

  952. Wood-rush, Curved  ______  322  Luzula arcuata

  953. Wood-rush, Many-headed  ______
    Wood-rush, Northern Many-headed  ______   Luzula multiflora frigida

  954. Wood-rush, Northern  ______  Luzula confusa

  955. Wood-rush, Spiked  ______  324

  956. Wood-rush, Sudetan  ______  325

  957. Woodsia, Alpine  ______  296

  958. Woodsia, Fragrant (or Oblong)  ______  295  Woodsia ilvensis

  959. Wood-sorrel  ______  94

  960. Yarrow, Common  ______  Achillea millefolium

  961. Yellowcress, Marsh  ______  Rorippa islandica

  962. Yellowrattle, Small  ______  208    




    GROUPINGS OF PLANTS IN ICELAND BY HABITAT    
     



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