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5 of a List
with some Photos
Noting those during
Focus On Nature Tours
in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Fifth Part of a List of South America Butterflies in 6 Parts,
compiled by Armas Hill
Here, in Part #5: Nymphalidae, the Clearwings and the Satyrs
Some of the butterflies in SATYRINAE, the Morphos and the Owl Butterflies, are in Part #4 of this list.
Among Butterfly groupings in this list below, links to:
Clearwings: Subfamily ITHOMIINAE in the Family Nymphalidae
with the genera: Aeria,
Athesis, Athyrtis, Brevioleria, Callithomia, Dircenna, Elzunia, Episcada, Epityches,
Eutresis, Godyris, Greta, Heterosais, Hyalenna, Hyalyris, Hypoleria, Hypomenitis, Hyposcada, Hypothyris, Ithomia,
Mcclungia, Mechanitas, Megoleria, Melinaea, Methona, Napeogenes, Oleria, Olyras, Pagyris, Patricia, Placidina,
Pseudoscada, Pteronymia, Scada, Thyridia, Tithorea, Veladyris, Velamysta
Subfamily SATYRINAE, Tribes METANITINI & HAETERINI
with the genera: Cithaerias,
Dulcedo, Haetera, Manataria, Pierella, Pseudohaetera
Satyrs, Wood-nymphs, Ringlets: Subfamily SATYRINAE, Tribe SATYRINI
with the genera: Altopedaliodes, Amphidecta, Apexacuta, Archeuptychia, Argyrophorus, Auca, Caeruleuptychia, Capronnieria, Cepheuptychia, Chloreuptychia, Cissia, Corades, Corderopedaliodes, Cosmosatyrus, Daedalma, Elina, Eretris, Erichthodes, Etcheverrius, Eteona, Euptychia, Euptychoides, Fanula, Forsterinaria, Godartiana, Harjesia, Haywardella, Hermeuptychia, Junea, Lasiophila, Lymanopodia, Magneuptychia, Manataria, Manerebia, Megeuptychia, Moneuptychia, Mygona, Nelia, Neomaenas, Neopedaliodes, Neosatyrus, Oressinoma. Oxeoschistus, Pampasatyrus, Panyapedaliodes, Parapedaliodes, Parataygetis, Pareuptychia, Paryphthimoides, Pedaliodes, Pharneuptychia, Pherepedaliodes, Pierella, Posttaygetis, Praepedaliodes, Proboscis, Pronophila, Pseudodebis, Pseudoeuptychia, Pseudomaniola, Punapedaliodes, Splendeuptychia, Steroma, Stermnia, Taygetina, Taygetis, Taygetomorpha, Tetrphlebia, Thiemela, Yphthimoides, Zischkaia
Moth-butterflies, or Butterfly Moths: Families HEDYLIDAE & CASTNIIDAE with the genera: Castnia, Macrosoma
Links to other South America Butterfly groupings in this list:
#1 - Swallowtails (Papilionidae)
Part #2 - Whites, Yellows, Sulphurs (Pieridae)
#3 - Hairstreaks, Blues (Lycaenidae) & Metalmarks
Part #4 - Brushfoots (Nymphalidae) other than Clearwings (Ithomiini) & most in Satyrinae
Part #6 - Skippers (Hesperiidae)
Some Photos of Butterflies and Moths during FONT Tours in Ecuador
In South America, the countries of Colombia, Peru, Brazil, and Ecuador each have a great number of butterfly species.
Ecuador has the greatest concentration of species per kilometer. In that country, there are said to be 2,726 species of butterflies.
Codes relating to illustrations in various books:
Numbers noted as (AZ:xx)
refer to pages in "Butterflies of Arizona - A Photographic
Guide", by Bob Stewart, Priscilla Brodkin, & Hank Brodkin
(with fine photographs).
Numbers noted as (BB:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of Buenos Aires (Argentina)", by Gustavo Canals
Numbers noted as (C:xx) refer to pages in "A World of Butterflies", with text by Brian Cassie, and photographs (superb) by Kjell Sandved
Numbers noted as (D1:xx) refer to plates in "The Butterflies of Costa Rica and their Natural History (Volume 1): Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae", by Philip J. DeVries
Numbers noted as (DV:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies Of South America", by Bernard D'Abrera
Numbers noted as (EBE:xx) refer to pages in "Ecuador's Butterfly Ecology", by Xavier Silva.
Numbers noted as (F:xx) refer to pages in "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Butterflies", by Dr. John Feltwell
Numbers noted as (K:xx) refer to pages in the "Kaufman Focus Guide to Butterflies of North America", by Jim Brock & Kenn Kaufman
Numbers noted as (MCA:xx) refer to pages in "A Swift Guide to the Butterflies of Mexico & Central America" by Jeffrey Glassberg
Numbers noted as (MM:xx) refer to pages in "Mariposas (Butterflies) of Missiones (Argentina)", by Gustavo Canals
Numbers noted as (PE:xx) refer to plates in the "Peterson Field Guides to Eastern Butterflies", by Paul Opler & Vichai Malikul, 1998 edition. Those noted as (PEp:xx) refer to a page with a photograph.
Numbers noted as (PW:xx) refer to plates in the "Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies", by Paul Opler & illustrated by Amy Bartlett Wright, 1999 edition. Those noted as (PWp:xx) refer to a page with a photograph.
Numbers noted as (RG:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of the Lower Rio Grande Valley" by Roland Wauer.
Numbers noted as (S:xx) refer to pages in the "Smithsonian Handbook, Butterflies & Moths", by David Carter.
Numbers noted as (WGC:xxx) refer to pages in "A Wildlife Guide to Chile", by Sharon Chester.
Country and Regional Codes:
AR: in Argentina
ba: province of Buenos Aires
ne: northeast Argentina, including Iguazu Falls (ARne also on the Brazilian side at Iguazu Falls)
BR: in Brazil
mg: Mato Grosso, including the Panatanal and north to Alta Floresta / Rio Cristalino
se: southeast Brazil
CH: in Chile
EC: in Ecuador am: Amazonian nw: northwest EC
VE: in Venezuela
Butterflies observed during FONT tours noted by an (*) after the 2-letter country code.
(ph): species with a photo in the FONT website
Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in South America in:
Brazil Ecuador Uruguay Venezuela Argentina Chile
Lists & Photo Galleries of BIRDS, including those during FONT Tours in South America
Lists & Photo Galleries of MAMMALS, relating to FONT Tours in South America
Lists of Photo Galleries of AMPHIBIANS & REPTILES, including those during FONT Tours in South America
Alphabetical Directory of Butterflies by Genus of those with Photos in the FONT Website
Directory of Photos in this Website
List of South American Butterflies, Part #5
Family NYMPHALIDAE: BRUSHFOOTS
Cosmopolitan, with subfamilies range from 8 to 25, depending upon taxonomic treatment.
This is the most diverse family of butterflies, with approximately 6,000 known species worldwide.
Brushfoot butterflies appear 4 rather than 6-legged as their 2 front legs are much reduced.
Subfamily ITHOMIINAE, Tribe ITHOMIINI
This highly diverse group has been considered a separate family, or (now by most) as a subfamily of NYMPHALIDAE.
Many of the butterflies in ITHOMIINI are transparent or translucid.
They can be toxic to predators, which generates mimicry, Batesian and Mullerian.
There are some notes pertaining to mimicry with some particular species below in the list.
ITHOMIINI can expel pheromones that bring together males and females (and also other species) in the forest.
They feed on flowers of Asteraceae and Boraginaceae, especially the males, to obtain substances for
Females can be saprophytic - for example, they feed on antbird (army ant followers) droppings.
Many ITHOMIINI butterflies look very similar in the field, but with analysis of the hindwing venation, the genus
can be identified rather easily.
Most ITHOMIINI are found in tropical and cloud forests. Their host plants include those in Solanaceae.
Genus EUTRESIS: 2 or 3 species