PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-8
 or 302/529-1876


Part 2 of a List
with some Photos

South America
and Moths

Whites, Sulphurs and Yellows,
and allies

Noting those during
Focus On Nature Tours

Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela

Second Part of a List of South America Butterflies in 6 Parts, 
compiled by Armas Hill

Here, in Part 2: Pieridae, the Whites, Sulphurs and Yellows, & allies 

Among Butterfly Groupings in this list below, links to these subfamilies:

DISMORPHIINAE: Mimic-whites     

with the genera: Dismorphia, Enantia, Lieinix, Moschoneura, Pseudopieris

PIERINAE: Whites & allies     

with the genera: Archonias, Ascia, Catasticta, Charonis, Cunizza, Daptoneura, Eroessia, Ganyra, Glutophrissa, Hesperocharis, Hypsochila, Intraphulia, Itaballia, Leodonta, Leptophobia, Mathania, Melete, Pereute, Phulia, Perrhybris, Piercolias, Pieriballia, Pierphulia, Reliquia, Tatochila, Theochila  

COLIADINAE: Sulphurs & allies 

with the genera: Anteos, Aphrissa, Colias, Eurema, Kricogonia, Leucidia, Nathalis, Phoebis, Pyristia, Rhabdodryas, Teriocolias, Zerene

Links to other South America Butterfly groupings:

Part #1 - Swallowtails  (Papilionidae)

Part #3 - Hairstreaks, Blues  (Lycaenidae) & Metalmarks  (Riodinidae)

Part #4 - Brushfoots  (Nymphalidae)   

Part #5 - Clearwings  (Ithomiini) & Satyrs  (Satyrini)

Part #6 - Skippers  (Hesperiidae)

In South America, the countries of Colombia, Peru, Brazil, and Ecuador each have a great number of butterfly species.
Ecuador has the greatest concentration of species per kilometer. In that country, there are said to be 2,726 species of butterflies.   

Codes relating to illustrations in various books:

Numbers noted as (AZ:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of Arizona - A Photographic Guide", by Bob Stewart, Priscilla Brodkin, & Hank Brodkin (with fine photographs).

Numbers noted as (BB:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of Buenos Aires (Argentina)", by Gustavo Canals

Numbers noted as (C:xx) refer to pages in "A World of Butterflies", with text by Brian Cassie, and photographs (superb) by Kjell Sandved

Numbers noted as (D1:xx) refer to plates in "The Butterflies of Costa Rica and their Natural History (Volume 1): Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae", by Philip J. DeVries   

Numbers noted as (DV:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies Of South America", by Bernard D'Abrera    

Numbers noted as (EBE:xx) refer to pages in "Ecuador's Butterfly Ecology" ("Ecologica de Mariposas del Ecuador"), by Xavier Silva

Numbers noted as (F:xx) refer to pages in "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Butterflies", by Dr. John Feltwell  

Numbers noted as (K:xx) refer to pages in the "Kaufman Focus Guide to Butterflies of North America", by Jim Brock & Kenn Kaufman

Numbers noted as (MM:xx) refer to pages in "Mariposas (Butterflies) of Missiones (Argentina)", by Gustavo Canals  

Numbers noted as (MCA:xx) refer to pages in "A Swift Guide to the Butterflies of Mexico & Central America" by Jeffrey Glassberg

Numbers noted as (PE:xx) refer to plates in the "Peterson Field Guides to Eastern Butterflies", by Paul Opler & Vichai Malikul, 1998 edition. Those noted as (PEp:xx) refer to a page with a photograph.

Numbers noted as (PW:xx) refer to plates in the "Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies", by Paul Opler & illustrated by Amy Bartlett Wright, 1999 edition. Those noted as (PWp:xx) refer to a page with a photograph. 

Numbers noted as (RG:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of the Lower Rio Grande Valley" by Roland Wauer.

Numbers noted as (S:xx) refer to pages in the "Smithsonian Handbook, Butterflies & Moths", by David Carter.

Country Codes:

AR: in Argentina
 ba:   province of Buenos Aires
 ne:   northeast Argentina, including Iguazu Falls 
BR: in Brazil
 mg:  Mato Grosso, including the Pantanal and north to Alta Floresta / Rio Cristalino
 se:    southeast Brazil
CH: in Chile
EC: in Ecuador
VE: in Venezuela

Butterflies observed during FONT tours noted by an (*) after the 2-letter country code. 

(ph): species with a photo in the FONT website 

Other Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in South America in:

Brazil   Ecuador   Uruguay   Venezuela
     Argentina   Chile

Lists & Photo Galleries of BIRDS, including those during FONT Tours in South America

Lists & Photo Galleries of MAMMALS, relating to FONT Tours in South America

Lists of Photo Galleries of AMPHIBIANS & REPTILES, including those during FONT Tours in South America  


A Photo Gallery of Butterflies & Moths during some FONT tours in Ecuador

Alphabetical Directory of Butterflies by Genus with Photos in this Website

Alphabetical Directory of Moths by Genus with Photos in this Website

Directory of Photos in this Website

List of South American Butterflies. Part #2:

          Family PIERIDAE: most are predominantly white, yellow, or orange in color, 
          and are often referred to as WHITES, YELLOWS, SULPHURS, or MARBLES
          Worldwide, approximately 1,000 species of whites & sulphurs have been described.

          Host plants for PIERIDAE are generally legumes (shrubs and trees), such as Mimosaceae (for example, Inga spp. 
          for Dismorphiinae), and Caesalpinaceae, Fabraceae and Mimosaceae for Coliadinae).
          Pierinae lay eggs mostly on Brassicaceae (the cabbage family), Tropaeolaceae (the cress family), Capparidaceae
          and Loranthaceae.    

Group of Pieridae during a FONT Brazil Tour
in Mato Grosso do Sul 
(photo by Marie Gardner)


A long-winged tropical group

          Genus PSEUDOPIERIS: 
2 species which can favor mountainous habitats, 
          especially in Peru and Ecuador on the western slopes of the Andes.   

  1. Pseudopieris nehemia ______  AR  BRmg  EC  (DV1:6)
    Pseudopieris nehemia luisa  ______  EC 
    (subspecies from Panama to Ecuador, described in 1979)
    Pseudopieris nehemia acquatorialis  ______  EC  (DA:53) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador & possibly Peru)
    Pseudopieris nehemia melania  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1985)
    Pseudopieris nehemia jessica  ______
      (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004)
    Pseudopieris nehemia mariana  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004)
    Pseudopieris nehemia limbalis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Pseudopieris nehemia nehemia ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:163)
    (subspecies in Brazil and northeast Argentina)
    Pseudopieris nehemia prasina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    AR common name: Nehemia 
    (Nehemias was a Jewish leader who lived in the 5th Century B.C.. He had an honorary position in the Persian king's court, and was designated Judah's governor and authorized to reconstruct Jerusalem)     
    BR: Floco de Neve  ("Snowflake") 
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil & Argentina) 

    An undescribed subspecies of Pseudopieris nehemia has been found in Peru.

  2. Pseudopieris viridula ______  EC
    Pseudopieris viridula viridula  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Pseudopieris viridula mauritia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia & Venezuela, described in 2004)
    Pseudopieris viridula mamaripa  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela, described in 2003)
    Pseudopieris viridula zulma  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Peru & Bolivia, described in 2004) 

    Pseudopieris viridula has a yellowish green underside. The male has a distinct brown patch on the forewing underside. 

    Genus LIEINIX  (has been included in DISMORPHIA) 

  3. Lieinix nemesis  ______  EC  (CA:50) (DV1:7) (MCA:35)
    Lieinix nemesis nemesis  ______  (EBE:40)
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela, Ecuador, & Peru)

    In Lieinix nemesis, sexual dimorphism is very pronounced. 

    In Ecuador, Lieinix nemesis is common in cloud forests on both slopes of the Andes. It occurs in lesser numbers in Andean valleys, always associating with Inga trees.
    Males are aposematic, mimicking inedible species, and females are mostly white.
    Host plants: as just noted, various trees of the genus Inga in Mimosaceae.    

  4. Lieinix christa  ______  (species described in 1970)
    (Range: Amazonian Brazil) 

    With about 40 species that are remarkable mimics of various distasteful butterflies. 
    The patterning is variable. Sexual dimorphism is marked in the species in this genus. 

  5. Dismorphia lua  ______  EC  (DV1:6)
    Dismorphia lua idae  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & western Colombia) 
    Dismorphia lua lua  ______  EC
      (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Dismorphia lua roberta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004)
    Dismorphia lua garleppi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia) 

  6. Dismorphia amphione ______  BRse  EC  (DA:51) (DV1:6) (MCA:34) (S:74)
    Dismorphia amphione praxinoe  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia)
    Dismorphia amphione beroe  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    Dismorphia amphione daguana  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia) 
    Dismorphia amphione amphione  ______ 
    (subspecies in Surinam)
    Dismorphia amphione broomeae  ______ 
    (subspecies in Trinidad)
    Dismorphia amphione bertha  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Dismorphia amphione rhomboidea  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Dismorphia amphione mora  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004)
    Dismorphia amphione meridionalis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    Dismorphia amphione egaena  ______ 
    (subspecies in Amazonian Brazil)
    Dismorphia amphione astynome  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    (or Tiger Pierid)
    (Range: Mexico thru South America to Bolivia, Peru, the Guianas, & Trinidad; also in the West Indies in Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico) 

  7. Dismorphia crisia  ______  BRse  EC  (DV1:6) (MCA:34)
    Dismorphia crisia tolimensis  ______
      (subspecies in Colombia)
    Dismorphia crisia interrupta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)  
    Dismorphia crisia foedora  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Dismorphia crisia neblina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela, described in 1970)
    Dismorphia crisia roraimae  ______ 
    (subspecies in Guyana)
    Dismorphia crisia anamaria  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwest Peru, described in 2004)
    Dismorphia crisia sylvia  ______ 
    (subspecies in northeast Peru, described in 2004) 
    Dismorphia crisia crisia  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Dismorphia crisia saltensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    CLOUD FOREST MIMIC-WHITE  (or Crisia Mimic-White)
    (Range: southern Mexico to Brazil) 

  8. Dismorphia zaela  ______  EC  (DV1:7)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador) 

  9. Dismorphia theucharila  ______  EC  (C:363) (DV1:7) (MCA:35)
    Dismorphia theucharila fortunata  ______  (DV1:7) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to northwest Colombia)
    Dismorphia theucharila siloe  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    (or Pierid Mimic
    as this species looks like an ithomiine clearwing - DV1:35)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  10. Dismorphia medora  (ph)  ______  EC  (EBE:40)
    Dismorphia medora medora  ______
      (subspecies in Colombia)
    Dismorphia medora liliana  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, on eastern Andean slopes)
    Dismorphia medora miriam  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, on western Andean slopes)
    Dismorphia medora juditha  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    (Range: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru) 

    In Ecuador, Dismorphia medora is common in cloud forests on both eastern and western Andean ranges, up to about 7,000 feet above sea level.
    As are other Dismorphia butterflies, this species is an important pollinator of Asteraceae (in the forest understory) and Inga trees.
    The aposematic colors of the butterfly mimics inedible species.
    Host plants: trees of the genus Inga in Mimosaceae.    

    Medora Mimic-White
    (photo in Colombia by Sherry Nelson)

  11. Dismorphia altis  ______
    Dismorphia altis altis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Dismorphia altis sophia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Dismorphia altis negreti  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)

  12. Dismorphia arcadia  ______  EC
    Dismorphia arcadia arcadia  ______
      (subspecies in Colombia)
    Dismorphia arcadia lucilla  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Dismorphia arcadia heloisa  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004)
    Dismorphia arcadia medorina  ______
      (subspecies in Bolivia)

  13. Dismorphia mirandola  ______  EC
    Dismorphia mirandola mirandola  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Dismorphia mirandola discoloria  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)

  14. Dismorphia hippotas  ______  EC
    Dismorphia hippotas hippotas  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Dismorphia hippotas diana  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)  

  15. Dismorphia lelex  ______
    Dismorphia lelex lelex  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Dismorphia lelex xiomara  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, described in 2004)
    Dismorphia lelex valeria  ______
      (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)  

  16. Dismorphia lygdamis  ______  EC
    Dismorphia lygdamis lygdamis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Dismorphia lygdamis doris  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1969) 
    Dismorphia lygdamis beatrix  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004)

  17. Dismorphia lysis  ______  EC
    Dismorphia lysis lysis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Dismorphia lysis peruana  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Dismorphia lysis mariella  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004)

  18. Dismorphia medora  ______  EC
    Dismorphia medora medora  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Dismorphia medora reducta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Dismorphia medora lilianna  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, described in 2004)
    Dismorphia medora juditha  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004) 

  19. Dismorphia medorilla  ______  EC
    Dismorphia medorilla medorilla  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Dismorphia medorilla sarita  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004)
    Dismorphia medorilla buchtieni  ______
      (subspecies in Bolivia)

  20. Dismorphia niepelti  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador) 

  21. Dismorphia teresa  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  22. Dismorphia hyposticta  ______  EC
    Dismorphia hyposticta manuelita  ______
      (subspecies in Colombia)
    Dismorphia hyposticta hyposticta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Dismorphia hyposticta ophelia  ______
      (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004)
    Dismorphia hyposticta paulina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004)

  23. Dismorphia lewyi  ______  EC
    Dismorphia lewyi lewyi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Dismorphia lewyi dolorita  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Dismorphia lewyi nasua  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Dismorphia lewyi leonora  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador) 
    Dismorphia lewyi rebecca  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004)
    Dismorphia lewyi boliviensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)

  24. Dismorphia laja  ______  EC
    Dismorphia laja tricolor  ______
      (subspecies in Colombia)
    Dismorphia laja laja  ______ 
    (subspecies in Surinam)
    Dismorphia laja carthesis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Guyana)
    Dismorphia laja lysianax  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Dismorphia laja koenigi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1969)
    Dismorphia laja rosina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004)
    Dismorphia laja spectabilis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    Dismorphia laja tapajona  ______ 
    (subspecies in Amazonian Brazil) 
    Dismorphia laja jurua  ______ 
    (subspecies in Amazonian Brazil)

  25. Dismorphia lycosura  ______  EC
    Dismorphia lycosura lycosura  ______
      (subspecies in Peru)
    (Range: Peru & Ecuador) 

    An undescribed subspecies of Dismorphia lycosura has been found in Peru.

  26. Dismorphia boliviana  ______
    (Range: Bolivia)

  27. Dismorphia pseudolewyi  ______  (species described in 1955)
    (Range: Bolivia)

  28. Dismorphia thermesia  ______  BRse  EC
    Dismorphia thermesia minima  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004) 
    Dismorphia thermesia thermesia  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:161)
    (subspecies in Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Bonita Perlada  ("Pearled Pretty
    " referring to the stylized outline, uncommon in its family)

    Two undescribed subspecies of Dismorphia thermesia have been found in Guyana & Peru.

  29. Dismorphia thermesina  ______
    Dismorphia thermesina thermesina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Dismorphia thermesina pimpla  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia) 

  30. Dismorphia astyocha  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:162)   
    AR common name: Bonita
    (translates to "Pretty")
    (Range: Brazil & northeast Argentina)

    The coloring and stylized outline of Dismorphia astyocha is uncommon in this family.

  31. Dismorphia zathoe  ______  EC  (DV1:7)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador) 

  32. Dismorphia melia ______  (DA:52)
    (Range: southern Brazil)

    Dismorphia melia is a mimic of the two ACRAEID species Actinote thalia & Actinote parapheles, to which it bears a very strong resemblance.   

  33. An undescribed species of Dismorphia has been found, with two subspecies, in Peru. 

    Genus PATIA

  34. Patia orise  ______  EC  (DA:47) (DV1:7)  (has been Dismorphia orise)
    Patia orise denigrata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Patia orise orise  ______
      (subspecies in Amazonas, Guianas, Bolivia)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia)  

  35. Patia rhetes  ______  EC  (DA:48)  (has been Dismorphia rhetes)
    (Range: Colombia & Ecuador, and possibly Bolivia)

    Patia rhetes
    strongly resembles certain ITHOMIIDS in both sexes. 

  36. Patia cordillera  ______
    Patia cordillera sororna  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    Patia cordillera thecla  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Patia cordillera cordillera  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Patia cordillera larunda  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)

    Genus ENANTIA:  Closely related to DISMORPHIA, but not as strongly sexually dimorphic. Sun-and-flower loving species, often encountered in numbers on flowers, usually at the end of the rainy season.       

  37. Enantia licinia  ______  (DV1:7)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  38. Enantia melite  ______  BRse  EC  (DV1:7)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1763)
    Enantia melite melite  ______  BRse  subspecies in southeast Brazil
    Enantia melite linealis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Enantia melite theugenis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia) 
    Enantia melite cornelia ______  (DA:53) 
    (this subspecies seemingly merged into one of the above)
    Enantia melite vilma  _____
    _  (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004)
    (Range: Mexico to Uruguay) 

    Enantia melite is a most variable butterfly.

  39. Enantia citrinella  ______  EC
    Enantia citrinella citrinella  ______
      (subspecies in Venezuela)

    3 new subspecies of Enantia citrinella are being described in Colombia & Peru. 

  40. Enantia albania  ______
    Enantia albania sonya  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Enantia albania zoraida  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Enantia albania nuria  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, described in 2004)
    (or Albania Mimic-White)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador) 

  41. Enantia aloikea  ______  (species described in 1993)
    (Range: in French Guiana)

  42. Enantia clarissa ______ ARne  (MM:160)
    AR common name: Clarisa 
    (referring to scientific name)
    (Range: Brazil & northeast Argentina)

  43. Enantia limnorina  ______  BRse  (DA:52)
    (Range: southern Brazil)

  44. Enantia lina  ______  BRmg,se  EC  (MCA:33)
    Enantia lina agatha  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Enantia lina mercenaria  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Enantia lina lina  ______
    Enantia lina acutipennis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Trinidad)
    Enantia lina aphrodite  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Enantia lina galanthis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Enantia lina versicolora  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Enantia lina psamathe
    (was Dismorphia psamathe ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:159)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil and northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Bonita Blanca  (
    translates to"White Pretty")

  45. An undescribed subspecies of Enantia lina has been found in Ecuador.

    Genus MOSCHONEURA  (
    one species that was part of DISMORPHIA)

  46. Moschoneura pinthous  ______  (DA:48)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Moschoneura pinthous pinthous  ______
    Moschoneura pinthous xanthella  ______  (DA:48)
      (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Moschoneura pinthous ela  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Moschoneura pinthous ithomia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Moschoneura pinthous amelina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Moschoneura pinthous monica  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004)
    Moschoneura pinthous patricia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 2004) 
    Moschoneura pinthous proxima  ______
      (subspecies in Amazonian Brazil)
    Moschoneura pinthous cyra  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bahia, Brazil)
    Moschoneura pinthous methymna  ______
      (subspecies in Brazil)

    3 new subspecies of Moschoneura pinthous are being described in Venezuela & Brazil.

    Moschoneura pinthous
    has often been confused with the Ithomiid AERIA species.

    Subfamily PIERINAE


    is a tropical genus. Butterflies in it occur relatively frequently on riverbanks and on wet soils, close to primary or secondary forests. In Ecuador, there are 4 species. 
    Host plants: in Loranthaceae.

  47. Hesperocharis nera  ______  EC  (EBE:45)
    Hesperocharis nera nereis  _____
    _(subspecies in Colombia)
    Hesperocharis nera lamonti  ______ 
    (subspecies in Trinidad)
    Hesperocharis nera nymphaea  ______ 
    (subspecies in Surinam)
    Hesperocharis nera nera  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Hesperocharis nera aida  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Hesperocharis nera amazonica  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru) 
    Hesperocharis nera nerida  ______ 
    (subspecies in Amazonian Brazil)

  48. Hesperocharis hirlanda  ______  EC  
    Hesperocharis hirlanda apicalis  ______  EC  (EBE:45) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Hesperocharis hirlanda fulvinota  ______  (DA:55) 
    (subspecies in southern Brazil)
    (Range: Colombia to the Guianas, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil) 

  49. Hesperocharis marchalii  (ph)  ______  EC
    (Range: Colombia)

    Marchal's White, Hesperocharis marchalii
    (photo in Colombia by Sherry Nelson)

  50. Hesperocharis nambii  ______  (species described in 2007)
    (Range: Colombia)

  51. Hesperocharis crocea  ______

  52. An undescribed subspecies of Hesperocharis crocea has recently been found in Peru.

  53. Hesperocharis nereina  (ph)  ______  EC
    (Range: Ecuador and Peru)

    Hesperocharis nereina   (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  54. Hesperocharis emeris  ______  BRse
    (Range: Brazil)

  55. Hesperocharis leucania  ______
    (Range: Brazil)

  56. Hesperocharis anguitia  ______  BRse
    Hesperocharis anguitia anguitia  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Hesperocharis anguitia giesekingi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Argentina)

  57. Hesperocharis paranensis  ______
    Hesperocharis paranensis paranensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Hesperocharis paranensis infrasignata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Argentina) 

  58. Hesperocharis erota  ______  BRse

    Genus ARCHONIAS:

    A most interesting genus of PIERIDS. Considered to be involved in mimetic associations with PAPILIONID and HELICONID butterflies and with one species of ARCTIID day-flying moth.
    Comparatively slow-flying, with a fondness for settling on leaves in the sunshine or visiting flowering shrubs, where they spend substantial time & effort on one or two blooms.

  59. Archonias tereas  ______  BRse  (DV1:7) (F:82)
    Archonias tereas archidona  ______  (DA:63)
      (was said to be a subspecies in Ecuador - this race thought to resemble a day-flying ARCTIID moth)
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil)

    Archonias tereas looks like a mimic of a female Parides swallowtail. It lives in open parts of rainforests.

  60. Archonias bellona  ______
    Archonias bellona hyrnetho ______ (DA:63)
    (was said to be a subspecies in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia - shows a resemblance to HELICONID species)
    (Range: Colombia to the Guianas; also to Bolivia & northern Argentina) 

  61. Archonias brassolis  (ph)  ______  EC
    Archonias brassolis archidona  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador in the foothills of the Amazon)
    Archonias brassolis cutila  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador in the foothills of the Amazon)  
    Archonias brassolis rosacea  ______  (EBE:39,49) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, in the area of the Coast and on the western slopes of the Andes)

    Archonias brassolis is an interesting butterfly that mimics inedible species, such as those in the genus Parides.
    In Ecuador, it occurs up to about 4,000 feet above sea level.
    Host plants are probably in Loranthaceae.

    A Cattleheart White, Archonias brassolis rosacea, 
    photographed during the FONT tour in Ecuador in July 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  62. Archonias monuste orseis  ______  BRse  subspecies in southeast Brazil

    Genus CHARONIAS:
    2 species which can easily be mistaken for ITHOMIIDS or HELICONIIDS

  63. Charonias eurytele ______  EC  (MCA:23)
    Charonias eurytele eurytele ______  (DA:66)
    TIGER WHITE  (or Eurytele White)

    (Range: Guatemala & Belize to Ecuador) 

    Charonias eurytele probably occur only on the western side of the central cordillera in Colombia & Ecuador. 
    The South American populations have white spots on the forewings.  

    Genus EROESSA:  1 species, confined to low and middle altitudes in Chile only. Considered rare & local.

  64. Eroessa chilensis ______  CH  (DA:54)

    CH common name: Mariposa eroesa
    (Range: Chile, endemic. It occurs locally on the coast from Maule to Aisen, and in the foothills of Cautin, Osorno, and Llanquihue.)

    Eroessa chilensis
    is greenish-white. The forewings have a conspicuous, orange transverse band and dark brown wingtips.
    The species lives in Nothofagus forest clearings, where it appears in the spring to feed on red, pink, or white flowers of plants such as the Chilco (Fuchsia magellanica) and Mora (Rubus sp.).    

    Genus CUNIZZA:  closely related to, or merged into HESPEROCHARIS (above)

  65. Cunizza hirlanda  ______  EC
    Cunizza hurlanda serda  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Cunizza hurlanda minturna  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Cunizza hurlanda apicalis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Cunizza hurlanda ninguida  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Cunizza hurlanda fulvinota  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Cunizza hurlanda planasia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Cunizza hurlanda praeclara  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)

    Genus MATHANIA: 
    7 species occurring only in temperate zones or mountainous regions in western South America 
    The leaf-lie appearance of the hindwing underside of the species in this genus affords some camouflage protection.  

  66. Mathania agasicles  ______  EC  (DA:55)
    Mathania agasicles agasicles  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    Mathania agasicles gaujoni  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)  
    (Range: Ecuador to Bolivia; high altitudes)

    Two new subspecies of Mathania agasicles are being described in Peru. 

  67. Mathania aureomaculata  ______  EC
    Mathania aureomaculata aureomaculata  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Mathania aureomaculata esther  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Mathania aureomaculata pallida  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)

    Another new subspecies of Mathania aureomaculata is being described in Peru.

  68. Mathania carrizoi  ______
    (Range: Argentina)

  69. Mathania leucothea  ______  CH
    CH common name: Mariposa del Quintral
    (Range: in Chile, from Coquimbo to Valdivia) 

    Mathania leucothea can be common in gardens especially near Quintral (Tristerix sp.), an epiphytic plant on which it lays its eggs.

  70. A new species of Mathania is being described in Peru.


    is one of the most numerous genera of all butterflies in Ecuador, with about 45 species in the country. 
    Of those, at least 6 are restricted, or endemic, to Ecuador.
    The species look very similar. Most occur in cloud forests, and some are in Andean valleys.
    Host plants are usually in Loranthaceae.

    A butterfly in the Catasticta genus in Colombia
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  71. Catasticta prioneris  ______  EC  (DV1:11)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Peru) 

  72. Catasticta sisamnus  ______  EC
    Catasticta sisamnus susamnus  ______  (DV1:11)
    (subspecies Honduras to Venezuela)
    WHITENED DARTWHITE  (or Sisamnus Dartwhite)
    (Range: Honduras to Bolivia) 

  73. Catasticta albofasciata  ______  EC
    Catasticta albofasciata albofasciata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Catasticta albofasciata rubroreducta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, described in 1972) 

  74. Catasticta affinis  ______
    Catasticta affinis affinis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Catasticta affinis giga  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)

  75. Catasticta chrysolopha  ______  EC
    Catasticta chrysolopha chrysolopha  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Catasticta chrysolopha adamsi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 1998)
    Catasticta chrysolopha spectrum  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela, described in 1972)
    Catasticta chrysolopha beatrizae  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela, described in 2007)
    Catasticta chrysolopha quiroza  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)

    An undescribed subspecies of Catasticta chrysolopha has recently been found in Peru.

  76. Catasticta uricoecheae uricoecheae ______  (DA:61)
    (Range: Colombia)

  77. Catasticta apaturina  ______  EC
    Catasticta apaturina subturina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 1972)
    Catasticta apaturina apaturina  ______  EC
      (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Catasticta apaturina citra  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Catasticta apaturina supraturina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1972)

  78. Catasticta arborardens  ______  (species described in 1972)
    (Range: in Peru)

  79. Catasticta atahualipa  ______  (species described in 1998)
    (Range: in Peru)

  80. Catasticta anaitis  ______  EC
    Catasticta anaitis anaitis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Catasticta anaitis suasella  ______
      (subspecies in Peru)
    Catasticta anaitis felicitas  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1998)
    Catasticta anaitis sordida  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia) 

  81. Catasticta aureomaculata  ______
    Catasticta aureomaculata aureomaculata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Catasticta aureomaculata gabrieli  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1972)

    An undescribed subspecies of Catasticta aureomaculata has recently been found in Peru. 

  82. Catasticta amastris  ______
    Catasticta amastris dentata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Catasticta amastris amastris  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)

  83. Catasticta chelidonis  ______  EC
    Catasticta chelidonis maja  ______  (EBE:49) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Catasticta chelidonis contrasta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1972)
    Catasticta chelidonis igneata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1972)
    Catasticta chelidonis chelidonis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    Catasticta chelidonis jacinta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    Catasticta chelidonis taminoides  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia, described in 1998)  

  84. Catasticta cinerea  ______  EC

  85. Catasticta corcyra  ______  EC

  86. Catasticta ctemene  ______  EC

  87. Catasticta discalba  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  88. Catasticta eurigania  ______  EC

  89. Catasticta ferra  ______  EC

  90. Catasticta flisa  ______  EC

  91. Catasticta frontina  ______  EC

  92. Catasticta hegemon  ______  EC

  93. Catasticta incerta  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  94. Catasticta leucophaea  ______  EC

  95. Catasticta ludovici  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador, described in 1998)

  96. Catasticta manco  ______  EC

  97. Catasticta nimbata  ______  EC

  98. Catasticta niobe ______  (DA:62)
    (Range: Bolivia)

  99. Catasticta notha  ______  EC

  100. Catasticta pharnakia  ______  EC

  101. Catasticta philais  ______  EC

  102. Catasticta philodora  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador) 

  103. Catasticta philone  ______  EC

  104. Catasticta philoscia  ______  EC

  105. Catasticta pluvius  ______  EC

  106. Catasticta poujadei ______  EC  (DA:62)
    (Range: Ecuador; possibly Peru)

  107. Catasticta radiata  ______  EC

  108. Catasticta reducta  ______  EC

  109. Catasticta rileya  ______  EC

  110. Catasticta scurra  ______  EC

  111. Catasticta seitzi  ______  EC

  112. Catasticta sella  ______  EC  (species described in 1998)

  113. Catasticta semiramis  ______  EC

  114. Catasticta socorrensis  ______  EC

  115. Catasticta striata  ______  EC  (species described in 1998)

  116. Catasticta susiana  ______  EC

  117. Catasticta tamsa  ______  EC

  118. Catasticta teutamis  ______  EC
    Catasticta teutamis epimene  ______  (EBE:49) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)  

  119. Catasticta thomasorum  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador, described in 1998) 

  120. Catasticta tomyris  ______  EC

  121. Catasticta tricolor  ______  EC

  122. Catasticta truncata  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  123. Catasticta vulnerator  ______  EC

  124. Catasticta abiseo  ______  (species described in 2004)
    (Range: in Peru) 

  125. Catasticta bithys  ______  BRse
    (Range: in Brazil)

  126. Catasticta huebneri  ______  BRse

    Genus LEODONTA:
    The number of species in this genus is a matter of conjecture. Some say no more than 2 or 2, others say as many as 10. However, they are an easily recognizable group in the Neotropics, due to their underside pattern together with their fondness for flying along pathways or by narrow stream banks. 

  127. Leodonta dysoni  ______  EC
    Leodonta dysoni dysoni  ______  (DV1:11) 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Venezuela)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Peru)

  128. Leodonta tagaste  ______  EC

  129. Leodonta tellane  ______  EC  (EBE:47) 
    Leodonta tellane tingomariae  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Ecuador)
    Leodonta tellane intermedia  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Ecuador)

    Leodonta tellane
    occurs in cloud forests. It is found at streams, and near waterfalls, extracting mineral salts.
    Host plants are thought to be Loranthaceae.   

  130. Leodonta zenobia  ______  EC

  131. Leodonta zenobina  ______  EC  (DA:66)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Peru & Bolivia)

    Genus PEREUTE: 8 species of the most subtly beautiful PIERIDS from any region of the world, with the outstanding colors being the soft rose-pinks, blue-grays, and cadmium yellow streaks and patches. 
    They can be remindful of the Indo-Australian DELIAS group (the JEZEBELS) in their appearance and behavior.  

  132. Pereute charops  ______  EC  (DA:64) (DV1:11) (MCA:24)
    DARKENED WHITE  (or Surprising White)
    (Range: Mexico to Peru, not known to be east of the Andes)

    One of the more attractive features of both sexes of Pereute charops is the almost completely white antennae. 
    Southern races differ in that the males tend to be almost completely black. 

  133. Pereute leucodrosime  ______  EC  (EBE:47)
    Pereute leucodrosime beryllina ______  (DA:64) 
    (the most common subspecies in Ecuador)
    (Range: Venezuela to Peru) (Not known to be east of the Andes)

    Pereute leucodrosime is an attractive species of cloud forests in Ecuador on both slopes of the Andes up to 1,500 meters above sea level. It flies over forests and in open areas.
    Host plants are usually Loranthacea. 

  134. Pereute callinice  ______  EC

  135. Pereute callinira  ______  EC  (DA:text)
    (Range: Colombia to Bolivia)

    Pereute callinira is similar to Pereute leucodrosime, but distinguished by the small but clear black spot on the forewing in both sexes. 

  136. Pereute telthusa  ______  (DA:65)
    (Range: Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, & Brazil (lower Amazon)) 

    The sexes of Pereute telthusa are similar but the female is slightly larger, with rounded wings.

  137. Pereute antodyca  ______  BRse

  138. Pereute swainsoni  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:164)
    AR common name: Embustera  ("Lying"  referring to its coloring, uncommon in its family, instead like a NYMPHALIDAE) 

    Genus GLUTOPHRISSA:  2 species now said, for structural reasons, to be distinct from the Asian & Australia genus APPIAS (known commonly as the ALBATROSSES) 

  139. Glutophrissa (was Appias) drusilla  (ph)  ______  AR  BRmg  EC  (K:53) (PE:7)
    Glutophrissa drusilla tenuis  ______  EC  (DV1:12) (MCA:26) 
    subspecies from Mexico to Peru
    Glutophrissa drusilla drusilla ______  ARne  BRse  (DA:67) (MM:167)
      subspecies in southeast Brazil and northeast Argentina
    (another name is Florida White)
    AR common name: Lechera Grande  (translates to "Big Milky")
    (Range: southern US, Central and South America, also in the West Indies) 

    Tropical White
    (photo by Lisa Johnson) 

    15-16 species whose general characteristic is the silvery-white color of the hindwing underside. Found from moderate to high elevations (to 9,000 ft. or 3,000 meters).

    In Ecuador, there are about 15 species of LEPTOPHOBIA butterflies. They are generally in cloud forests and Andean valleys. Most are white and black and look rather alike. They are found at forest edges and in agricultural areas.
    Host plants are in Brassicaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Capparidaceae.

  140. Leptophobia aripa  ______  EC  (DV1:12) (MCA:27)
    Leptophobia aripa aripa  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Leptophobia aripa elodina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    Leptophobia aripa balidia ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:165)
    (subspecies in Brazil and northeast Argentina)
    (or Common Green-eyed White)

    AR common name: Blanquita 
    (translates to "Little White")
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil & northern Argentina) 

    In some Andean valleys in Ecuador, Leptophobia aripa can be a cabbage pest.

  141. Leptophobia caesia  ______  EC  (DV1:12)
    Leptophobia caesia phanokia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Leptophobia caesia caesia  ______  EC  (EBE:48) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    (or Caesia White)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador) 

    An undescribed subspecies of Leptophobia caesia has recently been found in Colombia.

  142. Leptophobia micala  ______  (species described in 2004)
    (Range: Colombia)

  143. Leptophobia olympia  ______
    Leptophobia olympia olympia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Leptophobia olympia potoniei  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1969)

    An undescribed subspecies of Leptophobia olympia has been found in Peru. 

  144. Leptophobia cinerea  ______  EC
    Leptophobia cinerea cinerea  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Leptophobia cinerea menthe  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)

  145. Leptophobia diaguita  ______  EC
    Leptophobia diaguita latifascia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador & Peru)
    Leptophobia diaguita mandor  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 2003)
    Leptophobia diaguita diaguita  ______ 
    (subspecies in Argentina)

  146. Leptophobia eleone  ______  EC
    Leptophobia eleone eleone  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Leptophobia eleone denigrata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Leptophobia eleone luca ______  (DA:69) 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    (Range: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, & Bolivia)

    Regarding Leptophobia eleone, an early writer wrote: "They fly over fields and in thickets and are fond of being driven by the wind."

  147. Leptophobia eleusis  ______  BRse  EC
    Leptophobia eleusis eleusis  ______  BRse 
    subspecies in Colombia and in southeast Brazil
    Leptophobia eleusis mollitica  ______ 
    subspecies in Peru

    An undescribed subspecies of Leptophobia eleusis has been found in Peru,

  148. Leptophobia gonzaga  ______  EC  (EBE:48)  (nearly endemic to Ecuador)
    Leptophobia gonzaga sotara  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Leptophobia gonzaga gonzaga  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)

    An undescribed subspecies of Leptophobia gonzaga has been found in Ecuador.

  149. Leptophobia helena  ______  EC
    Leptophobia helena helena  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Leptophobia helena smithii  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Leptophobia helena hughesi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 2003)
    Leptophobia helena doubledayi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)

    Two undescribed subspecies of Leptophobia helena have been found in Colombia & Ecuador.

  150. Leptophobia erinna  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)
    (Range: Ecuador and nearby Peru)

  151. Leptophobia eucosma  ______  EC
    Leptophobia eucosma eucosma  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Leptophobia eucosma euremoides  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru) 

    Two undescribed subspecies of Leptophobia eucosma have been found in Peru.

  152. Leptophobia forsteri  ______  EC  (species described in 1969)
    (Range: Ecuador & Peru)

  153. Leptophobia nephthis  ______   EC
    (Range: Ecuador, Peru, & Bolivia)

  154. Leptophobia olympia  ______  EC

  155. Leptophobia philoma  ______  EC
    Leptophobia philoma pseudopenthica  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004) 
    Leptophobia philoma intermedia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)  
    Leptophobia philoma philoma  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Leptophobia philoma
    (formerly subargentea) pastaza ______  EC  (DA:69)  (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Leptophobia philoma
    (formerly subargentea) subargentea  ______  (subspecies in Peru)
    (Range: Ecuador, Peru, & Bolivia)

    An undescribed subspecies of Leptophobia philoma has been found in Peru.

  156. Leptophobia penthica  ______  EC  (DA:text) (EBE:48)
    Leptophobia penthica penthica  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Leptophobia penthica basiliola  ______
    Leptophobia penthica semicaesia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Leptophobia penthica stamnata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)  
    (Range: Colombia & Venezuela to Bolivia)

    5 undescribed subspecies of Leptophobia penthica have recently been found in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia.

  157. Leptophobia pinara  ______  EC
    Leptophobia pinara pinara  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)

    An undescribed subspecies of Leptophobia pinara has been found in Peru.

  158. Leptophobia tovaria  ______  EC  (EBE:48)
    Leptophobia tovaria tovaria  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Leptophobia tovaria subflavescens  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Leptophobia tovaria sanctipetri  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Leptophobia tovaria pseudolympia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004) 
    Leptophobia tovaria maruga  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Leptophobia tovaria gina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)

    2 undescribed subspecies of Leptophobia tovaria have been found in Bolivia & Argentina.

  159. An undescribed species of Leptophobia has been found with 4 subspecies in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, & Peru.

  160. Another undescribed species of Leptophobia has been found in Peru.


    In Ecuador, ITABALLIA butterflies are present in the area of the Coast and in the Amazon up to around 3,000 feet above sea level. 
    They are more related to primary and secondary forests than other PIERIDAE.   
    Host plants: in Capparidaceae.

  161. Itaballia demophile  ______  EC  (DV1:12) (MCA:25)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1763)
    Itaballia demophile demophile  ______
    Itaballia demophile calydonia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Itaballia demophile lucania  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru) 
    Itaballia demophile charopus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Amazonian Brazil)
    Itaballia demophile huebneri  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Itaballia demophile minthe  ______  (EBE:46) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, in the Amazon)
    Itaballia demophile nimietes  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Itaballia demophile niphates  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Itaballia demophile niseias  ______ 
    (subspecies in Paraguay)
    CROSS-BARRED WHITE  (or Black-banded White)
    (Range: Mexico to Paraguay) 

  162. Itaballia pandosia  ______  EC  (DV1:12) (MCA:25)
    Itaballia pandosia sabata  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Panama & western Colombia)
    Itaballia pandosia pisonis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Itaballia pandosia pandosia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela) 
    (Range: Honduras to Venezuela & Ecuador; in Ecuador in the Amazon) 

  163. Itaballia marana  ______  EC  (EBE:46)  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador, where it is restricted to the Coast)  


  164. Pieriballia viardi  ______  ARne  EC  (EBE:44)
    Pieriballia viardi mandela ______ (DV1:12) 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Pieriballia viardi locusta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)  
    Pieriballia viardi apicalis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, in the Amazon)
    Pieriballia viardi tithoreides  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, in the area of the Coast)
    Pieriballia viardi decorata  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Peru & in Ecuador in the area of the Coast)
    Pieriballia viardi interposita  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Pieriballia viardi rubecula  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Pieriballia viardi molione  ______  ARne  (MM:169) 
    (subspecies in Paraguay and northeast Argentina)
    (or Painted White)
    AR common name: Sayju Manchada  ("Spotted Sayju", "Sayju" is a Guarani word meaning "pale, with yellowish") 
    (Range: Costa Rica to Argentina) 

    In Ecuador, Pieriballia viardi occurs up to 3,500 feet above sea level on both slopes. It is seen at the edges of forests and in agricultural areas.
    Host plants are in Capparidaceae.

    Genus DAPTONEURA:  about 10 species of brightly-colored and strong-flying PIERIDS, given to extraordinary seasonal and local variation, thus making it difficult to determine precisely what are good species or races or even aberrations.

  165. Daptoneura lycimnia pantoporia  ______  (DA:75)  subspecies in southern Brazil and Paraguay
    (Range: Colombia, Venezuela, and the Guianas to Paraguay and Brazil, also Trinidad) 

    Genus TATOCHILA:
    About 15 species endemic to the southern part of South America, from approximately southern Brazil to Tierra del Fuego; and at moderate to high altitudes from Venezuela to Peru.

  166. Tatochila xanthodice  ______  EC
    Tatochila xanthodice xanthodice  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Tatochila xanthodice paramosa  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 1975)
    Tatochila xanthodice nigrisulphurata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Tatochila xanthodice pyrrhomma  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Tatochila xanthodice paucer  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1981)

  167. Tatochila homoeodice  ______
    (Range: Peru) 

  168. Tatochila sagittata  ______  EC
    Tatochila sagittata sagittata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Tatochila sagittata herrerai  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1981)

  169. Tatochila orthodice  ______
    Tatochila orthodice carabaya  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1975)
    Tatochila orthodice orthodice  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)

    An undescribed subspecies of Tatochila orthodice has been found in Peru. 

  170. Tatochila stigmadice  ______
    (Range: Bolivia)

  171. Tatochila autodice  ______
    Tatochila autodice autodice  ______ 
    (subspecies in Paraguay)
    Tatochila autodice blanchardii  ______
      (subspecies in Chile)
    Tatochila autodice ernestae  ______ 
    (subspecies in Chile, described in 1954)

  172. Tatochila mercedis  ______  EC
    Tatochila mercedis arctodice  ______  EC  (EBE:45) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Tatochila mercedis macrodice ______  (DA:70) 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    Tatochila mercedis vanvolxemii  ______ 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    Tatochila mercedis fueguensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Argentina, described in 1959)
    Tatochila mercedis mercedis  ______  CH 
    (subspecies in Chile)
    Tatochila mercedis sterodice  ______ 
    (subspecies in Chile)
    (Range: Colombia to Tierra del Fuego; in Chile from Arica to Magallanes) 

    In Ecuador, Tatochila mercedis arctodice is an Andean species in valleys and paramos up to 12,600 feet above sea levl or higher.
    It is an important pollinator of paramo plant species. The butterfly usually ingests dissolved mineral salts close to streams and lakes.
    Host plants are probably in Brassicaceae.

  173. Tatochila distincta  ______
    Tatochila distincta distincta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    Tatochila distincta fieldi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Chile, described in 1970)  

  174. Tatochila inversa  ______
    Tatochila inversa inversa  ______ 
    (subspecies in Argentina, described in 1949)
    Tatochila inversa razmilici  ______ 
    (subspecies in Chile, described in 1970)

  175. Tatochila mariae  ______  (species described in 1970)
    (Range: Chile)

  176. Tatochila theodice  ______  CH
    Tatochila theodice theodice  ______ 
    (subspecies in Chile)
    Tatochila theodice gymnodice  ______ 
    (subspecies in Chile) 
    ANDEAN FOOTHILLS WHITE  (or Theodice White)
    CH common name: Mariposa blanca preandina
    (Range: in Chile, from Arica to Valdivia)  

    About 6 species are in this genus similar to TATOCHILA, differentiated by their smaller size and generally more grayish ground color in both sexes. From Peru to Tierra del Fuego.

  177. Hypsochila wagenknecti  ______  CH
    Hypsochila wagenknecti wagenknecti  ______ 
    (subspecies in Chile)
    Hypsochila wagenknecti sulfurodice  ______ 
    (subspecies in Chile, described in 1955)
    CH common name: Mariposa de Wagenknect

    (Range: Chile, from Coquimbo to Santiago, where it is common in foothill areas)

  178. Hypsochila argyrodice  ______  CH
    CH common name: Mariposa Blanca de la Estepa
    (Range: Argentina & Chile; in Chile, on the Patagonian steppe, where it is uncommon)  

  179. Hypsochila microdice  ______
    (Range: Chile)

  180. Hypsochila galactodice  ______  (species described in 1955)
    (Range: Chile)

  181. Hypsochila penai  ______  (species described in 1955)
    (Range: Chile)

  182. Hypsochilia huemui  ______  (species described in 1964)
    (Range: Chile)

  183. An undescribed Hypsochilia species has been found in Peru.  


  184. Theochila maenacte  ______
    Theochila maenacte maenacte  ______
      (subspecies first described in Paraguay)
    Theochila maenacte itatiayae  ______ 
    (subspecies in southeastern Brazil, Itatiaia) 

    Genus RELIQUIA

  185. Reliquia santamarta  ______  (species described in 1975)
    (Range: Colombia)

    Genus PHULIA:
    A group of from 3 to 12 species. Their most outstanding characteristic is that they occur at South American high elevations, up to 16,000 ft. (5,000 meters) above sea level. So, observing these little butterflies in the wild would be beyond the capacity of most.

  186. Phulia nannophyes  ______
    Phulia nannophyes nannophyes  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Phulia nannophyes galera  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1981) 

  187. Phulia garleppi  ______  (species described in 1977)
    Phulia garleppi garleppi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)

    Another subspecies of Phulia garleppi is being described in Peru.

  188. Phulia paranympha  ______
    (Range: Bolivia)

  189. Phulia nymphula  ______
    Phulia nymphula nympha  ______  CH  (DA:70) 
    (subspecies in Bolivia & Chile)
    Phulia nymphula nymphula  ______ 
    (subspecies in Chile)
    CH common name: Mariposa Blanca Andina
    (Range: central Chile, Argentina, Bolivia - at very high altitudes; in Chile, common in the Andes from Arica to Santiago)


  190. Pierphulia rosea  ______
    Pierphulia rosea annamariea  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia, described in 1977)
    Pierphulia rosea rosea  ______ 
    (subspecies in Chile)
    Pierphulia rosea maria  ______ 
    (subspecies in Chile, described in 1977)  

  191. Pierphulia nysias  ______
    (Range: Bolivia)  

  192. Pierphulia isabela  ______  (species described in 1977)
    (Range: Chile)


  193. Intraphulia illimani  ______
    (Range: Bolivia)

  194. Intraphulia madeleinea  ______  (species described in 1977)
    (Range: Peru)

  195. Intraphulia ilyodes  ______   CH  (species described in 1955)
    CH common name: Fulia de Pantano
    (Range: In Chile, in high Andean bofedales and marshes from Arica to Antofagasta) 

    a genus now said to have 3 species, with the distinction of being the highest-flying butterfly in South America (and certainly one of the highest, if not the highest, in the world), where very strong winds prevail and the butterfly can only fly briefly and subside.

  196. Piercolias huanaco ______ (DA:71)
    (Range: Bolivia)

    When the naturalist Garlepp encountered Piercolias huanaco, he wrote: "It flies on the highest summits of the Cordilleras, amidst the wildest boulders and masses of rock. I cannot understand its choosing such wastes and deserts or how it can exist there at all, where it must be daily covered with snow and ice, where there is absolutely no vegetation, and where only the Condor makes his abode."

  197. Piercolias coropunae  ______
    (Range: Peru)

  198. Piercolias forsteri  ______  (species described in 1977)
    (Range: Bolivia)

    4 species with very strong coloring and markings, and in a couple instances, imitation-heliconid livery. 

    Butterflies in PERRHYBRIS are tropical species. They are more restricted to forests than other PIERIDAE.
    Females are aposematic. They mimic inedible species and hide in the forest.
    Males are white and more visible.
    Host plants: in Capparidaceae. 

  199. Perrhybris pamela (formerly pyrrha) ______  EC  (DV1:12) (EBE:46)
    Perrhybris pamela pamela  ______ 
    subspecies described in Surinam
    Perrhybris pamela malenka  ______ 
    subspecies in Venezuela
    Perrhybris pamela bogotana  ______
      subspecies in Colombia
    Perrhybris pamela glessaria  ______  EC 
    subspecies in Ecuador, in the Amazon
    Perrhybris pamela amazonica  ______ 
    subspecies in Peru
    Perrhybris pamela carmenta  ______ 
    subspecies in Peru
    Perrhybris pamela bertha  ______ 
    subspecies in Peru, described in 1981
    Perrhybris pamela mazuka  ______ 
    subspecies in Peru, described in 1981
    Perrhybris pamela boyi  ______ 
    subspecies in Amazonian Brazil
    Perrhybris pamela lucasi  ______ 
    subspecies in Brazil and the Guianas
    Perrhybris pamela eieidas  ______ 
    subspecies in Brazil
    Perrhybris pamela incisa  ______ 
    subspecies in Bahia, Brazil
    Perrhybris pamela flava  ______
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil)

    A Pamela photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2014
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  200. Perrhybris lypera  ______  EC  (DA:73) (DV1:12)
    Perrhybris lypera lypera  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Perrhybris lypera sulphuralis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia, and in Ecuador along the coast)

    The male of Perrhybris lyera is polymorphic. The extreme forms have been erroneously described as separate species. In between, there are intergrades. 

  201. Perryhybris lorena  ______  EC  (EBE:46)
    (Range: Ecuador, in the Amazon)

    Genus MELETE (formerly DAPTONEURA): about 10 species of brightly-colored and strong-flying PIERIDS, given to extraordinary seasonal and local variation, thus making it difficult to determine precisely what are good species or races or even aberrations.

  202. Melete lycimnia  (ph)   ______  BR  EC  (EBE:47) (MCA:28)  (was Daptoneura lycimnia)
    Melete lycimnia lycimnia  ______  (DA:74) 
    (subspecies in Venezuela & the Guianas)
    Melete lycimnia harti  ______ 
    (subspecies in Trinidad)
    Melete lycimnia eurymnia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia) 
    Melete lycimnia reducta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004) 
    Melete lycimnia aelia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia & Ecuador)
    Melete lycimnia latilimbata  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Melete lycimnia napona  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Melete lycimnia peruviana  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Melete lycimnia flippantha  ______  
    Melete lycimnia theodori  ______ 
    (subspecies in Amazonian Brazil)
    Melete lycimnia narmia  ______  BRmg 
    (subspecies in Mato Grosso, Brazil)
    Melete lycimnia paulista  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Melete lycimnia petronia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Melete lycimnia phazania  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Melete lycimnia pantoporia ______ (DA:75) 
    (former subspecies in southern Brazil & Paraguay, merged into one of the above)
    (or Lycimnia White, or Common Melete
    (Range: Colombia, Venezuela, and the Guianas to Bolivia and southern Brazil; also Trinidad) 

    In Ecuador, Melete lycimnia is relatively common. It is found essentially in the Amazon, associated with primary and secondary forests. It can be found on riverbanks ingesting mineral salts.
    Host plants are probably in Loranthaceae. 

    The Creamy White, or Common Melwhite
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  203. Melete polyhymnia  ______
    Melete polyhymnia florinda  ______ 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to Colombia)
    Melete polyhymnia polyhymnia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Melete polyhymnia caesarea  ______
      (subspecies in Colombia)
    GOLDEN WHITE  (or Golden Melwhite)

    Melete polyhymnia occurs along edges of montane rain forests.

  204. Melete leucanthe  ______  EC
    Melete leucanthe leucanthe  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia & Ecuador)
    Melete leucanthe veronica  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)

  205. Melete calymnia  ______
    (Range: in Brazil)

  206. Melete leucadia  ______  EC
    (Range: in Amazonian Brazil and Ecuador)

    Genera ASCIA
    and GANYRA
    8 species of large plain white butterflies with some brown or gray markings especially in the females.

  207. Ascia monuste  (ph)  ______  ARne  EC  (DV1:12) (K:53) (MCA:26) (PE:8)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1764)
    Ascia monuste monuste  ______ 
    (subspecies from the southern US to northern South America)   
    Ascia monuste suasa  ______  EC  (EBE:44) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Ascia monuste orseis ______  ARne  (MM:168)
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Sayju 
    (a Guarani word meaning "pale, yellowish")
    BR common name: Borboleta da Couvre

    (Range: southern US, Central & South America, also the West Indies) 

    The migrating females of Ascia monuste are almost totally gray in color, while non-migratory females are largely yellowish-white with dark brown margins.

    Great Southern Whites
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  208. Ganyra (was Ascia) josephina  ______  (DV1:12) (MCA:27)
    Ganyra josephina janeta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    (Range: Central America & the West Indies, and in northern South America) 

  209. Ganyra (was Ascia) phaloe  ______  BRse  EC  (MCA:27)
    Ganyra phaloe limona  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    Ganyra phaloe lamonti  ______
      (subspecies in Trinidad)
    Ganyra phaloe sevata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Ganyra phaloe diana  ______
      (subspecies in Colombia)
    Ganyra phaloe confusa  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Ganyra phaloe imperator  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Ganyra phaloe sincera  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Ganyra phaloe amphissa  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia) 
    Ganyra phaloe sublineata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru & Bolivia, with a yellow ground color; was Ascia buniae sublineata, see note below)
    Ganyra phaloe endeis  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Ganyra phaloe phaloe  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Ascia buniae phaloe  ______  (DA:68)
      (former species & subspecies in Venezuela & Brazil, see note below)
    Ganyra phaloe endeis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    (or Felder's White)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil, including Peru & Bolivia) 

    Ascia (or Ganyra) buniae has been merged into the nominate Ganyra (or Ascia) phaloe phaloe.  
    Forms of the former Ascia buniae in southern Brazilian have strong markings.

    An undescribed subspecies of Ganyra phaloe has been found in Peru. 


    300 species worldwide

    Genera ZERENE & COLIAS  

    The genus COLIAS in South America tends to occupy temperate and/or high altitude habitats. Essentially, this genus, of 10 species, is Holarctic (North American/Eurasian).  

  210. Zerene (was Colias) cesonia  (ph)  ______  EC  (C:249) (DV1:8) (F:109) (K:69) (MCA:29) (PE:10)
    Zerene cesonia cesonia  ______ 
    (subspecies from southern US to Colombia)
    Zerene cesonia boyacensis  ______  (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004) 
    Zerene cesonia patiensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Zerene cesonia therapis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Zerene cesonia inca  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Zerene cesonia limonella  ______  EC  (EBE:42) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador & Peru, described in 1981)
    Zerene cesonia cesonides  ______  CH 
    (subspecies in Bolivia & northern Chile)
    CH common name: Mariposa amarilla boliviana
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina; in Chile in the valleys of Arica & Tarapaca) 

    Zerene cesonia, or the Dogface, is a common butterfly, particularly so where there is cattle ranching. The leguminous plants on which it breeds are used for cattle. 
    Overall, Zerene cesonia is lemon-colored. It has broad, irregular black margins on the forewings that suggest a dog's face in silhouette.

    In Ecuador, Zerene cesonia limonella is relatively common in agricultural areas in the area of the Coast and also, less commonly, in Andean valleys up to nearly 8,000 feet above sea level.
    The species is, in general, an important pollinator.
    Host plants include those in Fabaceae (for example, Trifolium spp., Medicago spp., Amorpha spp., Indigophera spp.)    

    Southern Dogface
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  211. Colias dimera  ______  EC
    (Range: in Colombia & Ecuador)

  212. Colias lesbia  ______  ARne  BRse  CH  EC(*)
    Colias lesbia dinora  ______  EC(*)  (EBE:42) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Colias lesbia verhulsti  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1983)
    Colias lesbia andina  ______  (DA:56) 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    Colias lesbia mineira  ______ 
    (subspecies in Minas Gerais, Brazil, described in 1940) 
    Colias lesbia lesbia ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:170) 
    (subspecies in southern Brazil and Argentina)
    AR common name: Isoca de la Alfalfa
    BR common names: Borboleta da Alfafa or Borbolelinha Alaanjada 
    (Range: Bolivia to Tierra del Fuego; in Chile in Nuble, Malleco, and Magallanes)

    Colias lesbia is sexually dimorphic. The wings of the male are orange with black margins. Those of the female are gray with darker gray spots.

    In Ecuador, Colias lesbia dinora is common in Andean valleys and paramos up to 12,000 feet above sea level or higher.
    It is one of the paramo's most important pollinator species, as it can travel long distances along Andean ridges.
    Host plants include a variety of legumes, including Trifolium spp. (clovers), and Medicago spp. (lucerne). 
  213. Colias euxanthe  ______  EC
    Colias euxanthe euxanthe  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Colias euxanthe euxanthe  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Colias euxanthe hermina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Colias euxanthe stuebeli  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1972) 

  214. Colias vauthierii  ______  CH
    CH common name: Colias de la Alfalfa

    (Range: in Chile, from Atacama to Chiloe)

    Colias vauthierii is sexually dimorphic. The wings of the male are orange with black margins. Those of the female are gray with black or dark patches.

    Colias vauthierii is found in alfalfa fields, as is the previous species, Colias lesbia.

  215. Colias flaveola  ______
    Colias flaviola mossi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Colias flaviola webrebaueri  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Colias flaviola erika  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1981)
    Colias flaviola blameyi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Argentina)  
    Colias flaviola flaviola  ______  CH 
    (subspecies in Chile)
    CH common name: Colias de Blanchard
    (Range: in high Andean valleys in Argentina & Chile, where it is a common species)

    Colias flaveola is a pale grayish-green. Males have an orange spot on the hindwing.
  216. Colias mendozina  ______  AR  CH  (Colias mendozina has been merged into Colias flaveola (above).
    CH common name: Colias de Mendoza
    (Range: Primarily an Argentine species. In Chile, rare on hillsides and quebredas of the Aconcagua Valley near Portillo) 

    Colias mendozina is a pale gray.


  217. Teriocolias zelia  ______
    Teriocolias zelia andina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Teriocolias zelia pacis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Teriocolias zelia mathani  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1950)
    Teriocolias zelia zelia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia) 


    Often found flying high over the canopy or along rivers. 

  218. Anteos clorinde  (ph)  ______ ARne  BRse  EC  (DV1:8) (F:78) (K:77) (MCA:29) (MM:171) (PE:10) (S:71)
    (other names are the Clorinde or the Ghost Brimstone
    AR common name: Anteo  (Anteo, in Greek mythology, was a giant.)
    (Range: the southern US & Mexico to Argentina)

    White-angled Sulphur
    (photo by Doug Johnson)

  219. Anteos maerula  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:8) (F:78) (K:77) (MCA:29) (PE:10)
    (or Yellow Brimstone)
    (Range: southern US to Peru)

    Yellow-angled Sulphur
    (photo by Lisa Johnson)

  220. Anteos menippe  ______  BRmg,se  EC

    Genera PHOEBIS

    These are the most conspicuous tropical sulphurs,  common, and found in open areas & forest edges, adult males cluster on moist sand along rivers & streams. 

  221. Rhabdodryas (was Phoebis) trite ______  ARne  BRmg,se  EC(*)  (DV1:8) (MCA:29) (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Rhabdodryas trite trite  ______  EC(*)  (EBE:42)  subspecies from Colombia to Bolivia and Argentina
    Rhabdodryas trite banksi  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:176) 
    subspecies in Brazil and northeast Argentina
    AR common name: Hoja Amarillo  ("Yellow Leaf", as when it rests with its wings folded, it blends into the vegetation thus becoming invisible)  
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, also the West Indies)

    In Ecuador, Rhabdodryas trite is common in the Amazon up to about 3,500 feet above sea level, occurring in primary or secondary forests and open areas.
    It congregates in great numbers on riverbanks to ingest dissolved mineral salts.
    Host plants include legumes in the Mimosaceae family. 

  222. Phoebis philea  ______  ARne  BRmg,se  EC  (EBE:43) (F:105) (K:75) (MCA:30) (PE:10) (S:70)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1763)
    Phoebis philea philea  ______  AEne  BRse  (DA:58) (DV1:8) (MM:173) 
    (subspecies from the southern US to southern Brazil & Argentina) 
      (or Yellow Apricot)
    AR common name: Mananita  (translates to "Morning", with the color of the wings being the same as that of the sky at the break of day) 
    (Range: southern United States to southern Brazil & northeast Argentina; also in the West Indies) 

    In addition to visiting flowers, males of Phoebis philea visit wet sand and mud, probably to obtain sodium. This general habit of many Pierids has been known since Henry Walter Bates was on the Amazon. 

  223. Phoebis sennae  (ph)  ______  ARne  BRse  EC  (C:247) (DA:57) (DV1:9) (EBE:43larva) (F:105) (K:75) (MCA:30) (PE:10)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  
    Phoebis sennae marcellina ______ ARne  BRse  EC  (EBE:43) (MM:172)
    subspecies in most of South America, including the Galapagos Islands 
    Phoebis sennae amphitrite  ______  CH 
    subspecies in Chile
    AR common name: Febo
      (referring to the color of the wings)
    BR common name: Casca da Limao
    CH common name: Mariposa Limonera
    (Range: southern US to Argentina, also in Antilles. In Chile, from Atacama to Valdivia)
    Phoebis sennae can be abundant in both lowlands & highlands. It prospers in open land.

    Cloudless Sulphur

  224. Phoebis neocypris  ______  ARne  EC  (DA:56,57) (DV1:8) (EBE:43) (F:105) (MCA:30) 
    Phoebis neocypris virgo  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Brazil)
    Phoebis neocypris rurina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela & Colombia)  
    Phoebis neocypris neocypris  ______ ARne  (MM:175) 
    (subspecies in Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Ciprina 
    (one of the names of the goddess Venus)  

    Phoebis neocypris is a strong migrant. It occurs in both lowlands & highlands. 

    Rurina has been considered a distinct species.

    An undescribed subspecies of Phoebis neocypris has been found in French Guiana. 

  225. Phoebis argante  ______  ARne  BRmg,se  EC  (DV1:9) (F:104) (MCA:30)
    Phoebis argante larra  ______ 
    subspecies in the Guianas
    Phoebis argante chincha  ______ 
    subspecies in Peru, described in 1976  
    Phoebis argante argante ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:174) 
    subspecies in Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, northeast Argentina

    APRICOT SULPHUR  (other names are the Argante Giant Sulphur, or Argante)  
    AR common name: Yema  ("Yema" means "˙olk" of an egg, alluding to the color of the wings)
    BR common name: Gema de Ovo 
    (also meaning "yolk of an egg") 
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina) 

    Phoebis argante includes what was Phoebis hersilia, the DARK APRICOT SULPHUR, ranging from Mexico to southern Brazil, including Trinidad. 

  226. Phoebis agarithe  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:9) (F:104) (K:75) (MCA:30) (PE:10)
    Phoebis agarithe agarithe  ______ 
    (subspecies from the US to Peru & in the Galapagos)
    Phoebis agarithe tumbesina  ______  (subspecies in Peru, described in 1981)
    (Range: southern US to Peru, and the Galapagos; also in the West Indies)

    A female Large Orange Sulphur

  227. Phoebis bourkei  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)


  228. Kricogonia lyside  (ph)  ______  (DV1:8) (K:77) (MCA:29) (PE:8)

    (Range: southern US to Venezuela, also in the West Indies)

    Lyside Sulphur
    (photo by Lisa Johnson)

    Genus APHRISSA

  229. Aphrissa (was Phoebis) statira  ______  AR  BR  EC
    Aphrissa statira statira ______  ARne  BRmg,se  (DV1:9) (F:80) (MCA:30) (MM:177) (PE:10) 
    subspecies from the southern US to Brazil and Argentina
    (other names are: Yellow Migrant, or Migrant Sulphur)
    AR name: Manifestante  (referring to its habit of meeting in assemblies, as do demonstrators)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil; also the West Indies) 

  230. Aphrissa (was Phoebis) boisduvalii  ______  EC  (DV1:9) (MCA:30)
    (or Peach-patched Sulphur)
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)

  231. Aphrissa wallacei (or fluminensis)  ______
    (Range: Costa Rica to Argentina)

    Genus NATHALIS

  232. Nathalis iole  ______
    Nathalis iole natalia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2010)
    (Range: from the US, straying north to Canada, south to Honduras & Colombia, also the Greater Antilles)

  233. Nathalis plauta  ______
    (Range: in Venezuela)   

    Genera EUREMA

  234. Eurema daira  ______  EC  (DA:60) (DV1:10) (F:96) (K:71) (MCA:32) (PE:11)
    Eurema daira lydia  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Panama & northwestern South America)
    Eurema daira macheti  ______ 
    (subspecies in French Guiana, described in 1996)
    BARRED YELLOW  (or Barred Sulphur)
    (Range: the southern US to northern South America, also in the West Indies)  

    Eurema daira has seasonal dimorphism in both sexes.

  235. Pyristia (was Eurema) proterpia  (ph)  ______  EC  (DA:61) (DV1:10) (F:97) (K:69) (MCA:32) (PE:11)
    (or Little Jaune)
    (Range: from the southern US to Peru, also in the Greater Antilles) 

    There are seasonally different forms of both sexes of Eurema proterpia. 

    Tailed Orange
    (photo by Lisa Johnson)

  236. Eurema mexicana  ______  EC  (DV1:10) (F:97) (K:73) (MCA:31) (PE:11)
    Eurema mexicana bogotana  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    Eurema mexicana citrella  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Eurema mexicana tayrona  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004) 
    (Range: southern US, thru Central & South America) 

  237. Eurema salome  (ph)  ______  EC   (DV1:10) (K:69) (MCA:31) (PE:text)
    Eurema salome limoneus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Eurema salome gaugamela  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Eurema salome neglecta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Eurema salome santamarta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Eurema salome xystra  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Eurema salome salome  ______
    (Range: southern US to Peru & Venezuela)

    An undescribed subspecies of Eurema salome has been found in Peru.

    Salome Yellow
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  238. Eurema xanthochlora  ______  EC  (DV1:10) (MCA:31)
    Eurema xanthochlora xanthochlora  ______ 
    (subspecies from southeast Mexico to Venezuela)
    Eurema xanthochlora edentata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Eurema xanthochlora magna  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)
    Eurema xanthochlora ectriva  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Eurema xanthochlora pomponia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    TROPICAL YELLOW  (another name is Scarce Yellow)
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia)

  239. Eurema arbela  ______  BRse  EC
    Eurema arbela gratiosa  ______  (DV1:10) 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Venezuela, also in the Lesser Antilles in St. Lucia & the Grenadines)
    Eurema arbela deflorata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Eurema arbela angulata  ______
    Eurema arbela ruizana  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1981)
    Eurema arbela gracilis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bahia, Brazil) 
    Eurema arbela graduata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Eurema arbela arbela  ______  BRse 
    subspecies in southeast Brazil         
    (Range: Costa Rica to Venezuela)        

  240. Eurema albula  ______  ARne  BRse  EC  (MCA:32)  
    Eurema albula marginella  _____  (DV1:10) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Ecuador)
    Eurema albula albula  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies from northeastern South America to Argentina; also Trinidad, and St. Vincent in the Lesser Antilles) 
    Eurema albula espinosae  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Eurema albula totora  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1981)
    Eurema albula sinoe  ______  ARne  (MM:179) 
    (subspecies in Brazil & northeast Argentina)  
    (or Ghost Yellow)
    AR common name: Alba  ("White")
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil & ne Argentina, also West Indies)  

  241. Eurema agave  ______  EC  (MCA:32)
    Eurema agave agave  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & South America)
    Eurema agave pallida  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    (or Tabasco Yellow

  242. Eurema (was Terias) deva  ______  ARne  BRse  CH
    Eurema deva deva ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:180)
    subspecies in northeast Argentina, described in French Guiana
    Eurema deva doris  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    Eurema deva chilensis  ______  CH 
    (subspecies in Chile)
    AR common name: Limoncito 
    (translates to "Small Lemon"
    BR common name: Canarinho  (translates to "Small Canary")
    CH common name: Mariposa amarilla
    (Range: in much of South America; in central Chile, Copiapo to Aconcagua)

    The larvae of Eurema deva feed (in Chile) on the mimosa tree, Cassia stipulacea. 
    In central Chile, where the butterfly is very common, it occurs in scrub on Andean slopes up to around 5,500 feet above sea level. The butterfly is a slow flier.      j

  243. Pyrisitia (was Eurema) nise  ______  ARne  BRse  EC  (DV1:10) (K:71) (MCA:31) (PE:11)
    Pyrisitia nise stygma  ______ 
    subspecies in Peru
    Pyrisitia nise floscula  ______ 
    subspecies in Bolivia
    Pyrisitia nise tenella  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:182) 
    subspecies in Brazil and northeast Argentina
    (in the West Indies another name is Jamaican Sulphur)
    AR common name: Limoncito del Nordeste  ("Northeastern Small Lemon",
    as another subspecies is found in northwestern Argentina)
    (Range: southern US to Argentina, also West Indies)

  244. Pyrisita (was Eurema) dina  ______  (MCA:31)
    Pyrisita dina gabriela  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, described in 2004)

  245. Eurema ecuadora  ______  EC  (species either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador, described in 2000)

  246. Eurema elathea  ______  ARne  BRse  EC  (DV1:10) 
    Eurema elathea vitellina  ______ 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Colombia & Venezuela)
    Eurema elathea lamasi  ______  (subspecies in French Guiana, described in 1993) 
    Eurema elathea ella  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Eurema elathea obsoleta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Paraguay)
    Eurema elathea flavescens  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:178)
    subspecies in Brazil and northeast Argentina
    AR common name: Limoncito Adornado 
    (translates to "Small Decorated Lemon"
    (Range: Nicaragua to Brazil & northeast Argentina, also West Indies) 

    Two undescribed subspecies of Eurema elathea have been recently found in Venezuela & Peru.

  247. Pyrisitia (was Eurema) leuce  (ph)  ______  ARne  BRmg,se  EC
    Pyrisitia leuce athalia  ______ 
    subspecies in Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad
    Pyrisitia leuce leuce ______  ARne  BRse  (DA:59)  (MM:181) 
    subspecies in Brazil and northeast Argentina  
    Pyrisitia leuce flavilla  ______ 
    subspecies in Amazonian Brazil
    Pyrisitia leuce circumcincta  ______ 
    subspecies in Brazil 
    AR common name: Limoncito Manchado  ("Small Spotted Lemon") 
    (Range: Panama to Argentina; also the West Indies)

    Leuce Yellow

  248. Pyrisitia (was Eurema) venusta  ______  EC
    Pyrisitia venusta venusta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & northern South America)
    Pyrisitia venusta aequatorialis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)

  249. Eurema nigrocincta  ______  EC
    Eurema nigrocincta nigrocincta  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Eurema nigrocincta hockingi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, described in 1981) 

  250. Eurema phiale  ______  BRse  EC
    Eurema phiale columbia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Eurema phiale phiale ______  (DA:60) 
    (subspecies described in Surinam)
    Eurema phiale paula  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    (Range: east to southeast Brazil; Colombia, Bolivia)

    Eurema phiale has seasonal dimorphism.

  251. Eurema tupuntenem  ______  (species described in 1976)
    Eurema tupuntenem tupuntenem  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)

    Another subspecies of Eurema tupuntenem, yet to be described, has recently been found in Venezuela.

  252. Eurema fabiola  ______  EC
    (Range: Venezuela  to Ecuador)

  253. Eurema reticulata  ______  EC  (species either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)
    (Range: in Ecuador)

  254. Eurema lirina  ______  
    (Range: in Amazonian Brazil)

  255. Eurema paulina  ______
    (Range: in Brazil)

    Genus LEUCIDIA

  256. Leucidia brephos  ______  EC
    (Range: in Brazil and Ecuador)

  257. Leucidia elvina  ______  BRse  EC
    (Range: in Brazil and Ecuador)

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