PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876




noting those 
during Focus On Nature Tours
with an (*)

1991 thru 2014

A List of Mammals in Texas 
compiled by Armas Hill 

Photo at right: PRONGHORN


(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT web-site


Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in Texas   

A List & Photo Gallery of Texas Birds, in 2 parts:

Part #1: Quails to Becard
     Part #2: Flycatchers to Buntings

A List of Texas Butterflies  (with some photos) 

A List of Texas Dragonflies & Damselflies  (with some photos)

A List of Texas Amphibians & Reptiles  (with some photos)

Plants of the Desert & some nearby habitats  (with some photos)

Directory of Photos in this Website 

List of Mammals:


          AMERICAN OPOSSUMS, in the Order Didelphimorphia (formerly Marsupialia),
          Family Didelphidae 
(78 species in the New World)

  1. Virginia Opossum (*) ______
    Didelphis virginiana

    A Virginia Opossum during the FONT tour in Texas in 2010
    (photo by Karl Frafjord)

    in the Superorder Xenarthra (formerly Edentata) (now in the Order Cingulata)
    ("Edentates" means "those without teeth". However, this term is more appropriate for the xenarthrans that truly are toothless, the Old World pangolins.)
    Family Dasypodidae 
    (21 species in the New World)

  2. Nine-banded (Long-nosed) Armadillo (*) (ph) ______ 
    Dasypus novemcinctus

    Dasypus novemcinctus is the only armadillo that inhabits the United States.  

    Nine-banded Armadillo

    RABBITS & HARES, in the Order Lagomorpha, Family Leporidae
    (57 species worldwide)

  3. Desert Cottontail (*) (ph)  ______  
    Sylvilagus audubonii

    Desert Cottontail

  4. Eastern Cottontail (*) (ph) ______   
    Sylvilagus floridanus 

  5. Swamp Rabbit ______  
    Sylvilagus aquaticus

  6. Black-tailed Jackrabbit (*) (ph)  ______   
    Lepus californicus

    Black-tailed Jackrabbits

    RODENTS: gnawing mammals  (Order Rodentia - the largest order of mammals with nearly 2,000 species worldwide)
    Families include:
    Squirrels (Sciuridae)
    Beavers (Castoridae)
    Pocket Gophers (Geomyidae),
    including Pocket Mice & Kangaroo Rats
    Mice & Rats (Muridae), New World Mice & Rats (subfamily Sigmodontinae)
    New World Porcupines (Erethizontidae)  

    in the Family Sciuridae (276 species worldwide)

  7. Blacktail Prairie Dog ______ 
    Cynomys ludovicianus

  8. Texas Antelope Squirrel (*) ______ 
    Ammospermophilus interpres

  9. Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel ______ 
    Spermophilus tridecemlineatus

  10. Mexican Ground Squirrel (*) ______ 
    Spermophilus mexicanus 

  11. Spotted Ground Squirrel ______ 
    Spermophilus spilosoma 

  12. Rock Squirrel (*) (ph)  ______ 
    Spermophilus variegatus

    Rock Squirrel

  13. Gray-footed Chipmunk ______   
    Tamias canipes

  14. Eastern Gray Squirrel  (ph)  ______    
    Sciurus carolinensis

  15. Eastern Fox Squirrel (*) (ph)  ______ 
    Sciurus niger

  16. Southern Flying Squirrel ______
    Glaucomys volans

    in the Family Geomyidae  (99 species in North America)
    includes Pocket Mice & Kangaroo Rats

  17. Botta's Pocket Gopher ______
    Thomomys bottae

  18. Yellow-faced Pocket Gopher (*) ______
    Cratogeomys castanops

  19. Baird's Pocket Gopher ______
    Geomys breviceps

  20. Attwater's Pocket Gopher ______
    Geomys attwateri

  21. Knox Jones's Pocket Gopher ______
    Geomys knoxjonesi

  22. Central Texas Pocket Gopher ______
    Geomys texensis

  23. Plains Pocket Gopher ______
    Geomys bursarius

  24. Texas Pocket Gopher ______
    Geomys personatus

  25. Desert Pocket Gopher ______
    Geomys arenarius  

  26. Plains Pocket Mouse ______ 
    Perognathus flavescens

  27. Merriam's Pocket Mouse ______
    Perognathus merriami

  28. Silky Pocket Mouse ______
    Perognathus flavus

  29. Nelson's Pocket Mouse ______
    Chaetodipus nelsoni

  30. Rock Pocket Mouse ______
    Chaetodipus intermedius

  31. Mexican Spiny Pocket Mouse ______
    Liomys irroratus

  32. Hispid Pocket Mouse ______
    Chaetodipus hispidus

  33. Chihuahan Pocket Mouse (*) ______
    Chaetodipus eremicus

    Kangaroo Rats have enormous hind feet, miniature front feet, and long tails.

  34. Merriam's Kangaroo Rat ______
    Dipodomys merriami

  35. Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat ______
    Dipodomys spectabilis

  36. Texas Kangaroo Rat ______
    Dipodomys elator

  37. Ord's Kangaroo Rat ______
    Dipodomys ordii

  38. Gulf Coast Kangaroo Rat ______
    Dipodomys compactus

    including also Voles & Gerbils, in the Family Muridae  (1,394 species worldwide)

  39. Eastern Woodrat ______
    Neotoma floridana

  40. Mexican Woodrat ______
    Neotoma mexicana

  41. Southern Plains Woodrat ______
    Neotoma micropus

  42. White-throated Woodrat ______ 
    Neotoma albigula

  43. House Rat ______ (introduced from Europe with the earliest colonists)
    Rattus rattus

  44. Brown Rat ______ (also called Common Rat, or, incorrectly, Norway Rat) (introduced worldwide with human settlements, originally from southeast Siberia & northern China)
    Rattus norvegicus

  45. Northern Grasshopper Mouse ______
    Onychomys leucogaster

  46. Southern Grasshopper Mouse ______
    Onychomys torridus

  47. Chihuahuan Grasshopper Mouse ______
    Onychomys arenicola

    Rice Rats are nocturnal, mostly aquatic rats that are diverse in the Neotropics, where there are more 35 species. 2 species reach the US.

  48. Coue's Rice Rat ______
    Oryzomys couesi

  49. Marsh Rice Rat ______
    Oryzomys palustris

  50. Northern Pygmy Mouse ______
    Baiomys taylori

  51. Fulvous Harvest Mouse ______
    Reithrodontomys fulvescens

  52. Eastern Harvest Mouse ______
    Reithrodontomys humulis

  53. Plains Harvest Mouse ______
    Reithrodontomys montanus

  54. Western Harvest Mouse ______
    Reithrodontomys megalotis

  55. House Mouse ______ (a cosmopolitan, introduced species, most common around human habitations)
    Mus musculus

  56. White-footed Deermouse ______
    Peromyscus leucopus

  57. North American Deermouse ______
    Peromyscus maniculatus

  58. Cotton Deermouse ______
    Peromyscus gossypinus

  59. Cactus Deermouse ______
    Peromyscus eremicus

  60. Pinon Deermouse ______
    Peromyscus truei

  61. Northern Rock Deermouse ______
    Peromyscus nasutus

  62. Texas Deermouse ______
    Peromyscus attwateri

  63. Brush Deermouse ______
    Peromyscus boylii

  64. White-ankled Deermouse ______
    Peromyscus pectoralis

  65. Golden Mouse ______
    Ochrotomys nuttalli

  66. Hispid Cotton Rat  (*) ______ 
    Sigmodon hispidus

  67. Yellow-nosed Cotton Rat ______
    Sigmodon ochrognathus 

    Voles (& Lemmings)
    in the Subfamily Arvicolinae  (140 species worldwide)

  68. Woodland Vole ______ 
    Microtus pinetorum 


    The Muskrat in the same subfamily, Arvicolinae, as Voles & Lemmings, in the Order Rodentia.

    The American Beaver is 1 of 2 species in the Family Castoridae, Order Rodentia. The other species is in Eurasia.

    The introduced Nutria, from South America, is in the Family Echimyidae, of Spiny Rats, indigenous to that continent - in that family, 81 species in South America.      

  69. Muskrat  (ph)  ______   
    Ondatra zibethicus

  70. American Beaver  (ph)  ______  
    Castor canadensis

  71. Nutria (*) (ph)  ______ (also called Coypu) (introduced, native to South America)
    Myocastor coypus

    NEW WORLD PORCUPINES (Family Erethizontidae)
    (17 species in the New World)

  72. North American Porcupine  (*) (ph)  ______   
    Erethizon dorsatum

    Erethizon dorsatum is the only porcupine in North America.

    North American Porcupine

    CARNIVORES  (Order Carnivora)
    Families include:
    Canines: Dogs & Foxes (Canidae)
    Felines: Cats (Felidae) 
    Bears: (Ursidae)
    Procyonids: Raccoons & allies (Procyonidae)
    Mustelids: Weasels, Skunks & allies (Mustelidae)

    CANINES, Dogs & Foxes
    , in the Family Canidae   (35 species worldwide) 

  73. Coyote (*) (ph)  ______   
    Canis latrans


  74. The Red Wolf, Canis rufus, formerly occurred in the wild in Texas. Some say that this was a hybrid between the Coyote and the now more-northerly Gray Wolf.   

  75. Gray Fox (*) ______   
    Urocyon cinereoargenteus

  76. Red Fox  (ph)  _____   
    Vulpes fulva 
    (the North American animal considered by some as conspecific with the Old World Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes)

  77. Swift Fox ______ 
    Vulpes velox

  78. Kit Fox (*) ______ 
    Vulpes macrotis 

    FELINES, Cats,
    in the Family Felidae  (39 species worldwide)

  79. Bobcat (*) (ph)  ______   
    Lynx rufus

  80. Puma  (ph)  ______ (also called Cougar or Mountain Lion)
    Puma concolor


  81. Jaguarundi ______ (endangered in the US due to limited range)
    Puma yagouaroundi

  82. Margay ______ (probably never common in Texas, the last record there was in 1852.)
    Leopardus wiedii

  83. Ocelot  (ph)  ______ (rare, endangered in Texas)
    Leopardus pardalis


    BEARS, in the Family Ursidae  (8 species worldwide)

  84. American Black Bear ______ 
    (formerly Euarctos) americanus

    PROCYONIDS, Raccoons & allies,
    in the Family Procyonidae  (19 species, all in the Americas, except 1, the Red Panda of Asia) 

  85. Northern Raccoon (*) (ph)  ______   
    Procyon lotor

    Northern Raccoon

  86. Ringtail (*) ______ 
    Bassariscus astutus

  87. White-nosed Coati  (ph)  ______ 
    Nasua narica

    White-nosed Coati

    including Otters, Weasels, Skunks, Badger, in the Family Mustelidae   (68 species worldwide)

  88. Northern River Otter ______   
    Lontra canadensis 

  89. American Badger  (ph)  ______ 
    Taxidea taxus

    American Badger

  90. Long-tailed Weasel ______
    Mustela frenata

  91. Black-footed Ferret ______  
    Mustela nigripes

    The Black-footed Ferret is now extinct in the wild. It formerly occurred commonly in Texas.  

  92. Western Spotted Skunk ______ 
    Spilogale gracilis 

  93. Eastern Spotted Skunk (*) ______
    Spilogale putorius

  94. Eastern Hog-nosed Skunk ______
    Conepatus leuconotus

  95. Western Hog-nosed Skunk ______
    Conepatus mesoleucus

  96. Hooded Skunk ______ 
    Mephitis macroura

  97. Striped Skunk (*) (ph)  ______ 
    Mephitis mephitis

    now in the Order Erinaceomorpha, formerly Insectivores "insect eaters" - this group, throughout much of the world, includes shrews, moles, hedgehogs, moonrats, and tenrecs.)

    , in the Order Soricodae, Family Soricidae   (335 species worldwide) 

  98. Least Shrew ______   
    Cryptotis parva 

  99. Desert Shrew ______
    Notiosorex crawsfordi

    along with SHREW-MOLES, and DESMANS, in the Family Talpidae   (42 species worldwide)

  100. Eastern Mole ______
    Scalopus aquaticus 

    , in the Order Chiroptera - with about 950 species worldwide, the diversity of bats is second only to that of rodents

    There are 32 species of bats living in Texas today. 4 others are known from fossil skeletal remains. 
    One of those four, Myotis rectidentis, is extinct. 
    The other three - Myotis evotis, Macrotus californicus, and Desmodus rotundus - still occur in other parts of North America. 
    Macrotus californicus, the Leaf-nosed Bat, occurs in southern Arizona, Nevada, and California southward into Mexico.
    Desmodus rotundus, the Common Vampire Bat, occurs in Mexico, and has been found recently about 200 kilometers south of the Texas border near in Tamaulipas.
    Searching may reveal the presence of both of these, the Macrotus & Desmodus, in Texas.

    Leaf-chinned Bats
    , in the Family Mormoopidae   (8 species in the New World)

  101. (Peter's) Ghost-faced Bat ______ 
    Mormoops megalophylla

    Mormoops megalophylla occurs in riparian zones in arid lands.

    American Leaf-nosed Bats, in the Family Phyllostomidae   (155 species in the New World)
  102. Mexican Long-nosed Bat ______  
    Leptonycteris nivalis 
    (formerly conspecific with the North American Long-nosed Bat, L. yerbabuenae

    Leptonycteris nivalis is an endangered species.

  103. Mexican Long-tongued Bat  (ph)  ______ 
    Choeronycteris mexicana

    Choeronycteris mexicana forms small colonies in caves, mine tunnels, buildings, and culverts.

    A Mexican Long-tongued Bat visiting a hummingbird feeder at night. 

  104. Hairy-legged Vampire Bat ______ (in the US, known only from a single specimen in Val Verde County, Texas) 
    Diphylla ecaudata

    Free-tailed Bats
    , in the Family Molossidae   (94 species worldwide)

  105. Mexican (or Brazilian) Free-tailed Bat (*) (ph)  ______ 
    Tadarida brasiliensis

    Tadarida brasiliensis forms summer nursery colonies composed of millions in large caves.

    Above & Below: Mexican Free-tailed Bats

    The following relates to Mexican Free-tailed Bats at a cave in Mason County, Texas:    

    "About 4 million female bats inhabit the cave from May through September. Many of them are pregnant when they arrive from Mexico. They give birth to a single offspring in June or July. The young bats grow rapidly and are able to fly at about 5 weeks of age, They remain, however, with their mothers until they return to Mexico in October.

    About an hour or two before sunset, hundreds of bats flutter and chirp around the mouth of the cave. Slowly, a stream of bats emerges and flies in a large circle, low to the ground, just outside the cave entrance. These bats gradually spiral upwards and form a dark funnel of flying mammals, reaching several hundred feet into the evening sky. The bats at the top of the spiral break off, forming columns that stream out over the countryside. The incredible torrent of bats forms a densely packed "bat tornado" for about an hour."   

  106. Pocketed Free-tailed Bat ______
    Nyctinomops femorosaccus 

    Nyctinomops femorosaccus occurs near large open-water sources, where it feeds in the evening.

  107. Big Free-tailed Bat (*) ______  
    Nyctinomops macrotis

    Nyctinomops macrotis
    lives in rugged, rocky canyon country.

  108. Greater Bonneted Bat ______  (also called Western Mastiff Bat)
    Eumops perotis

    Eumops perotis
    lives in crevices in vertical cliffs in rugged canyonlands.

    Vesper Bats
    , in the Family Vespertilionidae   (364 species worldwide)

  109. Spotted Bat ______
    Euderma maculatum

    Euderma maculatum is widespread but rarely seen. It lives in mountain and basin country. 

  110. Silver-haired Bat  (ph)  ______   
    Lasionycteris noctivagans

  111. Eastern Red Bat  (ph)  ______ 
    Lasiurus borealis 

    The Eastern Red Bat & Western Red Bat have recently been split.  

  112. Western Red Bat ______
    Lasiurus blossevillii

  113. Seminole Bat ______ (in TX, in the east & south)
    Lasiurus seminolus

    Lasiurus seminolus favors Spanish Moss as a day roost.

  114. Northern Yellow Bat ______
    Lasiurus intermedius

  115. Southern Yellow Bat ______
    Lasiurus ega

  116. Hoary Bat ______
    Lasiurus cinereus

  117. Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat ______
    Corynorhinus rafinesquii

    Corynorhinus rafinesquii forms small colonies in a variety of places: man-made structures, caves, hollow trees, and even under loose tree bark.

  118. Townsend's Big-eared Bat ______
    Corynorhinus townsendii

    Corynorhinus townsendii often hunts in edge habitats, between forest and open areas.

  119. Allen's Big-eared Bat ______
    Idionycteris phyllotis

    Idionycteris phyllotis occurs in a variety of arid and wooded habitats.

  120. Pallid Bat ______
    Antrozous pallidus

    Antrozous pallidus occurs in a variety of arid and semi-arid habitats. Its unique foraging style allows it to pick up prey, such as scorpions, from the surface of the ground.  

  121. Fringed Myotis ______ (in TX, in the far-west)
    Myotis thysanides

    Myotis thysanides occurs in desert, grassland, and woodland habitats. 

  122. California Myotis ______ (in TX, in far-west)  
    Myotis californicus

    Myotis califonricus occurs in deserts and in interior mountain basins.

  123. Western Small-footed Myotis ______ (in TX, in far-west) 
    Myotis ciliolabrum

    Myotis ciliolabrum occurs in rocky outcrops in short grass habitats.

  124. Long-legged Myotis ______ (in TX, in far-west)
    Myotis volans

    Myotis volans lives in coniferous forests, and in oak and riparian woodlands, extending into the desert.

  125. Cave Myotis ______ 
    Myotis velifor

    Myotis velifor forms large colonies in caves.

  126. Little Brown Myotis ______ 
    Myotis lucifugus

  127. Yuma Myotis (*) ______  
    Myotis yumanensis

    Myotis yumanensis is common in deserts, but not far from a water source.

  128. Southeastern Myotis ______ (in TX, only in northeast part of the state)
    Myotis austroriparius

  129. Northern Myotis  ______
    Myotis septentrionalis

  130. Big Brown Bat ______ 
    Eptesicus fuscus

    Eptesicus fuscus frequently roosts in man-made structures and occurs in a wide variety of habitats.

  131. Evening Bat  (*) ______ (in TX, in the east & south)
    Nycticeius humeralis  

  132. Eastern Pipistrelle  ______ (in east TX) 
    Pipistrellus subflavus

  133. Western Pipistrelle (*) ______ (in west TX) 
    Pipistrellus hesperus

    , in the Order Artiodactyla
    This order worldwide is diverse, including: pigs, hippopotamuses, camels, deer, antelope, and cattle.

    in the Family Bovidae, along with cattle, buffalo, and others. (141 species worldwide)

  134. Bighorn Sheep  (ph)  ______ 
    Ovis canadensis

  135. Barbary Sheep (or Aoudad) ______ (introduced in the Panhandle region of Texas, native to northern Africa)
    Ammotragus lervia

  136. Blackbuck ______ (introduced widely in Texas, in more than 51 counties, with the most on the Edwards Plateau. Native to India & Pakistan.)
    Antilope cervicapra 

  137. Nilgai ______ (a large exotic antelope, introduced and now wild in southern Texas, especially in Kennedy and Willacy Counties. Native to India, Pakistan, & Nepal.)
    Boselaphus tragocamelus

    , in the Family Antilocapridae)
    There is only one living species in this exclusively American family. 

  138. Pronghorn (*) (ph) ______ (IN PHOTOGRAPH AT TOP OF LIST)
    Antilocapra americana

    The Pronghorn is the fastest North American mammal. It has been clocked at 60 mph.

    2 species, 1 of which north of Mexico, in the Family Tayassuidae

    Note: the Old World Swine (Boars, introduced various places in North America) are in the Family Suidae. 

  139. Collared Peccary (*) (ph)  ______ (also called Javelina)
    Pecari tajacu
    (formerly Pecari angulatus)

    Collared Peccaries

    , in the Family Cervidae: hoofed animals with antlers shed each year  (47 species worldwide)

  140. (American) Elk (or Wapiti) (ph) ______  
    Cervus elaphus canadensis 
    (another, slightly smaller, subspecies in Europe is called there the Red Deer

  141. Mule Deer (*) (ph)  ______  
    Odocoileus hemionus

    Mule Deer

  142. White-tailed Deer (*) (ph)  ______  
    Odocoileus virginianus

    Among the subspecies is the "Sierra del Carmen White-tailed Deer" in the Chisos Mountains of west Texas.  

    The White-tailed Deer occurs in all 48 states of the lower mainland US.


  143. Chital (or Axis Deer) ______ (This spotted deer is now the most abundant exotic ungulate in Texas. It is native to India and some surrounding countries.) 
    Axis axis

  144. Sambar ______ (A small number now established in Texas. It is native to India and Southeast Asia.)


    All of the following, either along the Gulf Coast, or further offshore in the Gulf of Mexico.

    , in the Suborder Odontoceti) including Dolphins & Porpoises, Beaked Whales & Sperm Whale. 

    , in the Family Delphinidae   (34 species worldwide)

  145. Common Bottle-nosed Dolphin  (ph)  ______
    Tursiops truncatus

    Common Bottle-nosed Dolphin

  146. Atlantic Spotted Dolphin ______ 
    Stenella frontalis

  147. Pantropical Spotted Dolphin ______
    Stenella attenuata

  148. Spinner Dolphin ______
    Stenella longirostris

  149. Clymene (or Short-snouted Spinner) Dolphin  (ph)  ______ 
    Stenella clymene

  150. Striped Dolphin ______
    Stenella coeruleoalba 

  151. Rough-toothed Dolphin _______ 
    Steno bredanensis

  152. Pygmy Killer Whale ______ 
    Feresa attenuata

  153. False Killer Whale ______ 
    Pseudorca crassidens

  154. Melon-headed Whale ______ 
    Peponocephala electra 

  155. Short-finned Pilot Whale ______ (has also been called "Blackfish")
    Globicephala macrorhynchus

    Males of the Short-finned Pilot Whale grow to up to over 22 feet in length; females up to over 16 feet long. Males weigh to to 2,640 pounds; females up to 1,760 pounds.

    , in the Family Ziphiidae  (21 species worldwide)
    Pelagic in habitat, most are poorly known.

  156. Cuvier's Beaked Whale  (ph)  ______ (has also been called Goosebeak Whale)
    Ziphius cavirostris

  157. Blainville's Beaked Whale ______ 
    Mesoplodon densirostris

    , in the  Family Physeteridae   (1 species worldwide)

    2 smaller species, the Pygmy Sperm Whale and the Dwarf Sperm Whale, are now placed in a different family, KOGIIDAE. They appear to be distantly related to the Great Sperm Whale.

  158. Great Sperm Whale  (ph)  ______ (has also been called Cachalot)
    Physeter catodon

    - whales without teeth, in the Suborder Mysticeti

    , in the Family Balaenopteridae   (8 species worldwide)

  159. Bryde's Whale ______  
    Balaenoptera edeni 

  160. Sei Whale ______ 
    Balaenoptera borealis

  161. Fin Whale  (ph)  ______ (has also been called Common Rorqual)
    Balaenoptera physalus

References for the above mammal-list include:

"Mammals of North America" by Roland W. Kays & Don E. Wilson, published by Princeton Univ Press, 2002. 

"Mammals of the World - A Checklist", by Andrew Duff & Ann Lawson, 2004

"A Field Guide to the Mammals (of North America north of Mexico), by William H. Burt & Richard P. Grossenheider

"Eyewitness Handbook: Whales, Dolphins & Porpoises - a Visual Guide to the World's Cetaceans", by Mark Carwardine, illustrated by Martin Camm, 1995  

"World Guide to Mammals" by Nicole Duplaix & Noel Simon, 1976

"The Encyclopedia of Mammals", edited by Dr. David Macdonald, 1984

"A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America & Southeast Mexico", by Fiona A. Reid, 1997