PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-8
 or 302/529-1876


and some other plants
of Texas 

with those during 
Focus On Nature Tours
noted with an (*) 

during tours thru 2014
in the months 
of March, April, May

In this list, there are notes relating to some MEDICINAL, EDIBLE, & POISONOUS PLANTS.

The compilation of the following list of plants by Armas Hill 

Photo at upper right:  SILVERLEAF NIGHTSHADE   

A fine book about the wildflowers of Texas is entitled just that, "Wildflowers of Texas" by Geyata Ajilvsgi, the first edition in 1984, revised in 2003. It contains photographs of nearly 500 species of the "most common and showiest" herbaceous species. 
Not included in the book are any cacti, shrubs, woody vines, or trees.
It should be noted that approximately 5,000 flowering plants occur in Texas.
But even with just about 10 percent, the book just mentioned has been a good source for some of the information here in this list, as have been some other books.
One, although not exhaustive, but instead a very good overview of the spectacles of wildflowers that occur throughout Texas is entitled "Texas Wildflowers", with text and some very fine photos by Richard Reynolds. It was published in 2003.

Famous for the promotion and conservation of the natural beauty of wildflowers and native plants has been the Wildflower Center, founded by Lady Bird Johnson in 1982. For more information about it:  www.wildflower.org

Among the Plant Families in this list, links to these:

Acanthus    Agave    Amaranth    Arrowroot    Arum    Barberry    Beech    Bellflower (or Bluebell)   

Bladderwort (or Birthwort)    Borage    Broomrape    Buttercup (or Crowfoot)    Cactus    Caltrop

Caper    Carpet-weed    Cypress    Daisy (or Aster)    Dodder    Dogbane    Dogwood

Evening Primrose (or Willow Herb)    Figwort (or Snapdragon)    Flax    Four o'clock    

Fumitory (or Earthsmoke)   Gentian    Geranium    Gourd    Hypoxis    Iris    

Knotweed (or Dock, Buckwheat)    Legume (or Pea)    Lily   Lizard's-tail    Loosestrife

Logania    Lotus    Madder    Mallow    Meadow-beauty    Milkweed    Milkwort    Mint   

Morning Glory    Mountain Parsley    Mustard    Nightshade    Olive    Orchid    Parsley (or Celery)    

Passionflower    Phlox (or Polemonium)    Pink (or Carnation)    Plumbago (or Sea Lavender)

Pokeweed    Poppy    Purslane    Ratany    Rose    Sedge    Seseme    Soapberry (including Maples)   

Spiderwwort    Spurge    Stickleaf    Stonecrop    Valerian    Vervain    Violet   Waterleaf    Water-lily    

Water-plantain    Willow     Wood-sorrel   


Additional Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in:   Texas    Elsewhere 

A List & Photo Gallery of Texas Birds, in 2 parts

Lists & Photo Galleries of Texas:   Butterflies    Dragonflies & Damselflies

Desert Plants of the Southwest US & northern Mexico  (with some photos)

Other Photo Galleries of Plants     Directory of Photos in this Website


FW:  in far-western Texas, including the Chihuahuan Desert, and Big Bend National Park and the Davis Mountains

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website


A List of Texas Wildflowers & some Other Plants:

  Acanthus Family, ACANTHACEAE  

  1. Snake-herb  ______
    Dyschoriste linearis

  2. Water Willow  ______
    Justicia americana

  3. Tube-tongue  ______
    Justicia pilosella

  4. Low Ruellia  ______
    Ruellia humilis

  5. Violet Ruellia  ______
    Ruellia nudiflora

  6. Shaggy Stenandrium  (or Shaggy Tuft ______
    Stenandrium barbatum

    Agave Family, AGAVACEAE

  7. Harvard Agave  ______  FW
    Agave havardiana

    Agave havardiana is also called the Big Bend Agave, or Century Plant. 

  8. Variegated Huaco  ______
    Manfreda variegata

    Amaranth Family, AMARANTHACEAE

  9. Alligator Weed  ______
    Alternanthera philoxeroides

  10. Arizona Snake-Cotton  ______
    Froelichia arizonica

  11. Snake-Cotton  ______
    Froelichia floridana 

    Arrowroot Family, MARANTACEAE

  12. Powdery Thalia  ______
    Thalia dealbata   

    Arum Family, ARACEAE

  13. Green Dragon  ______
    Arisaema dracontinum

    Barberry Family, BERBERIDACEAE

  14. Mayapple  ______
    Podophyllum peltatum

    Beech Family,  FAGACEAE

  15. Texas Live Oak  (*)  ______  
    Quercus fusiformis

    The Texas Live Oak is very similar to the more-easterly Southern Live Oak, Quercus virginiana, and is considered by some to be a subspecies of it.  

    As of 2002, the largest known Texas Live Oak in the US has been in Young County, Texas.
    Its circumference: 361 inches. Height: 48 feet.

    Bellflower, or Bluebell Family, CAMPANULACEAE

  16. Cardinal Flower  ______
    Lobelia cardinalis

    The Cardinal Flower is a favorite of hummingbirds.

  17. Downy Lobelia  ______
    Lobelia puberula

    Another name for Lobelia puberula is the Purple Dewdrop.

  18. Colorado Venus' Looking-glass  ______  (endemic to Texas, mostly in the "Hill Country")
    Triodanis coloradoensis

  19. Venus' Looking-glass  ______
    Triodanis perfoliata 
    (was Specularia speculum-veneris)


    American native people (the Cherokee) steeped the roots of Venus' Looking-glass with pasts of other plants and drank it for indigestion.

    Bladderwort, or Birthwort Family, ARISTOLOCHIACEAE

  20. Swanflower  ______ 
    Aristolochia erecta

  21. Floating Bladderwort  ______
    Utricularia radiata 

    Borage Family, BORAGINACEAE

  22. Thicksepal Cryptanth  ______
    Cryptantha crassisepala 

  23. Fragrant Heliotrope  ______
    Heliotropium convolvulaceum

  24. Seaside Heliotrope  ______
    Helioropium curassavicum

  25. Carolina Puccoon  ______
    Lithospermum caroliniense

  26. Fringed Puccoon  ______
    Lithospermum incisum

  27. Oreja de Perro  ______
    Tiquilia canescens

    Broomrape Family, OROBANCHACEAE

  28. Mountain Cancer-root  ______
    Conopholis alpina mexicana 

    Buttercup, or Crowfoot Family, RANUNCULACEAE

  29. Pheasant's-eye  ______  (non-native in Texas, from Europe)
    Adonis annua

  30. Ten-petal Anemone  ______
    Anemone berlandieri

  31. Carolina Anemone  ______
    Anemone caroliniana

  32. Wild Columbine  ______
    Aquilegia canadensis

    Aquilegia canadensis is one of the many larval food plants of the butterfly Celastrina agriolus, the Spring Azure. 

    Butterflies Celastrina agriolus, Spring Azures,
    photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  33. Yellow Columbine  ______
    Aquilegia chrysantha

  34. Blue Jasmine  ______
    Clematis crispa

  35. Texas Virgin's Bower  ______
    Clematis drummondii

  36. Leatherflower  ______
    Clematis pitcheri

  37. Scarlet Clematis  ______  (endemic to Texas, and the only red-flowered species of Clematis known)
    Clematis texensis

  38. Prairie Larkspur  ______
    Delphinium carolinianum 
    (was Delphinium virescens)  

  39. Large Buttercup  ______
    Ranunculus macranthus 

  40. Purple Meadow-rue  ______
    Thalictrum dasycarpum

    Cactus Family, CACTACEAE

  41. Living Rock Cactus  ______  FW
    Ariocarpus fissuratus

  42. Bunched Cory Cactus  ______
    Coryphantha r. ramillosa

    The Bunched Cory Cactus is classified by both the US & Texas as threatened. 

  43. Texas Cactus  ______  FW
    Echinocactus conoideus

  44. White-flowered Cactus  ______  FW
    Echinocactus erectocentrus

  45. Turk's Head Cactus  ______  FW
    Echinocactus hamatacanthus

    Echinocactus hamatacanthus
    is also called Eagle Claw or Blue Barrel Cactus. 

  46. Devil's Head Cactus  ______  FW
    Echinocactus horizonthalonius

  47. Woven-spine Pineapple Cactus  ______  FW
    Echinocactus intertextus

  48. Mariposa Cactus  ______  FW
    Echinocactus mariposensis

  49. Devil's Claw  ______  FW
    Echinocactus texensis

    Another name for Echinocactus texensis is Horse Crippler.

  50. Tobusch Cactus  ______  FW
    Echinocactus tobuschii

  51. Catclaw Cactus  ______  FW
    Echinocactus unicinatus

  52. Southwestern Barrel Cactus  ______  FW
    Echinocactus wislizeni 

  53. Warnock's Cactus  ______  FW
    Echinocactus warnocki

  54. Chisos Mountain Hedgehog Cactus  (or Chisos Pitaya ______  FW
    Echinocereus c. chisosensis

  55. Brown-flowered (or Yellow-flowered) Cactus  ______  FW
    Echinocereus chloranthus

    There are two different subspecies of Echinocereus chloranthus, hence the two common names.

  56. Davis' Green Pitaya  ______
    Echinocereus davisii 
    (or Echinocereus viridiflorus davisii______

    The Davis' Green Pitaya is classified by both the US & Texas as endangered.

  57. Strawberry Hedgehog Cactus  ______  FW
    Echinocereus enneacanthus

    Other common names for Echinocereus enneacanthus are Warty Hedgehog and Strawberry Cactus.
    There are various subspecies.

  58. Lloyd's Hedgehog Cactus  ______
    Echinocereus lloydii

    The Lloyd's Hedgehog Cactus was classified by the US & Texas as endangered.

  59. Comb Hedgehog Cactus  ______  FW
    Echinocereus pectinatus

    Echinocereus pectinatus
    has an assortment of other common names, including: Rainbow Cactus, Texas Rainbow Pitaya, Ashy-white Pitaya, Slender-spined Pitaya, Rio Grande Pitaya, Big Bend Pitaya.
    There are various subspecies.

  60. Black Lace Cactus  ______
    Echinocereus reichenbachii albertii

    The Black Lace Cactus is classified by the US & Texas as endangered.

  61. Claret-cup Cactus  (ph)  ______  FW
    Echinocereus triglochidiatus

    Other common names for Echinocereus triglochidiatus include: Little Claret-cup, Southwest Claret-cup, Texas Claret-cup, King's Cup.
    There are various subspecies.

    A Claret-cup Cactus photographed about 2 months after the red flowers were in bloom
    (photo by Doris Potter) 

  62. Green-flowered Cactus  ______  FW
    Echinocereus virdiflorus

    Other common names for Echinocereus virdiflorus are: Green Pitaya and Hen-and-Chickens Cactus.

  63. Boquillas Button Cactus  ______  FW
    Epithelantha bokei

  64. Button Cactus  ______  FW
    Epithelantha micromeris

  65. Nellie's Cory Cactus  ______
    Escobaria minima

    Nellie's Cory Cactus
    is classified by the US & Texas as endangered.

  66. Sneed's Pincushion Cactus  ______
    Escobaria s. sneedii

    Sneed's Pincushion Cactus
    is classified by the US & Texas as endangered.
  67. Peyote  ______  FW
    Lophophora williamsii

  68. White-spined Cob Cactus  ______  FW
    Mammallaria albicolumnaria

  69. Mountain Cob Cactus  ______  FW
    Mammallaria dasyacantha

  70. Duncan's Cactus  ______  FW
    Mammallaria duncanii

  71. Sea-Urchin Cactus  ______  FW
    Mammallaria echinus

  72. Fragrant Cactus  ______  FW
    Mammallaria fragrans

  73. Pancake Pincushion  ______  FW
    Mammallaria heyderi

  74. Golf-ball Cactus  ______  FW
    Mammallaria lasiacantha

  75. Long Mamma  ______  FW
    Mammallaria macromeris

  76. Nipple Cactus  ______  FW
    Mammallaria melacantha

  77. Foxtail  Cactus  ______  FW
    Mammallaria pottsii

  78. Big Bend Mammallaria  ______  FW
    Mammallaria ramillosa

  79. Cob Cactus  ______  FW
    Mammallaria tuberculosa

  80. Varicolor Cactus  ______  FW
    Mammallaria varicolor

  81. Bisquit Cactus  ______  FW
    Mammallaria vivipara

  82. Dark-spined Prickly Pear  ______  FW
    Opuntia atrispina

  83. Englemann Prickly Pear  (or Texas Prickly Pear______  FW
    Opuntia engelmanni

  84. Fragile Prickly Pear  (or Brittle Cactus ______  FW
    Opuntia fragilis

  85. Dog Cholla  ______  FW
    Opuntia grahamii

    The Dog Cholla is a smaller version of Opuntia schotti (below).

  86. Cane Cholla  ______  FW
    Opuntia imbricata

    Opuntia imbricata
    is also called Tree Cholla.

  87. Candle Cholla  ______  FW
    Opuntia kleiniae

    The flowers of the Candle Cholla are greenish.

  88. Desert Christmas Cactus  (or Christmas Cholla)  ______  FW
    Opuntia leptocaulis

    The flowers of the Christmas Cholla are yellow.

  89. Chisos Prickly Pear  ______  FW
    Opuntia lindheimeri   

  90. Cow's Tongue Prickly Pear  ______  FW
    Opuntia linguiformis

  91. Purple-tinged Prickly Pear  ______  FW
    Opuntia macrocentra

  92. Grassland Prickly Pear  ______  FW
    Opuntia macrorhiza

  93. Blind Prickly Pear  ______  FW
    Opuntia rufida

    The Blind Prickly Pear is one of the few cacti entirely without spines.

  94. Devil Cholla  ______  FW
    Opuntia schottii

  95. Spinyfruit Prickly Pear  ______  FW  (species described in 1956)
    Opuntia spinosibacca

  96. Purple Prickly Pear  ______  FW
    Opuntia violacea  

  97. Desert Night-blooming Cereus  ______  FW
    (or Cereus) greggii

    The Desert Night-blooming Cereus is inconspicuous most of the year , but when in bloom it is easily spotted only in the evening and early morning when its spectacular night-blooming flowers are open.
    The plant is very popular in desert rock gardens and in the cactus trade; when a population is found, all too often, the large, turnip-like roots are quickly dug up.  

    Another name for Peniocereus greggii is the Queen of the Night. 

  98. Tobusch Fish-hook Cactus  ______  
    (or Ancistrocactus) brevihamatus tobuschii

    The Tobusch Fish-hook Cactus is classified by the US & Texas as endangered.

  99. Lloyd's Mariposa Cactus  ______  
    (or Ancistrocactus) mariposensis

    The Lloyd's Mariposa Cactus is classified by the US & Texas as threatened.

  100. Chihuahua Fish-hook Cactus  (or Cat-claw Cactus ______  FW
    (or Ancistrocactus) uncinatus

  101. Straw Spine Cactus  ______  FW
    Thelocactus bicolor

    Another name for Thelocactus bicolor is the "Glory of Texas". 

    Caltrop Family, ZYGOPHYYLLACEAE

  102. Warty Caltrop  ______
    Kallstroemia parviflora

    Caper Family, CAPPARACEAE

  103. Rocky Mountain Bee Plant  ______
    Cleome serrulata

  104. Clammyweed  ______
    Polanisia dodecandra

    Carpet-weed Family, AIZOACEAE

  105. Sea Purslane  ______
    Sesuvium portulacastrum

    Cypress Family, CUPRESSACEAE

  106. Ashe Juniper  (*)  ______
    Juniperus ashei

    Another name for Juniperus ashei is Mountain Juniper.

    As of 1999, the largest known Ashe Juniper in the US has been in New Braunfels, Texas.
    Its circumference: 139 inches. Height: 41 feet.

  107. Common Bald Cypress  (*)  ______
    Taxodium distichum
    Taxodium distichum  (var. mucronatum) 
    Montezuma Bald Cypress  ______

    Other names for Taxodium distichum are Deciduous Cypress, Swamp Cypress, Sabino Tree. 

    As of 1995, the largest known Montezuma Bald Cypress in the US has been in San Benito, Texas. 
    Its circumference: 301 inches. Height: 68 feet.  

    The Blanco River in Wimberley, Texas, lined with Bald Cypress trees

    Daisy, or Aster Family, ASTERACEAE

  108. Milfoil  ______   
    Achillea millefolium

    Another common name for Achillea millefolium is Yallow. This species is also in the list in this web-site for "Northern Wildflowers"  (for Iceland). 

  109. Creeping Spotflower  ______
    Acmella oppositifolia repens

  110. Desert Holly  ______
    Acourtia nana

    Acourtia nana
    was previously in the genus Perezia.

  111. Peonia  ______
    Acourtia runcinata 

    Acourtia runcinata
    was previously in the genus Perezia.

  112. Brownfoot  ______
    Acourtia wrightii

    Acourtia wrightii
    was previously in the genus Perezia.


    American native people (the Apache) used the crushed roots of Brownfoot to make an astringent and to treat wounds.
    Others (including the Pima) used the crushed leaves on wounds and to stop bleeding.   

  113. Huisache Daisy  ______
    Amblyolepis setigera

  114. False Annual Broomweed  ______
    Amphiachyris dracunculoides

  115. Arkansas Lazy Daisy  ______
    Aphanostephus skirrhobasis

  116. Prairie Plaintain  ______
    Arnoglossum plantagineum

  117. Yerba Raton  ______
    Bahia absinthifolia

  118. Desert Marigold  ______
    Baileya multiradiata

  119. Soft Green-eyes  ______
    Berlandiera pumila

  120. Tickseed Sunflower  ______  (NW:124)
    Bidens aristosa

    Both Bidens aristosa and the following species, Bidens polylepis, occur in Texas. And both species share the same common name.
    The bractlets beneath the phyllaries in Bidens polylepis are very narrow, 12-21, whereas 8-12 in Bidens aristosa. 

  121. Tickseed Sunflower  (ph)  ______
    Bidens polylepis

    Tickseed Sunflower, Bidens polylepis

  122. Smooth Bidens  ______
    Bidens laevis

    Other common names for Bidens laevis are Bur Marigold and Wild Goldenglow.

  123. Sea Oxeye  ______
    Borrichia frutescens

  124. Lawn-flower  ______
    Calyptocarpus vialis

    Other names common names for Calyptocarpus vialis are Carpetweed, Horseherb, and Straggler Daisy.

    Calyptocarpus vialis is one of many larval food plants for the butterfly Chlosyne lacinia, the Bordered Patch. 

    The butterfly, Chlosyne lacinia, the Bordered Patch

  125. Nodding Thistle  ______  (non-native in Texas, from Europe)
    Carduus nutans macrocephalus

  126. Basket Flower  ______
    Centaurea americana

  127. Bachelor's Button  ______  (non-native to Texas, from the Mediterranean region)
    Centaurea cyanus  

  128. Tocalote  ______
    Centaurea melitensis 

  129. Spiny Aster  ______
    Chloracantha spinosa

  130. Soft Golden Aster  ______
    Chrysopsis pilosa  

  131. Chicory  ______  (non-native to Texas, from Europe)
    Cichorium intybus

  132. Yellow Thistle  ______  
    Cirsium horridulum elliottii

  133. Texas Thistle  ______
    Cirsium texanum

    Texas Thistle is especially attractive to butterflies. Larvae of the butterfly, Vanessa cardui, the Painted Lady feed on the foliage.
    Goldfinches eat the seeds.

    A Lesser Goldfinch at Texas Thistle
    (photo by Rhett Poppe) 

  134. Betony-leaf Mistflower  ______
    Conoclinium betonicifolium

  135. Mistflower  ______
    Conoclinium coelestinum

    Mistflower is especially good attracting late-season butterflies.  

  136. Coreopsis  ______
    Coreopsis basalis

    The shape of the fruits of Coreopsis basalis gives the plant another common name of Tickseed. 

  137. Plains Coreopsis  ______
    Coreopsis tinctoria 

  138. Clasping-leaf Coneflower  ______
    Dracopis amplexicauls

  139. Parralena  ______
    (or Thymophylla) pentachaeta

  140. Bristle-leaf Dyssodia  ______
    Dyssodia tenuiloba

  141. Purple Coneflower  ______
    Echinacea sanguinea


    The roots of the Purple Coneflower contain the drug echinacea, and native American tribes used a decoction of the plant as a blood purifier, a wash for wounds, and a gargle for a sore throat.
    It is still used today for various illnesses as well as the treatment of septicemia. 

  142. Leafy Elephant's Foot  ______
    Elephantopus carolinianus 

  143. Engelmann's Daisy  ______
    Engelmannia peristenia

  144. Plains Fleabane  ______
    Erigeron modestus

  145. Philadelphia Fleabane  ______
    Erigeron philadelphicus

  146. Late-flowering Boneset  ______
    Eupatorium serotinum 

  147. Slender-headed Euthamia  ______
    Euthamia leptocephala

  148. Red Gaillardia  ______  (endemic to Texas)
    Gaillardia amblyodon

  149. Blanketflower  ______
    Gaillardia pulchella

    Other common names for Gaillardia pulchella are Firewheel, Indian Blanket, Rose-ring Gaillardia, and Showy Gaillardia.

  150. Fragrant Gaillardia  ______
    Gaillardia suavis

  151. Saw-leaf Daisy  ______
    Grindelia papposa 
    (was Prionopsis ciliata)

  152. Snakeweed  ______
    Gutierrezia sarothrae

    Gutierrezia sarothrae was previously in the Xanthocephalum.

  153. Bitterweed  ______
    Helenium amarum

  154. Purple-head Sneezeweed  ______
    Helenium flexuosum

    Purple-head Sneezewood is toxic to cattle and may cause severe sickness or even death if eaten.

  155. Swamp Sunflower  ______
    Helianthus angusifolius

  156. Common Sunflower  (ph)  ______
    Helianthus annuus

    Common Sunflowers photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  157. Silverleaf Sunflower  ______
    Helianthus argophyllus

  158. Blueweed (or Blueweed Sunflower)  ______
    Helianthus ciliaris

  159. Maximilian Sunflower  ______
    Helianthus maximilani

  160. Mountain Oxeye  ______
    Heliopsis parvifolia

  161. Gray Golden Aster  ______
    Heterotheca canescens

  162. Golden Aster  ______
    Heterotheca subaxillaris 
    (was Heterotheca latifolia)

  163. Woolly-white  ______
    Hymenopappus artemisiifolius

  164. Fine-leaf Woolly-white  ______
    Hymenopappus filfolius cinereus

  165. Jimmyweed  ______
    Isocoma pluriflora

  166. Dwarf Dandelion  ______
    Krigia cespitosa

  167. Elegant Gayfeather  ______
    Liatris elegans

  168. Narrow-leaf Gayfeather  ______
    Liatris mucronata


    The corms of the Narrow-leaf Gayfeather, and other species of Liatris, have been used in the treatment of sore throat and rattlesnake bite.
    Thus, another common name of Liatris mucronata is Button Snakeroot. 

  169. Blazing Star  ______
    Liatris squarrosa

  170. Texas Yellow Star  ______
    Lindheimera texana 

  171. Skeleton Plant  ______
    Lygodesmia texana

    Other common names for Lygodesmia texana include Flowering Straw, Milk Pink, and Purple Dandelion.  

  172. Sand Goldenweed  ______
    Machaeranthera linearis

  173. Camphor Daisy  ______
    Machaeranthera phyllocephala

    Another common name for Machaeranthera phyllocephala is the Golden Beach Daisy.

  174. Yellow Spiny Daisy  ______
    Machaeranthera pinnatifida  

  175. Tansy Aster  ______
    Machaeranthera tanacetifolia

  176. White Barbara's Buttons  ______
    Marshallia caepitosa

  177. Barbara's Buttons  ______
    Marshallia graminifolia cynanthera

  178. Plains Black-foot  ______
    Melampodium leucanthum

  179. Climbing Hempweed  ______
    Mikania scandens

    Mikania scandens
    is also known as Climbing Boneset.

  180. Cut-leaf Groundsel  ______
    Packera tampicana

  181. Small Palafoxia  ______
    Palafoxia callosa

  182. Hooker's Palafoxia  ______
    Palafoxia hookeriana

  183. Rose Palafoxia  ______
    Palafoxia rosea

  184. Sand Palafoxia ______
    Palafoxia sphacelata

  185. False Ragweed  ______
    Parthenium hysterophorus

  186. Lemon-scented Pectis  ______
    Pectis angusifolia

  187. Margined Rock Daisy  ______
    Perityle vaseyi

  188. White Dandelion  ______
    Pinaropappus roseus

  189. Camphor Weed  ______
    Pluchea camphorata


    The Camphor Weed and other species of Pluchea have been used medicinally, particularly as a stimulant, antispasmodic, and a diuretic.  

  190. Marsh Fleabane  ______
    Pluchea purpurascens

  191. Woolly Paperflower  ______
    Psilostrophe tagetina

  192. Texas Dandelion  ______
    Pyrrhopappus pauciflorus

  193. Plume-seed  ______
    Rafinesquia nomexicana

  194. Prairie Coneflower  ______
    Ratibida columnifera

  195. Brown-eyed Susan  ______
    Rudbeckia hirta

  196. Giant Coneflower  ______
    Rudbeckia maxima

  197. Texas Groundsel  ______
    Senecio ampullaceus

  198. Threadleaf Groundsel  ______
    Senecio flaccidus

  199. White-flowered Rosinweed  ______  (endemic to Texas)
    Silphium albiflorum

  200. Simpson's Rosinweed  ______
    Silphium gracile

  201. Tall Goldenrod  ______
    Solidago altissima

    The Tall Goldenrod was previous treated as part of Solidago canadensis.
    Solidago canadensis is in another list  in this website of "Northern Plants", in Alaska.  

  202. Downy Goldenrod  ______  
    Solidago petiolaris

  203. Sow Thistle  ______
    Sonchus asper

  204. Annual Aster  ______
    Symphyotrichum divaricatum

  205. Texas Aster  ______
    Symphyotrichum drummondii

  206. Meadow Aster  ______
    Symphyotrichum pratense

  207. Heath Aster  ______
    Symphyotricum ericoides

  208. Dandelion  (ph)  ______  (non-native in Texas, from Europe)
    Taraxacum officinale

    are very variable plants and are often separated into different numbers of microspecies. Since they reproduce by agamospermy, the distinction between many of the microspecies is unclear. 

    The Dandelion is in another list in this website of "Northern Plants", in Iceland.   

    MEDICINAL USE: roots and leaves, gathered before flowering

    The Dandelion is a very important medicinal herb. The roots and leaves are mixed to gain the most advantageous effects of both.
    The leaves, which are very nutritious, are diuretic and high in potassium (but have little effect on the liver). They are used, therefore, for oedema, especially if caused by a weak heart.   

    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood)

  209. Square-bud Daisy  ______
    Tetragonotheca texana

  210. Plains Yellow Daisy  ______
    Tetraneuris scaposa

  211. Burridge Green-thread  ______
    Thelesperma burridgeanum

  212. Thelesperma  ______
    Thelesperma filfolium

  213. Rayless Green-thread  ______
    Thelesperma megapotamicum

  214. Easter Daisy  ______
    Townsendia exscapa

  215. Goatsbeard  ______  (non-native in Texas, from Europe) 
    Tragopogon dubius  

  216. Oysterplant  ______  (non-native in Texas, from Europe)
    Tragopogon porrifolius

    Another name for Tragopogon porrifolius is Salsify.

  217. Golden Crownbeard  ______
    Verbesina encelioides

    Golden Crownbeard

  218. Dwarf Crownbeard  (ph)  ______
    Verbesina nana

  219. Frostweed  ______
    Verbesina virginica

  220. Western Ironweed  ______
    Vernonia baldwinii

  221. Woolly Ironweed  ______
    Vernonia lindheimeri


    The roots of the Woolly Ironweed, and others in Veronica, have reportedly been used to "purify" the blood, to reduce fevers, and as a aphrodisiac and a snakebite cure.  

  222. Plains Ironweed  ______
    Vernonia marginata


    Parts of all the Veronica species have been used by American native tribes. The Cherokee used a root tea to treat stomach ulcers. 

  223. Golden-eye  ______
    Viguiera dentata

  224. Hairy Wedelia  ______
    Wedelia texana

  225. Sleepy Daisy  ______
    Xanthisma texanum

  226. Wright's Goldenweed  ______
    Xylorhiza wrightii

  227. Dwarf Zinnia  ______
    Zinnia acerosa  

  228. Plains Zinnia  ______
    Zinnia grandiflora 

    Dodder Family, CUSCUTACEAE

  229. Dodder  ______
    Cuscuta cuspidata

    Dogbane Family, APOCYNACEAE

  230. Showy Blue-star  ______
    Amsonia tabernaemontana

  231. Spreading Dogbane  ______
    Apocynum androsaemifolium

    MEDICINAL USE:  Plants in the genus Apocynum contain several potent and toxic chemicals, but in mild form they have been used for various ailments, such as chronic liver problems, typhoid fever, stomach disorders, and assorted pains and swellings. 

    Dogwood Family, CORNACEAE

    Evening Primrose, or Willow-herb Family, ONAGRACEAE

  232. Square-bud Day Primrose  ______
    Calylophus berlandieri 
    (was Calylophus drummondianus

  233. Scarlet Gaura  ______
    Gaura coccinea

  234. White Gaura  ______
    Gaura lindheimeri

  235. Shrubby Water Primrose  ______
    Ludwigia octovalis

  236. Water Primrose  ______
    Ludwigia peploides glabrescens

  237. Beach Evening Primrose  ______
    Oenothera drummondii 

  238. Engelmann's Evening Primrose  ______
    Oenothera engelmannii 

  239. Missouri Primrose  ______
    Oenothera macrocarpa

  240. Showy Primrose  ______
    Oenothera speciosa

    Oenothera speciosa
    is also called Amapola and Pink Evening Primrose.

  241. Stemless Evening Primrose  ______
    Oenothera triloba

    Figwort, or Snapdragon Family, SCROPHULAREACEUS

  242. Purple Gerardia  ______
    Agalinis purpurea

    Purple Gerardia
    is a major food source of the fall broods of the larvae of the butterfly Junonia coenia, the Buckeye (photo with the following species).

  243. Oakleech  ______
    Aureolaria flava

    Other common names for Aureolaria flava are Big-flowered Oakleech and False Foxglove.

    Aureolaria flava is the larval food plant for late-season broods of the butterfly Junonia coenia, the Buckeye. 

    The butterfly, Junonia coenia, the Buckeye

  244. Coastal Water Hyssop  ______
    Bacopa monnieri

    The Coastal Water Hyssop is one of the larval food plants of the butterfly Anartia jatrophae, the White Peacock. 


    Bacopa monnieri has long been used medicinally. Today it is being studied for its benefits in treating several illnesses including asthma and some forms of cancer and for the prevention of blood clotting and the helping of memory retention.  

  245. Bellardia  ______
    Bellardia trixago

  246. American Bluehearts  ______
    Buchnera americana 

  247. Texas Paintbrush  ______
    Castilleja indivisa

  248. Paintbrush  ______
    Castilleja purpurea

    The citrina variety of Castilleja purpurea is known as Citron Paintbrush, Lemon Paintbrush, or Lemon Painted-cup, all referring to the yellow-colored bracts and colors.  

  249. Downy Paintbrush  ______
    Castilleja sessiliflora

  250. Snapdragon Vine  ______
    Maurandya antirrhiniflora

  251. Texas Toadflax  ______
    Nuttallanthus texanus

    The leaves and stems of the Texas Toadflax are eaten ravenously by the larvae of the spring brood of the butterfly, Junonia coenia, the Buckeye.  (photo with the Oakleech).  

  252. Wood Betony  ______
    Pedicularis canadensis dobbsii

    Another common name for Pedicularis canadensis is Lousewort.   

  253. Pink Plains Penstemon  ______
    Penstemon ambiguus

  254. Loose-flowered Penstemon  ______
    Penstemon australis laxiflorus

  255. Foxglove  ______
    Penstemon cobaea

  256. Havard's Penstemon  ______
    Penstemon havardii

  257. Scarlet Penstemon  ______  (endemic to the "Hill Country" of Texas)
    Penstemon triflorus

  258. Woolly Stemodia  ______
    Stemodia lanata

  259. Moth Mullein  ______  (non-native in Texas, from Europe)
    Verbascum blattaria

  260. Persian Speedwell  ______  (non-native in Texas, from Eurasia)   
    Veronica persica

    Another name for Veronica persica is Bird's-eye.

    Veronica persica is in another list in this website of "Northern Plants". in Iceland. In that list, it is called Common Field-Speedwell.

    Flax Family, LINACEAE

  261. Stiff-stem Flax  ______
    Linum berlandieri

  262. Blue Flax  ______
    Limun lewisii

  263. Yellow Prairie Flax  ______
    Limun sulcatum

    Four-o'-clock Family, NYCTAGINACEAE

  264. Amelia's Sand Verbena  ______  (endemic to Texas)
    Abronia ameliae

  265. Narrow-leaf Sand Verbena  ______
    Abronia angustifolia

    The blossoms of the Narrow-leaf Verbena are often visited by butterflies.

  266. Sweet Sand Verbena  ______
    Abronia fragrans

  267. Angel Trumpets  ______
    Acleisanthes longiflora

  268. Vine Four-o'clock  ______
    Acleisanthes obtusa

  269. Trailing Four-o'clock  ______
    Allionia incarnata

  270. Purple Spiderling  ______
    Boerhaavia purpurascens

  271. Wild Four-o'clock  ______
    Mirabilis nyctaginea

  272. Scarlet Muskflower  ______
    Nyctaginia capitata

    Nyctaginia capitata
    is commonly known as Devil's-bouquet.   

    Fumitory, or Earthsmoke Family, FUMARIACEAE

  273. Golden Corydalis  ______
    Corydalis aurea

  274. Southern Corydalis  ______
    Corydalis micrantha

    Gentian Family, GENTIANACEAE

  275. Mountain Pink  ______
    Centaurium beyrichii

  276. Bluebells  ______
    Eustoma russellianum 
    (was Eustoma grandiflorum)

    Another name for Eustoma russellianum is Purple Prairie Gentian.

  277. Meadow Pink  ______
    Sabatia campestris 

    Geranium Family, GERANIACEAE

  278. Cranesbill  ______  (non-native in Texas, from Europe)
    Erodium cicutarium 

  279. Texas Storksbill  ______
    Erodium texanum

  280. Carolina Geranium  ______
    Geranium carolinianum

    Gourd Family, CUCURBITACEAE

  281. Buffalo Gourd  ______
    Cucurbita foetidissima

    Honeysuckle Family, CAPRIFOLIACEAE

    Hypoxis Family, HYPOXIDACEAE

  282. Yellow Star Grass  ______ 
    Hypoxis hirsuta

    Iris Family, IRIDACEAE

  283. Purple Pleat-leaf  ______
    Alophia drummondii

  284. Herbertia  ______  (endemic to Texas, in the eastern & southern parts of the state)
    Herbertia lahue caerulea

  285. Southern Iris  ______
    Iris virginica (var. shrevei)

  286. Celestials  ______
    Nemastylis geminiflora

  287. Dotted Blue-eyed Grass  ______
    Sisyrinchium pruinosum

    Knotweed, or Buckwheat, or Dock Family, POLYGONACEAE

  288. Abert's Wild Buckwheat  ______
    Eriogonum abertianum

  289. Wild Buckwheat  ______
    Eriogonum annuum

  290. Heart-sepal Wild Buckwheat  ______
    Eriogonum multiflorum

  291. Southern Jointweed  ______
    Polygonella americana  

  292. Curl-top Smartweed  ______
    Polygonum lapathifolium

    Legume, or Pea, or Bean Family, LEGUMINOSAE or FABACEAE

    The seeds of many species in the LEGUMINOSAE, or FABACEAE are eaten by various birds, including Mourning Doves and Bobwhite Quail.

  293. Prairie Acacia  ______
    Acacia angustissima

  294. Groundnut  ______
    Apios americana

  295. Canada Milk Vetch  ______
    Astragalus canadensis

  296. Ground Plum  ______
    Astragalus crassicarpus

    Another common name for Astragalus crassicarpus is Buffalo Plum. 


    The Ground Plum is edible, with a taste similar to that of the pod of green garden peas. It was used as a food source for various American native peoples (the Dakota, Pawnee, Omaha, Ponca, and probably others).   

  297. Slim-pod Milk Vetch  ______
    Astralgalus leptocarpus

  298. Woolly Locoweed  ______
    Astralgalus mollissimus

    The Woolly Locoweed contains the toxin, locoine, and so it is one of a few species of plants that can cause death to cattle and horses when eaten. The animals show a nervous derangement and have spasmodic and abnormal movements, thus appearing "loco" or "crazy".   

    See also Oxytropis lamberii (var. articulata), the Locoweed, also in this LEGUMINOSAE, or FABACEAE family. 

  299. White-flowered Wild Indigo  ______
    Baptisia alba  (var. macrophylla)

    MEDICINAL USE:  by Native American people in the American Southwest. Also used as  a dyeing agent.

    The young green foliage of Baptisia  alba is a larval food source for several species of butterflies.

  300. Wild Blue Indigo  ______
    Baptisia australis 

  301. Plains Wild Indigo  ______
    Baptisia bracteata 
    (was Baptisia leucophaea)

  302. Green Wild Indigo  ______
    Baptisia sphaerocarpa

  303. Butterfly Pea  ______
    Centrosema virginianum

  304. Partridge Pea  ______
    Chamaecrista fasciculata

    Chamaecrista fasciculata was previously in the genus Cassia.

  305. Pigeonwings  ______
    Clitoria mariana

    Pigeonwings is one of the larval food plants of several species of skipper butterflies.

  306. Golden Dalea  ______
    Dalea aurea

  307. Purple Dalea  ______
    Dalea lasithera

  308. White Prairie Clover  ______
    Dalea multiflora 
    (was Petlostemum multiflorum)

  309. Dwarf Dalea  ______
    Dalea nana

  310. Bearded Dalea  ______
    Dalea pogonathera

  311. Purple Prairie Clover  ______
    Dalea purpurea


  312. Illinois Bundleflower  ______  
    Desmanthus illinoensis

    MEDICINAL USE:  the Pawnee used the leaf-tea wash of Desmanthus illinoensis for skin irritation.  

  313. Bagpod  ______
    Glottidium vesicarium

  314. Sicklepod Rush-pea  ______
    Hoffmannseggia glauca

  315. Scarlet Pea  ______
    Indigofera miniata

  316. Slender Bush Clover  ______
    Lespedeza virginica

  317. Annual Lupine  ______
    Lupinus concinnus

    The Annual Lupine is one of the six bluebonnet species designated as the Texas state flower.
    The other five species follow below. See the note with the Sandyland Bluebonnet. 

  318. Big Bend Bluebonnet  ______
    Lupinus havardii

  319. Perennial Bluebonnet  ______
    Lupinus perennis

  320. Dune Bluebonnet  ______  (extremely rare in Texas, in the far-northern part of the state)
    Lupinus plattensis

    Lupinus plattensis is also called the Platte River Bluebonnet.

  321. Sandyland Bluebonnet  ______  (endemic to Texas)
    Lupinus subcarnosus

    In 1901, the Sandyland Bluebonnet was adapted as the state flower of Texas, but because it was not as showy as the Texas Bluebonnet (below), popular opinion prompted the state to make all of the Lupinus occurring naturally in Texas as the "state flower". That 1971 decision ended the dispute as to the real Texas state flower and gave Texas five (now six) species of bluebonnets as its official state flower.

  322. Texas Bluebonnet  ______  (endemic to Texas)
    Lupinus texensis    

    The Texas Bluebonnet is widely planted by the Texas highway department in its erosion-control and roadside-beautification programs.

  323. White Sweet Clover  ______  (non-native in Texas, from Europe)
    Melilotus albus 

  324. Yellow Sweet Clover  ______  (non-native to Texas, from Europe)
    Melilotus officinalis

  325. Sensitive Brier  ______
    Mimosa nuttallii 
    (was Schrankia unicinata)

    Other common names for Mimosa nuttallii are Catclaw and Shame-boy.
    "Catclaw" is from the prickly characteistic of the plant.
    "Shame-boy" refers to the sensitive foliage that closes when touched.

  326. Powderpuff  ______
    Mimosa srigillosa

  327. Yellow-puff  ______
    Neptunia lutea

  328. Locoweed  ______
    Oxytropis lambertii  (var. articulata)

    Oxytropis lambertii
    is highly toxic and is one of the most dangerous plants to livestock on the rangelands of the West. Grazing animals readily eat the plant, with often fatal results. 

  329. Tall Scurfy Pea  ______
    Pediomelum cuspidatum

  330. Breadroot  ______
    Pediomelum latesipulatum 
    (previously in the genus Psoralea)

    the large tuber-like root of Pediomelum latesipulatum is edible, and it may be eaten raw, boiled, or sliced and dried for later use as a flour or thickening for soups.
    It was an important food source for western Native American tribes and early explorers. 

  331. James'  Rush-pea  ______
    Pomaria jamesii

  332. Scurfy Pea  ______
    Psoralidium tenuiflorum

  333. Broad-leaf Snout-bean  ______
    Rhynchosia latifolia

  334. Lindheimer's Senna  ______
    Senna lindheimeriana

  335. Dwarf Senna  ______
    Senna pumilio

  336. Two-leaved Senna  ______
    Senna roemeriana

  337. Rattlebush  ______
    Sesbania drummondii

  338. Silky Sophora  ______
    Sophora nuttalliana

    Silky Sophora
    is poisonous, especially the seed.

  339. Wild Bean  ______
    Strophostyles leiosperma

    Another name for Strophostyles leiosperma is Slick-seed Bean.


    Although the beans of Strophostyles leiosperma are small, they have been used as food by various Native American tribes, and they are still valuable as a wildlife food source. 

  340. Pencil Flower  ______
    Stylosanthes biflora

  341. Lindheimer's Tephrosia  ______
    Tephrosia lindheimeri

  342. Multibloom Tephrosia  ______
    Tephrosia onobrychoides

  343. Goat's Rue  ______
    Tephrosia virginiana

  344. Low Hop Clover  ______  (non-native to Texas, from Europe)
    Trifolium campestre

  345. Crimson Clover  ______  (non-native to Texas, from Europe)
    Trifolium incarnatum

  346. White Clover  ______   (non-native in Texas, from Europe)
    Trifolium repens

    Trifolium repens is also in the list in this web-site of "northern plants", in Iceland.

  347. Persian Clover  ______  (non-native to Texas, from the Mediterranean region)
    Trifolium resupinatum

  348. Winter Vetch  ______  (non-native in Texas, from Europe)
    Vicia villosa

  349. Wild Cowpea  ______
    Vigna luteola

  350. Viperina  ______
    Zornia bracteata

    Lily Family, LILIACEAE

  351. Colicroot  ______
    Aletris aurea

  352. Wild Onion  ______
    Allium canadense

  353. Yellow-flowered Onion  ______  (endemic to Texas)
    Allium coryi

  354. Drummond's Wild Onion  ______
    Allium drummondii

  355. Wild Hyacinth  ______
    Camassia scilloides  

  356. Evening-star Rain Lily  ______
    Cooperia drummondii

  357. White Dogtooth Violet  ______
    Erythronium albidum

  358. Copper Lily  ______
    Habranthus tubispathus

  359. Spider Lily  ______
    Hymenocallis liriosme

    Hymenocallis liriosme
    was previously placed in the Amaryllis family, AMARYLLIDACEAE.  

  360. False Garlic  ______
    Nothscordum bivale

  361. Great Solomon's Seal  ______
    Polygonatum biflorum

    Native American people, such as the Cherokee, reportedly used the young plants of the 
    Great Solomon's Seal
    as potherbs. 
    Dried roots were beaten and used as flour, and a root tea was used to treat general debility and stomach ailments. 

  362. Green Lily  ______
    Schoenocaulon drummondii 

  363. Yellow Sunny-bell  ______
    Schoenolirion croceum

  364. Wake-robin  ______
    Trillium gracile

  365. Death Camas  ______  
    Zygadenus nuttallii 

    Very similar, Zygadenus elegans, also called Death Camas, is in the list in this website of "Northern Plants", for Alaska. 

    Zygadenus nuttallii has highly toxic alkaloids, zygadenine and zygacine, that can cause death to cattle, and to humans, if eaten.

    Lizard's-tail Family, SAURURACEAE

  366. Lizard's-tail ______
    Saururus cernuus

    Loosestrife Family, LYTHRACEAE

  367. Lance-leaf Loosestrife  ______ 
    Lythrum alatum (var. lanceolatum) 
    (was Lythrum lanceolatum)

    Logania Family, LOGANIACEAE 

  368. Hornpod  ______
    Mitreola petiolata

  369. Pinkroot  ______
    Spigelia marilandica  

    Lotus Family, NELUMBONACEAE

    Was in the Water-lily Family, NYMPHAEACEAE

  370. Yellow Lotus  ______
    Nelumbo lutea

    Madder Family, RUBIACEAE

    Some notable plants in the family RUBIACEAE include Coffee (Coffea spp.) and Quinine (Cinchoa spp.).
    Closely related is the cultivated Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides). 

  371. Poor Joe  ______
    Diodia teres

  372. Virginia Buttonweed  ______
    Diodia virginiana

  373. Fine-leaf Bluet  ______
    Hedyotis nigricans

  374. Small Bluet  ______
    Houstonia micrantha 
    (was Hedyotis crassifolia)

    Mallow Family, MALVACEAE

  375. Pelotazo  ______
    Abutilon fruticosum

    The young foliage of Abuilon fruticosum is the larval food plant for several species of skipper butterflies. 

  376. Velvetleaf  ______
    Allowissadula holosericea

    Allowissadula holosericea was previously placed in the genus Wissadula.

  377. Bastardia  ______
    Bastardia viscosa

  378. Plains Poppy Mallow  ______
    Callirhoe alcaeoides

  379. Wine-cup  ______
    Callirhoe involucrata

    Callirhoe involucrata
    is also known as Poppy Mallow.

  380. Tulipan del Monte  ______
    Hibiscus martianus 
    (was Hibiscus cardiophyllus)

  381. Salt Marsh Mallow  ______
    Kosteletzkya virginica 

  382. Three-lobe False Mallow  ______
    Malvastrum coromandelianum

    Malvastrum coromandelianum
    is one of the known larval food plants for the butterfly Pyrgus communis, the Common Checkered Skipper, and probably other skippers.

  383. Malvella  ______
    Malvella lepidota

  384. Carolina Modiola  ______
    Modiola caroliniana

  385. Rock Rose  ______  (known to occur only in Texas & adjacent Mexico)
    Pavonia lasiopetala

  386. Bracted Sida  ______
    Sida ciliaris

  387. Copper Globemallow  ______
    Sphaeralcea angustifolia

  388. Caliche Globemallow  (or Scarlet Globemallow)  (ph)  ______
    Sphaeralcea coccinae 

    Caliche Globemallow  
    (photo by Doris Potter)

    Meadow-beauty Family, MELASTOMATACEAE

  389. Maryland Meadow-beauty  ______
    Rhexia mariana

    Milkweed Family, ASCLEPIADACEAE

    Most milkweeds contain contain poisonous glycosides, and the larvae of the butterflies Danaus plexippus, the Monarch, and Danaus gilippus, the Queen, which use plants in the genus Asclepias as their main food source, absorb the chemicals and are therefore toxic to predators.    

    Two butterflies that favor Milkweeds. 
    Above: the Monarch, below: the Queen
    (upper photo by Rise Hill; lower photo by Howard Eskin)

  390. Antelope Horn  ______
    Asclepias asperula

  391. Showy Milkweed  ______
    Asclepias speciosa

  392. Butterfly-weed  ______
    Asclepias tuberosa interior 

    Other common names for Asiepias tuberosa are Chiggerweed and Pleurisy Bush.

  393. White-flowered Milkweed  ______
    Asclepias variegata

  394. Green Milkweed  ______
    Asclepias viridis

  395. Climbing Milkweed  _____
    (formerly Sarcostemma) cynanchoides

  396. Stinking Matelea  ______
    Matelea cynanchoides

  397. Green Milkweed Vine  ______
    Matelea reticulata

    Milkwort Family, POLYGALACEAE

  398. White Milkwort  ______
    Polygala alba

    Mint Family, LAMIACEAE

  399. Sand Brazoria  ______  (endemic to Texas)
    Brazoria pulcherrima

  400. Henbit  ______  (non-native in Texas, from Europe)
    Lamium amplexicaule

  401. Common Horehound  ______  (non-native in Texas, from Europe)
    Marrubium vulgare

  402. Lemon Mint  ______
    Monarda citriodora


    A delightful tea can be brewed from the dried leaves of Lemon Mint. The entire plant has a noticeable fragrance of lemon.

  403. Wild Bergamot  ______
    Monarda fistulosa  

  404. Lindheimer's Bee Balm  ______
    Monarda lindheimeri

  405. Spotted Bee Balm  ______
    Monarda punctata

  406. False Dragonhead  ______
    Physostegia digitalis

    Other common names for Physostegia digitalis are Lion-heart and Obedient Plant.

  407. Beautiful False Dragonhead  ______
    Physostegia pulchella  

  408. Self-heal  ______   
    Prunella vulgaris

    Seal-heal is in another list in this website of "Northern Plants", in Iceland.

    In Texas, Self-heal is visited by the butterfly Colias philodice, the Clouded Sulphur.

  409. White-leaf Mountain Mint  ______
    Pycnanthemum albescens

  410. Mountain Mint  ______
    Pycnanthemum tenuifolium

    especially as a tea drink and a sedative.

  411. Blue Sage  ______
    Salvia azurea

  412. Tropical Sage  ______
    Salvia coccinea

    The flowers of Salvia coccinea attract several species of butterflies and are especially favored by hummingbirds.

  413. Engelmann's Salvia  ______  (endemic to Texas)
    Salvia engelmannii

  414. Mealy Sage  ______
    Salvia farinacea

  415. Lyre-leaf Sage  ______
    Salvia lyrata

    The distinctive lyre-shaped leaves of Salvia lyrata were once used by the Cherokee to brew a tea as a laxative and for colds, coughs, and nervousness. It was also used with honey to make a syrup for asthma.  

  416. Drummond's Skullcap  ______
    Scutellaria drummondii

  417. Heart-leaf Skullcap  ______
    Scutellaria ovata

  418. Pink Mint  ______
    Stachys drummondii

  419. American Germander  ______
    Teucrium canadense

    Another common name for Teucrium canadense is Wood Sage. 

  420. Cut-leaf Germander  ______
    Teucrium cubense 

  421. Forked Blue Curls  ______
    Trichostema dichotomum

  422. Prairie Brazoria  ______
    Warnockia scutellarioides

    Morning Glory Family, CONVOLVULACEAE

  423. Bindweed  ______
    Convolvulus arvensis

  424. Texas Bindweed  ______
    Convolvulus equitans

  425. Sharp-pod Morning Glory  ______
    Ipomoea cordatotriloba

  426. Beach Morning Glory  ______
    Ipomoea imperati

  427. Wild Potato  ______
    Ipomoea pandurata

  428. Goat-foot Morning Glory  ______
    Ipomoea pes-caprae brasiliensis

  429. Salt Marsh Morning Glory  ______
    Ipomoea sagittata 

  430. Hairy Cluster-vine  ______
    Jacquemontia tamnifolia

  431. White Stylisma  ______
    Stylisma humistrata  

    Mountain Parsley Family, CRYPTOGRAMMACEAE

  432. Parsley Fern  ______  AK
    Cryptogramma crispa

    Mustard Family, BRASSICADEAE, formerly CRUCIFERAE

  433. India Mustard  ______  (non-native in Texas, from Europe)
    Brassica juncea 

  434. Sea Rocket  ______
    Cakile lanceolata pseudonstricta

  435. Spring Cress  ______
    Cardamine rhomboidea

  436. Tansy Mustard  ______
    Descurainia pinnata

  437. Spectacle Pod  ______
    Dimorphocarpa wislizenii 

  438. Plains Wallflower  ______
    Erysimum asperum

  439. Western Wallflower  ______
    Erysimum capitatum

  440. Western Peppergrass  ______
    Lepidium alyssoides

  441. Fendler's Bladderpod  ______
    Lesquerella fendleri

  442. Cloth-of-gold  ______
    Lesquerella gracilis

  443. Mesa Greggia  ______
    Nerisyrenia camporum

  444. Mountain Mustard  ______
    Schenocrambe linearifolia 
    (was Sisymbrium linearifolium)

  445. Texas Selenia  ______
    Selenia dissecta

  446. Jones' Selenia  ______
    Selenia jonesii

  447. Charlock  ______
    Sinapis arvensis

  448. Broad-pod Twistflower  ______
    Streptanthus platycarpus

    Nightshade Family, SOLANACEAE

    Although many wild species in SOLANACEAE are poisonous, some notable cultivated crops also belong to this family, including eggplant (Solanum melongena), potato (Solanum tuberosum), tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum), and tomatoes (Lycoperisicon spp.). 

  449. False Nightshade  ______
    Chamesaracha coniodes

  450. Dirty False Nightshade  ______
    Chamesaracha sordida

  451. Downy Thornapple  (ph)  ______
    Datura wrigtii

    Two photographs of Downy Thornapple, Below, in bloom.
    (both photos by Doris Potter)

  452. Fiddle-leaf Tobacco  ______
    Nicotiana repanda

  453. Desert Tobacco  ______
    Nicotiana trigonophylla

  454. Common Ground-cherry  ______
    Physalis longifolia

  455. Purple Ground-cherry  ______
    Quincula lobata 

  456. Carolina Horse Nettle (ph)  ______
    Solanum carolinense

    Carolina Horse Nettle
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  457. Silver-leaf Nightshade  (ph)  ______
    Solanum elaeagnifolium

    MEDICINAL USE:  the berries of Silver-leaf Nightshade were used by Native American people to treat sore throat and toothache. 
    The berries were also mixed with cream and applied to the skin reportedly as a cure for the rash caused by Poison Ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)

    Silver-leaf Nightshade
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  458. American Nightshade  ______
    Solanum ptychanthum

  459. Buffalo Bur  ______
    Solanum rostratum

    Oleaster Family, ELAEAGNACEAE

    Olive Family, OLEACEAE

  460. Redbud  ______
    Menodora heterophylla

    Orchid Family, ORCHIDACEAE

  461. Coralroot Orchid  ______
    Corallorhiza wisteriana  

    The genus Coralorhiza is named for the rhizomes which resemble pieces of sea coral.

  462. Spring Ladies Tresses  ______
    Spiranthes vernalis

    Parsley or Celery Family, APIACEAE

  463. Eryngo  ______
    Eryngium leavenworthii

  464. Button Snakeroot  ______
    Eryngium yuccifolium

  465. Sombrerillo  ______  
    Hydrocotyle bonariensis

  466. Prairie Parsley  ______
    Polytaenia nuttallii

  467. Mock Bishop's-weed  ______
    Ptilimnium nuttallii

  468. Texas Tauschia texana  ______
    Tauschia texana

  469. Golden Alexanders  ______
    Zizia aurea

    Passionflower Family, PASSIFLORACEAE

  470. Passionflower  ______
    Passiflora incarnata

    MEDICINAL PLANT:  Native American people used almost all the parts of Passiflora incarnata to treat various ailments - but the plant can be quite toxic if used improperly.
    The root was powdered and applied as a poultice for cuts, wounds, ear-ache, and inflammation.
    Modern research has shown that extracts are mildly sedative, reduce blood pressure, and increase the respiratory rate.

    Passionflower is a food plant for several species of butterfly larvae. 

    Phlox, or Polemonium Family, POLEMONIACEAE

  471. Blue Gilia  ______
    Gilia rigidula

  472. Skyrocket  ______
    Ipomopsis aggregata

  473. Havard's Ipomopsis  ______
    Ipomopsis havardii

  474. Pale Trumpets  (ph)  ______
    Ipomopsis longiflora  

    Pale Trumpets
    was formerly in the genus Gilia, and is still commonly called the Pale-flower Gilia or White-flower Gilia.  

    Pale Trumpets
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  475. Standing Cypress  ______
    Ipomopsis rubra

    Other names for Ipomopsis rubra are Flame-flower and Texas Star.

  476. Pointed Phlox  ______
    Phlox cuspidata

  477. Drummond's Phlox  ______
    Phlox drummondii

  478. Prairie Phlox  ______
    Phlox pilosa 

    Pickerel-weed Family, PONTEDERIACEAE

  479. Water Hyacinth  ______  (non-native in Texas, from Brazil)
    Eichhornia crassipes

  480. Mud Plantain  ______
    Heteranthera limosa

  481. Pickerelweed  ______
    Pontederia cordata

    Pineapple Family, BROMELIACEAE

  482. Spanish Moss  ______ 
    Tillandsia usneoides

    Pine Family, PINACEAE

    Pink, or Carnation Family, CARYOPHYLLACEAE

  483. Sandwort  ______
    Minuartia drummondii

  484. Broom Whitlow Wort  ______
    Paronychia virginica

  485. Mountain Catchfly  ______
    Silene laciniata greggii

    Plumbago, or Sea Lavender Family, PLUMBAGINACEAE

  486. Sea Lavender  ______
    Limonium carolinianum  (was Limonium nashii)

    Pokeweed Family, PHYTOLACCACEAE

  487. Rouge Plant  (ph)  ______
    Rivina humilis

    A Rouge Plant, with its small red berry
    (photo courtesy of Michiel Koomen)

    Poppy Family, PAPAVERACEAE

  488. White Prickly Poppy  (ph)  ______
    Argemone albiflora

    although all the parts of the White Prickly Poppy are somewhat poisonous, the plant has been traditionally used in many remedies. 
    A seed tea was drunk as a purgative, and an infusion was given for colic and applied externally for headaches.  

    White Prickly Poppy photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  489. Yellow Prickly Poppy  ______ 
    Argemone mexicana

  490. Rose Prickly Poppy  ______
    Argemone sanguinea

  491. California Gold Poppy  ______
    Eschscholzia californica 
    Eschscholzia californica mexicana:  Mexican Gold Poppy  (ph)   ______

    In Mexico, the Mexican Gold Poppy has the Spanish name Amapola del Campo, meaning "poppy of the field".  

    Mexican Gold Poppy, photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Rise Hill)

    Purslane Family, PORTULACACEAE

  492. Spring Beauty  ______
    Claytonia virginica

  493. Shaggy Portulaca  ______
    Portulaca pilosa  (was Portulaca mundula)

    Another name for Portulaca pilosa is Moss Rose.

  494. Wing-pod Portulaca  ______
    Portulaca umbraticola

    Ratany Family, KRAMERIACEAE

  495. Crameria  ______
    Krameria lanceolata

    Rose Family, ROSACEAE

    Sedge Family, CYPERACEAE

  496. White-top Sedge  ______
    Rhynchospora colorata

    Seseme Family, PEDALIACEAE

  497. Devil's Claw  ______
    Proboscidea louisianica

    Proboscidea louisianica
    includes the Fragrant Devil's Claw that was recently treated as Proboscidea fragans.

    Proboscidea louisianica
    was in the family MARTYNIACEAE. 

    Soapberry Family, SAPINDACEAE

    including the Maples, formerly in their own family, ACERACEAE  

  498. Bigtooth Maple  (*)  ______
    Acer grandidentatum

    Other names for Acer grandidentatum are Canyon Maple, or the Uvalde Bigtooth Maple. Uvalde is in the Texas "Hill Country".   

    Spiderwort Family, COMMELINA

  499. Erect Dayflower  ______
    Commelina erecta

  500. Prairie Spiderwort  ______
    Tradescantia occidentalis  

  501. Ohio Spiderwort  ______
    Tradescantia ohiensis

    Spurge Family, EUPHORBIACEAE

  502. Cardinal Feather  ______
    Acalypha radians

  503. Bull Nettle  ______
    Cnidoscolus texanus

  504. Snow-on-the-Prairie  ______
    Euphorbia bicolor

  505. Snow-on-the-Mountain  ______
    Euphorbia marginata

  506. Roemer's Spurge  ______
    Euphorbia roemeriana

    Stickleaf Family, LOASACEAE

  507. Stinging Cevallia  ______
    Cevallia sinuata

  508. Rock Nettle  ______
    Eucnide bartonioides

  509. Sand Lily  ______
    Mentzelia nuda stricta

  510. Stickleaf  ______
    Mentzelia oligosperma

  511. Prairie Stickleaf  ______
    Mentzelia reverchonii

    Stonecrop Family, CRASSULACEAE

  512. Longpetal Echeveria  ______
    Echeveria strictiflora

  513. Yellow Stonecup  ______
    Sedum nuttallianum

    Valerian Family, VALERIANACEAE

  514. Woods Corn Salad  ______
    Valerianella woodsiana

    Vervain Family, VERBENACEAE

  515. Dakota Vervain  ______
    Glandularia bipinnatifida

    The flowers of Dakota Vervain are rich in nectar and attractive to various species of butterflies. 

  516. Rose Vervain  ______
    Glandularia canadensis

    In Texas, Rose Vervain is heavily used by early-emerging or overwintering butterflies. 

  517. Texas Frig-fruit  ______
    Lippia nodiflora

  518. Gray Vervain  ______
    Verbena canescens

    The flowers of the Gray Vervain are a favorite of smaller butterflies.

  519. Texas Vervain  ______
    Verbena halei

  520. Tuber Vervain  ______
    Verbena rigida

    The long-lasting flower spikes of the Tiber Vervain are greatly attractive to many species of butterflies.   

    Violet Family, VIOLACEAE

  521. Field Pansy  ______
    Viola bicolor 
    (was Viola rafinesquii 

  522. Lovell Violet  ______
    Viola palmata 
    (was Viola lovelliana

  523. Bird's-foot Violet  ______
    Viola pedata

  524. Primrose-leaved Violet  ______
    Viola primulifolia 

    Waterleaf Family, HYDROPHYLLACEAE

  525. Blue Waterleaf  ______
    Hydrolea ovata

  526. Sand-bell  ______
    Nama hispidum

  527. Baby Blue-eyes  ______
    Nemophila phaceliodes

    Other common names for Nemophila phaceliodes are Flannel Breeches and Large-flowered Nemophila.

  528. Phacelia  ______
    Phacelia congesta

    Other common names for Phacelia congesta are Blue-curls, Spiderflower, and Wild Heliotrope. 

  529. Gyp Blue-curls  ______
    Phacelia integrifolia

  530. Purple Phacelia  ______
    Phacelia patuliflora

    Water Lily Family, NYMPHAEACEAE

  531. Spatterdock  ______
    Nuphar lutea advena 
    (was Nuphar luteum macrophyllum)

    Other names for Spatterdock are Cow Lily and Yellow Pond Lily.

  532. Blue Water Lily  ______
    Nymphaea elegans

  533. Yellow Water Lily  ______
    Nymphaea mexicana

  534. Fragrant Water Lily  ______
    Nymphaea odorata

    Water-plantain Family, ALISMATACEAE

  535. Wapato  ______
    Sagittaria latifolia

  536. Delta Arrowhead  ______
    Sagittaria platyphylla 

    Willow Family, SALICACEAE

    This family includes trees: Aspens, Cottonwoods, Poplars.

    Wood-sorrel Family,

  537. Yellow Wood-sorrel  ______
    Oxalis diffenii

  538. Violet Wood-sorrel  ______
    Oxalis violacea

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