PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-800-721-9986
 or 302/529-1876




Noting those during 
Focus On Nature Tours
with an (*)

Toads & Frogs (seen or heard)
Skinks, Anoles, and other Lizards

A List of Amphibians & Reptiles of Texas
compiled by Armas Hill

(Photo by Alan Brady)


C:  in central Texas     E:  in east Texas     W: in west Texas

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website 

These classifications by the ICUN (international Union for Conservation of Nature)
of Threatened & Near-threatened Species:
(t1)  critically endangered
(t2)  endangered
(t3)  vulnerable
(nt)  near-threatened  

Excellent recordings of the sounds of frogs and toads are in the audio CD of "The Calls of Frogs and Toads", by Lang Elliott, 2004.
In this list, numbers noted as (LE:xx) refer to that of the particular frog or toad in the CD. Recordings on the disk referred to here were by Lang Elliott, Carl Gerhardt, Ted Mack, Bill Turcotte, and Tom Johnson.    

Links to Groupings in this List:

AMPHIBIANS    Frogs & Toads   Salamanders

REPTILES     Crocodile & Alligator     Turtles    Lizards     Snakes 

Other Links: 

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in North America, including Texas

A List & Photo Gallery of North American Birds, in 6 parts 

A List & Photo Gallery of Texas Birds, in 2 parts  

Other Lists, with some photos, of Texas nature:
Mammals    Butterflies    Dragonflies & Damselflies

Marine Life (including fish, corals, jellyfish, mollusks (shells), & arthropods: crustaceans & echinoderms)

A Directory of Photos in this Website



           Family RANIDAE


  1. Bronze Frog  ______   
    Rana clamitans clamitans  

  2. American Bullfrog  (ph)  ______  (LE:1)
    Rana catesbeiana 

    The American Bullfrog is heard in Texas from late winter to autumn. It avoids temporary bodies of water.  

    Two photographs of Bullfrogs
    (upper photo courtesy of Doris Potter;
     lower photo during a FONT tour) 

  3. Pig Frog  ______  (LE:2)  in far-eastern Texas  
    Rana grylio 

    The Pig Frog is usually heard in offshore vegetation, sometimes while floating in the water. Large choruses produce a steady roar. Heard from April to August.   

  4. Pickerel Frog  (ph)  ______  (LE:11)  in eastern Texas  
    Rana palustris

    The Pickerel Frog breeds in lakes, ponds, streams, springs, and in pools at entrances to caves. It also occurs grassy areas away from water. Males sometimes call while submerged. 

    Pickerel Frog
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  5. Southern Leopard Frog  ______  (LE:9)  in eastern Texas 
    Rana sphenocephala

    The Southern Leopard Frog often wanders away from water into grassy and weedy places. It may be heard throughout the year in Texas.

  6. Plains Leopard Frog  ______  (LE:8)
    Rana blairi

  7. Rio Grande Leopard Frog  ______
    Rana berlandieri

  8. Crawfish Frog (*) ______  (LE:13)    
    Rana a. areolata

    The Crawfish Frog favors moist prairies, pastures, and meadows, where it takes shelter during the day in crawfish burrows, or the burrows of other animals. 

    Family HYLIDAE

  9. Spring Peeper   ______  (LE:23)  grows to about one and a half inches in length
    Pseudacris crucifer  

    The Spring Peeper breeds in Texas from winter to spring, in pools, ditches, and ponds. Not often seen outside the breeding season when it looks for insects in trees and shrubs, and on the ground.
    Pseudacris crucifer has a "rain call" given periodically in the summer and autumn, from trees and shrubs, that is a repeated series of peeps or squeaks that are harsher and more dissonant than its call in the spring, hence the name "Autumn Piper".    

  10. Upland Chorus Frog  ______  (LE:27)   (subspecies of the Western Chorus Frog)
    Pseudacris triseriata feriarum

  11. Spotted Chorus Frog  ______  
    Pseudacris clarkii

  12. Strecker's Chorus Frog   ______   (LE:25)
    Pseudacris streckeri

    The Strecker's Chorus Frog breeds in ponds, pools, and ditches, from winter into spring, during or after rains.

  13. Green Treefrog   ______  (LE:15)
    Hyla cinerea

    Other names for Hyla cinerea are "Cowbell Frog" and "Rain Frog".
    The first name is because at a distance the call can sound bell-like.
    The second name is because huge choruses erupt after warm rains.

    The Green Treefrog breeds in swamps, marshes, and ponds.   

  14. Squirrel Treefrog  ______  (LE:18)
    Hyla squirrela

    The Squirrel Treefrog sometimes feeds in trees, but it is also found on the ground near decaying stumps or logs.
    It breeds in temporary ponds and ditches. 

  15. Gray Treefrog   ______  (LE:20)
    Hyla versicolor 

  16. Canyon Treefrog  ______
    Hyla arenicolor

  17. Mexican Treefrog  ______
    Smilisca baudinii

  18. Northern Cricket Frog   ______  (LE:31)   grows to about one and a half inches in length
    Acris crepitans crepitans
    Acris crepitans blanchardi 
    ______  Blanchard's Cricket Frog

    The Northern Cricket Frog calls from open or grassy edges of ponds, lakes, creeks, and swampy areas.


  19. White-lipped Frog  ______  
    Leptodactylus labialis

  20. Eastern Barking Frog  ______
    Eleutherodactylus augusti latrans

  21. Cliff Chirping Frog  ______
    Syrrhophus marnockii

  22. Spotted Chirping Frog  ______
    Syrrhophus guttilatus

  23. Rio Grande Chirping Frog  ______
    Syrrhophus cystignathoides campi 

    Family BUFONIDAE 

  24. (Dwarf) American Toad  (ph) (*)  ______    
    Bufo americanus charlesmithi

    American Toad
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  25. Houston Toad  ______  
    Bufo houstonensis

  26. Woodhouse's Toad   ______ 
    Bufo woodhousei  
    Bufo woodhousei australis  
    Southwestern Woodhouse's Toad  ______   

  27. Gulf Coast Toad  (ph)  ______  (LE:35)   grows to about 5 inches in length
    Bufo valliceps valliceps 

    The Gulf Coast Toad occurs in Central America and eastern Mexico north into Texas, southern Louisiana, and southern Mississippi, with isolated populations north into Arkansas.
    It is found in variety of habitats from urban areas to coastal beaches and prairies. It is the largest native toad in the US, but see the Giant Toad (below, in this list).   

    The Gulf Coast Toad breeds in Texas from March through September in ponds, lakes, and roadside ditches. 

    A Gulf Coast Toad during a FONT tour
    (photo by Peter Mooney)

  28. Great Plains Toad  ______  (LE:37)
    Bufo cognatus

    Bufo connatus
    is the common toad of grasslands and dry prairie. It burrows for protection from heat and dryness.
    Its call can be from a great distance. At close range, it can deafening.

    The Great Plains Toad breeds from spring into the summer in rivers, ponds, ditches, and flooded areas. 

  29. Texas Toad  ______
    Bufo speciosus

  30. Red-spotted Toad  ______
    Bufo punctatus

  31. Green Toad
    Bufo debilis debilis  Eastern Green Toad  ______
    Bufo debilis insidior  Western Green Toad  ______

  32. Giant Toad (or Marine Toad)  ______   (not native to North America) 
    Bufo marinus

    Bufo marinus
    occurs in extreme southern Texas. It can grow up to 9 inches in length, or more.


  33. Hurter's Spadefoot Toad   ______  (LE:39)  
    Scaphiopus hurterii 

    The Hurter's Spadefoot Toad was considered a subspecies of the Eastern Spadefoot Toad, Scaphiopus holbrooki.

    Scaphiopus hurterii occurs in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Arkansas. It breeds in temporary pools caused by heavy rains, and it can be heard in Texas anytime during the year.

  34. Couch's Spadefoot Toad  ______
    Scaphiopus couchii

  35. Plains Spadefoot Toad  ______  (LE:40)
    Scaphiopus bombifrons

    The Plains Spadefoot Toad is found mostly north of Texas, in the Great Plains. Its primary advertisement call is a snore-like call, repeated once every one to two seconds.   

  36. New Mexico Spadefoot Toad  ______
    Scaphiopus multiplicatus


  37. Eastern Narrowmouth Toad  ______  (LE:41)
    Gastrophryne carolinensis

    The Eastern Narrowmouth Toad is found in variety of habitats, but in its habits it is secretive.
    It breeds in ponds, lakes, pools, and ditches.

  38. Great Plains Narrowmouth Toad  ______  (LE:42)
    Gastrophryne olivacea

    The Great Plains Narrowmouth Toad hides beneath objects or in burrows where it feeds on ants and other insects.
    It breeds from spring to autumn after heavy rains. 

  39. Sheep Frog  ______
    Hypopachus variolosus


    Family SIRENIDAE 

  40. Lesser Siren ______  
    Siren intermedia nettingi   Western Lesser Siren  ______ 
    (in east Texas)
    Siren intermedia texana  
    Rio Grande Lesser Siren  ______  (in south Texas) 


  41. Spotted Salamander   ______   (in far-east Texas)
    Ambystoma maculatum

  42. Marbled Salamander   ______  (in far-east Texas)
    Ambystoma opacum

  43. Mole Salamander  ______  (in far-east Texas)
    Ambystoma talpoideum

  44. Tiger Salamander  ______
    Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum  Eastern Salamander  ______
    Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium 
    Barred Tiger Salamander  ______  


  45. Southern Dusky Salamander  ______   (in east Texas)
    Desmognathus auriculatus 

  46. Dwarf Salamander  ______  (in east Texas) 
    Eurycea quadridigitata

  47. San Marcos Salamander  ______
    Eurycea nana

  48. Texas Salamander  ______
    Eurycea neotenes

  49. Comal Blind Salamander  ______
    Eurycea tridentifera

  50. Texas Blind Salamander  ______
    Typhlomolge rathbuni

  51. Blanco Blind Salamander  ______
    Typhlomolge robusta    

  52. Western Slimy Salamander  ______ 
    Plethodon albagula


  53. Central Newt  ______   (a subspecies of the Red-spotted Newt
    Notophthalmus viridescens

  54. Black-spotted Newt  ______
    Notophthalmus meridionalis meridionalis 




  55. American Alligator  (ph) (*)  ______  
    Alligator mississippiensis


    An American Alligator
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

    Two photographs of the American Alligator during a FONT Tour in Texas
    (photos by Karl Frafjord)



  56. Snapping Turtle  (ph) (*)  ______ 
    Chleydra serpentina

    Snapping Turtle
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  57. Alligator Snapping Turtle  ______  (in east Texas)  
    Macroclemys temminckii


  58. Mississippi Mud Turtle  ______ 
    Kinosternon subrubum hippocrepis

  59. Yellow Mud Turtle  ______
    non flavescens

  60. Big Bend Mud Turtle  ______
    Kinosternon hiripes murrayi

  61. Eastern (or Common) Musk Turtle  (*)  ______   (has been called Stinkpot
    Sternotherus odoratus

  62. Razorbaack  Musk Turtle  ______
    Sternotherus carinatus

  63. Stripeneck Musk Turtle  ______
    Sternotherus minor pelifer

    Family EMYDIDAE

  64. River Cooter   ______  
    Chrysemys concinna metteri  Missouri River Cooter  ______ 
    (in east Texas)
    Chrysemys concinna gorzugi 
    Rio Grande River Cooter  ______  (in south & west Texas)

  65. Texas River Cooter  (ph) (*)  ______  
    Pseudemys texana

    Texas River Cooters photographed during a FONT tour in Texas
    (photo by Karl Frafjord)

  66. (Three-toed) Box Turtle  (ph) (*)  ______ 
    Terrapene carolina triunguis

    Box Turtle
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  67. Ornate Box Turtle  ______
    Terrapene ornata ornata  ______
    Terrapene ornata luteola  ______ 
    (in west Texas)

  68. (Southern) Painted Turtle  (ph)  ______  (an isolated colony in central Texas)
    Chrysemys picta dorsalis

    Painted Turtles
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  69. Red-eared Slider  (ph) (*)  ______ 
    Trachemys scripta elegans

    In Trachemys scripta, the reddish stripe behind the eye is unique among North American turtles, but not all Red-ears have it. Rarely the red is replaced by yellow.

    A Red-eared Slider photographed during a FONT Texas Tour.
    This turtle was crossing a road west of Austin.
    It's hard to see the red line behind the eye, but it's there.
    (photo by Karl Frafjord) 

  70. Big Bend Slider  ______
    Trachemys gaigeae

  71. Mississippi Map Turtle  ______
    Graptemys kohnii

  72. Sabine Map Turtle  ______  (a subspecies of the False Map Turtle)  (in far-eastern Texas)
    Graptemys pseudogeographica sabinensis

  73. Texas Map Turtle  ______
    Graptemys versa

  74. Cagle's Map Turtle  ______  
    Graptemys caglei

  75. Western Chicken Turtle  ______  
    Deirochelys reticularia miaria

  76. (Texas) Diamondback Terrapin  (ph) (*)  ______ 
    Malaclemys terrapin littoralis

    Diamondback Terrapin
    (photo by Howard Eskin)


  77. Texas Tortoise  ______  
    Gopherus berlandieri


    An excellent book, filled with good information about Sea Turtles, and interesting reading, is "Voyage of the Turtle - in Pursuit of the Earth's Last Dinosaur", by Carl Safina, published in 2007. 

  78. Leatherback (Sea Turtle)  (t1) (*)  ______  (offshore in the Gulf of Mexico)
    Dermochelys coriacea

  79. Loggerhead (Sea Turtle)  (t2) (ph) (*) ______   (offshore in the Gulf of Mexico)
    Caretta caretta

    Loggerhead Sea Turtle 
    (photographed by Alan Brady during a FONT tour)
  80. Green (Sea) Turtle  (t2) (ph)  ______  (offshore in the Gulf of Mexico) 
    Chelonia mydas

  81. Atlantic Hawksbill  (t1)  ______  (offshore in the Gulf of Mexico)
    Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata

  82. Kemp's Ridley  (t1)  ______
    Lepidochelys kempii

    The Kemp's Ridley is globally the most endangered of the sea turtles, but it is the species most commonly found in the Texan waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

    The primary nesting area for the species is in the Mexican state of Tampaulipas, where Rancho Nuevo has been the only known major nesting beach for the species in the world.
    A secondary nesting population has been established at the Padre Island National Seashore in Texas.  


  83. Midland Smooth Softshell  ______
    Apalone m. mutica 

  84. Spiny Softshell  (ph) (*)  ______
    Apalone spinifera pallida  Pallid Spiny Softshell  ______   
    Apalone spinifera emoryi 
    Texas Spiny Softshell  ______  

    A Texas Spiny Softshell photographed during a FONT tour in Texas
    (photo by Karl Frafjord)



  85. Roughtail Gecko  (i)  ______
    Cyrtopodion scabrum

  86. Mediterranean Gecko  (i)  ______
    Hemidactylus turcicus turcicus


  87. Carolina Anole  (*)  ______   (has been called Green Anole)
    Anolis carolinensis

    Family IGUANIDAE

  88. Spinytail Iguana  (i)  ______  
    Ctenosaura pectinata


  89. Collared Lizard  ______
    Crotaphytus collaris collaris  Eastern Collared Lizard  ______
    Crotaphytus collaris baileyi  Western Collared Lizard  ______
    Crotaphytus collaris fuscus  Chihuahuan Collared Lizard  ______

  90. Reticulate Collared Lizard  ______
    Crotaphytus reticulatus 

  91. Longnose Leopard Lizard  ______
    Gambelia wislizenii wislizenii


  92. Greater Earless Lizard  ______
    Cophosaurus t. texanus  Texas Earless Lizard  ______
    Cophosaurus texanusscitulus 
    Southwestern Earless Lizard  ______ 
    (in west Texas)

    A Greater Earless Lizard photographed during a FONT tour

  93. Earless Lizard  ______
    Holbrookia maculata maculata  Northern Earless Lizard  ______ 
    (in north Texas)
    Holbrookia maculata perspicus  Eastern Earless Lizard  ______
    (in north-central Texas)
    Holbrookia maculata approximans  Speckled Earless Lizard  ______ 
    (in west Texas)

  94. Spot-tailed Earless Lizard  ______
    Holbrookia lacerata subcaudalis  Southern Earless Lizard  ______
    Holbrookia l. lacerata  Plateau Earless Lizard  ______ 
    (northwestward from the Edwards Plateau)

  95. Keeled Earless Lizard  ______
    Holbrookia p. propinqua 

  96. Rosebelly Lizard  ______
    Sceloporus variabilis marmotatus

  97. Mesquite Lizard  ______
    Sceloporus grammicus microlepidotus

  98. Crevice Spiny Lizard  ______
    Sceloporus poinsettii poinsettii

  99. Blue Spiny Lizard  ______
    Sceloporus serrifer cyanogenys

  100. Twin-spotted (or Desert) Spiny Lizard  ______  (in west Texas)
    Sceloporus magister bimaculosus

    A Twin-spotted, or Desert Spiny Lizard during a FONT tour

  101. Texas Spiny Lizard  ______
    Sceloporus olivaceus

  102. Southern Prairie Lizard   ______   (conspecific with the Eastern Fence Lizard
    Sceloporus undulatus consobrinus
    Sceloporus undualtus garmani 
    Northern Prairie Lizard  ______ 
    (in far-north Texas)

  103. Canyon Lizard  ______  (in west Texas)
    Sceloporus merriami 

  104. Tree Lizard  ______
    Urosaurus ornatus orantus  Eastern Tree Lizard  ______
    Urosaurus ornatus schmidti  Big Bend Tree Lizard  ______ 

  105. Desert Side-blotched Lizard  ______
    Uta stansburiana stejnegeri

    Desert Side-blotched Lizard
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  106. Texas Horned Lizard  ______
    Phrynosoma cornutum

  107. Mountain Short-horned Lizard  ______
    Phrynosoma douglassii hernandesi 

  108. Roundtail Horned Lizard  ______
    Phrynosoma modestum 

    Family SCINCIDAE

  109. Five-lined Skink  ______  (in east Texas)
    Eumeces fasciatus

  110. Broadhead Skink  ______  (in east Texas)
    Eumeces laticeps

  111. Great Plains Skink  ______
    Eumeces obsoletus

  112. Four-lined Skink  ______
    Eumeces tetragrammus brevilineatus  ______
    Eumeces t. tetragrammus
      Four-lined Skink  ______ 
    (in far-south Texas)

  113. Coal Skink  ______  (in far-east Texas)
    Eumeces anthracinus

  114. Southern Prairie Skink  ______  
    Eumeces septentrionalis obtusirostris

  115. Variable Skink  ______
    Eumeces multivirgatus epipleurotus

  116. Ground Skink  ______  
    Scincella lateralis

    Family TEIIDAE

  117. Prairie Six-lined Racerunner  ______ 
    Cnemidophorus sexlineatus viridis

  118. Chihuahuan Spotted Whiptail  ______  (in west Texas)
    Cnemidophorus exsanguis

  119. Laredo Striped Whiptail  ______
    Cnemidophorus laredoensis

  120. Texas Spotted Whiptail  ______
    Cnemidophorus g. gularis

  121. Trans-Pecos Striped Whiptail  ______
    Cnemidophorus inornatus heptagrammus

  122. New Mexico Whiptail  ______  (in far-west Texas)
    Cnemidophorus neomexicanus

  123. Checkered Whiptail  ______ 
    Cnemidophorus tesselatus

  124. Plateau Spotted Whiptail  ______  (in far-west Texas)
    Cnemidophorus s. septemvittatus

  125. Marbled Whiptail  ______  (in west Texas)
    Cnemidophorus marmoratus 

    Family ANGUIDAE

  126. Western Slender Glass Lizard ______  
    Ophisaurus a. attenuatus

  127. Texas Alligator Lizard  ______
    Gerrhonotus liocephalus infernalis



  128. Texas Blind Snake  ______
    Leptotyphlops dulcis

  129. Trans-Pecos Blind Snake  ______
    Leptotyphlops humilis segregus


  130. Mississippi Green Water Snake  ______
    Nerodia cyclopion

  131. Diamondback Water Snake  ______
    Nerodia r. rhombifer

  132. Plainbelly Water Snake  ______
    Nerodia erythrogaster flavigaster  ______  (in east Texas)
    Nerodia erythrogaster transversa  Blotched Water Snake  ______

    A Blotched Water Snake swimming across a small river.
    (photographed during a FONT Texas Tour in May 2010, by Karl Frafjord)

  133. Broad-banded Water Snake  ______
    Nerodia fasciata confluens

  134. Gulf Salt Marsh Snake  ______
    Nerodia clarkii clarkii

  135. Harter's Water Snake  ______
    Nerodia harteri

  136. Texas Scarlet Snake ______  
    Cemophora coccinea lineri
    Cemophora coccinea copei 
    Northern Scarlet Snake  ______ 
    (in east Texas)

  137. Texas Longnose Snake  ______
    Rhinocheilus lecontei tessellatus

  138. Eastern Yellowbelly Racer  (*)  ______ 
    Coluber constrictor flaviventris
    Coluber constrictor oaxaca 
    Mexican Racer  ______ 
    Coluber constrictor anthicus 
    Buttermilk Racer  ______ 

  139. Ringneck Snake  ______
    Diadophis punctatus arnyi  Prairie Ringneck Snake  ______
    Diadophis punctatus regalis 
    Regal Ringneck Snake  ______ 
    Diadophis punctatus stictogenys 
    Mississippi Ringneck Snake  ______

  140. Great Plains Rat Snake ______  (conspecific with the Corn Snake)
    Elaphe guttata emoryi

  141. Black Rat Snake  ______  
    Elaphe o. obseleta
    Elaphe obseleta lindheimerii 
    Texas Rat Snake  ______

  142. Baird's Rat Snake  ______
    Elaphe bairdi

  143. Trans-Pecos Rat Snake  ______
    Bogertophis subocularis

  144. Glossy Snake  ______
    Arizona elegans arenicola 
    Texas Glossy Snake  ______
    Arizona e. elegans 
    Kansas Glossy Snake  ______

  145. Bullsnake  ______  
    Pituophis melanoleucus sayi

    Pituophis melanoleucus ruthveni 
    Louisiana Pine Snake  ______
    Pituophis melanoleucus affinis 
    Sonoran Gopher Snake  ______

  146. Western Mud Snake  ______   
    Farancia abacura reinwardtii

  147. Eastern Hognose Snake  ______  
    Heterodon platyrhinos

  148. Western Hognose Snake ______   
    Heterodon nasicus

  149. Kingsnake  ______ 
    Lampropeltis getula hollbrooki  Speckled Kingsnake  ______
    Lampropeltis getula splendida 
    Desert Kingsnake  ______

  150. Prairie Kingsnake  ______
    Lampropeltis c. calligaster 

  151. Gray-banded Kingsnake  ______
    Lampropeltis alterna

  152. Milk Snake ______    
    Lampropeltis triangulum annulata  Mexican Milk Snake  ______
    Lampropeltis triangulum amaura 
    Louisiana Milk Snake  ______
    Lampropeltis triangulum celaenops 
    New Mexico Milk Snake  ______    

  153. Coachwhip ______   
    Masticophis f. flagellum  Eastern Coachwhip  ______
    Masticophis flagellum testaceus 
    Western Coachwhip  ______   

  154. Central Texas Coachwhip  ______
    Masticophis taeniatus girardi
    Masticophis taeniatus schotti 
    Schott's Coachwhip  ______
    Masticophis taeniatus ruthveni  Ruthven's Whipsnake  ______

  155. Rough Green Snake  ______  
    Opheodrys aestivus

  156. Smooth Green Snake  ______
    Opheodrys vernalis

  157. Speckled Racer  ______
    Drymobius m. margaritiferus

    A Speckled Racer during a FONT Tour

  158. Texas Indigo Snake  ______
    Drymobius corais exebennus

  159. Patchnose Snake  ______
    Salvadora a. grahamiae  Mountain Patchnose Snake  ______
    Salvadora grahamiae lineata  Texas Patchnose Snake  ______

  160. Big Bend Patchnose Snake  ______
    Salvadora deserticola 

  161. Graham's Crayfish Snake  ______
    Regina grahamii

  162. Glossy Crayfish Snake ______  
    Regina rigida

  163. Brown Snake  ______  
    Storeia dekayi texana  Texas Brown Snake  ______
    Storeia dekayi limnetes 
    Marsh Brown Snake  ______

  164. Florida Redbelly Snake ______  (in east Texas)  
    Storeria occipitomaculata obscura

  165. Ground Snake  ______
    Sonora semiannulata

  166. Black-striped Snake  ______  (in far-south Texas)
    Coniophanes i, imperialis

  167. Mexican Hooknose Snake  ______  (in south Texas)
    Ficimia streckeri

  168. Western Hooknose Snake  ______  (in west Texas)
    Gyalopion canum

  169. Texas Night Snake  ______
    Hypsiglena torquata jani

  170. Northern Cat-eyed Snake  ______  (in south Texas)
    Leptodeira s. septentrionalis 

  171. Texas Lyre Snake  ______  (in west Texas)
    Trimorphodon bisentatus vilkinsonii

  172. Flathead Snake  ______  
    Tantilla gracilis

  173. Plains Blackhead Snake  ______
    Tantilla nigriceps

  174. Southwestern Blackhead Snake  ______
    Tantilla hobartsmithi

  175. Mexican Blackhead Snake  ______  (in south Texas)
    Tantilla atriceps

  176. Devil's River Blackhead Snake  ______
    Tantilla rubra diabola
    Tantilla rubra cucullata
      Blackhood Snake  ______ 
    (in west Texas) 

  177. Garter Snake ______ 
    Thamnophis s. sirtalis  Eastern Garter Snake  ______
    Thamnophis sirtalis annectens 
    Texas Garter Snake  ______


    Two photographs of the Eastern Garter Snake
    (above photo by Doris Potter; lower photo by Howard Eskin)

  178. Checkered Garter Snake  ______
    Thamnophis m. marcianus

  179. Blackneck Garter Snake  ______
    Thamnophis c. cyrtopsis  Western Blackneck Garter Snake  ______
    Thamnophis cyrtopsis ocellatus  Eastern Blackneck Garter Snake  ______ 

  180. Ribbon Snake ______ 
    Thamnophis p. proximus  Western Ribbon Snake  ______
    Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus 
    Redstripe Ribbon Snake  ______
    Thamnophis proximus orarius 
    Gulf Coast Ribbon Snake  ______
    Thamnophis proximus diabolicus 
    Arid Land Ribbon Snake  ______  

  181. Lined Snake  ______
    Tropidoclonion lineatum

  182. Rough Earth Snake ______  
    Virginia striatula

  183. Western Earth Snake ______  
    Virginia valeriae elegans

    Family ELAPIDAE

  184. Texas Coral Snake  ______
    Micrurus fulvius tener

    Family VIPERIDAE

  185. Copperhead ______  (venomous)
    Agkistrodon c. contortrix  Southern Copperhead  ______ 
    (in east Texas) 
    Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus 
    Broad-banded Copperhead  ______
    Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster 
    Trans-Pecos Copperhead  ______ 
    (in west Texas)

  186. Western Cottonmouth  (ph) (*)  ______  (venomous)
    Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostma

    Western Cottonmouth
    (photo during a FONT Texas Tour in May 2010 by Karl Frafjord)

  187. Massasauga  ______
    Sistrurus catenatus tergeninus  Western Massasauga  ______ 
    Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii 
    Desert Massasauga  ______

  188. Western Diamondback Rattlesnake  ______   (venomous)
    Crotalus atrox

  189. Timber Rattlesnake  (ph)   _____  (in east Texas)  (venomous)
    Crotalus horridus

    Timber Rattlesnake
    (photo by Fred Lesser)

  190. Mojave Rattlesnake  ______  (in west Texas) 
    Crotalus s. scutulatus

  191. Prairie Rattlesnake  ______  (in north & west Texas)
    Crotalus v. viridis

  192. Blacktail Rattlesnake  ______
    Crotalus m. molossus 

  193. Mottled Rock Rattlesnake  ______
    Crotalus l. lepidus
    Crotalus lepidus klauberi
      Banded Rock Rattlesnake  ______ 
    (a Mexican subspecies in far-west Texas)    

  194. Western Pygmy Rattlesnake ______   (venomous)
    Sistrurus miliarius streckeri


Some selected reference books regarding Amphibians & Reptiles:

"Amphibians & Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia", by Bernard Martof, William Palmer, Joseph Bailey, & Julian Harrison III, with photographs by Jack Dermid, 1980