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E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876

North America

Noting those during 
Focus On Nature Tours
from 1991 thru 2015
with an (*)

A List of Mammals in North America
both Land and Marine 
compiled by Armas Hill

With 404 species of mammals in this list.

Photo at upper right: a SILVER-HAIRED BAT,
70 miles off the coast of New Jersey, during a FONT pelagic trip in September 2004.   


Mammals seen during FONT tours & pelagic trips are noted in this list with the following codes in blue. 
Otherwise, the codes for occurrences are in black.   

AK:   in Alaska  (inc. offshore)
    in Arizona
  in British Colombia, Canada
  in California  (inc. offshore)
  in Colorado
   in Delaware  (inc. offshore) 
   in Florida  (inc. offshore)
   in Kansas
MD:  in Maryland  (inc. offshore) 
MX:  in Mexico

in North Carolina  (inc. offshore) 
NE:   in Nebraska 

  in New Jersey  (inc. offshore)
  in Newfoundland, Canada  (inc. offshore)
  in New Mexico
NY:   in New York  (inc. offshore)

  in Texas 
VA:   in Virginia

in Washington State (inc. offshore)
WI:   in the West Indies

in Wyoming

seen pelagically offshore

   (t1):  critically endangered
   (t2):  endangered 
   (t3):  vulnerable
(nt):  classified as near-threatened 

(ph):  species with a photo in this FONT website

The widespread Red Fox
(photo by Doris Potter)

Links to Groups of Mammals in this List: 

American Opossums     Armadillos     Rabbits & Hares     Squirrels
American Beaver     Mice & Rats     North American Porcupine     Canines
Felines     Bears     Procyonids
(Raccoons & Allies)     Mustelids
Shrews & Moles     Bats    Seals, Sea Lions, Walrus     
Even-toed Ungulates
(Sheep, Goats, Bison, Musk Ox)    Pronghorn
New World Pigs     Deer    Manatee    Porpoises, Dolphins, Whales 

Other Links:

A List & Photo Gallery of Mammals of Eastern North America  

Lists & Photo Galleries of Mammals in:    
Alaska   Arizona

California     Colorado     North Carolina     Texas     Washington State

A Complete List & a Photo Gallery of North American Birds, in 6 parts:
Part #1: Grouse to Anhinga     List #2: Condor to Shorebirds     List #3: Jaegers to Cuckoos 
List #4: Owls to Flycatchers
     List #5: Shrikes to Pipits     List #6: Olive Warbler to Buntings

Other Lists & Photo Galleries of:  Mammals    Birds    Butterflies    Amphibians, Reptiles 

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in North America    Upcoming FONT Tours Elsewhere 

Directory of Photos in this Website

          (in the Order Didelphimorphia
(formerly Marsupialia), Family Didelphidae)

  1. Virginia Opossum  (ph) (*)  ______ CA  DE  TX
    Didelphis virginiana

    The Virginia Opossum is the only marsupial in North America. (There are numerous species of marsupials in Central and South America.) The young of Didelphis virginiana are carried in a pouch on the belly of the female.  

    Where it occurs, the Virginia Opossum is often found commonly in all sheltered habitats. It is normally active only at night.
    Didelphis virginiana eats fruit, vegetables, nuts, meat, eggs, insects, and carrion (in other words, just about anything).  

    Virginia Opossum
    (photo by Karl Frafjord, during a FONT tour in Texas)

    ARMADILLOS (in the Order Xenarthra (formerly Edentata)

    means "those without teeth". However, this term is more appropriate for the xenarthrans that truly are toothless, the Old World pangolins.

    Family Dasypodidae

  2. Nine-banded (Long-nosed) Armadillo  (ph) (*)  ______  FL  TX
    Dasypus novemcinctus

    Of the 20 species of armadillos in the New World, Dasypus novemcinctus is the only one in the United States. 


    Nine-banded Armadillo 

    PIKAS, RABBITS & HARES  (Order Lagomorpha)

    PIKA  (Family Ochotonidae) 

  3. American Pika  (or Cony) (*) ______  AK  CO
    Ochotona princeps

  4. Collared Pika  ______  AK
    Ochotona collaris

    RABBITS & HARES  (Family Leporidae)

  5. European Rabbit  (i) (*)  ______  AK  WA  
    Oryctolagus cuniculus 
    (the single member of its genus)

  6. Mountain Cottontail  (*)  ______  AZ  CO  WA  WY 
    Sylvilagus nuttallii

    The Mountain Cottontail has also been called Nuttall's Cottontail.

  7. Desert Cottontail  (ph) (*)  ______  AZ  CA  CO  NM  TX 
    Sylvilagus audubonii

    A Desert Cottontail, photographed during a FONT tour  

  8. Eastern Cottontail  (*)  ______  AZ  CO  DE  FL  KS  NC  NE  OK  TX  WA 
    Sylvilagus floridanus 

    There is a western population of the Eastern Cottontail in central-east Washington State. 

  9. New England Cottontail  ______
    Sylvilagus transitionalis

  10. Appalachian Cottontail  ______
    Sylvilagus obscurus

  11. Marsh Rabbit  (*)  ______  FL  NC
    (formerly Tapeti) palistris

  12. Swamp Rabbit  ______  TX
    (formerly Tapeti) aquaticus 

  13. Brush Rabbit  (*)  ______  CA  
    (formerly Microlagus) bachmani

  14. Pygmy Rabbit  ______  
    Brachylagus idahoensis 
    (the single member of its genus)

  15. Black-tailed Jackrabbit  (ph) (*)  ______  AZ  CA  CO  KS  NM  OK  TX 
    Lepus californicus

    Black-tailed Jackrabbits, photographed during a FONT tour 

  16. White-tailed Jackrabbit  (*)  ______  CO  KS
    Lepus townsendii

  17. Antelope Jackrabbit  (ph) (*)  ______ AZ
    Lepus alleni

  18. White-sided Jackrabbit  ______
    Lepus callotis

  19. Snowshoe Hare  (*) ______  AK  CO  NF  WY  
    Lepus americanus

    Another name for Lepus americanus is the Varying Hare.

  20. Alaskan Hare  (*) ______  AK
    Lepus othus

  21. Arctic Hare  ______
    Lepus arcticus  

    RODENTS: gnawing mammals  (Order Rodentia -
    the largest order of mammals with nearly 2,000 species worldwide)
    Families include:
    Sewellel  (Aplodontiidae)
    Squirrels  (Sciuridae)
    Pocket Gophers  (Geomyidae)
    Kangaroo Rats & Pocket Mice  (Heteromyidae)
    Mice & Rats  (Muridae), New World Mice & Rats  (subfamily Sigmodontinae)
    New World Porcupines  (Erethizontidae)  


  22. Sewellel  ______   
    Aplodontia rufa  (the single member of its genus)

    Aplodontia rufa has been called the Mountain Beaver.

    Family SCIURIDAE:  Squirrels

  23. Hoary Marmot  (*) ______  AK  WA  
    Marmota caligata

    Another name for the Hoary Marmot is the "Whistler".  

  24. Alaska Marmot  ______  AK  (in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska)
    Marmota broweri

  25. Yellow-bellied Marmot  (ph) (*) ______ CO  
    Marmota flaviventris 

    Another name for the Yellow-bellied Marmot is the "Rockchuck".

    Yellow-bellied Marmot

  26. Olympic Marmot  ______  WA  (on montane meadows & slopes of the Olympic Peninsula of western Washington State)
    Marmota olympus

  27. Vancouver Island Marmot  ______
    Marmota vancouverensis  

  28. Woodchuck  (ph) (*) ______  AK  DE  NE  
    Marmota monax

    Another name for the Woodchuck is the "Groundhog"

    The Woodchuck lives in deep burrows excavated in fields, woods. It is thick-bodied, short-legged, brown colored, and a vegetarian that in the mid-Atlantic states of eastern US hibernates from October to February.   
    The subspecies of the Woodchuck in Alaska, M. m. ochracea, is reddish cinnamon in color.

    Woodchucks (upper photo: an adult; lower photo: two young)
    (photographs by Doris Potter)

  29. Black-tailed Prairie Dog  (*)  ______  AZ  CO  KS  NE  TX
    Cynomys ludovicianus

  30. White-tailed Prairie Dog  (*) ______ CO
    Cynomys leucurus

  31. Gunnison Prairie Dog  (ph) (*)  ______ CO
    Cynomys gunnisoni

    Gunnison's Prairie Dog

    (photo by Doris Potter)

  32. Utah Prairie Dog  (t2)  ______
    Cynomys parvidens

  33. Harris's Antelope Squirrel  (ph) (*)  ______  AZ  
    Ammospermophilus harrisii 

    Ammospermophilus harrisii
    has also been called the Yuma Antelope Squirrel.

    Harris's Antelope Squirrel, photographed during a FONT tour 

  34. Texas Antelope Squirrel  (*) ______ TX
    Ammospermophilus interpres

  35. White-tailed Antelope Squirrel  (ph)  ______
    Ammospermophilus leucurus

    White-tailed Antelope Squirrel
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  36. Nelson's Antelope Squirrel  (t2)  ______  (in the San Joaquin valley of southern California) 
    Ammospermophilus nelsoni

  37. California Ground Squirrel  (ph) (*) ______ CA
    (formerly Otospermophilus) beecheyi

    A California Ground Squirrel at Monterey, California
    (photo by Armas Hill)

  38. Arctic Ground Squirrel  (ph) (*) ______  AK
    (formerly Urocitellus) parryii

    Arctic Ground Squirrel
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  39. Columbian Ground Squirrel  ______
    (formerly Urocitellus) columbianus

  40. Spotted Ground Squirrel  ______  AZ  TX
    (formerly Ictidomys) spilosoma 

  41. Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel  (*) ______ CO  NE  WY  TX
    (formerly Ictidomys) tridecemlineatus

  42. Mexican Ground Squirrel  (*) ______ NM  TX
    (formerly Ictidomys) mexicanus 

  43. Richardson's Ground Squirrel  ______
    Spermophilus richardsonii

  44. Wyoming Ground Squirrel  (*) ______ CO  WY
    Spermophilus elegans

    The Wyoming Ground Squirrel was conspecific with the Richardson's Ground Squirrel (above).

  45. Washington Ground Squirrel  (*) ______ WA
    Spermophilus washingtoni

  46. Belding's Ground Squirrel  (*) ______ WA  (seen in eastern Washington State, slightly north of boundary in range maps)
    Spermophilus beldingi 

  47. Uinta Ground Squirrel  ______
    Spermophilus armatus

  48. Idaho Ground Squirrel  ______
    Spermophilus brunneus

  49. Merriam's Ground Squirrel  ______
    Spermophilus canus

  50. Piute Ground Squirrel  ______
    Spermophilus mollis 

  51. Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel  (*) ______  AZ  CO
    (formerly Callospermophilus or Citellus) lateralis 

  52. Cascade Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel  (*) ______  WA 
    (formerly Callospermophilus) saturatus

    The Cascade Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel is a recent "split" from the Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel (above).

  53. Townsend's Ground Squirrel  (*) ______  WA 
    Spermophilus townsendii 

  54. Round-tailed Ground Squirrel  (ph) (*)  ______  AZ
    (formerly Xerospermophilus) tereticaudus

    Round-tailed Ground Squirrel, photographed during a FONT tour

  55. Mojave Ground Squirrel  ______
    (formerly Xerospermophilus) mohavensis 

  56. Variegated Ground Squirrel (or Rock Squirrel(ph) (*)  ______  AZ  CO  NM  TX
    (formerly Otospermophilus) variegatus

  57. Franklin's Ground Squirrel  ______
    (formerly Poliocitellus) franklinii

  58. Townsend's Chipmunk  (*)  ______ WA 
    (formerly Neotamias) townsendii

  59. Yellow-pine Chipmunk  (*)  ______ WA  
    (formerly Neotamias) amoenus

  60. Merriam's Chipmunk  (*)  ______ CA  
    (formerly Neotamias) merriami

  61. Least Chipmunk  (*)  ______  AZ  CO  WA  WY
    (formerly Neotamias) minimus

  62. Panamint Chipmunk  (*)  ______ CA 
    (formerly Neotamias) panamintinus

  63. Colorado Chipmunk  (*)  ______ CO
    (formerly Neotamias) quadrivittatus

  64. Cliff Chipmunk  (ph) (*)  ______ AZ
    (formerly Neotamias) dorsalis

    Cliff Chipmunk, photographed during a FONT tour 

  65. Alpine Chipmunk  ______  (in high altitude rocky alpine meadows in the Sierra Nevada range in California)
    (formerly Neotamias) alpinus

  66. Gray-footed Chipmunk  ______  TX  (on rocky, brushy slopes of south-central New Mexico & extreme west Texas)
    (formerly Neotamias) canipes

  67. California Chipmunk  ______
    (formerly Neotamias) obscurus

  68. Yellow-cheeked Chipmunk  ______
    (formerly Neotamias) ochrogenys

  69. Palmer's Chipmunk  ______  (in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada)
    (formerly Neotamias) palmeri

  70. Long-eared Chipmunk  ______
    (formerly Neotamias) quadrimaculatus

  71. Red-tailed Chipmunk  ______
    (formerly Neotamias) ruficaudus)

  72. Hopi Chipmunk  (ph)  ______
    (formerly Neotamias) rufus

    Hopi Chipmunk
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  73. Shadow Chipmunk  ______
    (formerly Neotamias) senax

  74. Siskiyou Chipmunk  ______
    (formerly Neotamias) siskiyou

  75. Sonoma Chipmunk  ______
    (formerly Neotamias) sonomae

  76. Lodgepole Chipmunk  ______
    (formerly Neotamias) speciosus

  77. Uinta Chipmunk  (*)  ______  AZ
    (formerly Neotamias) umbrinus 

  78. Eastern Chipmunk  (ph) (*)  ______ DE
    Tamias striatus

    The Eastern Chipmunk lives in hardwood forests among logs and stumps. It is solitary and feeds on seeds, bulbs, fruits, nuts, insects, and eggs. It runs with its tail straight up.

    Eastern Chipmunk
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  79. Eastern Gray Squirrel  (i/wNA) (ph) (*)  ______  BC  DE  NC  NE  TX  WA  
    Sciurus carolinensis

    The Eastern Gray Squirrel inhabits woodlands including those of oak and hickory. It is arboreal, rarely venturing far from trees. It stores nuts and acorns in small holes, some of which germinate and grow into trees.  

    Eastern Gray Squirrel
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  80. Western Gray Squirrel  (*)  ______ CA  WA  
    (formerly Hesperosciurus) griseus

  81. Arizona Gray Squirrel  (*)  ______  AZ
    Sciurus arizonensis

  82. Eastern Fox Squirrel  (ph) (*)  ______  CO  NC  NE  TX  VA
    Sciurus niger
    (northern form in Colorado & Nebraska; in Nebraska the black morph)
    (in North Carolina, a dark southeastern form, but with white nose and ears) 

    An Eastern Fox Squirrel photographed during the FONT birding & nature tour
    in North Carolina in May 2009

  83. Mexican Fox Squirrel  (*)  ______  AZ   
    Sciurus nayaritensis 

    The Mexican Fox Squirrel has been called the Apache Fox Squirrel, Sciurus apache.

    In the US, Sciurus nayaritensis occurs only in the Chiricahua Mountains in southeastern Arizona.   

  84. Tassel-eared Squirrel  (*) ______  AZ  CO  
    (formerly Otosciurus) aberti

    Another name for Sciurus aberti is the Abert's Squirrel.

    One of the subspecies of the Tassel-eared Squirrel, Sciurus aberti kaibabensis, is the "Kaibab Squirrel".   

  85. American Red Squirrel  (*)  ______  AK  AZ  CO  NF  WA   
    Tamiasciurus hudsonicus

    Another name for Tamiasciurus hudsonicus has been the "Spruce Squirrel".

  86. Douglas' Squirrel  (*) ______ WA 
    Tamiasciurus douglasii 

    The Douglas' Squirrel is also called the "Chickaree". Note, however, that the Red Squirrel (above) is also referred to as the "Chickaree" in the Rocky Mountains. 

  87. Southern Flying Squirrel  (*)  ______  DE  TX
    Glaucomys volans

    Where it occurs the Southern Flying Squirrel can be common, but it is not often seen because it is totally nocturnal. It inhabits hollow trees, emerging after dark. It glides from tree to tree on a flap of skin between its front and hind legs. It feeds on seeds, nuts, and insects.  

  88. Northern Flying Squirrel  ______  AK
    Glaucomys sabrinus


  89. American Beaver  (ph) (*)  ______  AK  AZ  CO  DE  NE  NF  WY
    Castor canadensis 

    The American Beaver is a nocturnal animal, occasionally seen during the day. It feeds on tree bark, and uses felled trees to build dams and lodges. 

    American Beaver
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  90. Muskrat  (ph) (*)  ______  AK  AZ  CO  DE  NE  WA  WY  
    Ondatra zibethicus 
    (the single member of its genus)

    The Muskrat can be common in various freshwater habitats, and it sometimes occurs in salt marshes. Its houses can be seen as mounds of reeds and grasses rising above water level. 
    The Muskrat has a tail that is flattened side to side. The animal is trapped for its pelt.    

    (photo by Doris Potter)

  91. Nutria (or Coypu)  (i) (ph) (*)  ______  NC  TX  WA
    Myocastor coypus  (the single member of its genus)

    The Nutria is native to South America.

    A Nutria, or Coypu, photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  92. Round-tailed Muskrat  ______
    Neofiber alleni 
    (the single member of its genus) 

    POCKET GOPHERS (Family Geomyidae)

  93. Northern Pocket Gopher  ______
    Thomomys talpoides

  94. Western Pocket Gopher  ______
    Thomomys mazama

  95. Camas Pocket Gopher  ______
    Thomomys bulbivorus

  96. Idaho Pocket Gopher  ______
    Thomomys idahoensis

  97. Wyoming Pocket Gopher  ______
    Thomomys clusius

  98. Townsend's Pocket Gopher  ______
    Thomomys townsendii

  99. Mountain Pocket Gopher  ______
    Thomomys monticola

  100. Botta's Pocket Gopher  ______  TX
    Thomomys bottae

  101. Southern Pocket Gopher  ______
    Thomomys umbrinus

  102. Yellow-faced Pocket Gopher  (*)  ______ TX
    (formerly Cratogeomys) castanops

  103. Plains Pocket Gopher  ______  TX
    Geomys bursarius

  104. Baird's Pocket Gopher  ______  TX
    Geomys breviceps

  105. Attwater's Pocket Gopher  ______  TX  (endemic to Texas)
    Geomys attwateri 

  106. Knox Jones'  Pocket Gopher  ______  TX
    Geomys knoxjonesi

  107. Central Texas (or Llano) Pocket Gopher  ______  TX  (endemic to Texas)
    Geomys texensis

  108. Desert Pocket Gopher  ______  TX
    Geomys arenarius

  109. Texas Pocket Gopher  ______  TX(south)
    Geomys personatus

  110. Southeastern Pocket Gopher  ______
    Geomys pinetis  


  111. Woodland Jumping Mouse  ______ 
    Napacozapus insignis

  112. Meadow Jumping Mouse  ______  AK
    Zapus hudsonius

  113. Western Jumping Mouse  ______
    Zapus princeps

  114. Pacific Jumping Mouse  ______
    Zapus trinotatus

  115. North American Deermouse  (*) ______  AK  AZ  WA  
    Peromyscus maniculatus

  116. White-footed Deermouse  ______  AZ  NC
    Peromyscus leucopus

  117. Cotton Deermouse  ______  NC
    Peromyscus gossypinus

  118. Oldfield Deermouse  ______
    Peromyscus polionotus

  119. Northwestern Deermouse  (*) ______  AK  WA
    Peromyscus keeni 

  120. California Deermouse  ______  CA
    Peromyscus californicus

  121. Canyon Deermouse  ______  AZ(Grand Canyon)
    Peromyscus crinitus

  122. Cactus Deermouse  ______  AZ
    Peromyscus eremicus

  123. Merriam's Deermouse  ______  AZ
    Peromyscus merriami

  124. Pinon Deermouse  ______  AZ
    Peromyscus truei

  125. Northern Rock Deermouse  ______  AZ
    Peromyscus nasutus

  126. Saxicolous Deermouse  ______
    Peromyscus gratus

  127. Texas Deermouse  ______
    Peromyscus attwateri

  128. Brush Deermouse  ______  AZ
    Peromyscus boylii

  129. White-ankled Deermouse  ______  TX
    Peromyscus pectoralis

  130. Florida Deermouse  ______  FL
    Podomys floridanus

  131. Golden Mouse  ______  FL
    Ochrotomys nuttalli

  132. Chihuahan Pocket Mouse  (*)  ______ TX
    Chaetodipus eremicus

  133. Olive-backed Pocket Mouse  (*) ______ CO
    Perognathus fasciatus

  134. White-eared Pocket Mouse  ______  CA  (endemic to California)
    Perognathus alticolus

  135. San Joaquin Pocket Mouse  ______  CA  (endemic to California)
    Perognathus inornatus

  136. Arizona Pocket Mouse  ______  AZ
    Perognathus amplus

  137. Little Pocket Mouse  ______  AZ  CA
    Perognathus longimembris

  138. Olive-backed Pocket Mouse  ______CO
    Perognathus fasciatus  

  139. Plains Pocket Mouse  (*) ______  CO  KS  TX
    Perognathus flavescens

  140. Merrriam's Pocket Mouse  ______  TX
    Perognathus merriami

  141. Silky Pocket Mouse  ______  AZ  CO  TX
    Perognathus fluvus

  142. Great Basin Pocket Mouse  ______  AZ(Grand Canyon)
    Perognathus parvus

  143. California Pocket Mouse  ______  CA  (endemic to California)
    Chaetodipus californicus

  144. San Diego Pocket Mouse  ______  CA
    Chaetodipus fallax

  145. Spiny Pocket Mouse  ______  CA
    Chaetodipus spinatus

  146. Nelson's Pocket Mouse  ______  TX
    Chaetodipus nelsoni 

  147. Rock Pocket Mouse  ______  AZ  TX
    Chaetodipus intermedius

  148. Desert Pocket Mouse  ______  AZ  CA
    Chaetodipus penicillatus

  149. Bailey's Pocket Mouse  (*)  ______  CA  AZ
    Chaetodipus baileyi

  150. Long-tailed Pocket Mouse  ______  AZ(Grand Canyon)
    Chaetodipus formosus

  151. Hispid Pocket Mouse  ______  AZ  CO  NE  TX
    Chaetodipus hispidus

  152. Chihuahan Pocket Mouse  ______  TX
    Chaetodipus eremicus

  153. Mexican Spiny Pocket Mouse  ______  TX
    Liomys irroratus 

  154. Northern Grasshopper Mouse  ______  AZ  CO  TX
    Onychomys leucogaster

  155. Southern Grasshopper Mouse  ______  AZ  TX
    Onychomys torridus

  156. Chihuahuan Grasshopper Mouse  ______  TX
    Onychomys arenicola  

  157. Northern Pygmy Mouse  ______  AZ  TX
    Baiomys taylori

  158. Fulvous Harvest Mouse  ______  AZ  TX
    Reithrodontomys fulvescens

  159. Eastern Harvest Mouse  ______  NC  TX
    Reithrodontomys humulis

  160. Plains Harvest Mouse  (*) ______  AZ  CO  KS  NE
    Reithrodontomys montanus

  161. Western Harvest Mouse  ______  AZ  CA  WA
    Reithrodontomys megalotis

  162. Saltmarsh Harvest Mouse  (t2)  ______  CA  (endemic to California)
    Reithrodontomys raviventris

  163. Eastern Woodrat  ______  TX
    Neotoma floridana

  164. Allegheny Woodrat  ______
    Neotoma magister

  165. Bushy-tailed Woodrat  ______  AK  AZ
    Neotoma cinerea

  166. Mexican Woodrat  ______  AZ  TX
    Neotoma mexicana

  167. Arizona Woodrat  ______  AZ
    Neotoma devia

  168. White-throated Woodrat  (*)  ______ AZ  TX
    Neotoma albigula

  169. Stephen's Woodrat  ______  AZ
    Neotoma stephensi

  170. Southern Plains Woodrat  ______  TX
    Neotoma micropus

  171. Desert Woodrat  ______  AZ  CA
    Neotoma lepida

  172. Dusky-footed Woodrat  ______  CA
    Neotoma fuscipes

    Rice Rats in the genus ORYZOMYS
    (below), are nocturnal, mostly aquatic rats that are diverse in the Neotropics where there are than 35 species. 

  173. Marsh Rice Rat  ______  NC  TX
    Oryzomys palustris

  174. Silver Rice Rat  ______  FL
    Oryzomys argentatus

  175. Coues'  Rice Rat  ______  TX(far-south)
    Oryzomys couesi

  176. Hispid Cotton Rat  (*)  ______  AZ  NC  TX
    Sigmodon hispidus

  177. Yellow-nosed Cotton Rat  ______  AZ
    Sigmodon ochrognathus

  178. Arizona Cotton Rat  ______  AZ
    Sigmodon arizonae

  179. Tawny-bellied Cotton Rat  ______  AZ
    Sigmodon fulviventer

  180. Red Tree Vole  ______
    Arborimus longicaudus

  181. Sonoma Tree Vole  ______  CA
    Arborimus poma

  182. White-footed Vole  ______
    Arborimus albipes

  183. Northern Red-backed Vole  ______  AK
    Clethrionomys rutilus

  184. Southern Red-backed Vole  ______  AK
    Clethrionomys gapperi

  185. Western Red-backed Vole  ______
    Clethrionomys californicus

  186. Meadow Vole  (ph) (*)  ______  AK  DE
    Microtus pennsylvanicus

    The Meadow Vole can be abundant in grassy, upland fields. It also occurs among the grasses of a salt marsh.
    It is a good swimmer.
    It feeds on grasses, sedges, seeds, and grain. The animal if fed upon by various raptors, among them the Northern Harrier.    

    Meadow Vole
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  187. Woodland Vole  ______
    Microtus pinetorum

  188. Rock Vole  ______
    Microtus chrotorrhinus 

  189. Singing Vole  (*)  ______  AK
    (formerly Stenocranius) miurus

    Microtus miurus
    has been called the Alaska Vole.

  190. Insular Vole  ______  AK
    Microtus abbreviatus

    Microtus abbreviatus
    is also called the St. Matthew Island Vole.

  191. Tiaga Vole  (*)  ______ AK
    Microtus (formerly Aulacomys) xanthognathus

    Microtus xanthognathus
    has been called the Yellow-cheeked Vole.

  192. Tundra Vole  ______  AK
    Microtus occonomus

  193. Long-tailed Vole  ______  AK  AZ  WA
    Microtus longicaudus

  194. Montane Vole  ______  WA
    Microtus montanus

  195. Townsend's Vole  ______  WA
    Microtus townsendii

  196. Creeping Vole  ______  WA
    Microtus oregoni

  197. Montane Vole  ______  WA
    Microtus montanus

  198. Water Vole  ______  WA
    Microtus richardsoni

  199. Sagebrush Vole  ______  WA
    Microtus curtatus

  200. California Vole  ______  CA
    Microtus californicus

  201. Gray-tailed Vole  ______
    Microtus canicaudus

  202. Mogollon Vole  ______  AZ
    Microtus mogollonensis

  203. Prairie Vole  ______
    Microtus ochrogaster

  204. Beach Vole  ______
    Microtus breweri

  205. Eastern Heather Vole  ______
    Phenacomys ungava

  206. Western Heather Vole  ______  AK
    Phenacomys intermedius

    The first Western Heather Vole specimen in Alaska was identified in 1999.    

  207. Northern Bog Lemming  ______  AK
    Synaptomys borealis

  208. Southern Bog Lemming  ______
    Synaptomys cooperi

  209. North American Brown Lemming  ______  AK
    Lemmus trimucronatus

  210. Northern Collared Lemming  ______  AK
    Dicrostonyx groenlandicus  

  211. Ungava Collared Lemming  ______
    Dicrostonyx hudsonicus

  212. Richardson's Collared Lemming  ______
    Dicrostonyx richardsoni  

  213. House Mouse  (i)  ______  AK  AZ
    Mus musculus

  214. House Rat  (i)  ______  TX
    Rattus rattus

  215. Brown Rat  (i)  ______  AK  TX
    Rattus norvegicus

    Rattus norvegicus
    is also called the Norway Rat. It is introduced worldwide with human settlements, originally from southeast Siberia & northern China. 

    NEW WORLD PORCUPINES (Family Erethizontidae)

  216. North American Porcupine  (ph) (*)  ______  AK  AZ  CO  TX  WA  
    Erethizon dorsatum

    North American Porcupine
    (photo by Doris Potter) 

    CARNIVORES  (Order Carnivora)
    Families include:
    Canines: Dogs & Foxes (Canidae)
    Felines: Cats (Felidae) 
    Bears: (Ursidae)
    Procyonids: Raccoons & allies (Procyonidae)
    Mustelids: Weasels, Skunks & allies (Mustelidae)


  217. Coyote  (ph) (*) ______  AK  AZ  CA  CO  KS  NE  TX  WA   (See notes below under the Eastern Wolf)
    Canis latrans

    Above: A Coyote 
    Below: An applicable comment regarding the widespread & adaptable Coyote.
    (upper photo by Marie Gardner; lower photo by Doris Potter)  

  218. Gray Wolf  ______  AK
    Canis lupus

  219. Red Wolf  (t1)  (*) ______ NC(i)  
    Canis rufus  

    Some contend the Red Wolf to be a "historical hybrid" between the Gray Wolf, Canis lupus, and the Coyote, Canis latrans
    The "Red Wolf" was introduced into eastern North Carolina from the Southwest US

  220. Eastern  Wolf  ______
    Canis lycaon

    The Eastern Wolf is said to be a distinct species, although it has also been said to be a subspecies of the Gray Wolf or the Red Wolf. Science has shown that it is closely related to them, but that is not the same species as either of them.

    The Eastern Wolf is a small to medium sized wolf with a light brown or reddish coat. They also have some longer hairs in their coat that are usually black. As Eastern Wolves gets older, they develop more of those long black hairs. 

    Eastern Wolves are often mistaken for Coyotes due to their coloring and build.

    Well known are the Eastern Wolves in the area of the Algonquin Provincial Park in Ontario, Canada. They have a large home range. It is believed that packs of Eastern Wolves follow the movements of White-tailed Deer, as a way to have plenty to eat, especially in the winter months.

    Eastern Wolves are said to be very dependent upon the social aspects of their pack. They are quite loyal to each other and will do all they can to keep other packs of wolves out of their territory. That is why they are often heard howling, so as to publicize and protect their territories.  

    Eastern Wolves are most active at night but they can also be seen out during the day.

    The Eastern Wolf has a diverse diet. Sometimes animals hunt on their own, but most of the time they hunt with their pack. Some of their prey when they hunt alone include rodents, beaver, and muskrat. Prey when they hunt in their pack includes deer and moose. In some instances, they have even been able to successfully kill a Black Bear.

    The alpha and beta animals mate in February, with the young born about two months later.

    The Eastern Wolf has been known to mate with different types of Coyotes in their areas. That can definitely affect the overall genetics of the species (see below the results of a recent study)
    It is interesting behavior because otherwise wolves have often been known to aggressively run off Coyotes, and in the case of the Gray Wolf in the west, even kill them.            

    In a recent genetic study, published in May 2011, and adding fuel to a longstanding debate, it was determined that wolves in the eastern United States are hybrids of Gray Wolves and Coyotes, while Coyotes in that region are actually wolf-coyote-dog hybrids
    There were 16 researchers involved in the study from around the globe. It was said to be the most detailed genetic study of any wild vertebrate species to date.

    The study is not likely to have any impact on the management of the endangered Red Wolf in North Carolina and the Eastern Wolf in Ontario, but it offers some fresh insight into their genetic make-up and concludes that those wolves are hybrids that developed over the last few hundred years.

    On the other hand, some scientists have argued that the Red Wolf, Canis rufus, and the Eastern Wolf, Canis lycaon, evolved from an ancient wolf species distinct from the larger Gray Wolf, Canis lupus, of western North America.

    The recent study, referred to above, showed a gradient of hybridization in wolves, as follows:

    In western North America, wolves were pure wolf.
    In the western Great Lakes region, they averaged 85 percent wolf and 15 percent Coyote.
    Wolves in Algonquin Park in eastern Ontario averaged 58 percent wolf.
    The Red Wolf in North Carolina, which as been the subject of extensive preservation and restoration efforts, was found to be 24 percent wolf and 75 percent coyote.

    Coyotes, in the northeastern US, which only colonized in the region in the past 60 years, were found to be 82 percent coyote, 9 percent dog, and 9 percent wolf.

    In a study, last year, museum specimens and genetic samples were used to show that Coyotes migrating eastward bred with wolves to evolve into a larger form that has become the top predator in the Northeast US, filling a niche left when native eastern wolves were hunted out of existence. This hybridization allowed Coyotes to evolve from the smaller mouse-eater of western grasslands to a larger deer-hunter in eastern forest.

    Still a question is how it is that Gray Wolves don't typically breed with Coyotes, but kill them. In the West, wolves don't hybridize with Coyotes, even in the circumstance when single wolves looking for mates have dispersed into the middle of "Coyote country". 

    For A TOUR INCLUDING AN AREA WITH WOLVES  in conjunction with the Timber Wolf Alliance 

    Eastern Wolf

  221. Gray Fox  (*) ______  AZ  CA  CO  TX  WA  
    Urocyon cinereoargenteus 
    (would be monotypic were it not for the Island Gray Fox of the Channel Is. of California, Urocyon littoralis

  222. Island Gray Fox  ______  CA  (restricted to 6 Channel Islands off the California coast; half to two-thirds the size of the Gray Fox)
    Urocyon littoralis

  223. Red Fox  (ph) (*) _____  AK  AZ  CA  CO  NE  WA  
    Vulpes vulpes fulva 
    (the North American animal considered now to be conspecific with the Old World Red Fox, Vulpes v. vulpes)

    Red Fox
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  224. Swift Fox  (*) ______  CO
    Vulpes velox

  225. Kit Fox  (*) ______  AZ  TX
    Vulpes macrotis

  226. Arctic Fox  (*) ______  AK
    (formerly Alopex) lagopus


  227. Bobcat  (ph) (*)  ______  AZ  CA  NC  TX  
    (formerly Lynx) rufa

    A Bobcat photographed during a FONT tour in Arizona in August 2010 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  228. Canadian Lynx  ______  AK
    (formerly Lynx) canadensis

  229. Puma  (ph)  ______  AK  AZ  
    Felis (formerly Puma) concolor

    Other names for the Puma include Mountain Lion and Cougar.

  230. Ocelot  (ph)  ______  AZ(very rare)
    Felis (formerly Leopardus) pardalis

  231. Jaguarundi  ______  AZ(rare)
    Felis (formerly Herpailurus) yagouaroundi

  232. Jaguar  (nt) (ph)  ______  AZ(very rare)
    Panthera (formerly Jaguarius) onca 

    Jaguars, during recent years, have occurred in southern Arizona. None were recorded there from 1938 until 1987, when one was killed in the Dos Cabezas Mountains. Another was photographed in the Peloncillo Mountains in 1996.

    A Painting of a Jaguar by a person in southern Arizona, Bonnie Swarbrick


  233. American Black Bear  (*)  ______  AK  AZ  NC
    (formerly Euarctos) americanus
    (Up to 18 subspecies are recognized.)

    Not all "Black Bears" are black. Some coastal populations of British Columbia and Alaska are creamy white, the "Kermode Bear". Others are bluish gray, the "Glacier Bear". Another population in the Northwest US is light reddish-brown, the "Cinnamon Bear". Most in the eastern US are black.   

    American Black Bear
    (photo by Peter Burke)

  234. Brown Bear  (*) ______  AK  (also called Grizzly Bear)
    Ursus arctos 
    (has also been Ursus horribilis)

    The larger "Big Brown (or Kodiak) Bear" of Alaska & northwest Canada has been considered a distinct species, U. middendorffi, but generally it is now considered conspecific with U. arctos.

    The Brown Bear of North America, Europe, and Asia is now by most considered as a single species. 


    A Grizzly Bear in Alaska
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  235. Polar Bear  (t3)  ______  AK
    Thalarctos maritimus  (the single member of its genus)   


  236. Northern Raccoon  (ph) (*) ______  AK(i)  AZ  CO  DE  FL  NC  NE  TX  VA  WA  
    Procyon lotor

    Northern Raccoon
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  237. Ringtail  (*) ______  AZ  TX
    Bassariscus astutus

  238. White-nosed Coati  (ph) (*) ______  AZ
    Nasua narica

    White-nosed Coati
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


  239. American Mink  (ph) (*) ______  AK  DE  NC
    Mustela vison

    There formerly was a "Sea Mink", larger and redder, Mustela v. macrodon, along the North Atlantic coast. It was trapped to extinction by the 1860's. Some say it was a full species.

    Other species in the Mustela genus follow in "Other Mustelids". 

    American Mink
    (photo by Howard Eskin)  

  240. Northern River Otter  (*) ______  AK  AZ  CA  NC  WA  
    (formerly Lontra) canadensis

    The Northern River Otter is up to 5 feet in length; up to 22 pounds in weight. 

  241. Sea Otter  (t2) (ph) (*) ______  AK  CA  
    Enhydra lutris 
    (the single member of its genus)

    Sea Otters


  242. American Badger  (ph) (*) ______  AZ  CO
    Taxidea taxus 
    (the single member of its genus)

    An American Badger photographed during a FONT Colorado tour

  243. Eastern Spotted Skunk  ______
    Spilogale putorius

  244. Western Spotted Skunk  (*) ______  AZ  CO
    Spilogale gracilis

  245. Hooded Skunk  (*) ______  AZ
    Mephitis macroura

  246. Striped Skunk  (ph)  (*) ______  AZ  CO  NE  TX
    Mephitis mephitis

    Striped Skunk
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  247. Eastern Hog-nosed Skunk  ______
    Conepatus leuconotus

  248. Western Hog-nosed Skunk  ______  AZ
    Conepatus mesoleucus

  249. American Marten  ______  AK
    Martes americana

  250. Fisher  ______
    Martes pennanti

  251. Ermine  ______  AK  AZ
    Mustela erminea

    Other names for Mustela erminea are Short-tailed Weasel and Stout. 

  252. Long-tailed Weasel  ______  AZ
    Mustela frenata

  253. Least Weasel  ______  AK
    Mustela nivalis 

  254. Black-footed Ferret  (t1) ______  AZ(formerly)
    Mustela nigripes

  255. Wolverine  ______  AK  CO
    Gulo gulo 
    (the single member of its genus)  

    A lone Wolverine that arrived in Colorado in early June 2011 was the first confirmed in Colorado since 1919.

    Late the previous year, in December of 2010, and further north, biologists outfitted with a tracking collar a young Wolverine, as part of a reintroduction program. 
    That animal made a 500-mile journey from where it had been caught in the Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming. 
    It was tracked as it crossed rugged terrain and some busy highways in Wyoming, from the Togwotee Pass to the Wind River Range and across sagebrush areas. The lone animal traveled until it crossed into Colorado on June 1. 

    The Wolverine reintroduction program, referred to here, began in 2001.   

    Most Wolverines live in Alaska and Canada. But formerly the animal did range in Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, California, and Washington State.

    The Wolverine is one of the most elusive of mammals, a mysterious creature. It is known as being fearless and aggressive. It is strong, tenacious, sharp-toothed, and cunning. 
    Although adult Wolverines typically weigh about 30 pounds, they are stocky and "bear-like", and they prey on animals larger than they are. Even though the Wolverine is not a big animal, it is the largest land-dwelling member of the weasel family.

    Wolverines have evolved to require huge territories for roaming. A male's territory might be as much as 500 square miles, and he might share that landscape with 2 or 3 females that breed every other year, and usually produce a litter of two. Thus the species has a slow reproduction rate.

    Although a good survivor in nature, the Wolverine could not survive the trappers who prized its almost waterproof fur, and the ranchers who killed it with poison bait. So the animal pretty much vanished from the lower 48 states about a century ago. 
    The Wolverine in Colorado in 2011 was the first known to be in the state in 90 years. And, thus far, the only one.

    SHREWS & MOLES  in the Order Insectivores "insect eaters" -
    this group, throughout much of the world, includes shrews, moles, hedgehogs, moonrats, and tenrecs.  (Family Soricidae) 

  256. Cinereous Shrew ______  AK
    Sorex cinereus

  257. Southeastern Shrew  (ph)  ______  DE  
    Sorex longirostris

    Sorex longirostris
    has been conspecific with the Cinereous Shrew, Sorex cinereus, and when so it was known as the Masked Shrew.

    The Southeastern Shrew inhabits a variety of land habitats, but it is less common in upland tracts. It is subterranean, and seldom seen alive.
    It hunts for insects and other small animals day or night, and eats more than its own body weight each day. 

    Not alive was this Sorex longirostris found in coastal Delaware, photographed in 1998. With it, is a US cent.
    (photo by Alan Brady)  

  258. American Pygmy Shrew  ______  AK
    (formerly Sorex) hoyi

    The American Pygmy Shrew is the smallest mammal in North America.

  259. Alaska Tiny Shrew  ______  AK  (endemic to Alaska)
    Sorex yukonicus 

    The Alaska Tiny Shrew was described in 1997.

  260. American Long-tailed Shrew  ______
    Sorex dispar

  261. Smoky Shrew  ______
    Sorex fumeus

  262. Gaspe Shrew  ______  (rocky areas of Gaspe Peninsula in Quebec & Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia)
    Sorex gaspensis

  263. American Water Shrew ______  AK
    Sorex palustris

  264. Glacier Bay Water Shrew  ______  AK  (endemic to Alaska)
    Sorex alaskanus

  265. Marsh Shrew  ______
    Sorex bendirii

  266. Arctic Shrew ______
    Sorex arcticus

  267. Maritime Shrew  ______  
    Sorex maritimensis 

    The Maritime Shrew was split from the Arctic Shrew in 2002.

  268. Tundra Shrew  ______  AK
    Sorex tundrensis

  269. Prairie Shrew  ______
    Sorex haydeni

  270. American Dwarf Shrew  ______  AZ
    Sorex nauus

  271. Merriam's Shrew  ______  AZ
    Sorex merriami

  272. Arizona Shrew  ______  AZ
    Sorex arizonae

  273. Preble's Shrew  ______
    Sorex preblei

  274. Mount Lyell Shrew  ______
    Sorex lyelli

  275. Inyo Shrew  ______
    Sorex tenellus

  276. Ornate Shrew  ______
    Sorex ornatus

  277. Baird's Shrew  ______
    Sorex bairdii

  278. Fog Shrew  ______
    Sorex sonomae

  279. Vagrant Shrew  ______  AZ
    Sorex vagrans

  280. Pacific Shrew  ______
    Sorex pacificus

  281. Trowbridge's Shrew  ______
    Sorex trowbridgii

  282. Montane (formerly Dusky) Shrew  (*)  ______  AK  WA  
    Sorex monticolus 

  283. Barren Ground Shrew  ______  AK
    Sorex ugyunak

  284. Pribilof Island Shrew  (t2) (*)  ______ AK  (endemic to the Pribilof Islands)
    Sorex pribilofensis 
    (name changed in 1997 from Sorex hydrodromus)

  285. Least Shrew  ______  DE
    Cryptotis parva

    The Least Shrew is found in open, grassy areas and marshes. It is distinguished from other shrews by its cinnamon color and short tail. It eats insects and other small animals.   

  286. Northern Short-tailed Shrew  ______  DE
    Blarina brevicauda 

    The Northern Short-tailed Shrew is most abundant in damp woods with thick leaf mold. It feeds on insects, worms, snails, and other invertebrates. Its salvia is poisonous. It has no external ears.   

  287. Southern Short-tailed Shrew  ______
    Blarina carolinensis

  288. Eliot's Short-tailed Shrew  ______
    Blarina hylophaga

  289. Desert Shrew  ______
    Notiosorex crawfordi

  290. Cockrum's Desert Shrew  ______
    Notiosorex cockrumi

  291. American Shrew Mole  ______
    Neurotrichus gibbsii 
    (the single member of its genus)

  292. Townsend's Mole  ______
    Scapanus townsendii

  293. Broad-footed Mole  ______
    Scapanus latimanus

  294. Coast Mole  ______
    Scapanus orarius

  295. Eastern Mole  ______  DE
    Scalopus aquaticus 
    (the single member of its genus)

    The Eastern Mole inhabits moist, upland soils where it tunnels its way under the surface. It is active day or night in burrows where it eats worms, insects, and some vegetable matter. It has a naked tail, no external ears, and eyes covered with thin skin. 

  296. Hairy-tailed Mole  ______
    Parascalops breweri 
    (the single member of its genus)

  297. Star-nosed Mole  ______  DE
    Condylura cristata 
    (the single member of its genus)

    Condylura cristata is the only North American mammal with a nose surrounded by finger-like, fleshy projections giving the appearance of a star.
    The Star-nosed Mole prefers low, wet ground where it burrows for insects, many of them aquatic. It often appears above ground. 

    BATS  (Order Chiroptera - with about 950 species worldwide, the diversity of bats is second only to that of rodents)

    White-nose Syndrome has recently been a deadly disease in North America bats, especially the Little Brown Myotis. The disease has been spreading rapidly since its discovery in 2006 in New York State.
    Thus far, bat declines in the northeastern US have exceeded 80 per cent.

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and partner institutions have identified the cause of White-nose Syndrome as a fungus appropriately known as Geomyces destructans.
    The research has further demonstrated that the fungus can be spread through contact between individual bats during hibernation.

    (8 species in the New World)

  298. (Peter's) Ghost-faced Bat ______
    Mormoops megalophylla

    (155 species in the New World)

  299. California Leaf-nosed Bat  ______  AZ
    Macrotus californicus 

  300. North American Long-nosed Bat  (ph) (*)  ______ AZ 
    Leptonycteris yerbabuenae 
    (formerly conspecific with what's now the Mexican Long-nosed Bat, L. nivalis)

    The population of the North American Long-nosed Bat in Arizona was formerly considered by some a distinct species, the Sanborn's Long-nosed Bat, L. sanborni

    A North American Long-nosed Bat at a hummingbird feeder after dark

  301. Mexican Long-nosed Bat  (t2)  ______  AZ  (summer migrant from Mexico into Texas) 
    Leptonycteris nivalis

  302. Mexican Long-tongued Bat  (ph) (*)  ______ AZ  
    Choeronycteris mexicana 
    (the single member of its genus)

    A Mexican Long-tongued Bat at a hummingbird feeder after dark

  303. Hairy-legged Vampire Bat  ______
    Diphylla ecaudata

    (94 species worldwide)

  304. Mexican (or Brazilian) Free-tailed Bat  (ph) (*)  ______  AZ  NM  TX
    Tadarida brasiliensis

    There are many Mexican Free-tailed Bats at Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico. 

    ABOVE & BELOW: Mexican Free-tailed Bats

  305. Big Free-tailed Bat  (*)  ______  AZ  NM
    Nyctinomops macrotis

  306. Pocketed Free-tailed Bat  ______  AZ
    Nyctinomops femorosaccus

  307. Greater Bonneted Bat  ______  AZ
    Eumops perotis

    Eumops perotis
    is also called the Western Mastiff Bat.

  308. Underwood's Bonneted Bat  ______  AZ
    Eumops underwoodi 

    In the US, the Underwood's Bonneted Bat is known only in extreme southern Arizona, where it can be found drinking at desert pools.  

  309. Wagner's Bonneted Bat  ______
    Eumops glaucinus

  310. Pallas's Mastiff Bat  ______
    Molossus molossus

    (364 species worldwide)

  311. Silver-haired Bat  (ph) (*)  ______  AK  AZ  NJ (p)  
    Lasionycteris noctivagans 
    (the single member of its genus)

    A Silver-haired Bat came onboard a FONT pelagic trip, 70 miles offshore from New Jersey, September 12, 2004.It is in the photo below. 

    Silver-haired Bat

  312. Eastern Red Bat  (ph) (*) ______ NJ (p)
    Lasiurus borealis 

    The Eastern Red Bat and the Western Red Bat (below) have recently been "split".  

    An Eastern Red Bat in a tree, during the day
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  313. Western Red Bat  ______  AZ
    Lasiurus blossevillii

  314. Seminole Bat  (*) ______ NC
    Lasiurus seminolus

  315. Northern Yellow Bat  ______
    Lasiurus intermedius

  316. Southern Yellow Bat  ______
    Lasiurus egaq

  317. Western Yellow Bat  ______  AZ  (was part of the Southern Yellow Bat)
    Lasiurus xanthinus

  318. Hoary Bat  ______  AZ
    Lasiurus cinereus

  319. Spotted Bat  ______  AZ
    Euderma maculatum

  320. Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat  ______
    Corynorhinus rafinesquii

  321. Townsend's Big-eared Bat  ______  AZ
    Corynorhinus townsendii

  322. Allen's (or Mexican) Big-eared Bat  ______  AZ
    Idionycteris phyllotis

  323. Pallid Bat  ______  AZ
    Antrozous pallidus

  324. Southwestern Myotis  ______  AZ
    Myotis auriculus

  325. Fringed Myotis  ______  AZ
    Myotis thysanodes

  326. Long-eared Myotis  ______
    Myotis evotis

  327. Keen's Myotis  ______
    Myotis keenii

  328. Northern Myotis  ______
    Myotis septentrionalis     

  329. California Myotis  (*) ______  AZ  CA  
    Myotis californicus

  330. Western Small-footed Myotis  ______  AZ
    Myotis ciliolabrum

  331. Eastern Small-footed Myotis  ______
    Myotis leibii

  332. Long-legged Myotis  ______
    Myotis volans

  333. Cave Myotis  ______  AZ
    Myotis velifer

  334. Yuma Myotis  (*) ______  AZ  TX
    (formerly Leuconoe) yumanensis

  335. Little Brown Myotis  (*) ______  AK  AZ  CO  NC
    (formerly Leuconoe) lucifugus  

  336. Gray Myotis  ______
    Myotis grisescens

  337. Southeastern Myotis  ______
    Myotis austroriparius

  338. Indiana Myotis  ______
    Myotis sodalis

  339. Big Brown Bat  (ph) (*) ______  AZ  CA  WA
    Eptesicus fuscus

    A Big Brown Bat photographed in Delaware in January 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  340. Evening Bat  ______
    Nycticeius humeralis

  341. Eastern Pipistrelle  (*) ______ NC
    (formerly Perimyotis) subflavus

  342. Western Pipistrelle  (*) ______  AZ  TX
      (formerly Hypsugo) hesperus 

    MARINE MAMMALS I - SEALS & SEA LIONS  (Order Pinnidedia, "fin-footed")

    EARED SEALS, including SEA LIONS & FUR SEALS  (Family Otariidae)

  343. California Sea Lion  (ph) (*) ______  CA  
    Zalophus californiannus 
     (the single member of its genus)  

    The Galapagos Sea Lion is a race of Zalophus californiannus. There is another rare subspecies in Japan. 

    Male California Sea Lions are about 6.5 feet in length, and weigh up to almost 600 pounds; females about 5.9 feet in length, and weighing up to 198 pounds.  

    California Sea Lion
    (photo by Abram Fleishman)

  344. Northern Sea Lion  (nt) (*) ______  AK  WA 
    Eumetopias jubatus 
    (the single member of its genus)

    Eumetopias jubatus has also been called the Steller's Sea Lion.

    Male Northern, or Steller's. Sea Lions are nearly 10 feet long, and can weigh up to 2,200 pounds; females up 6.6 feet in length, and weighing up to 660 pounds.
    The smallest adult Steller's Sea Lion is larger than the largest California Sea Lion.

  345. Northern Fur Seal  (t3)  (ph) (*)  ______  AK  CA  WA 
    Callorbinnus ursinus 
    (the single member of its genus)

    A Northern Fur Seal, photographed during a FONT Tour in Alaska

    HAIR, including PHOCID, SEALS  (Family Phocidae) 

  346. Harbor Seal  (ph) (*)  ______  AK  CA  DE  WA  VA  
    Phoca vitulina

    The Harbor Seal ranges from 3.9 to 5.9 feet in length, weighs from 99 to 230 pounds. 

    Harbor Seals
    (above photo by James Scheib, during a FONT tour;
     photo below by Howard Eskin)

  347. Ringed Seal  (*) ______  AK
    (formerly Phoca) hispida 

  348. Ribbon Seal  (t3)  ______  AK
    (formerly Phoca) fasciata  (the single member of its genus) 

  349. Spotted Seal  ______  AK
    Phoca largha

  350. Harp Seal  ______
    Phoca groenlandica

  351. Hooded Seal  ______
    Cystophora cristata

  352. Gray Seal  ______
    Halichoerus grypus

  353. Bearded Seal  (*)  ______  AK
    Erignathus barbatus 
    (the single member of its genus)

  354. Northern Elephant Seal  (*)  ______  AK  CA  
    Mirounga angustirostris

    Male Northern Elephant Seals can be over 16 feet in length, and weigh up to 4,400 pounds; females weigh up to 1,760 pounds. 

    WALRUS  (Family Odobenidae)

  355. Walrus  (nt) (ph) (*) ______  AK
    Odobenus rosmarus 
    (the single member of its genus) 

    Two Walrus, photographed in Alaska
    (photo by Paul West)

    EVEN-TOED UNGULATES (Order Artiodactyla)
    (This order worldwide is diverse, including: pigs, hippopotamuses, camels, deer, antelope, and cattle.)

    SHEEP, GOATS, BISON, & MUSKOX  (Family Bovidae)

  356. Bighorn Sheep  (ph) (*)  ______  AZ  CO  WA
    Ovis canadensis
    (the "Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep" in Colorado, O. c. canadensis)
    "Desert Bighorn Sheep" in Washington State)

    A Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis, 
    in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado.
    (photo by Rick Greenspun, during a FONT tour in Colorado)

  357. Dall's Sheep  (*)  ______  AK
    Orvis dalli

    Above & below: Dall's, or White Sheep photographed in Alaska
    in the area of the Denali National Park in June 2013
    (photos by Mark Felber) 

  358. Mountain Goat  (*)  ______  AK
    Ocramnos americanus 
    (the single member of its genus) 

  359. (Plains) American Bison (or Buffalo) (ph) (*) ______  AK(i)  CO  (today domesticated)
    Bison b. bison

    Another subspecies, Bison bison athabascae, is called the "Wood Bison". 

    An old photograph of American Bison when they still roamed freely in the western US

  360. Muskox  (*)  ______  AK 
    Ovibus moschatus
      (the single member of its genus)

    The Muskox was nearly extinct at the end of the 19th Century. It is now re-established in parts of Alaska. 

    PRONGHORN ANTELOPE (Family Antilocapridae)

    There is only one living species in this exclusively American family. 

  361. Pronghorn  (ph) (*)  ______  AZ  CO  KS  NE  OK  TX  WY
    Antilocapra americana 
    (the single member of its genus)

    The Pronghorn is the fastest North American mammal. It has been clocked at 60 mph.


    2 species, 1 of which north of Mexico  (Family Tayassuidae)

    The Old World Swine (Boars, introduced various places in North America) are in the Family Suidae. 

  362. Collared Peccary  (ph) (*)  ______  AZ  TX  
    (formerly Pecari) tajacu  (was at one time Pecari angulatus)

    Another name for the Collared Peccary is Javelina.

    Collared Peccaries

    DEER (Family Cervidae)  Hoofed animals with antlers shed each year

  363. "American" Elk  (ph) (*)  ______  AZ  CO  WA  WY  
    Cervus elaphus canadensis 

    Another name for Cervus elaphus canadensis has been the Wapiti.

    Another, slightly smaller, subspecies of Cervus elaphus in Europe is called there the Red Deer

    Above & below: Elk (or Wapiti)
    Above: a male;  below: a female with a Magpie   
    (top photo by Doris Potter)

  364. "Tule" Elk  (*)  ______  CA
    Cervus elaphus nannodes 
    (a subspecies of the Elk in California)  

  365. Moose  (ph) (*)  ______  AK  CO  
    Alces alces 
    (the single member of its genus)

    What is called the Moose in North America is called the Elk in Europe.  

    The subspecies of the Moose, Alces alces gigas is the largest, with males weighing up to 1,600 pounds and females up to 1,300 pounds.

    Moose, photographed during a FONT tour

  366. Mule Deer  (ph) (*)  ______  AZ  CA  CO  KS  NE  NM  OK  TX  WA  WY  
    Odocoileus hemionus

    A subspecies, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus, is called the Black-tailed Deer. 

    Mule Deer

  367. White-tailed Deer  (ph) (*)  ______  AZ  CO  DE  FL  KS  NC  NE  TX  WA
    Odocoileus virginianus
    (including "Columbian White-tailed Deer" in the Pacific Northwest)
    "Coue's White-tailed Deer" in Arizona)
    "Sierra del Carmen White-tailed Deer" in the Chisos Mtns of west Texas)
    "Key White-tailed Deer" in the Florida Keys)
    (This mammal occurs in all 48 states of the lower mainland US.)

    White-tailed Deer
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  368. (Common) Fallow Deer (i) (ph) (*)  ______ CA  (feral at Point Reyes, CA; originally in the Mediterranean region of the Old World)  
    Dama dama   

    Fallow Deer
    (photo by James Scheib)

  369. (Barren Ground) Caribou  (*)  ______ AK
    Rangifer tarandus 
    (the single member of its genus)

  370. "Reindeer" (i) (ph) (*)  ______ AK
    (either from domesticated stock or from European Caribou
    Rangifer tarandus

    SIRENIANS  (Order Sirenia)

    MANATEES  (Family Trichechidae)  

    There are 3 species of manatees in the world. 

  371. West Indian Manatee  (ph) (*)  ______ FL  (has also been called "Sea Cow")
    Trichechus manatus 


    TOOTHED WHALES (Suborder Odontoceti)
    include: Dolphins & Porpoises, the Beaked Whales, Sperm Whales, the Beluga and Narwhal. 

    OCEAN DOLPHINS  (Family Delphinidae)

  372. Short-beaked Common Dolphin  (ph) (*)  ______  CA  DE  NJ (p)  (also called "Saddleback Dolphin")  
    Delphinus delphis

    Short-beaked Common Dolphin, during a FONT tour
    (photo by Andy Smith)
  373. Common Bottle-nosed Dolphin  (ph) 
    inshore population  (*)  ______  DE  NC
    offshore population  (*)  ______ DE  NJ (p)
    Tursiops truncatus
    (in the Atlantic, called "Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin")

    An offshore Common Bottle-nosed Dolphin during a FONT pelagic trip
    off the East Coast of North America  

  374. Atlantic Spotted Dolphin  (*)  ______ NC (p)
    Stenella frontalis

  375. Clymene (or Short-snouted Spinner) Dolphin  (ph) (*)  ______ NC (p)
    Stenella clymene

    Clymene Dolphins (or Short-snouted Spinner Dolphins) jumping out of the water,
    during a FONT pelagic trip in the Gulf Stream off the coast of North Carolina    

  376. Striped Dolphin ______
    Stenella coeruleoalba

  377. Northern Right Whale Dolphin  (*)  ______  CA  WA (p)
    Lissodelphis borealis

  378. Atlantic White-sided Dolphin  (*)  ______  NJ (p)
    Lagenorhynchus acutus

  379. Pacific White-sided Dolphin  (*)  ______  AK CA (p)  
    Lagenorhynchus obliquidens

    The Pacific White-sided Dolphin is up to just over 7 feet in length; up to about 200 pounds in weight.  

  380. White-beaked Dolphin  ______
    Lagenorhynchus albirostris 

  381. Risso's Dolphin  (ph) (*)  ______ CA  DE  NC  NJ (p)  (also called Gray Grampus
    Grampus griseus 
    (the single member of its genus)

    The Risso's Dolphin is up to nearly 12 feet in length; up to 900 pounds in weight.

    Risso's Dolphins photographed during a FONT pelagic trip

  382. Orca  (ph) (*)  ______  AK  CA  WA (p)  (has also been called Killer Whale or "Sea Wolf")
    Orcinus orca 
    (the single member of its genus)

    Male Orcas are up to 30 feet in length, females up to 27 feet; males weigh up to 5 tons, females up to 3 tons. The male's dorsal fin can be 6 feet high; that of the female about 2 feet in height. 
    The Orca is one of the fastest swimming whales, with a maximum recorded speed of 30 knots maintained for 20 minutes. 

    An Orca, or Killer Whale
    This marine mammal has been seen nicely during FONT Pacific Coast Tours
    in Washington State. 

  383. False Killer Whale  (*)  ______ NC (p)
    Pseudorca crassidens
      (the single member of its genus)

  384. Long-finned Pilot Whale  (ph) (*)  ______  NJ (p)  (has also been called "Blackfish")
    Globicephala melas

    A Long-finned Pilot Whale photographed during a FONT pelagic trip 
    off the East Coast of North America  

  385. Short-finned Pilot Whale  (ph) (*)  ______  AK  CA  NC (p)  (has also been called "Blackfish")
    Globicephala macrorhynchus

    Male Short-finned Pilot Whales are up to over 22 feet in length; females up to over 16 feet long. Males weigh to to 2,640 pounds; females up to 1,760 pounds.

    PORPOISES  (Family PHOCOENIDAE)  (6 species worldwide)

  386. Harbor Porpoise  (*)  ______  AK
    Phocoena phocoena vomenna 
    (subspecies in the northeast Pacific)

  387. Dall's Porpoise  (*)  ______  AK  CA  WA (p)
    Phocoenoides dalli 
    (the single member of its genus) 

    The Dall's Porpoise is up to 6.6 feet in length; up to 330 pounds in weight.

    BEAKED WHALES  (Family Ziphiidae)

    Pelagic in habitat, most are poorly known

  388. Cuvier's Beaked Whale  (ph) (*)  ______  AK  NC (p)  (has also been called Goosebeak Whale)
    Ziphius cavirostris 
    (the single member of its genus)

    A Cuvier's Beaked Whale photographed during a FONT pelagic trip,
    showing the beak

  389. Blainville's Beaked Whale  (*)  ______ NC (p)
    Mesoplodon densirostris

  390. True's Beaked Whale  (*)  ______ NC (p)
    Mesoplodon mirus

  391. Baird's Beaked Whale  (ph) (*)  ______  AK CA (p)
    Berardius bairdii

    Baird's Beaked Whale, during a FONT tour off California

  392. Stejneger's Beaked Whale  ______  AK
    Mesoplodon stejnegei

    Other names for Mesoplodon stejnegei are Bering Sea Beaked Whale and Saber-tooted Whale. 

    SPERM WHALES  (Family Physeteridae)

    2 smaller species, the Pygmy Sperm Whale and the Dwarf Sperm Whale, are sometimes placed in a different family, Kogiidae; they appear to be distantly related to the Great Sperm Whale.

    Both the Great Sperm Whale and the Dwarf Sperm Whale has been seen during FONT pelagic trips in the Caribbean.

  393. Great Sperm Whale  (t3) (ph) (*)  ______  AK  NC (p)  (has also been called Cachalot)
    Physeter catodon

    Two photos of Great Sperm Whales during FONT North Carolina pelagic trips.
    In the upper photo, note the characteristic angled spout.
    In the lower photo, showing 2 whales, not one with the distinctive log-like appearance.
    This species has also been seen during FONT tours in the Caribbean (off Dominica)
    and off the coast of southern Spain.      


    There are 3 species worldwide.

  394. Beluga  (t3)  ______  AK
    Delphinapterus leucas 
    (the single member of its genus)

  395. Narwhal  ______
    Monodon monoceros 
    (the single member of its genus)

    BALEEN WHALES - whales without teeth (Suborder Mysticeti)

    GRAY WHALE  (Family Eschrichtiidae)

  396. (California) Gray Whale  (*)  ______  AK  CA  WA (p)  (Other names: "Mussel-digger", "Scrag Whale"
    Eschrichtius robustus 
    (the single member of its genus)

    Females Gray Whales are larger than males: females up to over 46 feet long, males up to over 42 feet long; the animal's weight can be up to 33 tons. 

    During a FONT tours near Nome, Alaska, the Gray Whale has been seen from shore.

    The Gray Whale has a 12,000 mile round-trip migration between its southern breeding grounds in Baja California and its northern feeding grounds in the Bering, Chukchi, and western Beaufort Seas.

    Gray Whales formerly occurred in the North Atlantic, where they were hunted to extinction by the 17th or 18th Century. In the western Pacific, a population off Korea, may now be extinct. The eastern Pacific population was reduced to only a few hundred or thousand in the early 1900's.Protection came in 1946, and that population has now recovered.  


  397. North Atlantic Right Whale  (t2) (ph) (*) ______  NJ (p)
    (formerly Eubalaena) glacialis

    Two photographs of the rare & endangered North Atlantic Right Whale
    off the East Coast of North America.
    The counterpart in the Southern Atlantic, the Southern Right Whale,
    has been seen during FONT tours in Argentina. 

  398. Bowhead Whale   ______  AK  (in the Arctic Ocean)
    Balaena mysticetus

    RORQUAL (or FINBACK) WHALES (Family Balaenopteridae)

  399. Humpback Whale  (ph) (*)  ______  AK  CA  NF  NJ  WA (p)
    Megaptera novaeanliae 
    (the single member of its genus)

    Humpback Whales are up to over 52 feet in length, weighing up to 44 tons.

    Humpback Whale

  400. Northern Minke Whale  (ph) (*)  ______  AK  NC  NJ  WA (p) (has also been called Piked Whale or Lesser Rorqual) 
    Balacnoptera acutorostrata

    Formerly, until 1998, the Northern Minke Whale was considered conspecific with southern population, now the Antarctic Minke Whale, B. bonaerensis.

    The Northern Minke Whale is up to about 30 feet in length, weighing up to nearly 10 tons.

    Northern Minke Whale

  401. Bryde's Whale  ______
    Balaenoptera edeni

  402. Sei Whale  (t2)  ______  AK
    Balaenoptera borealis

  403. Fin Whale  (t2) (ph) (*)  ______  AK  DE  NJ (p)  (has also been called Common Rorqual
    Balaenoptera physalus

    A Fin Whale during a FONT pelagic trip, off the East Coast of North America 

  404. Blue Whale  (t2) (ph) (*)  ______  AK  CA (p)  (has also been called "Sulphurbottom"
    Balaenoptera m. musculus 
    (subspecies in the North Atlantic & North Pacific Oceans; 2 other subspecies in the Southern Hemisphere)  

    The Blue Whale is the largest of all mammals.

    Above & below: the Blue Whale
    The photo below during a FONT tour in 2012.
    (upper photo by Armas Hill; lower photo by Gabi Hauser)

References for the above mammal-list include:

"Mammals of North America" by Roland W. Kays & Don E. Wilson, published by Princeton Univ Press, 2002. 

"The Encyclopedia of Mammals", edited by Dr. David Macdonald, updated in 2006.

"Mammals of the World - A Checklist", by Andrew Duff & Ann Lawson, 2004

"A Field Guide to the Mammals (of North America north of Mexico), by William H. Burt & Richard P. Grossenheider

"Mammals of the Pacific Northwest", by James R. Christensen & Earl J. Larrison, 1982 

"Marine Birds and Mammals of Puget Sound", by Tony Angell & Kenneth C. Balcomb, 1982

"Eyewitness Handbook: Whales, Dolphins & Porpoises - a Visual Guide to the World's Cetaceans", by Mark Carwardine, illustrated by Martin Camm, 1995  

"World Guide to Mammals" by Nicole Duplaix & Noel Simon, 1976

"A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America & Southeast Mexico", by Fiona A. Reid, 1997