PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876


in Central America


Noting those during
Focus On Nature Tours

Costa Rica

Noting found during Focus On Nature Tours
1991 thru 2015 with an (*)

Tours during the months of January, February, March, April, May, June, July, and December.


There have been 32 FONT tours in Costa Rica, 16 in the Peten region of Guatemala, 15 in the Guatemalan highlands, 10 in Panama (5 of them in the Chiriqui highlands), 3 in Honduras, and 3 in Belize.

photographed during a FONT tour in Costa Rica  

This List of Central American Mammals 
compiled by Armas Hill


Threatened Species, designated in CITES: 
(t1): critical
(t2): endangered
(t3): vulnerable
(ti):  threatened (but with status indeterminate)
(i):   introduced 

BZ: during Belize tours
CR(N): during Costa Rica tours (in northern CR) 
CR(S): during Costa Rica tours (in southern CR)
GU: during Guatemala tours
HN: during Honduras tours
PN: during Panama tours

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website

Some excellent books about Central American Mammals include:
"A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America & Southeast Mexico" by Fiona Reid, 1997.
"The Natural History of Costa Rican Mammals" by Mark Wainwright, 2002.

Links within this List:

American Opossums    Anteaters, Sloths, & Armadillos 
   Bats    New World Monkeys 

Squirrels    New World Porcupines    Cabybara    Agouti & Paca    Foxes    Raccoons & Allies

Weasels, Skunks, & Allies    Cats    Manatee    Tapir    Peccaries & Deer    Marine Mammals 

Other Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in Central America      

Lists of Birds in:     Belize     Costa Rica     Guatemala     Honduras     Panama 

A List & Photo Gallery of Birds in Central America, in 4 Parts

Lists (with some photos) of Mammals in:     Belize    Costa Rica     Guatemala

A List of Butterflies & Moths in Central America, in 5 Parts  (with some photos)   

Lists (with some photos) of Amphibians & Reptiles in: 
Guatemala & Belize   Costa Rica & Panama

Marine Life, including that of the Coral Reef, of Belize & Mexico

Directory of Photos in this Website


List of Mammals:

          AMERICAN OPOSSUMS  (in the Order Didelphimorphia, Family Didelphidae)
        All Marsupials were formerly classified in the Order Marsupialia. 
          However, this large group has recently been split into 7 orders. 
          NEW WORLD OPOSSUMS consist of 3 orders, Australian marsupials, 4 orders.

          The Order Didelphimorphia includes all of the Central American opossums - 13 species   

  1. Southern (or Common) Opossum ______ (*) CR(N)  GU  PN   
    Didelphis marsupialis

  2. Virginia Opossum  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N)
    Didelphis virginiana

  3. Gray Four-eyed Opossum ______  (*) BZ
    Philander opossum

  4. Water Opossum ______ 
    Chironectes minimus

  5. Brown Four-eyed Opossum ______
    Metachirus nudicaudatus

  6. Grayish Mouse Opossum ______
    Marmosa canescens

  7. Mexican Mouse Opossum ______
    Marmosa mexicana

  8. Robinson's Mouse Opossum ______
    Marmosa robinsoni

  9. Highland Mouse Opossum ______ (In Central America, only in eastern Panama.)
    (formerly Marmosa) impavidus

  10. Slaty Mouse Opossum ______ (In Central America, only in Panama)
    Marmosops (formerly Marmosa) invictus 

  11. Alston's Mouse Opossum ______
    Micoureus alstoni

  12. Sepia Short-tailed Opossum ______ (in Central America. only in eastern Panama)
    Monodelphis adusta

  13. Central American Woolly Opossum ______
    Caluromys derbianus 

    ANTEATERS, SLOTHS, and ARMADILLOS (in the Order Xenarthra, formerly Edentata) 
    Anteaters in the Family Myrmecophagidae 
    Sloths in the Families Bradypodidae (3-toed) & Megalonychidae (2-toed) 
    Armadillos in the Family Dasypodidae 

  14. Giant Anteater  (ph)  ______ (If it still exists in Central America, it is very rare there. There are a few recent sight records in southern Costa Rica and Panama. This species may be the most endangered mammal in Central America. It is common in parts of South America.)   

  15. Northern Tamandua  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N,S)  PN (also called Banded or Vested Anteater
    Tamandua mexicana

    Northern Tamandua

  16. Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N,S)  PN
    Bradypus variegatus 

    Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth
  17. Hoffmann's Two-toed Sloth  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N,S)  PN
    Choloepus hoffmanni

    Hoffmann's Two-toed Sloth

  18. Nine-banded (Long-nosed) Armadillo  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N),PN
    Dasypus novemcinctus

    Nine-banded Armadillo

  19. Northern Naked-tailed Armadillo ______
    Cabassous centralis

    INSECTIVORES (in the Order Insectivora)

    SHREWS (Family Soricidae)

  20. Saussure's Shrew ______ (in western Guatemala & adjacent Mexico)
    Sorex saussurei

  21. Verapaz Shrew ______ (in western Guatemala & adjacent Mexico)
    Sorex veraepacis

  22. Least Shrew ______
    Cryptotis parva

  23. Blackish Small-eared Shrew ______
    Cryptotis nigrescens

  24. Honduran Small-eared Shrew ______ (known only from 3 localities in Honduras)
    Cryptotis hondurensis

  25. Merriam's Small-eared Shrew ______
    Cryptotis merriami

  26. Darien Small-eared Shrew ______ (only in the Darien highlands of eastern Panama)
    Cryptotis mera

  27. Maya Small-eared Shrew ______ 
    Cryptotis mayensis

  28. Goldman's Small-eared Shrew ______ (primarily in southern Mexico, range extends into western Guatemala)
    Cryptotis goldmani

  29. Goodwin's Small-eared Shrew ______
    Cryptotis goodwini

  30. Talamancan Small-eared Shrew ______ (highlands, mostly in Costa Rica)
    Cryptotis gracilis

  31. Enders' Small-eared Shrew ______ (known only from the Atlantic slope of the Talamanca Mountains in western Panama)
    Cryptotis endersi

    BATS (in the Order Chiroptera) 

    SAC-WINGED BATS (in the Family Emballonuridae)

  32. Proboscis Bat  (ph)  ______  (*)  CR(N,S)  (also called Long-nosed Bat)
    Rhynchonycteris naso 
    (the single member of its genus)
    (Common in lowland forest near water: streams, rivers, mangroves, and lakes)

    Proboscis Bat, or Long-nosed Bat
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  33. Greater White-lined Bat (or White-lined Sac-winged Bat) ______ (*) CR(N,S)  HN  PN
    Saccopteryx bilineata

  34. Lesser White-lined Bat ______ 
    Saccopteryx leptura 

  35. Shaggy Bat ______ (rare, known only from a few specimens)
    Centronycteris maximiliani

  36. Lesser Doglike Bat ______
    Peropteryx macrotis

  37. Greater Doglike Bat ______
    Peropteryx kappleri

  38. Chestnut Sac-winged Bat ______ 
    Cormura brevirostris
    (In Central America, uncommon & local, usually in lowland evergreen forest)

  39. Least Sac-winged Bat ______ (*) GU  (in Mexico, northern Guatemala, & Belize)
    Balantiopteryx io  

  40. Gray Sac-winged Bat ______ (*) CR(N)
    Balantiopteryx plicata

  41. Smoky Bat ______ (rare & local, in eastern Nicaragua & eastern Costa Rica; known from a few specimens taken in humid lowland areas)
    Cyttarops alecto 

  42. Northern Ghost Bat ______ 
    Didiclurus albus

    BULLDOG (or FISHING) BATS  (in the Family Noctilionidae)  

  43. Greater Bulldog (or Fishing) Bat ______ (*) CR  PN
    Noctilio leporinus

    In the night-time sky, a Greater Bulldog, or Fishing Bat
    (photo by Burke Korol)

  44. Lesser Bulldog (or Fishing) Bat ______ (*) CR  PN
    Noctilio albiventris

    LEAF-CHINNED BATS (in the Family Mormoopidae)

  45. Ghost-faced Bat ______
    Mormoops megalophylla

  46. Common Moustached Bat  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N,S)  GU  HN  PN
    Pteronatus parnellii

    Common Moustached Bat

  47. Lesser Moustached Bat ______
    Pteronatus personatus

  48. Davy's Naked-backed Bat ______
    Pteronatus davyi

  49. Big Naked-backed Bat ______
    Pteronatus gymnonotus 

    LEAF-NOSED BATS (in the Family Phyllostomidae) 

  50. Common Big-eared Bat ______
    Micronycteris microtis

  51. Tiny Big-eared Bat ______
    Micronycteris minuta

  52. Schmidt's Big-eared Bat ______ (apparently rare & local)
    Micronycteris schmidtorum

  53. Hairy Big-eared Bat ______ (apparently rare & local)
    Micronycteris hirsuta

  54. Orange-throated Bat ______ (uncommon & local)
    Micronycteris brachyotis

  55. Niceforo's Bat ______ (In Central America, rare & local; more common in South America)
    Micronycteris nicefori

  56. Tricolored Bat ______ (rare & local)
    Micronycteris sylvestris

  57. Bartica Bat ______ (apparently very rare & local; restricted to mature, evergreen forest)
    Micronycteris daviesi

  58. Waterhouse's Bat ______ (Primarily a Mexican species, some may occur in western Guatemala)
    Macrotus waterhousii 

  59. Common Sword-nosed Bat  ______  (also called Tome's Long-eared Bat  
    Lonchorhina aurita

  60. Long-legged Bat ______ 
    Macrophyllum macrophyllum

  61. Stripe-headed Round-eared Bat ______ (Uncommon to rare; usually in mature evergreen forest)
    Tonatia saurophils

  62. Pygmy Round-eared Bat ______ (*) PN  (lowland forest & regrowth areas)
    Tonatia brasiliense

  63. White-throated Round-eared Bat ______
    Tonatia silvicola

  64. Davis' Round-eared Bat ______ (This species was described as distinct from the White-throated Round-eared Bat in 1978.)
    Tonatia evotis

  65. Golden Bat ______ (*)  HN  (in northern Guatemala, Belize, and northern Honduras, in lowland forests)
    Mimon bennettii

  66. Striped Hairy-nosed Bat ______ (rare & local) 
    Mimon crenulatum

  67. Pale Spear-nosed Bat ______
    Phyllostomus discolor

  68. Greater Spear-nosed Bat ______
    Phyllostomus hastatus

  69. Pale-faced Bat ______ (rare & local)
    Phyllostomus stenops

  70. Fringe-lipped Bat  (or Frog-eating Bat ______
    Trachops cirrhosus

  71. Woolly False Vampire Bat ______ (uncommon to rare, but widespread)
    Chrotopterus auritus

  72. False Vampire Bat ______ (rare & local)
    Vampyrum spectrum

    NECTAR-FEEDING or LONG-TONGUED BATS (in the Subfamilies Glossophaginae & Lonchophyllinae) 

  73. Common Long-tongued Bat  (or Pallas' Long-tongued Bat ______ (*) CR(N,S),GU,HN,PN  (in forests & clearings)
    Glossophaga soricina

  74. Gray's Long-tongued Bat ______ (*) GU  (in dry forest s & scrub)
    Glossophaga leachii

  75. Brown Long-tongued Bat ______
    Glossophaga commissarisi

  76. Geoffrey's Tailless (or Hairy-legged) Bat ______
    Anoura geoffroyi

  77. Handley's Hairy-legged Bat ______
    Anoura cultrata

  78. Dark Long-tongued Bat ______ (rare)
    Lichonycteris obscura

  79. Underwood's Long-tongued Bat ______
    Hylonycteris underwoodi

  80. Godman's Whiskered Bat ______ (rare to uncommon)
    Choeronycteris godmani

  81. Mexican Hog-nosed Bat ______
    Choeronycteris mexicana

  82. Southern Long-nosed Bat ______ (an endangered species)
    Leptonycteris curasoae

  83. Mexican Long-nosed Bat ______ (Primarily Mexican; in Central America, known from only 2 Guatemalan specimens collected over a century ago. There's also a question as to which species those specimens actually are.)
    Leptonycteris nivalis

  84. Goldman's Nectar Bat ______ (*) CR(S) (fairly common in the humid Pacific lowlands of southwest Costa Rica) (occurs in evergreen forests & banana groves)
    Lonchophylla mordax

  85. Orange-nectar Bat ______
    Lonchophylla robusta

  86. Thomas' Nectar Bat ______ (In Central America, only in eastern Panama)
    Lonchophylla thomasi

  87. Chestnut Long-tongued Bat ______ (In Central America, only in eastern Panama)
    Lionycteris spurrelli

    SHORT-TAILED FRUIT BATS (in the Subfamily Carolliinae)

  88. Chestnut Short-tailed Fruit Bat ______
    Carollia castanea

  89. Gray Short-tailed Fruit Bat ______
    Carollia subrufa

  90. Silky Short-tailed Fruit Bat ______
    Carollia brevicauda

  91. Seba's Short-tailed Fruit Bat ______
    Carollia perspicillata

    TAILLESS BATS (in the Subfamily Stenodermatinae)

  92. Little Yellow-shouldered Bat ______
    Sturnira lilium

  93. Luis' Yellow-shouldered Bat ______
    Sturnira luisi

  94. Highland Yellow-shouldered Bat  (or Highland Epauleted Bat) ______
    Sturnira ludovici

  95. Talamancan Yellow-shouldered Bat ______
    Sturnira mordax

  96. Great Fruit-eating Bat ______ (*) PN  (in rainforests & clearings) 
    Artibeus lituratus

  97. Intermediate Fruit-eating Bat ______
    Artibeus intermedius

  98. Jamaican Fruit-eating Bat  (ph)  ______ (*) PN  (in rainforests & plantations)
    Artibeus jamaicensis

    Jamaican Fruit-eating Bats

  99. Honduran Fruit-eating Bat ______
    Artibeus inopinatus

  100. Aztec Fruit-eating Bat ______
    Artibeus aztecus

  101. Toltec Fruit-eating Bat ______
    Artibeus toltecus

  102. Pygmy Fruit-eating Bat ______
    Artibeus phaeotis

  103. Thomas' Fruit-eating Bat ______
    Artibeus watsoni

  104. Velvety Fruit-eating Bat ______
    Enchisthenes hartii

  105. Common Tent-making Bat  (ph)  ______
    Uroderma bilobatum

    Common Tent-making Bats
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  106. Brown Tent-making Bat ______
    Uroderma magnirostrum

  107. Heller's Broad-nosed Bat ______
    Platyrrhinus helleri

  108. Greater Broad-nosed Bat ______
    Platyrrhinus vittatus

  109. Thomas' Broad-nosed Bat ______ (In Central America, only in eastern Panama) 
    Platyrrhinus dorsalis 
    (some consider the smaller subspecies, P. d. umbratus, also in eastern Panama, as a full species)

  110. Great Stripe-faced Bat ______ (uncommon north of Panama)
    Vampyrodes caraccioli

  111. Hairy Big-eyed Bat ______
    Chiroderma villosum

  112. Salvin's Big-eyed Bat ______
    Chiroderma salvini

  113. Little Big-eyed Bat ______ (Primarily South American; apparently rare in Panama)
    Chiroderma trinitatum

  114. Little Yellow-eared Bat ______
    Vampyressa pusilla

  115. Striped Yellow-eared Bat ______
    Vampyressa nymphaea

  116. MacConnell's Bat ______
    Mesophylla maconnelli

  117. Honduran White Bat ______ (uncommon & local)
    Ectophylla alba

  118. Little White-shouldered Bat ______ (Primarily South American; known in Panama from a single record on Barro Colorado Island.)
    Ametrida centurio

  119. Wrinkle-faced Bat ______
    Centurio senex

    VAMPIRE BATS (in the Subfamily Desmodontinae)

  120. Common Vampire Bat ______
    Desmodus rotundus

  121. White-winged Vampire Bat ______ (Primarily South American; in Central America, rare & local.)
    Diaemus youngi

  122. Hairy-legged Vampire Bat ______
    Diphylla ecaudata

    FUNNEL-EARED BATS (in the Family Natalidae)

  123. Mexican Funnel-eared Bat ______
    Natalus stramineus

    THUMBLESS BATS (in the Family Furipteridae)

  124. Thumbless Bat ______ (In Central America, apparently rare & local, where known from few localities in lowland, evergreen forests,)  
    Furipterus horrens

    DISK-WINGED BATS (in the Family Thyropteridae)

  125. Peter's Disk-winged Bat ______ (Primarily South American; in Central America, 2 records)
    Thyroptera discifera

  126. Spix's Disk-winged Bat ______
    Thyroptera tricolor

    PLAIN-NOSED BATS (in the Family Vespertilionidae)

  127. California Myotis ______
    Myotis californicus

  128. Cinnamon Myotis ______
    Myotis fortidens

  129. Cave Myotis ______
    Myotis velifer

  130. Guatemalan Myotis ______ (known only from 1 specimen, from Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, at about 1300 meters above sea level)
    Myotis cobanensis

  131. Black Myotis ______  (*) CR(N,S)  (in forests & built-up areas)
    Myotis nigricans

  132. Elegant Myotis ______
    Myotis elegans

  133. Silver-haired Myotis ______ 
    Myotis albescens

  134. Riparian Myotis ______
    Myotis riparius

  135. Hairy legged Myotis ______
    Myotis keaysi

  136. Montane Myotis ______
    Myotis oxyotus

  137. Southwestern Myotis ______ (In Central America, south of Mexico, known in Guatemala from 1 specimen.)
    Myotis auriculus

  138. Eastern Pipistrelle ______ (In Central America, in north-central Guatemala & northern Honduras)
    Pipistrellus subflavus

  139. Big Brown Bat ______
    Eptesicus fuscus

  140. Andean Brown Bat ______
    Eptesicus brasiliensis

  141. Argentine Brown Bat ______
    Eptesicus furinalis

  142. Central American Yellow Bat ______
    Rhogeessa tumida

  143. Van Gelder's Bat ______ (in northern Guatemala, Belize, & northern Honduras)
    Bauerus dubiaquercus

  144. Western Red Bat ______
    Lasiurus blossevillii

  145. Tacarcuna Bat ______ (Rare; known from very few specimens in evergreen forest in Costa Rica & Panama.)
    Lasiurus castaneus

  146. Hoary Bat ______ (Rare winter visitor in Central America, from North America.)
    Lasiurus cinereus

  147. Big Red Bat ______ (Rare; known from 3 specimens, 1 of them taken in Panama, the other 2 in South America)
    Lasiurus egregius

  148. Northern Yellow Bat ______ 
    Lasiurus intermedius

  149. Southern Yellow Bat ______
    Lasiurus ega      

    FREE-TAILED BATS (in the Family Molossidae)

  150. Greenhall's Dog-faced Bat ______
    Molossops greenhalli

  151. Southern Dog-faced Bat ______ (Primarily South American; in Central America, in central & eastern Panama.)
    Molossops planirostris 

  152. Mexican (or Brazilian) Free-tailed Bat ______ (*) GU  (locally in dry open areas & forests)
    Tadarida brasiliensis

  153. Broad-eared Bat ______ 
    Nyctinomops laticaudatus

  154. Black Bonneted Bat ______
    Eumpos auripendulus

  155. Underwood's Bonneted Bat ______
    Eumops underwoodi

  156. Wagner's Bonneted Bat ______
    Eumops glaucinus

  157. Sanborn's Bonneted Bat ______
    Eumops hansae

  158. Dwarf Bonneted Bat ______
    Eumops bonariensis

  159. Big-crested Mastiff Bat ______
    Promops centralis 

  160. Black Mastiff Bat ______
    Molossus ater

  161. Miller's Mastiff Bat ______
    Molossus prestiosus

  162. Sinaloan Mastiff Bat ______
    Molossus sinaloae

  163. Bonda Mastiff Bat ______
    Molossus bondae

  164. Velvety Free-tailed Bat  (ph)  ______  (also called Pallas' Mastiff Bat)
    Molossus molossus 

    Velvety Free-tailed Bat, or Pallas' Mastiff Bat 

    THE CEBIDS, or NEW WORLD MONKEYS (in the Order of Primates,
          in the Family Atelidae):

  1. Mantled Howler Monkey (t3) (ph)  ______  (*)  CR(N,S)  GU  HN  PN
    Alouatta palliata 

    Mantled Howler Monkey
    (another photo at the top of this list)

  2. Yucatan (or Mexican) Black Howler Monkey (t3) (ph)  ______ (*)  BZ  GU
    Alouatta pigra

    Yucatan Black Howler Monkey
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  3. White-headed Capuchin  (ph)  ______  (*)  CR(N,S)  PN
    Cebus capucinus

    Other names for Cebus capucinus have been the White-faced Capuchin or the White-throated Capuchin.  

    Above & below: White-headed Capuchins
    In the lower photo, two during the FONT Costa Rica Tour in March 2012
    (lower photo by Virginia Woodhouse)

  1. Geoffroy's Spider Monkey  (t2) (ph)  ______  (*)  CR(N,S)  GU  PN
    Ateles geoffroyi

    There are at least 5 subspecies of the Geoffroy's Spider Monkey:

    Ateles geofroyi yucatanensis,
    the Yucatan Spider Monkey  (t2)  _____  GU(*)  
     in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, this is the monkey we've seen at Tikal 
    Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus, the Mexican Spider Monkey  (t1)  ______
     in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Honduras
    Ateles geoffroyi geoffroyi, the Nicaraguan Spider Monkey  (t1)  ______
     in Nicaragua, and adjacent Costa Rica
    The population in the Guanacaste region of Costa Rica & adjacent Nicaragua is sometimes considered a separate subspecies, Ateles geoffroyi frontatus. But some taxonomists consider it a synonym of A. g. geoffroyi.
    Ateles geoffroyi ornatus, the Ornate Spider Monkey  (t2)  ______  CR(N,S)(*) 
     in Costa Rica & Panama
    Other vernacular names for A. g. ornatus are the Brilliant Spider Monkey or the Red Spider Monkey.
    Also now included in this subspecies are two populations formerly considered as distinct subspecies:
    The Panama Spider Monkey, formerly A. g. panamensis 
    The Azuero Spider Monkey, formerly A. g. azuerensis
    These last two populations are in Panama.
    Ateles geoffroyi grisescens, the Hooded Spider Monkey  ______   PN(*)
     in Panama & adjacent Colombia, this is the monkey we've seen on Barro Colorado Island 
    In northeast Panama & western Colombia, A g. grisescens is replaced by the species, the Black-headed Spider Monkey, Ateles fusciceps (below).
    In western Panama, A. g. grisescens is replaced by the subspecies , A. g. ornatus (above).
    The Hooded Spider Monkey has long, tawny fur.

    A Geoffroy's Spider Monkey
    (photo by Marie Gardner during a FONT Tour)

  2. Black-headed Spider Monkey  (t1)  ______ (In Central America, in eastern Panama) 
    Ateles fusciceps rufiventris 
    (subspecies from eastern Panama to southwestern Colombia)

  3. Central American (or Red-backed) Squirrel Monkey (t1) (ph)  ______ (*) CR(S)
    Saimiri oerstedii
    (2 subspecies: the northern S. o. citrinellus paler than S. o. oerstedii - the latter pictured below)

    Central American Squirrel Monkey

  1. Lemurine Night Monkey (also called Owl Monkey) ______ (In Central America, in Panama; several unconfirmed reports from Costa Rica.) 
    Aotus lemurinus 

    TAMARINS & MARMOSETS (in the Family Callitrichidae)

  2. Geoffrey's (or Red-naped) Tamarin ______ (*) PN
    Saguinus geoffroyi

    the gnawing mammals (in the Order Rodentia, which is the largest order of mammals with nearly 2,000 species worldwide).
    Families include:
    Squirrels: Sciuridae
    Mice & Rats: Muridae
    New World Porcupines: Erethizontidae 

    SQUIRRELS (in the Family Sciuridae) 

  3. Mexican Gray Squirrel (has been called Red-bellied Squirrel) ______ (*) GU
    Sciurus a. aureogaster 
    (2 other subspecies occur in Mexico, 1 of which may be all-black)

  4. Red-tailed Squirrel  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N,S)  PN
    (formerly guerlinguetus) granatensis

    A Red-tailed Squirrel photographed during a FONT tour
    in southern Costa Rica in March 2012
    (photo by Virginia Woodhouse)

  5. Variegated Squirrel ______ (*) CR(N,S)  GU  HN  PN
    Sciurus variegatoides
    (14 named subspecies are recognized, including those below)
    S. v. goldmani:
    S. v. variegatoides:
    S. v. dorsalis:
    CR (nw)
    S. v. rigidus:
    S. v. helveous:

  6. Yucatan Squirrel ______ (*) BZ  GU
    Sciurus yucatanensis

  7. Deppe's Squirrel (t3) ______ (*) GU
    Sciurus deppei

  8. Richmond's Squirrel ______ (endemic to Nicaragua)
    (formerly Guerlinguetus) richmondi

  9. Central American Dwarf Squirrel (or Alfari's Pygmy Squirrel) ______ (*) CR(N)
    Microsciurus alfari

  10. Western Pygmy Squirrel ______ (In Central America, in Panama)
    Microsciurus mimulus 

  11. Montane Squirrel ______ (in the highlands of Costa Rica & western Panama)
    (formerly Syntheosciurus) brochus

  12. Southern Flying Squirrel ______
    Glaucomys volans

    POCKET GOPHERS (in the Family Geomyidae)

  13. Large Pocket Gopher ______
    Orthogeomys grandis

  14. Hispid Pocket Gopher ______
    Orthogeomys hispidus

  15. Variable Pocket Gopher ______
    Orthogeomys heterodus

  16. Cherrie's Pocket Gopher ______
    Orthogeomys cherriei

  17. Underwood's Pocket Gopher ______
    Orthogeomys underwoodi

  18. Nicaraguan Pocket Gopher ______
    Orthogeomys matagalpae

  19. Chiriqui Pocket Gopher ______ (in southern Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Orthogeomys cavator

  20. Darien Pocket Gopher ______ (In Central America, in eastern Panama)
    Orthogeomys dariensis

    KANGAROO RATS & POCKET MICE (in the Family Heteromyidae)

  21. Salvin's Spiny Pocket Mouse ______
    Liomys salvini

  22. Panamanian Spiny Pocket Mouse ______ (Endemic to Panama; only in the lowlands on the Pacific side of the central & western part of the country.)  
    Liomys adspersus

  23. Gaumer's Spiny Pocket Mouse ______ (On the Yucatan Peninsula only; in Mexico, far-northern Guatemala, & Belize.)
    Heteromys gaumeri

  24. Forest Spiny Pocket Mouse ______ (*) CR(S)
    Heteromys desmarestianus

  25. Goldman's Spiny Pocket Mouse ______ (in far-western Guatemala)
    Heteromys goldmani

  26. Southern Spiny Pocket Mouse ______ (In Central America, in far-eastern Panama)
    Heteromys australis

  27. Mountain Spiny Pocket Mouse ______ (Endemic to Costa Rica; only in the Talamanca Mountains, from 1800 to 2600 meters above sea level.)
    Heteromys oresterus

    RATS & MICE (in the Family Muridae)

    NEW WORLD RATS & MICE (in the Subfamily Sigmodontinae)

  28. Coue's Rice Rat ______ (*)  GU
    Oryzomys couesi

  29. Talamancan Rice Rat ______
    Oryzomys talamancae

  30. Rusty Rice Rat ______
    Oryzomys rostratus

  31. Alfaro's Rice Rat ______
    Oryzomys alfaroi

  32. Long-whiskered Rice Rat ______
    Oryzomys bolivaris

  33. Montane Rice Rat ______
    Oryzomys albigularis

  34. Cana Rice Rat ______
    Oryzomys alfari

  35. Long-tailed Rice Rat ______
    Oryzomys aphrastus

  36. Dusky Rice Rat ______
    Melanomys caliginosus

  37. Big Arboreal Rice Rat ______ (*)  PN
    (has been part of Oryzomys) trinitatis

  38. Bicolored Arboreal Rice Rat ______ (In Central America, in central & eastern Panama)
    (has been part of Oryzomys) bicolor

  39. Sprightly Pygmy Rice Rat ______
    Oligoryzomys vegetus

  40. Northern Pygmy Rice Rat ______ (*)  CR(N)
    Oligoryzomys fulvescens

  41. Painted Bristly Mouse ______ (in Darien, eastern Panama; rare & local)
    Neacomys pictus

  42. Mount Pirri Climbing Mouse ______ (in Darien, eastern Panama; rare; known from very few specimens, all caught in evergreen forest, 1400 to 1500 meters above sea level.)
    Rhipidomys scandens

  43. Common Cane Rat ______
    Zygodontomys brevicauda

  44. Hispid Cotton Rat ______ (*) CR(N)  GU
    Sigmodon hispidus

  45. Northern Crab-eating Rat ______
    Ichthyomys tweedii

  46. Goldman's Water Mouse ______
    Rheomys raptor

  47. Thomas' Water Mouse ______
    Rheomys thomasi

  48. Underwood's Water Mouse ______
    Rheomys underwoodi  

  49. Northern Climbing Rat ______
    Tylomys nudicaudus

  50. Watson's Climbing Rat ______
    Tylomys watsoni

  51. Big-eared Climbing Rat ______
    Ototylomys phyllotis

  52. Vesper Rat ______
    Nyctomys sumichrasti

  53. Mexican Wood Rat ______
    Neotoma mexicana

  54. Nicaraguan Wood Rat ______
    Neotoma chrysomelas

  55. Southern Pygmy Mouse ______
    Baiomys musculus

  56. Alston's Singing Mouse ______
    Scotinomys teguina

  57. Chiriqui Singing Mouse ______
    Scotinomys xerampelinus

  58. Sumichrast's Harvest Mouse ______
    Reithrodontomys sumichrasti

  59. Fulvous Harvest Mouse ______
    Reithrodontomys fulvescens

  60. Slender Harvest Mouse ______
    Reithrodontomys gracilis

  61. Darien Harvest Mouse ______ 
    Reithrodontomys darienensis 

  62. Mexican Harvest Mouse ______ (*)  CR(S)
    Reithrodontomys mexicanus

  63. Short-nosed Harvest Mouse ______
    Reithrodontomys brevirostris

  64. Nicaraguan Harvest Mouse ______
    Reithrodontomys paradoxus

  65. Small-toothed Harvest Mouse ______ 
    Reithrodontomys microdon

  66. Narrow-nosed Harvest Mouse ______
    Reithrodontomys tenuirostris

  67. Rodriguez's Harvest Mouse ______
    Reithrodontomys rodriguezi

  68. Chiriqui Harvest Mouse ______
    Reithrodontomys creper

  69. Yellow Deer Mouse ______
    Isthmomys flavidus

  70. Mount Pirri Deer Mouse ______ (In Central America, only in far-eastern Panama)
    Isthmomys pirrensis

  71. Crested-tailed Deer Mouse ______
    Habromys lophurus

  72. Aztec Mouse ______
    Peromyscus aztecus

  73. Southern Brush Mouse ______
    Peromyscus levipes

  74. Mexican Deer Mouse ______
    Peromyscus mexicanus

  75. Naked-eared Deer Mouse ______
    Peromyscus gymnotis

  76. Guatemalan Deer Mouse ______
    Peronyscus guatemalensis

  77. Giant Deer Mouse ______
    Peronyscus grandis

  78. Stirton's Deer Mouse ______
    Peronyscus stirtoni

  79. Maya Mouse ______ (This locally common, but highly threatened, mouse is only in western Guatemala.)
    Peronyscus mayensis 

    VOLES (in the Subfamily Arvicolinae)

  80. Guatemalan Vole ______ (*)  GU
    (formerly Herpetomys) guatemalensis  (the single member of its genus)

    OLD WORLD RATS & MICE (in the Subfamily Murinae) 

  81. House Rat (i) ______ (*)  PN  (other names include Black Rat & Roof Rat) (originally from India, introduced worldwide) 
    Rattus rattus

  82. Brown Rat (i) ______ (also called Norway Rat) (originally from southeast Siberia & northern China, introduced worldwide) (less widespread than Rattus rattus in Central America)
    Rattus norvegicus

  83. Western House Mouse (i) ______ (commensal with humans in Europe, north Africa, & the Middle East; introduced in North & South America, subsaharan Africa, north Australia, & oceanic islands)   
    (commensal with humans in Europe, north Africa, & the Middle East; introduced in North & South America, subsaharan Africa, north Australia, & oceanic islands)   
    Mus domesticus  (formerly conspecific with Mus musculus, now the Eastern House Mouse)

    NEW WORLD PORCUPINES (in the Family Erethizontidae)

    More closely related to cavy-like rodents (such as the Agouti and Paca) than to the Old World Porcupines 

  84. Mexican Hairy Dwarf Porcupine  (ph)  ______ (*)  CR(N)
    (formerly Sphiggurus) mexicanus

    Coendou mexicanus is a generally long-haired, prehensile-tailed Porcupine.

    Mexican Hairy Dwarf Porcupine
    (photo by Dick Tipton)

  85. Rothschild's Porcupine ______ (In Central America, in Panama)
    Coendou rothschildi

    CAPYBARA (in the Family Hydrochaeridae)

  86. Capybara  (ph)  ______ (*)  PN  (Primarily South American; in Central America, in central & eastern Panama)
    Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris 
    (the single member of its genus) 

    (photo by Andy Smith)

    AGOUTIS & ACOUCHIS (in the Family Dasyproctidae)

  87. Central American Agouti ______ (*) CR(N,S)  GU  HN  PN
    Dasyprocta punctata

    Central American Agouti
    (photo by Linda Navarro)

    PACAS (in the Family Agoutidae)

  88. Lowland Paca  ______  (*)  BZ  PN  (also called Spotted Paca)
    Cuniculus (formerly Agouti) paca

    SPINY RATS & TREE RATS (in the Family Echimyidae)

  89. Tomes' Spiny Rat ______ (*) CR(N)
    Proechimys semispinosus

  90. Armored Rat ______
    Hoplomys gymnurus

  91. Rufous Tree Rat ______
    Diplomys labilis

    RABBITS (in the Order Lagomorpha, Family Leporidae)
  92. Eastern Cottontail (Rabbit) (ph) ______ (*) CR(N)  HN
    Sylvilagus floridanus

  93. Forest Rabbit  ______ (*) CR(N)  (other names: Tropical Cottontail Rabbit or Brazilian Rabbit or Tapiti
    (formerly Tapeti) brasilensis

  94. Dice's (Mountain) Rabbit ______ (*) CR(S)  (formerly considered a subspecies of the Forest Rabbit)
    (formerly Tapeti) dicei

    CARNIVORES, in the Order Carnivora, with Families including:
    Dogs & Foxes: Canidae 
    Cats: Felidae
    Raccoons & allies: Procyonidae
    Weasels, Skunks, & allies: Mustelidae

    DOGS & FOXES (in the Family Canidae) 

  95. Gray Fox ______ (*) GU
    Urocyon cinereoargenteus

  96. Coyote  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N)
    Canis latrans


  97. Bush Dog ______ (Primarily South American; in Central America, only in far-eastern Panama.) 
    Peothos venaticus

    RACCOONS & ALLIES (in the Family Procyonidae)

  98. Kinkajou (ti) (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N,S)  GU  PN
    Potos flavus 
    (the single member of its genus)   

    (photo by Rosemary Lloyd during the FONT tour in Costa Rica in February 2006)

  99. Bushy-tailed Olingo ______  (*) CR(N)
    Bassaricyon gabbii

  100. Northern Raccoon  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N)  GU
    Procyon lotor

    Northern Raccoon
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  101. Crab-eating Raccoon  (ph)  ______  PN
    Procyon cancrivorus

    Crab-eating Raccoon

  102. White-nosed Coati  (ph)  ______ (*)  BZ  CR(N,S)  GU  HN  PN
    Nasua narica

    White-nosed Coati
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  103. Cacomistle ______ (*) CR(S)
    Bassariscus sumichrasti

    WEASELS, SKUNKS, & ALLIES (in the Family Mustelidae) 

  104. Long-tailed Weasel ______ (*) CR(N)
    Mustela frenata

  105. Greater Grison ______
    Galictis vittata

  106. Tayra ______ (*) CR(S)  GU  PN
    Eira barbara 
    (the single member of its genus)

  107. Neotropical River Otter ______ (*) CR(N,S)  GU  HN  PN
    (formerly Lontra) longicaudis

  108. Hooded Skunk ______
    Mephitis macroura

  109. Eastern Spotted Skunk ______
    Spilogale putorius

  110. Western Hog-nosed Skunk ______ 
    Conepatus mesoleucus 

  111. Striped Hog-nosed Skunk ______ (*) CR(N,S)  GU
    Conepatus semistriatus

    CATS (in the Family Felidae)

  112. Ocelot (t2) (ph)  ______ (*) GU
    Leopardus pardalis

  113. Margay (t2) ______ (*) CR(S)
    Leopardus wiedii

  114. Oncilla ______
    Leopardus tigrinus

  115. Jaguarundi ______  (*) GU
    Herpailurus yauarondi

  116. Puma  (ph)  ______ (also called Cougar, or Mountain Lion) 
    Puma concolor

  117. Jaguar  (ph)  ______  (*)  BZ  GU
    Panthera onca

    An orphaned Jaguar that we saw during the FONT Belize Tour in April 2011
    Her name: "Tika 2". She lives at a place called Banana Bank.   
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

    MANATEES (in the Order Sirenia, in the Family Trichechidae)

  118. West Indian Manatee (t1)  (ph)  ______  (*)  BZ   (rare & local along the Central American Caribbean coast)
    Trichechus manatus manatus:  "Antillean Manatee"  

    Above & Below: Two photographs of West Indian (or Antillean) Manatees
    during the FONT tour in Belize in April 2011
    (photos by Marie Gardner)

    ODD-TOED UNGULATES (in the Order Perissodactyla; the tapirs in Family Tapiridae)

  119. Baird's Tapir (t1) (ph)  ______ (*) CR(S)  GU
    Tapirus bairdii

    Baird's Tapir

    (in the Order Artiodactyla, with Peccaries in the Family Tayassuidae and Deer in the Family Cervidae) 

  120. Collared Peccary ______ (*) CR(N)
    Tayassu tajacu

  121. White-lipped Peccary  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(S)
    Dicotyles pecari

  122. White-tailed Deer  (ph)  ______ (*) CR(N)  GU  PN
    Odocoileus virginianus
    (On Barro Colorado Island, Panama, there's a small, reddish forest race, that could be confused with the Red Brocket.)

  123. Red Brocket (Deer) ______ (*) BZ  CR(S)
    Mazama americana

    MARINE MAMMALS (in the Order Cetacea) 

    TOOTHED WHALES (in the Suborder Odontoceti)

    MARINE DOLPHINS (in the Family Delphinidae)
  124. Rough-toothed Dolphin  (t3)  ______ 
    Steno bredanensis
    (off Central America, in the Pacific, offshore, including Cocos Island waters)  

  125. Tucuxi  (t3)  ______
    Satalia fluviatilis
    (along the Central American Caribbean coast, from Cahuita, Costa Rica, south)

  126. Pacific Spotted Dolphin ______
    Stenella atrenuata
    (off the Central American Pacific coast, where frequently seen) 

  127. Atlantic Spotted Dolphin  (t3) ______
    Stenella frontalis
    (off the Central American Caribbean coast) 

  128. Long-snouted Spinner Dolphin  ______  CR(S) (*)
    Stenella longirostris centroamericana
    (off the Central American Pacific coast, & further offshore including Cocos Island waters)

  129. Clymene Dolphin (t3) (ph)  ______  (also called the Short-snouted Spinner Dolphin
    Stenella clymene
    (off Central America, in the Caribbean)

  130. Striped Dolphin ______  (also called Blue-white Dolphin)
    Stenella coeruleoalba
    (off Central America, in the Pacific, offshore, including Cocos Island waters) 

  131. Common Dolphin  (ph)  ______
    Delphinus delphis
    (in Central America, off the Pacific coast; one of the most gregarious and abundant of the world's cetaceans

  132. Bottlenose Dolphin  (ph)  ______  CR(N)(*)
    Tursiops truncatus
    (off & along the Central American Pacific & Caribbean coasts)

  133. Fraser's Dolphin (t2) (ph)  ______
    Lagenodelphis hosei
    (off the Central American Pacific coast, & further offshore, including waters near Cocos Island; does occur in the Lesser Antilles & the Gulf of Mexico) 

  134. Risso's Dolphin  (t3) (ph)  ______  (also called Gray Grampus)
    Grampus griseus
    (off Central America, in the Pacific)

  135. Melon-headed Whale (t3) ______
    Peponocephala electra
    (off Central America, in the Pacific)  

  136. Pygmy Killer Whale (t3)  ______
    Feresa attenuata
    (in the Pacific, off the Central American coast)

  137. False Killer Whale (t3) ______
    Pseudorca crassidens
    (in the Pacific, off the Central American coast, & in Cocos Island waters)

  138. Killer Whale (or Orca (ph)  ______
    Orcinus orca
    (off the Central American Pacific & Caribbean coasts) 

  139. Short-finned Pilot Whale (t3) (ph)  ______
    Globicephala macrorhynchus
    (off the Central American Pacific coast, & further offshore including Cocos Island waters)

    SPERM WHALE (a single species in the Family Physeteridae) 

  140. Great Sperm Whale (t2) (ph)  ______
    Physeter catodon
    (off the Central American coasts, in the Pacific and the Caribbean)

    PYGMY SPERM WHALES (now in the Family Kogiidae)

  141. Pygmy Sperm Whale (t3) (ph)  ______
    Kogia brevicops
    (off Central America, in the Pacific)

  142. Dwarf Sperm Whale (t3) (ph)  ______
    Kogia simus
    (off Central America, in the Pacific; & has been recorded about 150 miles south of Cocos Island) 

    BEAKED WHALES (in the Family Hyperoodontidae)

  143. Cuvier's Beaked Whale (t3) (ph)  ______
    Ziphius cavirostris
    (off the Pacific coast of Central America)

  144. Blainville's Beaked Whale (t3) ______
    Mesoplodon densirostris
    (on occasion, in the Pacific off Central America; has been recorded about 50 miles southeast of Cocos Island)

  145. Gray's Beaked Whale (t3) ______
    Mesoplodon grayi
    (in the Pacific, well offshore; has been recorded over a hundred miles southwest of Cocos Island)

  146. Southern Bottlenose Whale (t2) ______
    Hyperoodon planifrons
    (off Central America, in the Pacific, including Cocos Island waters)  

    RORUALS (in the Family Balaenopteridae)

  147. Blue Whale (t1) (ph)  ______
    Balaenoptera musculus
    (in the Pacific, generally more than 200 miles off Central American coast; reported in Cocos Island waters)

  148. Fin Whale (t2) (ph)  ______
    Balaenoptera physalus
    (off Central America, in the Caribbean, offshore)

  149. Sei Whale (t2) ______
    Balaenoptera borealis 
    (off Central America, in the Pacific, well offshore; recorded north of Cocos Island)

  150. Bryde's Whale (t1) ______
    Balaenoptera brydei
    (formerly edeni)
    (off Central America, in the Pacific, offshore; recorded in Cocos Island waters)

  151. Northern Minke Whale (t2) (ph)  ______
    Balaenoptera acutorostrata
    (formerly conspecific with what's now the Antarctic Minke Whale, Balaenoptera bonaerensis)
    (off Central America, in the Caribbean, offshore; & may also occur in the Pacific off Central America)

  152. Humpback Whale (t2) (ph)  ______
    Megaptera novaeangliae
    (in the Pacific, off Central America, mainly from July to December)   

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