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2 of a List
with some Photos
Whites, Sulphurs and Yellows,
Noting those during
Focus On Nature Tours
in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Second Part of a List of South America Butterflies in 6 Parts,
compiled by Armas Hill
Here, in Part 2: Pieridae, the Whites, Sulphurs and Yellows, & allies
Among Butterfly Groupings in this list below, links to these subfamilies:
with the genera: Dismorphia,
Enantia, Lieinix, Moschoneura, Pseudopieris
PIERINAE: Whites & allies
with the genera: Archonias,
Ascia, Catasticta, Charonis, Cunizza, Daptoneura, Eroessia, Ganyra, Glutophrissa,
Hesperocharis, Hypsochila, Intraphulia, Itaballia, Leodonta, Leptophobia,
Mathania, Melete, Pereute, Phulia, Perrhybris, Piercolias, Pieriballia,
Pierphulia, Reliquia, Tatochila, Theochila
COLIADINAE: Sulphurs & allies
with the genera: Anteos,
Aphrissa, Colias, Eurema, Kricogonia, Leucidia, Nathalis, Phoebis, Pyristia,
Rhabdodryas, Teriocolias, Zerene
Links to other South America Butterfly groupings:
Part #1 - Swallowtails (Papilionidae)
Part #3 - Hairstreaks, Blues (Lycaenidae) & Metalmarks (Riodinidae)
Part #4 - Brushfoots (Nymphalidae)
Part #5 - Clearwings (Ithomiini) & Satyrs (Satyrini)
Part #6 - Skippers
In South America, the countries of Colombia, Peru, Brazil, and Ecuador each have a great number of butterfly species.
Ecuador has the greatest concentration of species per kilometer. In that country, there are said to be 2,726 species of butterflies.
Codes relating to illustrations in various books:
Numbers noted as (AZ:xx)
refer to pages in "Butterflies of Arizona - A Photographic
Guide", by Bob Stewart, Priscilla Brodkin, & Hank Brodkin
(with fine photographs).
Numbers noted as (BB:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of Buenos Aires (Argentina)", by Gustavo Canals
Numbers noted as (C:xx) refer to pages in "A World of Butterflies", with text by Brian Cassie, and photographs (superb) by Kjell Sandved
Numbers noted as (D1:xx) refer to plates in "The Butterflies of Costa Rica and their Natural History (Volume 1): Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae", by Philip J. DeVries
Numbers noted as (DV:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies Of South America", by Bernard D'Abrera
Numbers noted as (EBE:xx) refer to pages in "Ecuador's Butterfly Ecology" ("Ecologica de Mariposas del Ecuador"), by Xavier Silva
Numbers noted as (F:xx) refer to pages in "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Butterflies", by Dr. John Feltwell
Numbers noted as (K:xx) refer to pages in the "Kaufman Focus Guide to Butterflies of North America", by Jim Brock & Kenn Kaufman
Numbers noted as (MM:xx) refer to pages in "Mariposas (Butterflies) of Missiones (Argentina)", by Gustavo Canals
Numbers noted as (MCA:xx) refer to pages in "A Swift Guide to the Butterflies of Mexico & Central America" by Jeffrey Glassberg
Numbers noted as (PE:xx) refer to plates in the "Peterson Field Guides to Eastern Butterflies", by Paul Opler & Vichai Malikul, 1998 edition. Those noted as (PEp:xx) refer to a page with a photograph.
Numbers noted as (PW:xx) refer to plates in the "Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies", by Paul Opler & illustrated by Amy Bartlett Wright, 1999 edition. Those noted as (PWp:xx) refer to a page with a photograph.
Numbers noted as (RG:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of the Lower Rio Grande Valley" by Roland Wauer.
Numbers noted as (S:xx) refer to pages in the "Smithsonian Handbook, Butterflies & Moths", by David Carter.
AR: in Argentina
ba: province of Buenos Aires
ne: northeast Argentina, including Iguazu Falls
BR: in Brazil
mg: Mato Grosso, including the Pantanal and north to Alta Floresta / Rio Cristalino
se: southeast Brazil
CH: in Chile
EC: in Ecuador
VE: in Venezuela
Butterflies observed during FONT tours noted by an (*) after the 2-letter country code.
(ph): species with a photo in the FONT website
Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in South America in:
Brazil Ecuador Uruguay Venezuela Argentina Chile
Lists & Photo Galleries of BIRDS, including those during FONT Tours in South America
Lists & Photo Galleries of MAMMALS, relating to FONT Tours in South America
of Photo Galleries of AMPHIBIANS & REPTILES, including
those during FONT Tours in
RELATING TO OTHER LISTS & PHOTO GALLERIES OF BUTTERFLIES & MOTHS IN THIS WEBSITE:
A Photo Gallery of Butterflies & Moths during some FONT tours in Ecuador
Alphabetical Directory of Butterflies by Genus with Photos in this Website
Alphabetical Directory of Moths by Genus with Photos in this Website
Directory of Photos in this Website
List of South American Butterflies. Part #2:
Family PIERIDAE: most are predominantly white, yellow, or orange in color,
and are often referred to as WHITES, YELLOWS, SULPHURS, or MARBLES
Worldwide, approximately 1,000 species of whites & sulphurs have been described.
Host plants for PIERIDAE are generally legumes (shrubs and trees), such as Mimosaceae (for example, Inga spp.
for Dismorphiinae), and Caesalpinaceae, Fabraceae and Mimosaceae for Coliadinae).
Pierinae lay eggs mostly on Brassicaceae (the cabbage family), Tropaeolaceae (the cress family), Capparidaceae
Group of Pieridae during a FONT Brazil Tour
in Mato Grosso do Sul
(photo by Marie Gardner)
Subfamily DISMORPHIINAE: MIMIC-WHITES
A long-winged tropical group
Genus PSEUDOPIERIS: 2 species which can favor mountainous habitats,
especially in Peru and Ecuador on the western slopes of the Andes.