PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-8
 or 302/529-1876

Website:  www.focusonnature.com

A List and Photo Gallery

compiled by Armas Hill
noting those found during 
Focus On Nature Tours 

throughout the Americas

Part 2 of a List and Photo Gallery

With some photos courtesy of our  tour participants and others.
Our thanks to those who have contributed!

Link to Part 1 of this List & Photo Gallery of Hummingbirds

And Even More Hummingbird Photos during the Fall of 2012 

Above & below: A Sword-billed Hummingbird at a feeder
during the April 2013 Ecuador Tour
(photos by Marie Gardner)




AMAZILA includes: Amazilia Hummingbird, Cinnamon Hummingbird,
Rufous-tailed Hummingbird, Escudo Hummingbird, Buff-bellied Hummingbird,
White-bellied Hummingbird, Green-and-white Hummingbird,
Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird, Plain-bellied Emerald,
Versicolored Emerald, Blue-green Emerald, White-chested Emerald,
Andean Emerald, White-bellied Emerald, Azure-crowned Hummingbird,
Violet-crowned Hummingbird, Green-fronted Hummingbird,
Glittering-throated Emerald, Sapphire-spangled Emerald,
Blue-chested Hummingbird, Beryl-crowned Hummingbird,
Purple-chested Hummingbird, Mangrove Hummingbird, Honduran Emerald,
Steely-vented Hummingbird, Indigo-capped Hummingbird,
Snowy-breasted Hummingbird, Blue-tailed Hummingbird,
Berylline Hummingbird, Green-bellied Hummingbird,
Copper-tailed Hummingbird, Copper-rumpted Hummingbird

Microchera: SNOWCAP

Anthocephala: BLOSSOMCROWN


includes White-vented Plumeleteer, Ecuadorian Plumeleteer, 
Bronze-tailed (formerly Red-footed) Plumeleteer


LAMPORNIS includes Blue-throated Hummingbird


BASILINNA also includes the Xantu's Hummingbird



Phlogophilus: PIEDTAILS






Boissonneaua: CORONETS

Aglaeactis: SUNBEAMS

Urochroa, Oreotrochilus: HILLSTARS






Dephanoides: FIRECROWNS

Heliangelus: SUNANGELS

Eriocnemis, Haplophaedia: PUFFLEGS

Urosticte: WHITETIPS

Ocreatus: RACKET-TAIL 


Sappho, Polyonymus, Taphrolesbia: COMETS

Ramphomicron, Chalcostigma: THORNBILLS




Opisthoproba: AVOCETBILL

Aglaiocercus: SYLPHS



Heliothryx: FAIRIES



Heliomaster: STARTHROATS


Thaumastura, Doricha, Calothorax: SHEARTAILS 

CALOTHORAX includes Lucifer Hummingbird

Tilmatura, Calliphlox, Microstilbon, Myrtis,
Myrmia, Eulida, Chaetocercus: WOODSTARS

TILMATURA includes Sparkling-tailed Woodstar
CALLIPHLOX includes Amethyst Woodstar, Bahama Woodstar,
Inaguan Lyretail, Magenta-throated Woodstar, Purple-throated Woodstar

MICROSTILBON includes Slender-tailed Woodstar

MYRTIS includes Purple-collared Woodstar

MYRMIA includes Short-tailed Woodstar

EULIDA includes Chilean Woodstar

CHAETOCERCUS includes White-bellied Woodstar, Little Woodstar,
Gorgeted Woodstar, Esmerladas Woodstar,
Rufous-shafted Woodstar, Santa Maria Woodstar


Archilochus, Calypte, Atthis,

ARCHILOCHUS includes Ruby-throated Hummingbird
and Black-chinned Hummignbird.

CALYPTE includes Anna's Hummingbird, Costa's Hummingbird

SELASPHORUS includes Broad-tailed Hummingbird,
Rufous Hummingbird, Allen's hummingbird, Calliope Hummingbird,
and Volcano Hummingbird, Scintillant Hummingbird  



In the two photos above, Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (upper)
and Black-chinned Hummingbirds
In photos below, a Blue-tufted Starthroat, 
photographed during a FONT tour in Brazil,
and a male Black-chinned Hummingbird,
1 of 14 species of hummingbirds
seen during FONT tours in Arizona.
(Starthroat photo by Andy Smith, 
Black-chinned photo by Howard Eskin)

Other Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours


(mexico, BELIZE. guatemala,
costa rica, panamA)






North America    Mexico     the Caribbean

Central America    Brazil     Chile     Ecuador  


Desert Plants of Mexico & the Southwest US

Tropical Plants of Mexico, Central America, South America,
and Caribbean Islands

Plant Genera in this FONT Website




A List and Photo Gallery of Hummingbirds

compiled by Armas Hill


Places where Hummingbirds 
have been seen during FONT Tours
are noted by an (*)
after the two-letter code.:

AK:   Alaska, US
AR:   Argentina, South America
AZ:   Arizona, US
BL:   Bolivia, South America 
BR:   Brazil, South America
BZ:   Belize, Central America
CA:   California, US
CH:   Chile, South America
CO:   Colorado, US
CR:   Costa Rica, Central America
DE:   Delaware, US
DM:   Dominica, West Indies
DR:   Dominican Republic, West Indies
EC:   Ecuador, South America
FL:   Florida, US
GU:  Guatemala, Central America
HN:   Honduras, Central America
JM:   Jamaica, West Indies
MX:   Mexico
NC:   North Carolina, US
NM:  New Mexico, US
PG:   Paraguay, South America 
PN:   Panama, Central America
PR:   Puerto Rico, West Indies
SL:   Saint Lucia, West Indies
SV:   Saint Vincent, West Indies
TX:   Texas, US
UG:   Uruguay, South America
VE:   Venezuela, South America

Status of Hummingbirds, as designated by 
Birdlife International
     (t): a globally threatened, or rare, species
     (t1): critical
     (t2): endangered
     (t3): vulnerable
(nt): a near-threatened species globally
(nt-dd): possibly near-threatened, but data deficient

John Gould, who lived from 1804 to 1881, described many species and subspecies of hummingbirds. He was one of the most prolific artists and publishers of ornithological subjects. Nearly 3,000 lithographs were created during the span of his work.
In this two-part list, species and subspecies of hummingbirds described by Gould are noted, and there are illustrations of some of his lithographs, of the Band-tailed Barbthroat, Sombre Hummingbird, White-tailed Emerald, Brazilian Ruby, and Black-eared Fairy.

In 2014, a fine new book was published, entitled "Hummingbirds, a Life-sized Guide to Every Species" by Michael Fogden, Marianne Taylor, and Sheri Williamson. 
Some information has been incorporated here from that book which is highly recommended. 


  1. Amazilia Hummingbird  ______  EC(*)  PE
    Amazilia amazilia  

    Amazilia amazilia amazilia  ______ 
    subspecies in western Peru
    Amazilia amazilia caeruleigularis  ______ 
    subspecies in southwestern Peru
    With a purple throat patch
    Amazilia amazilia dumerilii  ______  subspecies in northern Peru and in Ecuador in the western lowlands
    Smaller than the nominate and with a white throat patch.
    Amazilia amazilia leucophoea  ______  subspecies in northwestern Peru
    Smaller than the nominate and with a white throat patch, but with bronzy-green instead of reddish underparts 

    What has been until recently an unnamed subspecies of Amazilia amazilia has been found in Ecuador in southern Azuay (and is in the photograph below, under "Loja Hummingbird"). 

    The Amazilia Hummingbird feeds on nectar from a variety of flowering plants, among them those in Erythrina and Psittacanthus. 

    (the photo below of Amazilia amazilia dumerilii by Marie Gardner, along coastal Ecuador, during the FONT tour there in May 2014)

  2. "Loja Hummingbird"  ______  EC(*)  (originally described by Gould in 1860)
    Amazilia (amazilia) alticola
    Amazilia (amazilia) azuay

    The Loja Hummingbird has been considered as part of the Amazilia Hummingbird (above), and by most authorities it still is. 

    What has until recently been considered an undescribed subspecies (noted below) compounds the story. 
    Now, that subspecies is Amazilia (amazilia) azuay, with a whiter belly that other subspecies of the Amazilia (including the Loja) Hummingbird.  

    The geographic range of the "Loja Hummingbird", Amazilia (amazilia) alticola, is in southern Ecuador.
    It has a mostly rufous tail, although the central pair of rectrices are bronzy green above, sometimes making the tail, when viewed from above, appear green. 

    The bird in the photograph below is what was said in "The Birds of Ecuador" by Robert Ridgely and Paul Greenfield to be an undescribed race in the southern Azuay province, 
    Now it is Amazilia (amazilia) azuay. 
    It is with mainly white underparts, and with rufous confined to limited amount on the flanks.
    It differs from the Amazilia Hummingbird, Amazilia amazilia, and the Loja Hummingbird, Amazilia (amazilia) alticola, by is having upper tail coverts mostly rufous, and seemingly having a less extensive reddish pink bill coloration.
    The bird in the photo below was one of a few seen at the same site during the FONT Tour in southern Ecuador in April 2014.

    (photo below, of Amazilia (amazilia) azuay, by Marie Gardner)

  3. Cinnamon Hummingbird ______ BZ(*)  CR(*)  GU(*)  HN(*)  MX(*)
    Amazilia rutila

    Amazilia rutila corallirostris  ______ 
    subspecies from southern Mexico to Costa Rica
    Amazilia rutila diluta  ______ 
    subspecies in northwest Mexico
    Amazilia rutila graysoni  ______ 
    subspecies on the Tres Marias Islands in western Mexico
    Amazilia rutila rutila  ______ 
    subspecies in western Mexico 

    The Cinnamon Hummingbird feeds on nectar from a variety of trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes, cacti, thistles, and mistletoes (in Psittacanthus).

    (photo below by Marie Grenouillet)

    The Cinnamon Hummingbird ranges in lowlands from Sinaloa and the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico south to Costa Rica. In the United States, it has occurred at Patagonia, Arizona July 21 to 23, 1992, and at Santa Teresa in New Mexico from September 18 to 21, 1993.   

  4. Rufous-tailed Hummingbird  ______  BZ(*)  CL  CR(*)  EC(*)  GU(*)  HN(*)  MX(*)  PN(*)  VE(*)  
    Amazilia tzacatl  

    Another name for Amazilia tzacati has been the Reiffer's Hummingbird.

    Amazilia tzacati brehmi  ______ 
    subspecies in southwestern Colombia, in Narino, described in 1999
    Amazilia tzacati fuscicaaudata  ______ 
    subspecies in northern Colombia and western Venezuela
    Amazilia tzacati handleyi  ______ 
    subspecies in northwest Panama on the island Escudo de Veraguas, described in 1963
    Amazilia tzacati jucunda  ______ 
    subspecies in western Colombia and western Ecuador
    Amazilia tzacati tzacati  ______ 
    subspecies from Mexico to Panama

    In Ecuador, the Rufous-tailed Hummingbird occurs mostly below 4,500 feet above sea level. Locally, or possibly seasonally, it can be as high as 7,500 feet above sea level.  
    (first two photos below, of Rufous-tailed Hummingbirds in Central America) 

    (Below, a Rufous-tailed Hummingbird photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2013,
     the subspecies Amazilia tzacati jucunda,
     photo by Marie Gardner) 

  5. Escudo Hummingbird  (t3)  ______  PN
    Amazilia handleyi

    Amazilia handleyi
    has a very small range. It is endemic to Isla Escudo de Veraguas in the Caribbean Sea, off the coast of Bocas del Toro, in Panama. 
    It was observed occasionally in March 1958, and 5 specimens were collected during 5 days in March 1962. More recent surveys have found the species to be common, but in an extremely small range.     

  6. Buff-bellied Hummingbird  ______  BL  GU(*)  MX(*)  TX(*)
    Amazilia yucatanensis

    Amazilia yucatanensis cerviniventis  ______ 
    subspecies in eastern Mexico, described by Gould in 1856
    Amazilia yucatanensis chalconota  ______ 
    subspecies in northeastern Mexico and southern Texas
    Amazilia yucatanensis yucatanensis  ______ 
    subspecies in southeastern Mexico, northern Guatemala, northern Belize

    In the United States, the Buff-bellied Hummingbird breeds in south Texas. After nesting, a small number move northward & eastward along the US Gulf Coast. Some winter eastward to Florida, occurring there from October to March. The few winter US records away from the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico include those in central Texas and more rarely in Arkansas, Mississippi, and Alabama.     

  7. White-bellied Hummingbird  ______  AR(*)  BL  BR  PE
    Amazilia chionogaster

    Amazilia chionogaster chionogaster  ______ 
    subspecies in northern and central Peru
    Amazilia chionogaster hypoleuca  ______ 
    subspecies from southeast Peru to northwest Argentina

    The White-bellied Hummingbird is a South American species, not be confused with a bird in Central America, the White-bellied Emerald, Amazilia candida.  

  8. Green-and-white Hummingbird  ______  PE
    Amazilia viridicauda

    The geographical range of the Green-and-white Hummingbird is central Peru.  

  9. Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird  (t1)  ______  CL  (species described by Gould in 1856)
    Amazilia castaneiventris

    The known geographic range of Amazilia castaneiventris is extremely small, in the eastern Andes in Colombia. 

  10. Plain-bellied Emerald  ______  BR  VE
    Amazilia leucogaster

    Amazilia leucogaster bahiae  ______
      subspecies in eastern Brazil
    Amazilia leucogaster leucogaster  ______ 
    subspecies in eastern Venezuela, the Guianas, northeastern Brazil

  11. Versicolored Emerald  ______  AR(*)  BL  BR(*)  CL  PE  PG  VE(*)
    Amazilia versicolor

    Amazilia versicolor hollandi  ______ 
    subspecies in southeastern Venezuela
    Amazilia versicolor kubtchecki  ______ 
    subspecies in southwestern Brazil, northeastern Bolivia, eastern Paraguay, northeastern Argentina
    Amazilia versicolor millerii  ______ 
    subspecies in eastern Colombia, eastern Peru, and northern Brazil
    Amazilia versicolor nitidifrons  ______
      subspecies in northeastern Brazil, described by Gould in 1860
    Amazilia versicolor versicolor  ______ 
    subspecies in southeastern Brazil 

    It is the concensus of most that what was described as a new species in 1982, Amazila rondiniae, the Rondonia Emerald, be best treated as a form (or subspecies) of the Versicolored Emerald, Amazilia versicolor.      

  12. Blue-green Emerald  ______  BL  BR  (species described by Ruschi in 1982)
    Amazilia rondoniae

    The geographic range of the Blue-green Emerald is west-central Brazil and northern Bolivia.  

  13. White-chested Emerald  ______  BR  TT  VE(*)
    Amazilia brevirostris

    Amazilia brevirostris brevirostris  ______ 
    subspecies in eastern Venezuela and Guyana to north-central Brazil
    Amazilia brevirostris chionopectus  ______ 
    subspecies in Trinidad, described by Gould in 1859
    Amazilia brevirostris orienticola  ______ 
    subspecies in coastal French Guiana   

  14. Andean Emerald  ______  CL  EC(*)  PE
    (or Agyrtria) franciae

    Amazilia franciae viridiceps  ______ 
    in Ecuador, subspecies in the west, nearly endemic to Ecuador
    Amazilia franciae franciae  ______ 
    in northwest and central Colombia 
    Amazilia franciae cyanocollis  ______ 
    in Ecuador, in the southeast - only recently found in Ecuador, first in 1989 and 1992; known previously only in northern Peru, described by Gould in 1854
    In A. f. cyanocollis the purple-blue of the cap extends down the back of the head.  
    Amazilia franciae viridiceps  ______  subspecies in southwest Colombia and western Ecuador; nearly endemic to Ecuador, described by Gould in 1860  
    A. f. viridiceps has a shorter tail and green cap. 

    The medium-length bill of the adult male Andean Emerald has a black upper mandible and a black-tipped pink lower mandible. 

    The Andean Emerald is a trapliner, feeding mostly at mid to high levels, on the nectar of a variety of plants including Musa (banana), Canna, Psammisia, and Eugenia. It also catches small insects.

    The Andean Emerald is most common at above 3,000 feet above sea level. 
    In western Ecuador, it is at mostly below 4,200 feet, while in eastern Ecuador from 2,700 to 4,800 feet above sea level.      

    (upper photo below, by Marie Gardner, during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2013,
     lower photo below, in Ecuador, by Larry O'Mealie) 

  15. White-bellied Emerald  ______  BZ(*)  GU(*)  HN(*)  MX(*)
    Amazilia candida

    Amazilia candida candida  ______ 
    subspecies from southern Mexico (Chiapas) to Nicaragua
    Amazilia candida genini  ______ 
    subspecies in eastern and southern Mexico
    Amazilia candida pacifica  ______ 
    subspecies in southeastern Mexico (the Yucatan Peninsula) and nearby Guatemala  

  16. Azure-crowned Hummingbird  ______  GU(*)  HN(*)  (has been called Red-billed Azurecrown)
    Amazilia cyanocephala

    Amazilia cyanocephala chlorostephana  ______ 
    subspecies from eastern Honduras to northeastern Nicaragua 
    Amazilia cyanocephala cyanocephala  ______ 
    subspecies from Mexico to north-central Nicaragua 

  17. Violet-crowned Hummingbird  ______  AZ(*)  MX  (species described by Gould in 1859)
    Amazilia violiceps

    Amazilia violiceps ellioti  ______ 
    subspecies from the southwest USA to northwest and central Mexico
    Amazilia violiceps violiceps  ______ 
    subspecies in southwest Mexico

    (photos below, taken during FONT tours in Arizona, 
     at a nest and at a feeder.
     lower photo by Marie Gardner during the FONT tour in August 2010)

    The Violet-crowned Hummingbird is nearly a Mexican endemic, but its northern breeding range does extend into southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. In southeast Arizona, breeding is in the areas of the Sonoita Creek and the Huachuca & Chiricahua Mountains. A few individuals spend the winter near feeders in southeast Arizona. But mostly the species moves into Arizona and New Mexico in June.
    It occurs as a vagrant in central Arizona (August, October), in California (July to December, and March & May), and in west Texas (March, July, December), southern Texas (May, October), and the upper Texas Gulf Coast (March).

  18. Green-fronted Hummingbird  ______  MX
    Amazilia viridifrons

    Amazilia viridifrons viridifrons  ______  subspecies in southern Mexico in Guerrero
    Amazilia viridifrons wagneri  ______ 
    subspecies in southern Mexico in Oaxaca and Chiapas   

  19. Glittering-throated Emerald  ______  BL  BR(*)  CL  EC(*)  PE  PG(*)  VE(*)
    (or Polyerata) fimbriata

    Amazilia fimbriata apicalis  ______ 
    subspecies in eastern Colombia, described by Gould in 1861
    Amazilia fimbriata elegantissima  ______ 
    subspecies in northeastern Colombia and northwestern and northern Venezuela  
    Amazilia fimbriata fimbriata  ______ 
    subspecies in northeastern Venezuela, the Guianas, northern Brazil 
    Amazilia fimbriata fluviatilus  ______ 
    subspecies in southeastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, described by Gould in 1861
    Amazilia fimbriata laeta  ______ 
    subspecies in northeastern Peru
    Amazilia fimbriata nigricauda  ______ 
    subspecies from central Brazil to eastern Bolivia
    Amazilia fimbriata tephrocephala  ______ 
    subspecies from southeastern Brazil to eastern Paraguay

    In Ecuador, the Glittering-throated Emerald occurs up to 3,600 feet above sea level.   

    (photo below by Marie Gardner, during the FONT tour in southern Ecuador in April 2014)  

  20. Sapphire-spangled Emerald  ______  BL  BR(*)  PE  VE
    (or Polyerata) lactea

    Amazilia lactea bartletti  ______
      subspecies in eastern and southeastern Peru, and northern Bolivia, described by Gould in 1866
    Amazilia lactea lactea  ______ 
    subspecies in central and southern Brazil
    Amazilia lactea zimmeri  ______
      subspecies in southeastern Venezuela, described in 1941     

    There has been said to be one sighting of a Sapphire-spangled Emerald in eastern Ecuador.  

  21. Blue-chested Hummingbird  ______  CR(*)  EC(*)  PN(*)  (species described by Gould in 1853)  
    (or Polyerata) amabilis

    The geographic range of the Blue-chested Hummingbird is from Nicaragua to Ecuador. 

    In Ecuador, the Blue-chested Hummingbird occurs mostly below 900 feet above sea level.

  22. Beryl-crowned Hummingbird  ______  CR(*)  PN(*)  (has been considered part of the Blue-chested Hummingbird)
    Amazilia decora

    Another name for Amazilia decora is the Charming Hummingbird.

    The geographic range of the Beryl-crowned Hummingbird is in southwestern Costa Rica and eastern Panama, on the Pacific slope. 

  23. Purple-chested Hummingbird  ______  CL  EC
    Amazilia rosenbergi

    The geographic range of the Purple-chested Hummingbird is western Colombia and northwestern Ecuador. 

    In Ecuador, the Purple-chested Hummingbird occurs mostly below 1,800 feet above se level.

  24. Mangrove Hummingbird  (t2)  ______  CR(*)
    Amazilia boucardi

    The geographic range of the Mangrove Hummingbird is western Costa Rica. 
    It is 1 of only 4 species endemic to Costa Rica. 

  25. Honduran Emerald  (t1)  ______  HN
    Amazilia luciae

    The Honduran Emerald is endemic to Honduras. It is the only species endemic to Honduras.

  26. Steely-vented Hummingbird  ______  CL  CR(*)  VE(*)
    Amazilia saucerrottei

    Amazilia saucerrottei braccta  ______ 
    subspecies in the Andes in Merida, Venezuela
    Amazilia saucerrottei hoffmanni  ______ 
    subspecies from southwest Nicaragua to central Costa Rica
    Amazilia saucerrottei saucerrottei  ______ 
    subspecies on Andean slopes and valleys in northwest Colombia
    Amazilia saucerrottei warscewiczi  ______ 
    subspecies in northern and central Colombia  

  27. Indigo-capped Hummingbird  ______  CL
    Amazilia cyanifrons

    The geographic range of the Indigo-capped Hummingbird is northern and central Colombia.  

  28. Snowy-breasted Hummingbird  ______  CR(*)  PN(*)  (also called Snowy-bellied Hummingbird)
    Amazilia edward

    Amazilia edward collata  ______ 
    subspecies in east-central Panama, described in 1952
    Amazilia edward edward  ______ 
    subspecies in west-central Panama
    Amazilia edward margaritarum  ______ 
    subspecies in eastern Panama and on offshore islands in the Gulf of Panama
    Amazilia edward niveoventer  ______ 
    subspecies in southwestern Costa Rica and western and central Panama and Coiba Island, described by Gould in 1851 

    (photo below, by Marie Grenouillet) 

  29. Blue-tailed Hummingbird  ______  CR  GU(*)  HN  MX  (species described by Gould in 1859)
    Amazilia cyanura

    Amazilia cyanura cyanura  ______ 
    subspecies in southern Honduras and northern Nicaragua
    Amazilia cyanura guatemalae  ______ 
    subspecies in southern Mexico and Guatemala
    A. c. guatemalae
    differs from the nominate by having a dark and more violet rump 
    Amazilia cyanura impatiens  ______  subspecies in northwest and central Costa Rica  
    A. c. impatiens
    has a more extensive chestnut wing patch

    The two more northerly subspecies are quite common over most of their range. But A. c. impatiens has not been reliably observed in its small known range since the 1950s and may be extinct.  

    The Blue-tailed Hummingbird is found mainly at altitudes of 3,300 feet or lower, but the subspecies A. c. guatemalae ranges to higher altitudes.

    The Blue-tailed Hummingbird is especially fond of Inga flowers, and it is an agile flycatcher. 

  30. Berylline Hummingbird  ______  AZ(*)  GU(*)  HN(*)  MX(*)
    Amazilia beryllina

    Amazilia beryllina beryllina  ______ 
    subspecies in central Mexico
    A. b. beryllina has a green lower back.
    Amazilia beryllina devillei  ______  subspecies from southern Guatemala to central Honduras
    A. b. devillei has a rich chestnut-copper color in the back and rump.. 
    Amazilia beryllina lichtensteini  ______  subspecies in southern Mexico, in western Chiapas, described in 1950
    In A. b. lichtensteini, the green areas are paler.
    Amazilia beryllina sumichrasti  ______  subspecies in southern Mexico, in central and southern Chiapas
    A. b. sumichrasti
    has a violet tinge to the rump and tail.  
    Amazilia beryllina viola  ______  subspecies in northwestern and western Mexico   
    A. b. viola
    has a gray tinge to the back and rump. In the far north of its range, the Berylline Hummingbird, A. b. viola, is migratory.  

    The Berylline Hummingbird is, as noted above, a mostly northern Central American species, in Mexico and south to Honduras.
    In the United States, it is a very rare summer visitor in the mountains of southeast Arizona, where it has rarely bred. It also occurs rarely in southwestern New Mexico (in the Guadalupe Canyon) and in west Texas (in the Big Bend National Park & in the Davis Mountains).     

  31. Green-bellied Hummingbird  ______  BR  CL  VE
    Amazilia viridigaster

    Amazilia viridigaster iodura  ______ 
    subspecies in northeastern Colombia, western Venezuela, and far-northern Brazil
    Amazilia viridigaster viridigaster  ______ 
    subspecies in north-central Colombia 

  32. Copper-tailed Hummingbird  ______  BR  VE
    Amazilia cupreicauda

    Amazilia cupreicauda cupreicauda  ______
      subspecies in eastern Venezuela, Guyana, northern Brazil
    Amazilia cupreicauda duidae  ______ 
    subspecies in southern and central Venezuela
    Amazilia cupreicauda laireti  ______ 
    (subspecies in far-southern Venezuela)  (subspecies described in 1988)
    Amazilia cupreicauda pacaraimae  ______ 
    (subspecies in southeast Venezuela in Urutani)  (subspecies described in 2000)    

  33. Copper-rumped Hummingbird  ______  VE(*)
    Amazilia tobaci

    Amazilia tobaci aliciae  ______ 
    subspecies in northeast Venezuela, and Margarita Is.
    Amazilia tobaci caudata  ______ 
    subspecies in northeast Venezuela, subspecies described in 1949
    Amazilia tobaci caurensis  ______ 
    subspecies in eastern and southeastern Venezuela  
    Amazilia tobaci erythronotos  ______ 
    subspecies on Trinidad
    Amazilia tobaci feliciae  ______ 
    subspecies in north-central Venezuela
    Amazilia tobaci monticola  ______ 
    subspecies in northwest Venezuela    
    Amazilia tobaci tobaci  ______ 
    subspecies on Tobago 

    (two photos below, by Leroy Tabb, of Amazilia tobaci erythronotos)


  34. Snowcap  ______  CR(*)
    Microchera albocoronata

    Microchera albocoronata albocoronata  ______ 
    subspecies in west-central Panama, on both slope
    Microchera albocoronata parvirostris  ______ 
    subspecies from southern Honduras to far-west Panama, on the Caribbean slope  
    The male of M. a. parvirostris has a red rather than black underside.

    The Snowcap is a tiny hummingbird, 2.5 inches in length. The male is one of the most distinctive and beautiful of all hummingbirds. Its plumage is a deep vivid reddish purple above, with a black or red underside. It has black wings, but contrastingly the adult male has a pure white cap, hence the bird's name, Snowcap.

    The Snowcap feeds on various small flowers, usually traplining.         

    Males sing at communal leks, up to 6 birds. After mating the female constructs a tiny cup nest from tree-fern scales. 

    During FONT tours in Costa Rica, we've truly enjoyed seeing the Snowcap.

    (photo below of an adult male Snowcap, by Larry O''Meallie)


  35. Blossomcrown  (t3)  ______  (species described by Gould in 1854)
    Anthocephala floriceps

    Anthocephala floriceps berlepschi  ______ 
    (subspecies in central Colombia)
    Anthocephala floriceps floriceps  ______ 
    (subspecies in northeastern Colombia) 


  36. White-vented Plumeleteer  ______  PN(*)  VE(*)
    Chalybura buffonii

    Chalybura buffonii aeneicauda  ______ 
    subspecies in northern Colombia and western and north-central Venezuela
    Chalybura buffonii buffonii  ______ 
    subspecies in central and northeastern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela
    Chalybura buffonii caeruleogaster  ______ 
    subspecies in northern and central Colombia, described by Gould in 1847
    Chalybura buffonii micans  ______ 
    subspecies central and eastern Panama and western Colombia 

  37. Ecuadorian Plumeleteer  (ph)  ______  EC(*)
    Chalybura intermedia

    The geographic range of Chalybura intermedia is widely disjunct from that of Chalybura buffonii, the White-vented Plumeleteer (above).
    Chalybura intermedia also has a different elevational range. It is not found in the tropical zone as is Chalybura buffonii.
    As to plumage differences, Chalybura intermedia has a reddish lower mandible and pinkish-gray feet, while both are black in Chalybura buffonii.

    Chalybura intermedia is nearly endemic to southwest Ecuador. It has recently been found in adjacent Tumbes, Peru.

    Based on the large number of specimens taken in the 19th and early 20th Century, and the relative scarceness of recent sightings, it seems that Chalybura intermedia has declined substantially.  

    The Ecuadorian Plumeleteer occurs mostly from 1,500 to 5,250 feet above sea level. 

    Ecuadorian Plumeleteer
    (photo by Larry O'Mealie)

  38. Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer  ______  CR(*)  EC  PN(*)  (has been called Red-footed Plumeleteer)
    Chalybura urochrysia

    Chalybura urochrysia isaurae  ______ 
    subspecies in eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia, described by Gould in 1861
    Chalybura urochrysia melanorrhoa  ______ 
    subspecies in Nicaragua and Costa Rica
    Chalybura urochrysia urochrysia  ______ 
    subspecies in southeastern Panama, north-central and western Colombia, northwestern Ecuador, described by Gould in 1861

    In Ecuador (where it is only in the far-northwest), the Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer occurs up 2,400 feet above sea level.      


  39. Blue-throated Hummingbird (or Mountaingem)   ______  AZ(*)  CR(*)  MX(*) 
    Lampornis clemenciae

    Lampornis clemenciae bessophilus  ______ 
    (subspecies in the southwestern US and northwestern Mexico)
    Lampornis clemenciae clemenciae  ______ 
    (subspecies in the southern US, and northeastern, southern, and central Mexico) 
    Lampornis clemenciae phasmorus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Texas, in the Chisos Mountains)  (subspecies described in 1974)

    (photo below)  

    North of Mexico, the Blue-throated Hummingbird, or Blue-throated Mountaingem, is primarily a "sky island" mountain species in western Texas, southern New Mexico, and southeastern Arizona. It has occurred as a a vagrant to central Arizona, central New Mexico, Colorado (July to August), and in parts of Texas (mostly in the fall): the Edwards Plateau, the Gulf Coast, the lower Rio Grande Valley, and the Panhandle. Vagrants have also been in: California (in the summer), Louisiana (during fall & spring), North Dakota (in June), South Carolina (in August), and in Utah (in August).

  40. White-bellied Mountaingem  ______  CR(*)
    Lampornis hemileucus

    The geographic range of the White-bellied Mountaingem is from north-central Costa Rica to western Panama.

  41. Purple-throated Mountaingem  ______  CR(*)
    Lampornis calolaemus

    Lampornis calolaemus calolaemus  ______ 
    (subspecies in central Costa Rica)
    Lampornis calolaemus homogenes  ______
      (subspecies in southern Costa Rica & western Panama)  (subspecies described in 1967)
    Lampornis calolaemus pectoralis  ______ 
    (subspecies from southern Nicaragua to north-central Costa Rica)

  42. Gray-tailed Mountaingem ______  CR(*)
    Lampornis cinereicauda

    The geographic range of the Gray-tailed Mountaingem is in southern Costa Rica. It is 1 of 4 bird species endemic to the country, and 1 of 3 species of hummingbirds that are endemic. 

    (photo below, courtesy of Ruben Campos) 


  43. White-throated Mountaingem  ______  PN(*)  (said to be conspecific with the Gray-tailed Mountaingem, Lampornis cinereicauda)  (species described by Gould in 1851)
    Lampornis castaneoventris

    The geographic range of the White-throated Mountaingem is in western Panama.

  44. Green-throated Mountaingem  ______  GU(*)  HN(*)
    Lampornis viridipallens

    Lampornis viridipallens amadoni  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Mexico)  (subspecies described in1968)
    Lampornis viridipallens nubivagus  ______ 
    (subspecies in El Salvador)
    Lampornis viridipallens ovandensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Mexico, northwestern Guatemala)
    Lampornis viridipallens viridipallens  ______ 
    (subspecies in Guatemala, northern El Salvador, western Honduras)    

  45. Green-breasted Mountaingem  ______
    Lampornis sybillae

    The geographic range of the Green-breasted Mountaingem is in eastern Honduras and north-central Nicaragua. 

  46. Amethyst-throated Hummingbird  ______  GU(*)  MX(*)
    Lampornis amethystinus

    Lampornis amethystinus amethystinus  ______ 
    (subspecies in western, central, & eastern Mexico)
    Lampornis amethystinus circumventris  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Mexico)  (subspecies described in 1966)
    Lampornis amethystinus margaritae  ______ 
    (subspecies in southwestern Mexico)
    Lampornis amethystinus nobilis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Honduras)
    Lampornis amethystinus salvini  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador) 


  47. White-eared Hummingbird ______  AZ(*)  GU(*)  HN(*)  MX(*)
    Basilinna leucotis

    Basilinna leucotis borealis  ______  (subspecies in northern Mexico & into southeastern Arizona)
    Basilinna leucotis leucotis  ______ 
    (subspecies in central & southern Mexico and Guatemala)
    Basilinna leucotis pygmaea  ______ 
    (subspecies in El Salvador, Honduras, El Salvador)

    (photo below, taken during a FONT tour)  

    North of Mexico and northern Central America, the White-eared Hummingbird occurs mostly in southeastern Arizona, in the Huachuca and Chiricahua Mountains. It has bred in southern Arizona. Generally it arrives in Arizona in mid-April to May, and departs August to October.
    It also occurs as rarity, from June to October, in southwestern & north-central New Mexico, and in western & central Texas, including in the Davis, Guadeloupe, and Chisos Mountains. Most records north & east of the breeding range are from late-June to August. There is evidence of some post-breeding movement. 
    A female that wintered in coastal Mississippi, from November 1995 to January 1996, was extraordinary. 

  48. Xantu's Hummingbird  ______  British Colombia, Canada(*)
    Basilinna xantusii

    The geographic range of the Xantu's Hummingbird is normally in southern Baja California, Mexico. The bird referred to below was an unprecedented vagrant, for whatever reason.

    In southern Baja California, the normal range of the Xantu's Hummingbird, it is generally sedentary, or at most a short-distance migrant. However, it has occurred as a vagrant in southern California in the US, and oddly, as noted here, in southwestern British Columbia, Canada.

    In California, a male was found, not near a feeder, in eastern San Diego County in December 1986.The following year, a female was present from January to March in a yard in Ventura, California, where she nested unsuccessfully.

    In British Columbia, a female took up residence at a feeder in Gibsons from November 1997 to September 1998. There has not been a satisfactory explanation of that extraordinary record.       

    (photo below of an out-of-range Xantu's Hummingbird in British Colombia, Canada,
     in September 1998, during a FONT Pacific Coast Tour;
     normally the species occurs only in Baja California, Mexico)       


  49. Garnet-throated Hummingbird  ______  GU(*)
    Lamprolaima rhami

    The geographic range of the Garnet-throated Hummingbird is from central & southern Mexico to Honduras and El Salvador.
    The Garnet-throated Hummingbird feeds from flowering shrubs and trees such as Inga and Erythrina at low and medium heights.
    It nests at the lower end of its altitudinal range. After breeding, the birds move to higher altitudes. 


  50. Speckled Hummingbird  ______ EC(*)  VE(*)
    Adelomyia melanogenys 
    (the single member of its genus)

    Adelomyia melanogemys aeneosticta 
    (subspecies in central & northern Venezuela)
    Adelomyia melanogemys cervina 
    (subspecies in western & central Colombia)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1872) 
    Adelomyia melanogemys chlorospila 
    (subspecies in southeast Peru)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1872)
    Adelomyia melanogemys connectens 
    (subspecies in southern Colombia)  (subspecies described in 1945) 
    Adelomyia melanogemys debellardiana 
    (subspecies in western Venezuela, in the Perija Mountains)  (subspecies described in 1994)  
    Adelomyia melanogemys inornata 
    (subspecies in Bolivia & northwest Argentina)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1846)
    Adelomyia melanogemys maculata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador & northern Peru; in Ecuador, on the west slope of the Andes)
    Adelomyia melanogenys melanogenys  ______ 
    (subspecies from western Venezuela & eastern Colombia to south-central Peru; in Ecuador, on the east slope of the Andes)

    (photo below, by Marie Gardner, during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2013)


  51. Ecuadorian Piedtail  (t3)  ______  EC  (species described by Gould in 1860) 
    Phlogophilus hemileucurus

    The geographic range of the Ecuadorian Piedtail is from southern Colombia to northeastern Peru. 

    The status of the Ecuadorian Piedtail was changed in 2012 from near-threatened to vulnerable, due to a high amount of deforestation in its range and habitat. 

  52. Peruvian Piedtail  (nt)  ______
    Phlogophilus harterti 

    The geographic range of the Peruvian Piedtail is in central and southeastern Peru.


  53. Brazilian Ruby  ______  BR(*)
    Clytolaema rubricauda

    The geographic range of the Brazilian Ruby is in southeastern Brazil.

    (Illustration below, with a female Brazilian Ruby above, and a male below) 


  54. Green-crowned Brilliant  ______  CR(*)  EC(*)
    Heliodoxa jacula

    Heliodoxa jacula henryi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Heliodoxa jacula jacula  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Panama and northern & central Colombia)  
    Heliodoxa jacula jamesoni  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador that is geographically isolated from the others, and is nearly endemic to Ecuador; recorded for the first time in adjacent Narino, in southwestern Colombia in 1994)

    In Ecuador, the Green-crowned Brilliant occurs mostly from 1,500 to 4,650 feet above sea level.

    (photos below: the upper photo in Costa Rica; the lower photo in Ecuador,
    upper photo courtesy of Larry O'Meallie,
    the lower photo of the bird in Ecuador noted above as being geographically isolated from the other subspecies,
    lower photo by Marie Gardner during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2014)    

  55. Velvet-browed Brilliant  ______  BR  VE(*)
    Heliodoxa xanthogonys

    Heliodoxa xanthogonys willardi  ______ 
    (subspecies in extreme southern Venezuela)  (subspecies described in 2001)
    Heliodoxa xanthogonys xanthogonys  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Venezuela, Guyana, north-central Brazil)

  56. Pink-throated Brilliant  (t3)  ______  BR  EC  (species described by Gould in 1860) 
    Heliodoxa gularis

    The geographic range of the Pink-throated Brilliant is in southern Colombia, northeastern Ecuador, northeastern Peru, and northwestern Brazil. 

  57. Rufous-webbed Brilliant  ______
    Heliodoxa branickii

    The geographic range of the Rufous-webbed Brilliant is in southeastern Peru & northeaster Bolivia.

  58. Black-throated Brilliant  ______  BR  EC
    Heliodoxa schreibersii

    Heliodoxa schreibersii schreibersii  ______ 
    (subspecies from southeast Colombia to northeast Peru & northwest Brazil)
    Heliodoxa schreibersii whitelyana  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Peru)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1872)

  59. Fawn-breasted Brilliant  ______  EC(*)
    Heliodoxa rubinoides

    Heliodoxa rubinoides aequatorialis  ______ 
    (in Ecuador, subspecies in the west)
    Heliodoxa rubinoides cervinigularis  ______ 
    (in Ecuador, subspecies in the east) 

    The Fawn-breasted Brilliant feeds on the nectar of many different plants, including species of Heliconia in the understory and Inga and Erythrina higher up. It also takes small insects.

    In Ecuador, the Fawn-breasted Brilliant occurs mostly from 3,300 to 6,300 feet above sea level.  

  60. Empress Brilliant  (nt)  ______  EC(*)  (species described by Gould in 1856)
    Heliodoxa imperatis

    The geographic range of the Empress Brilliant is in Colombia & northwest Ecuador, on the west slope of the Andes.

    In Ecuador, the Empress Brilliant occurs mostly from 4,500 to 6,300 feet above sea level. 

    (photograph below: an of Empress Brilliant in western Ecuador, courtesy of Larry O'Meallie)

  61. Violet-fronted Brilliant  ______  EC(*)  VE(*)
    Heliodoxa leadbeateri

    Heliodoxa leadbeateri leadbeateri  ______  (subspecies in northern Venezuela)
    Heliodoxa leadbeateri otero  ______ 
    (subspecies in central & southern Peru and northwestern Bolivia)
    Heliodoxa leadbeateri parvula  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwestern Venezuela and in Colombia)
    Heliodoxa leadbeateri sagitta  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Ecuador & northern Peru) 

  62. Gould's Jewelfront  ______  BR  EC(*)  (species described by Gould in 1846)
    (formerly Polyplancta) aurescens

    The geographic range of the Gould's Jewelfront is in Amazonia.


  63. Magnificent Hummingbird  ______ AZ(*)  CR(*)  GU(*)  MX(*)  PN(*) 
    Eugenes fulgens 
    (the single member of its genus)  

    Eugenes fulgens fulgens  Rivoli's Hummingbird  ______  AZ(*)  GU(*)  MX(*) 
    (subspecies from the southwest US to Nicaragua)
    Eugenes fulgens spectabilis  ______  CR(*)  PN(*) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & western Panama) 

    (Photos below; 
     the upper photo by Virginia Woodhouse during a FONT tour in Costa Rica in March 2012
     the middle photo courtesy of Larry O'Meallie; the lower photo taken in Costa Rica)  

    North of Mexico and Central America, the Magnificent Hummingbird is primarily a "sky island" mountain species in western Texas, southern New Mexico, and southeastern Arizona. 
    Young males are often highly nomadic, Banded birds have traveled hundreds of miles between mountain ranges during a season. Such migration is through lower elevations, especially foothills, in the spring and fall.
    Away from the US breeding range, there have been occurrences in Colorado (from May to October), and less so in: Alabama (September to February), Arkansas (in July), California (in April), Georgia (in the winter), Minnesota (in July), Nevada (in June), Utah (in July), Wyoming (in June & July), and in southern Texas (in September). 


  64. Scissor-tailed Hummingbird  (t3)  ______  (species described by Gould in 1873)
    Hylonymphia macrocerca 

    The geographic range of the Scissor-tailed Hummingbird is in northeastern Venezuela on the Paria Peninsula. 


  65. Violet-chested Hummingbird  ______  VE(*)  (species described by Gould in 1846)
    Sternoclyta cyanopectus

    The geographic range of the Violet-chested Hummingbird is in northwestern Venezuela. 


  66. Buff-tailed Coronet  ______  EC(*)
    Boissonneaua flavescens

    Boissonneaua flavescens flavescens  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Venezuela, and Colombia and Ecuador on the east slope of the Andes)
    Boissonneaua flavescens tinochlora  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia and Ecuador on the west slope of the Andes) 

    In Ecuador, the Buff-tailed Coronet occurs mostly from 4,500 to 7,200 feet above sea level.

    (upper photo below by Marie Gardner during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013,
     the lower photo below of an immature Buff-tailed Coronet in Ecuador by Larry O'Mealie)

  67. Chestnut-breasted Coronet  ______  EC(*)
    Boissonneaua matthewsii

    The geographic range of Chestnut-breasted Coronet is in southeastern Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

    In Ecuador, the Chestnut-breasted Coronet occurs mostly from 5,700 to 8,100 feet above sea level. 

    (photo below by Marie Gardner during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013) 

    (another photo, below, was by Marie Gardner during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2014)

  68. Velvet-purple Coronet   (nt)  ______  EC(*)
    Boissonneaua jardini

    The geographic range of the Velvet-purple Coronet is in southwestern Colombia & northwestern Ecuador.

    In Ecuador, the Velvet-purple Coronet occurs mostly from 2,400 to 5,100 feet above sea level. 

    (photo below by Marie Gardner during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013)


  69. Shining Sunbeam  ______  EC(*)  
    Aglaeactis cupripennis

    Aglaeactis cupripennis caumatonota  ______ 
    (subspecies in central & southern Peru)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1848) 
    Aglaeactis cupripennis cupripenni  ______
      (subspecies from Colombia to northern Peru; the subspecies in most of the species' range in Ecuador)
    Aglaeactis cupripennis parvulus  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Ecuador in areas of Azuay, El Oro, Loja, and Zamora-Chinchipe) 

    In Ecuador, the Shining Sunbeam occurs mostly from 8,400 to 10,800 feet above sea level.
    (upper photo below, courtesy of Larry O'Meallie,
     lower photo by Marie Gardner during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013,
     during that tour Shining Sunbeams were seen at a nest.)   

  70. Purple-backed Sunbeam  (t3)  ______
    Aglaeactis aliciae

    The geographic range of the Purple-backed Sunbeam is in northern Peru in the Maranon Valley.

  71. White-tufted Sunbeam  ______
    Aglaeactis castelnaudii

    Aglaeactis castelnaudii castelnaudii  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Peru)
    Aglaeactis castelnaudii regalis  ______ 
    (subspecies in central Peru)  (subspecies described in 1951)    

  72. Black-hooded Sunbeam  ______
    Aglaeactis pamela

    The geographic range of the Black-hooded Sunbeam is in the Andes of northern & central Bolivia. 


  73. White-tailed Hillstar  ______  EC(*)
    Urochroa bougueri

    SUBSPECIES (quite different from each other):
    Urochroa bougueri bougueri  ______ 
    (subspecies in southwestern Colombia and in Ecuador on the west slope of the Andes)
    Urochroa bougueri leucura  ______ 
    (subspecies from southern Colombia to northeastern Peru; in Ecuador, on the east slope of the Andes) 


  74. Ecuadorian Hillstar  ______  EC(*)
    Oreotrochilus chimborazo 

    Oreotrochilus chimborazo
    has also been called the Chimborazo Hillstar.

    Oreotrochilus chimborazo chimborazo  ______ 
    (subspecies confined to the slopes of Volcan Chimborazo in Ecuador)
    Oreotrochilus chimborazo soederstromi  ______ 
    (subspecies confined to the slopes of Volcan Quillotoa in Ecuador)
    Oreotrochilus chimborazo jamesoni  ______ 
    (subspecies elsewhere in Ecuador, and in southern Colombia) 

    The above 3 subspecies have been considered by some as subspecies of Oreotrochilus estella, the Andean Hillstar. 

    One of the birds likely to be found higher than almost any other in the Andes is the Ecuadorian Hillstar, a hummingbird that has chosen some of Ecuador's highest volcanoes at its home. It occurs up to about 14,000 feet above sea level on the slopes of Cotopaxi Volcano. Mostly, in Ecuador, Ecuadorian Hillstars occur from 10,800 to 13,800 feet above sea level.   

    The Ecuadorian Hillstar clings on flowers, especially Chuquiraga insignis, when feeding.
    In bad weather, it conserves energy by resting quietly in a sheltered spot.
    At night, it roosts in covered laces and becomes torpid to survive low temperatures. 

    (photo below, of a female Ecuadorian Hillstar, by Larry O'Mealie) 


  75. Andean Hillstar  ______  AR(*)  CH(*)  EC
    Oreotrochilus estella

    Oreotrochilus estella bolivianus  ______ 
    (subspecies in central Bolivia)
    O. e. bolivianus has black spots on its belly stripe.. 

    Oreotrochilus estella estella  ______ 
    (subspecies from southwestern Peru to northern Chile & northwestern Argentina)
    Oreotrochilus estella stolzmanni  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador and northern & central Peru; in Ecuador at the extreme southern end of the country in the far-southern Cordillera Las Lagunillas) 
    O. e. stolzmanni has a black rather than brown ventral stripe. 

    It has been suggested that Oreotrochilus estella stolzmanni deserves recognition as a species. 

    The Andean Hillstar is adapted to living at high altitudes, where it feeds primarily on Chuquiraga spinosa. It perches rather than hovers when taking nectar. It becomes torpid overnight   
    The Andean Hillstar is one of the most common birds in its preferred puna habitat. 

  76. White-sided Hillstar  ______  AR(*)  CH(*)  (species described by Gould in 1847)
    Oreotrochilus leucopleurus

    The geographic range of the White-sided Hillstar is from southern Bolivia to south-central Chile and southern Argentina.

  77. Black-breasted Hillstar  ______  (species described by Gould in 1847)
    Oreotrochilus melanogaster

    The geographic range of the Black-breasted Hillstar is in central Peru.

  78. Wedge-tailed Hillstar  (nt)  ______
    Oreotrochilus adela

    The geographic range of the Wedge-tailed Hillstar is in southern Bolivia.


  79. Mountain Velvetbreast  ______  EC(*)  VE(*)
    Lafresnaya lasfresnayi

    Lafresnaya lasfresnayi greenewalti  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Venezuela)  (subspecies described in 1961)
    Lafresnaya lasfresnayi lasfresnayi  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Venezuela and central & eastern Colombia)
    Lafresnaya lasfresnayi liriope  ______ 
    (subspecies in northeastern Colombia)
    Lafresnaya lasfresnayi rectirostris  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern & central Peru)
    Lafresnaya lasfresnayi saul  ______ 
    (subspecies in southwestern Colombia, Ecuador, northern Peru)   


  80. Collared Inca  ______  EC(*)  VE(*) 
    Coeligena torquata

    Coeligena torquata conradii  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Colombia & northwestern Venezuela)
    Coeligena torquata fulgidigula  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Ecuador)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1854)
    Coeligena torquata margaretae  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern Peru)  (subspecies described in 1948)
    Coeligena torquata torquata  ______ 
    (subspecies from northwestern Venezuela to northern Peru; in Ecuador, subspecies in the east)

    (upper photo below, courtesy of Larry O'Meallie,
     lower photo below by Marie Gardner during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2014) 

  81. Bronzy Inca  ______  EC(*)  VE(*)
    Coeligena coeligena

    Coeligena coeligena boliviana  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1861)
    Coeligena coeligena coeligena  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern Venezuela)
    Coeligena coeligena columbiana  ______ 
    (subspecies northwestern Venezuela and eastern & central Colombia)
    Coeligena coeligena ferruginea  ______ 
    (subspecies in western & central Colombia) 
    Coeligena coeligena obscura  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru)
    Coeligena coeligena zuliana  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Venezuela & northeastern Colombia)  (subspecies described in 1953)

  82. Brown Inca  ______  EC(*)
    Coeligena wilsoni

    The geographic range of the Brown Inca is in western Colombia & western Ecuador.

  83. Black Inca  (t2)  ______
    Coeligena prunellei

    The geographic range of the Black Inca is in north-central Colombia.
  84. Rainbow Starfrontlet  ______  EC(*)  
    Coeligena iris

    SUBSPECIES (the 2 here rather different):
    Coeligena iris hesperus  ______ 
    (subspecies in southwestern Ecuador, in southern Chimborazo, Canar, and most of Azuay)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1865) 
    Coeligena iris iris  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Ecuador and northwestern Peru in Piura; in Ecuador, from southern Azuay south through El Oro and Loja)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1854)   

    Coeligena iris aurora  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwestern Peru in Cutervo)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1854)
    Coeligena iris eva  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern Peru, on the east slope of the western Andes)
    Coeligena iris flagrans  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, on the west slope of the western Andes) (subspecies described in 1951)
    Coeligena iris fulgidiceps  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern Peru, in the eastern Andes east of the Maranon River)    

    (photo below, courtesy of Larry O'Meallie)   

  85. Golden-bellied Starfrontlet  ______
    Coeligena bonapartei

    Coeligena bonapartei bonapartei  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Colombia)
    Coeligena bonapartei consita  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwest Venezuela & northeast Colombia)  (subspecies described in 1952)
    Coeligena bonapartei orina  ______ 
    (subspecies in north-central Venezuela)  (subspecies described in 1953)  

  86. Golden-tailed Starfrontlet  ______  VE(*)  (was part of the Golden-bellied Starfrontlet) (originally described by Gould in 1848)
    Coeligena eos

    The geographic range of the Golden-tailed Starthroat is in western Venezuela.

  87. Blue-throated Starfrontlet  ______
    Coeligena helianthea

    Coeligena helianthea helianthea  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Coeligena helianthea tamai  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Venezuela)  (subspecies described in 1953)

  88. Buff-winged Starfrontlet  ______  EC(*)
    Coeligena lutetiae

    The geographic range of the Buff-winged Starfrontlet is from central Colombia to northern Peru. 

    The Buff-winged Starfrontlet takes nectar at many different flowers with a long corolla, including species of Bomarea, Cavendishia, Fuchsia, Nasa, and Tropaeolum. It also catches insects.

    (photo below by Marie Gardner during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013) 

  89. Violet-throated Starfrontlet  ______  (species described by Gould in 1846) 
    Coeligena violifer 

    Coeligena violifer albicaudata  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Peru)  (subspecies described in 1997)
    Coeligena violifer dichroura  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Ecuador, and north, central, & western Peru)
    Coeligena violifer osculans  ______ 
    (subspecies in southeast Peru)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1871)
    Coeligena violifer violifer ______
      (subspecies in northwest Bolivia) 

  90. White-tailed Starfrontlet  ______
    Coeligena phalerata

    The geographic range of the White-tailed Starfrontlet is in northeastern Colombia.


  91. Sword-billed Hummingbird ______  EC(*)  VE(*) 
    Ensifera ensifera 
    (the single member of its genus) 

    The geographic range of the Sword-billed Hummingbird is in western Venezuela & Colombia to northern Bolivia. 

    (photo below, courtesy of Larry O'Meallie;
     below that, a print from a set of collector's cards in England in the early 20th Century)     

    This Sword-billed Hummingbird was photographed during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013.
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


  92. Great Sapphirewing  ______  EC(*)
    Pterophanes cyanopterus

    Pterophanes cyanopterus caeruleuus  ______  (subspecies in southern Colombia)  (subspecies described in 1951)
    Pterophanes cyanopterus cyanopterus  ______ 
    (subspecies in north-central Colombia)  
    Pterophanes cyanopterus peruvianus  ______
      (subspecies in Ecuador, Peru, northern Bolivia) 

    The Great Sapphirewing is the second largest species of hummingbird, after the Giant Hummingbird (below). 
    It is 6 inches in length. 

    The Great Sapphirewing often holds its wings outstretched as if for balance. The large stiff wings cause the bird to appear to have a "bat-like" flight. 

    (photos below by Marie Gardner during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013)


  93. Giant Hummingbird  ______  AR(*)  CH(*)  EC(*)
    Patagona gigas

    Patagona gigas gigas  ______ 
    (subspecies in central Chile & west-central Argentina)
    Patagona gigas peruviana  ______ 
    (subspecies from southwestern Colombia to northern Chile & northwestern Argentina) 

    The Giant Hummingbird feeds on large flower clusters, usually perching as it does. It favors Agave and Puya flowers and various cacti.


  94. Green-backed Firecrown  ______  AR(*)  CH(*)
    Sephanoides sephanoides

    The geographic range of the Green-backed Firecrown is in Chile & western Argentina.

  95. Juan Fernandez Firecrown  (t1)  ______
    Sephanoides fernandensis

    Sephanoides fernandensis fernandensis  ______ 
    (subspecies on Robinson Crusoe Island in the Juan Fernandez Islands of Chile)
    Sephanoides fernandensis leyboldi  ______ 
    (subspecies, now presumed extinct, on Alejandro Selkirk Island in the Juan Fernandez Islands of Chile)  


  96. Gorgeted Sunangel  ______  EC(*)  (species described by Gould in 1846)
    Heiangelus strophianus

    The geographic range of the Gorgeted Sunangel is in northwestern Ecuador & southwestern Colombia.

    The Gorgeted Sunangel is often close to thick cover, and feeds at low levels, frequently piercing flowers with long corollas such as Psammisia species. 
    (upper photo below, courtesy of Larry O'Meallie,
     lower photo by Marie Gardner during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013)


  97. Orange-throated Sunangel  ______  VE(*)  (species described by Gould in 1848)
    Heliangelus mavors

    The geographic range of the Orange-throated Sunangel is in northwestern Venezuela & eastern Colombia.  

  98. Amethyst-throated Sunangel  ______  EC(*)
    Heliangelus amethysticollis

    Heliangelus amethysticollis amethysticollis  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Peru & northwestern Bolivia)
    Heliangelus amethysticollis apurimacensis 
    (subspecies in southern Peru, described in 2009)
    Heliangelus amethysticollis decolor  ______ 
    (subspecies in central Peru, described in 1951)
    Heliangelus amethysticollis laticlavius  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Ecuador & northern Peru) 

    (photo below by Marie Gardner during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2014)

  99. Longuemare's Sunangel  ______  VE(*)  (was part of the Amethyst-throated Sunangel
    Heliangelus clarisse

    Heliangelus clarisse clarisse  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Venezuela & eastern Colombia)
    Heliangelus clarisse spenci 
    Merida Sunangel  ______  VE(*)  (subspecies in northwestern Venezuela, in the Andes in Merida)

  100. Tourmaline Sunangel  ______  EC(*)
    Heliangelus exortis

    The geographic range of the Tourmaline Sunangel is in northwestern Ecuador & Colombia.

  101. Flame-throated Sunangel  ______  EC(*)  (species originally described by Gould in 1872)
    Heliangelus micraster

    The Flame-throated Sunangel has been considered part of the Tourmaline Sunangel. Another name has been the Little Sunangel.    

    Heliangelus micraster cutevensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwestern Peru)
    Heliangelus micraster micraster  ______ 
    (subspecies in southeastern Ecuador & northern Peru)    

    (photo below by Marie Gardner during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2014)



  102. Purple-throated Sunangel  ______  EC(*)  (species described by Gould in 1853)
    Heliangelus viola

    The geographic range of the Purple-throated Sunangel is in southern Ecuador & northern Peru.

  103. Royal Sunangel  (t2)  ______  (species described in 1979)
    Heliangelus regalis

    The geographic range of the Royal Sunangel is in northern Peru.


  104. Sapphire-vented Puffleg  ______ EC(*)
    Eriocnemis luciani

    Eriocnemis luciani baptistae  ______ 
    (subspecies in the Andes of south-central & southern Ecuador)  (subspecies described in 2001)
    Eriocnemis luciani catharina  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern Peru) 
    Eriocnemis luciani luciani  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Ecuador & southwestern Colombia)
    Eriocnemis luciani meridae  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwestern Venezuela, in the Andes in Merida)  (subspecies described in 2001)  
    Eriocnemis luciani sapphiropygia  ______ 
    (subspecies in central & southern Peru)

    (photo below, courtesy of Larry O'Meallie)

  105. Black-breasted Puffleg  (t1)  ______  EC(*)
    Eriocnemis nigrivestis

    The Black-breasted Puffleg has an extremely small range. It is believed now to be confined to the northern ridge crests of Volcan Pinchincha, in the Pinchincha province in Ecuador.    
    This species is one of the rarest of birds seen during FONT tours over the years. 

  106. Glowing Puffleg  ______  EC(*)  VE(*)
    Eriocnemis vestita

    Eriocnemis vestita arcosi  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Ecuador & northern Peru)  (subspecies described in 2001)
    Eriocnemis vestita paramillo  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwest Colombia)
    Eriocnemis vestita smaragdinipectus  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Colombia & eastern Ecuador)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1868)
    Eriocnemis vestita vestita  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwestern Venezuela & eastern Colombia)  

  107. Black-thighed Puffleg  (nt)  ______  EC
    Eriocnemis derbyi

    The geographic range of the Black-thighed Puffleg is in northwestern Ecuador & Colombia.

  108. Turquoise-throated Puffleg  (t1)  ______  EC
    Eriocnemis godini

    The geographic range of the Turquoise-throated Puffleg is in northwestern Ecuador. 

  109. Coppery-bellied Puffleg  (nt)  ______
    Eriocnemis cupreoventris

    The geographic range of the Coppery-bellied Puffleg is in northwestern Venezuela & eastern Colombia. 

  110. Golden-breasted Puffleg  ______  EC(*)
    Eriocnemis mosquera

    The geographic range of the Golden-breasted Puffleg is in northwestern Ecuador & Colombia. 

  111. Blue-capped Puffleg  ______
    Eriocnemis glaucopoides

    The geographic range of the Blue-capped Puffleg is from central Bolivia to northwest Argentina.

  112. Colorful Puffleg  (t1)  ______  (species described in 1967)
    Eriocnemis mirabilis

    The geographic range of the Colorful Puffleg is in western Colombia.

  113. Emerald-bellied Puffleg  ______  EC
    Eriocnemis alinae

    Eriocnemis alinae alinae  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Colombia & eastern Ecuador)
    Eriocnemis alinae dybowskii  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern & central Peru) 


  114. Greenish Puffleg  ______  EC
    Haplophaedia aureliae

    Haplophaedia aureliae aureliae  ______ 
    (subspecies in central & eastern Colombia)   
    Haplophaedia aureliae caucensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in southeast Panama and the western & central Andes in Colombia)
    Haplophaedia aureliae cutucuensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Ecuador)  (subspecies described in 2000)
    Haplophaedia aureliae russata  ______
      (subspecies in northern & central Ecuador)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1871)    

  115. Buff-thighed Puffleg  ______
    Haplophaedia assimilis

    Haplophaedia assimilis affinis  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern & central Peru)
    Haplophaedia assimilis assimilis  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Peru & northern Bolivia)  

  116. Hoary Puffleg  (nt)  ______  EC(*)  (species described by Gould in 1851)
    Haplophaedia lugens 

    Some consider Haplophaedia lugens to be a west-slope subspecies of Haplophaedia aureliae.


  117. Purple-bibbed Whitetip  (ph)  ______  EC(*)   
    Urosticte benjamini

    The geographic range of the Purple-bibbed Whitetip is from western Colombia to southwestern Ecuador and northern Peru.
    In Ecuador, the Purple-bibbed Whitetip is on the west slope of the Andes, mostly from 2,700 to 4,800 feet above sea level. 

    The name Whitetip is derived from the white tips of the male's central tail feathers. Those feathers are curved upwards making the white area stand clear of the rest of the tail. 
    Otherwise the male is glistening green with a patchy whitish breast band.

    The Purple-bibbed Whitetip and the Rufous-vented Whitetip (below) are very similar to each other, with the Rufous-vented Whitetip being just a little smaller.
    These two birds have been said to be subspecific forms of the same species.

    The Whitetip population in Peru has been considered a separate subspecies, intermedia, and has been classified, at different times, as being with either the Purple-bibbed Whitetip or the Rufous-vented Whitetip. 
    Now, however what was the subspecies intermedia is not recognized.   

  118. Rufous-vented Whitetip  ______  EC
    Urosticte ruficrissa

    The geographic range of the Rufous-vented Whitetip is in southern Colombia and eastern Ecuador.
    In Ecuador, the Rufous-vented Whitetip is on the east slope of the Andes, from 3,900 to 6,900 feet above sea level.  

    The male Rufous-vented Whitetip has, as the name of bird indicates, a russet undertail, that is not had by the male Purple-bibbed Whitetip.
    Also, as noted above, the Purple-bibbed Whitetip and the Rufous-vented Whitetip are on different sides of the Andes, the Purple-bibbed on the west, and the Rufous-vented on the east.  

    Urosticte rufocrissa tends to inconspicuous, and is most often encountered in mist-net captures.


  119. Booted Racket-tail  ______  EC(*)  VE(*)  (also called Racket-tailed Puffleg)
    Ocreatus underwoodii

    Ocreatus underwoodii addae  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    Ocreatus underwoodii annae  ______ 
    (subspecies in central & southern Peru)
    Ocreatus underwoodii discifer  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwest Venezuela & northeast Colombia)  
    Ocreatus underwoodii incommodus  ______ 
    (subspecies in western & central Colombia)  (subspecies described in 1943)
    Ocreatus underwoodii melanantherus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, on the west slope of the Andes)
    Ocreatus underwoodii peruanus  ______ 
    (subspecies in northeast Peru & in Ecuador on the east slope of the Andes)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1849)
    Ocreatus underwoodii polystictus  ______  (subspecies in northern Venezuela)  (subspecies described in 1942)
    Ocreatus underwoodii underwoodii  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Colombia) 

    More than 1 species may be involved:

    White-booted Racket-tail  ______
    Ocreatus underwoodii

    Buff-booted Racket-tail  ______
    Ocreatus addae

    The Booted Racket-tail takes nectar from Palicourea, Inga, and similar plants.

    (the photo below of a Booted Racket-tail was taken by Marie Gardner
     during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013,
     the subspecies is Ocreatus underwoodii melanantherus.)


  120. Black-tailed Trainbearer  ______  EC(*)
    Lesbia victoriae

    Lesbia victoriae berlepschi  ______  (subspecies in southeast Peru)
    Lesbia victoriae juliae  ______ 
    (subspecies in central & northern Peru, and in Ecuador in southern Loja)
    Lesbia victoriae victoriae  ______ 
    (subspecies in most of Ecuador and in Colombia) 

    (photo below, courtesy of Larry O'Meallie)

  121. Green-tailed Trainbearer  ______  EC(*)
    Lesbia nuna 

    Lesbia nuna eucharis  ______ 
    (subspecies in central Peru)
    Lesbia nuna gracilis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1846)
    Lesbia nuna gouldii  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Venezuela & Colombia)
    Lesbia nuna nuna  ______ 
    (subspecies in southwestern Peru & northern Bolivia)
    Lesbia nuna pallidiventris  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern Peru) 


  122. Red-tailed Comet  ______  AR(*)  BL(*)
    Sappho sparganura

    Sappho sparganura sapho  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Bolivia and in northern & western Argentina)
    Sappho sparganura sparganura  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern & central Bolivia) 


  123. Bronze-tailed Comet  ______
    Polyonymus caroli

    The geographic range of the Bronze-tailed Comet is in central & southern Peru. 


  124. Gray-bellied Comet  (t2)  ______
    Taphrolesbia griseiventris

    The geographic range of the Gray-bellied Comet is in northwestern Peru in the Maranon Valley.


  125. Blue-mantled Thornbill  ______  EC(*)
    Chalcostigma stanleyi

    Chalcostigma stanleyi stanleyi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Chalcostigma stanleyi versigulare  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern Peru)
    Chalcostigma stanleyi vulcani  ______ 
    (subspecies from southern Peru to west-central Bolivia)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1852)   

    (photo below, courtesy of Larry O'Meallie)

  126. Rufous-capped Thornbill  ______  EC(*)  (species described by Gould in 1846) 
    Chalcostigma ruficeps

    Chalcostigma ruficeps aureofastigatum
    is no longer recognized as a valid subspecies.

  127. Olivaceous Thornbill  ______
    Chalcostigma olivaceum

    Chalcostigma olivaceum olivaceum  ______ 
    (subspecies from southern Peru to central Bolivia)
    Chalcostigma olivaceum pallens  ______ 
    (subspecies in central Peru)

  128. Bronze-tailed Thornbill  ______
    Chalcostigma heteropogon

    The geographic range of the Bronze-tailed Thornbill is in western Venezuela & eastern Colombia. 

  129. Rainbow-bearded Thornbill  ______  EC(*)
    Chalcostigma herrani

    Chalcostigma herrani herrani  ______ 
    (subspecies from southern Colombia to northern Peru)
    Chalcostigma herrani tolimae  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Colombia)  


    The RAMPHOMICRON thornbills have the shortest bills of any hummingbird, averaging just over one-quarter inch.

  130. Black-backed Thornbill  ______
    Ramphomicron dorsale

    The geographic range of the Black-backed Thornbill is in northeastern Colombia.

  131. Purple-backed Thornbill  ______  EC(*)
    Ramphomicron microrhynchum

    Ramphomicron microrhynchum albiventre  ______ 
    (subspecies in central Peru)
    Ramphomicron microrhynchum andicola  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Venezuela)
    Ramphomicron microrhynchum bolivianum  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern Bolivia)  (subspecies described in 1984)
    Ramphomicron microrhynchum microrhynchum  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, Ecuador, northwest Peru)


  132. Bearded Mountaineer  ______  (species described by Gould in 1869)
    Oreonympha nobilis

    Oreonympha nobilis albolimbata  ______ 
    (subspecies in west-central Peru)
    Oreonympha nobilis nobilis  ______ 
    (subspecies in south-central Peru) 


  133. White-bearded Helmetcrest  ______  VE(*)  in northwestern Venezuela (endemic) 
    Oxypogon lindenii 

  134. Green-bearded Helmetcrest  ______  in eastern Colombia (endemic)
    Oxypogon guerinii

    For years, Oxypogon guerinii was the "Bearded Helmetcrest", with 4 subspecies, that are now here as species.   

  135. Blue-bearded Helmetcrest  (t1)  ______  Colombia (endemic)
    Oxypogon cyanolaemus

    The Blue-bearded Helmetcrest is newly-split from what has been the Bearded Helmetcrest (noted above), as are the two species above and below, the White-bearded Helmetcrest, and the Buffy Helmetcrest.

    What is now the Blue-bearded Helmetcrest was originally discovered in 1880. It was, for years, said to be the subspecies of the Bearded Helmetcrest, Oxypogon guerinii cyanolaemus.

    Oxypogon cyanolaemus is endemic to the Santa Maria region of northeast Colombia. 
    Recently it has been known only from museum specimens. The most recent was collected in 1946.
    Surveys from 1999 to 2011 failed to find the species. So it has been classified by Birdlife International as Critically Endangered (possibly Extinct).

    In March 2015, the Blue-bearded Helmetcrest was found again in the wild, after a long time, and it was photographed.

  136. Buffy Helmetcrest  (t3)  ______  Colombia (endemic)
    Oxypogon stuebelii

    The Buffy Helmetcrest occurs only within the boundaries of the Los Nevados National Park in central Colombia.  


  137. Tyrian Metaltail  ______  EC(*)  VE(*)
    Metallura tyrianthina

    SUBSPECIES (the 2 here very similar):
    Metallura tyrianthina quitensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador, south to Chimborazo and Canar, and in northern Ecuador as far east as west slope of the Eastern Andes)
    Metallura tyrianthina tyrianthina  ______ 
    (subspecies elsewhere in Ecuador)  

  138. Perija Metaltail  (t3)  ______  (species described in 1946)
    Metallura iracunda

    The geographic range of the Perija Metaltail is in western Venezuela & northern Colombia.

  139. Viridian Metaltail  ______  EC(*)
    Metallura williami

    Metallura williami atrigularis  ______ 
    (in Ecuador, subspecies from Volcan Sangay south into El Oro, Loja, and Zamora-Chinchipe)
    Metallura williami primolinus  ______ 
    (in Ecuador, subspecies south to northeast Azuay)

  140. Violet-throated Metaltail  (t3)  ______  EC(*)
    Metallura baroni

    The geographic range of the Violet-throated Metailtail is in south-central Ecuador.

  141. Neblina Metaltail  ______  EC(*)  (species described in 1980)
    Metallura odomae

    The geographic range of the Neblina Metaltail is in southern Ecuador & northern Peru. 

    The Neblina Metaltail is a hardy species. It continues to feed actively in weather conditions bad enough to drive other hummingbirds to more sheltered spots.
    Among its more favored flowers are Castilleja. 

  142. Coppery Metaltail  ______
    Metallura theresiae

    Metallura theresiae parkeri  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern Peru)  (subspecies described in 1981)
    Metallura theresiae theresiae  ______ 
    (subspecies in northeastern Peru)

  143. Fire-throated Metaltail  ______
    Metallura eupogon

    The geographic range of the Fire-throated Metaltail is in central Peru.

  144. Scaled Metaltail  ______  (species described by Gould in 1846)
    Metallura aeneocauda

    Metallura aeneocauda aeneocauda  ______ 
    (subspecies southern Peru & northern Bolivia)
    Metallura aeneocauda malogae  ______ 
    (subspecies in central Bolivia)

  145. Black Metaltail  ______
    Metallura phoebe

    The geographic range of the Black Metaltail is in Peru and Bolivia.


  146. Mountain Avocetbill  ______  EC(*)
    Opisthoprora euryptera

    The geographic range of the Mountain Avocetbill is in southern Colombia & northeastern Ecuador.


  147. Long-tailed Sylph  ______  EC(*)  VE(*)
    Aglaiocercus kingi

    Aglaiocercus kingi caudatus  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern Colombia & western Venezuela)
    Aglaiocercus kingi emmae  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia & Ecuador, on the west slope of the Andes)
    Aglaiocercus kingi kingi  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Colombia)
    Aglaiocercus kingi margarethae  ______ 
    (subspecies in north-central & northern Venezuela) 
    Aglaiocercus kingi mocoa 
    Green-throated Sylph  ______  (subspecies from southern Colombia to northern Peru; in Ecuador on the east slope of the Andes)  
    Aglaiocercus kingi smaragdinus  ______ 
    (subspecies from central Peru to central Bolivia)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1846)

    Away from feeders, the Long-tailed Sylph visits short-flowered canopy species such as Inga, and it sometimes takes nectar by flower-piercing. It may trapline.
    The species is an altitudinal migrant. While it is common in much of its range, its population is thought to be declining. 

    (photo below by Marie Gardner, during the FONT tour in southern Ecuador in April 2014) 

  148. Venezuelan Sylph  ______  VE  (was part of the Long-tailed Sylph)
    Aglalocercus berlepschi

    The geographic range of the Venezuelan Sylph is in northeastern Venezuela.  

  149. Violet-tailed Sylph  ______  EC(*)  (species described by Gould in 1861)
    Aglaiocercus coelestis

    Aglaiocercus coelestis aethereus  ______ 
    (subspecies in southwestern Ecuador, in El Oro and Loja)
    A. c. aethereus
    has a green throat patch.
    Aglaiocercus coelestis coelestis  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Colombia and in Ecuador south to Chimborazo)
    A. c. coelestis
    has a shining blue-throat patch.

    The Violet-tailed Sylph resembles the Long-tailed Sylph (above), but it has a violet-flushed rump and the long tail feathers of the male are violet.   
    The bird usually forages near the ground, but at times it also visits Inga and Erythrina flowers in the canopy. It is principally a trapliner. 
    The distribution of the Violet-tailed Sylph shifts through the year in relation to preferred flowers in season.

    (photo below taken by Marie Gardner during the FONT Ecuador tour in April 2013.
     the subspecies is the nominate, Aglaiocercus c. coelestis.) 


  150. Hyacinth Visorbearer  ______ BR(*)
    Augastes scutatus

    Augastes scutatus ilseae  ______ 
    (subspecies in central & eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil)  (subspecies described in 1967)
    A. s. ilseae
    has a deep violet neck and rich violet-blue underparts 
    Augastes scutatus scutatus  ______ 
    (subspecies in central & eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil)
    Augastes scutatus soaresi  ______ 
    (subspecies in south-central Minas Gerais, Brazil)  (subspecies described by Ruschi in 1963)
    A. s. soaresi
    is slightly larger than the other subspecies, and has a blue line separating the violet and black on its neck.

    The Hyacinth Visorbearer darts from and to a perch as it feeds on insects, and it takes nectar from flowers, favoring bromeliads, cacti, Verbenaceae, and Loranthaceae.

    We've enjoyed seeing the Hyacinth Visorbearer during FONT tours in Minas Gerais on a plateau where we have also seen the Cipo Canastero and other interesting birds.

    The Hyacinth Visorbearer is a small hummingbird, with a short tail, overall greenish-bronze. The male is dark blue underneath, with a white spot behind the eye and a bright green-gold throat patch, blue throat band, and a white breast band. Some of these features can be seen in the photo below.

    (photo below, taken by Marie Gardner during a FONT tour in Minas Gerais, Brazil)

  151. Hooded Visorbearer (nt)  ______ BR(*)
    Augastes lumachella

    The geographic range of the Hooded Visorbearer is in eastern Brazil.

    (photo below)


  152. Wedge-billed Hummingbird  ______  EC(*)
    Schistes geoffroyi

    Schistes geoffroyi albogularis  ______  (subspecies in western Colombia & western Ecuador)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1851)
    Schistes geoffroyi chapmani  ______ 
    (subspecies in central Bolivia)  (subspecies described in 1941)
    Schistes geoffroyi geoffroyi  ______ 
    (subspecies from northern Venezuela & eastern Colombia to southern Peru)  


  153. Purple-crowned Fairy  ______  CR(*)  EC(*)  GU(*)  HN(*)  PN(*)
    Heliothrix barroti

    The geographic range of the Purple-crowned Fairy is from southeastern Mexico to western Ecuador. 

    A former subspecies, Heliothrix barroti major, was not valid as it was determined to be an immature male. 

  154. Black-eared Fairy  ______  BR(*)  EC(*)  VE(*)
    Heliothrix auritus

    Heliothris auritus auriculatus  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Peru, central Bolivia, and central & eastern Brazil)
    Heliothris auritus auritus  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Ecuador & southeastern Colombia to the Guianas, and in northern Brazil)
    Heliothris auritus phainolaemus  ______ 
    (subspecies in north-central Brazil)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1855) 

    The Black-eared Fairy replaces the Purple-crowned Fairy east of the Andes. Although the Black-eared Fairy has a very extensive range, it is said to be rather uncommon in most areas and declining. 

    (illustration below, a hand-colored lithograph of the "Brazilian Fairy", now the Black-eared Fairy, by John Gould) 

    (photo below by Marie Gardner, taken during the FONT tour in southern Ecuador in April 2014)

    And in the two photos below, an adult and young Black-eared Fairies,
    photographed by Marie Gardner during the FONT tour in southern Ecuador in April 2014
    In the lower photo, the adult is seen feeding the young. 


  155. Horned Sungem  ______  BR(*)
    Heliactin bilophus

    The geographic range of the Horned Sungem is in central & eastern Brazil, eastern Bolivia, and southern Surinam.
    It is a migratory species in at least part of its range, with its arrival and departure determined by the blooming time of its preferred flowers. The bird occurs in various, different habitats. 

    The Horned Sungem feeds at a variety of flowers, including Citrus and Lantana. It also engages in flycatching. 

    The Horned Sungem is a small hummingbird, short-billed but long-tailed. It is generally common, and its population is said to be increasing.

    Horned Sungems have been nicely seen during FONT tours in Mato Grosso, Brazil, north of the city of Cuiaba.


  156. Marvelous Spatuletail  (t2)  ______
    Loddigesia mirabilis

    The geographic range of the Marvelous Spatuletail is in northern Peru. 


  157. Stripe-breasted Starthroat ______ BR(*)
    Heliomaster squamosus

    The geographic range of the Stripe-breasted Starthroat is in eastern Brazil. 

    (illustration below)

  158. Blue-tufted Starthroat  ______  AR(*)  BR(*)
    Heliomaster furcifer 

    The geographic range of the Blue-tufted Starthroat is in central & southern Brazil to Bolivia, Paraguay, and northern Argentina.   

    (the photo below, of a female, taken by Andy Smith 
    during a FONT tour in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil) 

  159. Plain-capped Starthroat  ______  CR(*)  GU(*)
    Heliomaster constantii

    Heliomaster constantii constantii  ______ 
    (subspecies from El Salvador to Costa Rica)
    Heliomaster constantii leocadiae  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Mexico & western Guatemala)
    Heliomaster constantii pinicola  ______
      (subspecies in northwestern Mexico)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1853) 

    As noted above, the Plain-capped Starthroat is a bird of Mexico and Central America. It occurs in the US as a rare straggler in the arid foothills and deserts of southeast Arizona, mostly from June to October. Several years can pass between Arizona sightings.

    The first US record was in Nogales, Arizona in September 1969. The northernmost record was in Phoenix, Arizona in October & November 1978.     

  160. Long-billed Starthroat  ______  CR(*)  EC(*)  GU(*)  PN(*)
    Heliomaster longirostris

    Heliomaster longirostris albicrissa  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwestern Peru & in Ecuador where it is in the west and in the Rio Maranon drainage in the extreme south)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1871)
    Heliomaster longirostris longirostris  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica into northern & central South America, also Trinidad; in Ecuador in the east)
    Heliomaster longirostris pallidiceps  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Nicaragua)  (subspecies described by Gould in 1861)


  161. Oasis Hummingbird  ______ CH(*)
    Rhodopis vesper

    Rhodopis vesper atacamensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern Chile)
    Rhodopis vesper koepckeae  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwest Peru)  (subspecies described in 1974)
    Rhodopis vesper vesper  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru and northern Chile)

    (photos below taken during a FONT tour in northern Chile)


  162. Peruvian Sheartail  ______  CH(*)  EC
    Thaumastura cora

    The geographic range of the Peruvian Sheartail is from northwestern Peru (& southern Ecuador) to extreme northern Chile. 


  163. Mexican Sheartail  (nt)  ______  MX(*)
    Doricha eliza

    The geographic range of the Mexican Sheartail is in two restricted area of Mexico, in the northern Yucatan Peninsula and in Veracruz. 

    The northern Yucatan population of the Mexican Sheartail is found exclusively in a narrow coastal strip, only about one kilometer wide, mainly between mangroves and tropical deciduous forest. It has also been found to breed in gardens.
    The Veracruz population occurs in undisturbed, dry deciduous forest and overgrazed habitats at about 25 kilometers inland.

    The Mexican Sheartail has been observed feeding at flowers of Ipomoea, Justicia, and Helicteres guazumaefolia, and its diet is supplemented by small anthropods. The bird is often close to the ground.

    In the northern Yucatan, nesting takes place August-April, with recently fledged young reported in February and March.   

    (photos below taken by Marie Gardner 
     during the March 2009 FONT tour in the Yucatan of Mexico;
     the top photo of a male; the lower two photos of females)

  164. Slender Sheartail  ______  GU(*)
    Doricha enicura

    The geographic range of the Slender Sheartail is from southern Mexico to Honduras.


  165. Lucifer Hummingbird (or Sheartail)  ______  MX(*)
    Calothorax lucifer

    The geographic range of the Lucifer Hummingbird is from the southern US (Texas, Arizona) to south-central Mexico. It winters in the southern portion of is range.  

    Even though it is nearly a Mexican endemic, the Lucifer Hummingbird has a northern breeding range that extends in west Texas in the US, where it can be fairly common in the Big Bend National Park.
    Also in the US, the species occurs rarely in southeast Arizona & southwest New Mexico, and it has been a vagrant at some places other than its usual haunts in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. 
    In Texas, vagrants have been at the Edwards Plateau and in the Guadeloupe Mountains, and in El Paso, Del Rio, Rockport, and Beeville.
    Vagrants in New Mexico have been in Gila and Silver City; in Arizona in Tucson.   

    Lucifer Hummingbirds pollinate various desert plants, including desert honeysuckles (in Anisacanthus) coralbeans (in Erythrina), and paint-brushes (in Castilleja). They also get nectar from large bat-pollinated agaves (in Agave) without coming into contact with the anther or pistil of the plant. 

    The male Lucifer Hummingbird does not maintain a breeding territory, but instead it seeks out and courts females with a spectacular zigzagging dive display at the nests constructed by the females.        

    (photos below taken by Marie Gardner
     during the August 2010 FONT tour in southern Arizona;
     upper photo of a male, lower photo of a female)  

  166. Beautiful Hummingbird (or Sheartail ______  MX(*)  (species described by Gould in 1859)
    Calothorax pulcher

    The geographic range of the Beautiful Hummingbird is in southern Mexico.


  167. Sparkling-tailed Woodstar  ______  GU(*)  (another name has been Dupont's Hummingbird)
    Tilmatura dupontii

    The geographic range of the Sparkling-tailed Woodstar is from central Mexico to northern Nicaragua.


  168. Amethyst Woodstar  ______  BR(*)  EC  VE(*)
    Calliphlox amethystina

    The geographic range of the Amethyst Woodstar is from eastern Colombia to northeast Argentina and southern Brazil, including all or parts of Venezuela, Ecuador, the Guianas, Bolivia, and Paraguay, in addition to all of Brazil.

  169. Bahama Woodstar  ______
    Calliphlox evelynae

    The Bahama Woodstar occurs in islands of the Bahamas Islands and the Turks and Caicos (except on Great and Little Inaguan Islands. where the following bird, the Inaguan Lyretail, occurs, which has been considered a subspecies of the Bahama Woodstar).  

    There have been a few occurrences of the Bahama Woodstar in the United States, with nearly all in southeast Florida. There are specimens from Miami in January 1961, from Palm Beach County from August to October 1971, from near Homestead in Dade County in April 1974, and both a male & female at the Mary Krone Sanctuary in Dade County in July & August 1981.
    Incredibly, a single male Bahama Woodstar visited a feeder in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania in April 2013 for 3 days.

    An article published in 2008 relates the first known record of the Bahama Woodstar in Cuba on Cayo Paredon Grande, off the north coast of the Cuban mainland.  

  170. Inaguan Woodstar  ______   (described by Gould in 1869, has been Calliphlox evelynae lyrura)
    Calliphlox lyrura

    The Inaguan Woodstar has been a subspecies of the Bahama Woodstar (above). It occurs only on the islands of Great and Little Inagua in the Turks and Caicos.
    Another name, Inaguan Lyretail, relates to the bird's distinctive, lyre-shaped outer tail feathers (of the male).  
    The rose-purple of the male's gorget extends to the forecrown.

  171. Magenta-throated Woodstar  ______  CR(*)  PN(*)
    Calliphlox bryantae

    The geographic range of the Magenta-throated Woodstar is in Costa Rica & western Panama.

  172. Purple-throated Woodstar  ______  EC(*)
    (formerly Philodice) mitchellii

    The geographic range of the Purple-throated Woodstar is from eastern Panama to western Ecuador. 

    (photo below by Marie Gardner, of a male Purple-throated Woodstar, 
     during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013)  


  173. Slender-tailed Woodstar  ______  AR(*)
    Microstilbon burmeisteri 

    The geographic range of the Slender-tailed Woodstar is from central Bolivia to northwest Argentina.


  174. Purple-collared Woodstar  ______  EC(*)
    Myrtis fanny

    Myrtis fanny fanny  ______ 
    (subspecies in western & southeastern Ecuador, and in western Peru)
    Myrtis fanny megalura  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern Peru)  (subspecies described in 1953) 


  175. Short-tailed Woodstar  ______  EC(*)  (species described by Gould in 1854)
    Myrmia micrura

    The geographic range of the Short-tailed Woodstar is in western Ecuador & northwestern Peru. 


  176. Chilean Woodstar  (t2)  ______  CH(*)
    Eulida yarrellii

    The geographic range of the Chilean Woodstar is in far-northern Chile and very adjacent southern Peru. 
    There has been, during the last couple decades, an ongoing decline of this species in its very limited range, almost only in the area of the northernmost Chilean city of Arica, where we have seen it during FONT tours.   
    Although the Chilean Woodstar has been observed feeding on a wide range of native and introduced trees and shrubs, the decline of the bird may be due to the loss of preferred native plants.
    Also, a factor for the bird's decline may be competition with another hummingbird, the Peruvian Sheartail, that has recently spread into the range of the Chilean Woodstar.      


  177. White-bellied Woodstar  ______  EC(*) 
    (formerly Acestrura) mulsanti 

    The geographic range of the White-bellied Woodstar is from Colombia to central Bolivia.

    (photos below, upper photo a female during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2013,
     lower photo a male; upper photo by Marie Gardner, lower photo by Larry O'Meallie)  

  178. Little Woodstar  (t3)  ______  EC(*)  (species described by Gould in 1871)
    (formerly Acestrura) bombus

    The geographic range of the Little Woodstar is from southwestern Colombia to north-central Peru.  

    The Little Woodstar is really very little, from 2.34 inches to 2.73 inches in length, making it very close to being the smallest of the world's birds. 
    (photo below, courtesy of Myra Outwater) 

    A nest of the Little Woodstar (left photo); the bird (in right photo, indicated by an arrow) smaller than the leaves.
    During a FONT tour in western Ecuador in July 1997.
    The Little Woodstar, a species not commonly seen, is one of the smallest of all hummingbirds.

  179. Gorgeted Woodstar  ______  EC  VE(*)
    (formerly Acestrura) heliodor

    Chaetocercus heliodor cleavesi  ______ 
    (subspecies in northeast Ecuador)
    Chaetocercus heliodor heliodor  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela & Colombia)

    A determination as to the subspecies of  a population of Chaetocercus heliodor in Ecuador on the west slope of the Andes has yet to be done.     

  180. Esmeraldas Woodstar  (t2)  ______  EC
    (formerly Acestrura) berlepschi

    The geographic range of the Esmeraldas Woodstar is in western Ecuador.

    An Esmeraldas Woodstar in a front yard at the home of one of our friends, Wilmer Quimis,
    near Puerto Lopez along the Ecuadorian coast. The photo was taken in March 2014.
    (photo by Wilmer Quimis)  

  181. Rufous-shafted Woodstar  ______  VE(*)
    Chaetocercus jourdanii

    Chaetocercus jourdanii andinus  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Venezuela & northeastern Colombia)  (subspecies described in 1949)
    Chaetocercus jourdanii jourdannii  ______ 
    (subspecies in northeastern Venezuela & Trinidad)
    Chaetocercus jourdanii rosae  ______ 
    (subspecies in northern Venezuela)

  182. Santa Marta Woodstar  ______
    Chaetocercus astreans

    The geographic range of the Santa Marta Woodstar is in northeast Colombia.


  183. Vervain Hummingbird  ______  DM(*)  JM(*)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Mellisuga minima

    Mellisuga minima minima  ______ 
    (subspecies on the Caribbean island of Jamaica)
    Mellisuga minima vieilloti  ______ 
    (subspecies on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola)

    (photos below taken by Marie Gardner,
     during the April 2012 FONT tour in the Dominican Republic;
     one bird perched high in a tree, another feeding in a garden)

  184. Bee Hummingbird  (nt)  ______
    (or Calypte) helenae

    The Bee Hummingbird is endemic to the Caribbean island of Cuba.


  185. Ruby-throated Hummingbird  ______  CR(*)  DE(*)  FL(*)  GU(*)  HN(*)  MX(*)  NC(*)  PN(rare)(*)  TX(*)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Archilochus colubris

    The breeding range of the Ruby-throated Hummingbird is in the eastern & central United States and in southern Canada. Most winter from central Mexico to western Panama. Some winter in the US in Florida.   

    (photos below; top photo, a male; middle photo, male & females
    lower photo of a female by Marie Gardner)

    Out-of-range occurrences of the Ruby-throated Hummingbird in the US have been in: Alaska (in June), California (in August, September), Colorado (in April, May, July), and New Mexico (in October). 

  186. Black-chinned Hummingbird ______  AZ(*)  CO(*)  MX(*)  NM(*)  TX(*) 
    Archilochus alexandri

    The breeding range of the Black-chinned Hummingbird is in southwestern Canada, the western United States, and northern Mexico. The species winters in western & south-central Mexico.  

    (Photos below; the top two photos courtesy of Howard Eskin)  

    The Black-chinned Hummingbird normally occurs in the western US and in parts of central & western Mexico. East of that range, some individuals winter along the Gulf Coat of the US from Texas east to Georgia and Florida. Some winter in California. 
    Out-of-range occurrences have been in these US states and Canadian provinces:  Alberta (in July), Kentucky (in fall-winter) New Jersey (in the fall), North Carolina (in the fall & spring), Ontario (in May), South Carolina (in the fall & winter), South Dakota (in the fall), Tennessee (in fall-winter)


    The genus CALYPTE are "helmeted hummingbirds", as the 2 species in the genus have crests and gorgets that form an iridescent "helmet". 
    With the ANNA'S HUMMINGBIRD the color is red, while that of the COSTA'S HUMMINGBIRD is purple.    

  187. Anna's Hummingbird ______  AZ(*)  CA(*) 
    Calypte anna

    The breeding range of the Anna's Hummingbird is in southwestern Canada, the western United States, and northwestern Mexico. Some birds winter further south in Mexico, and further east in the southwestern US.   

    The male Anna's Hummingbird has a remarkable display which involves a nearly vertical power dive over a display object. 
    A pinging noise made by the tail and a brilliant display of the iridescent purple-red feathers of the chin and forehead presumably enhance the display value of the performance. 
    This display is given in all months of the year, but is most frequent from November to April, the breeding season of the species in California. These hummingbirds are highly territorial and the display dives take place only within their territorial bounds.

    The diving display is as follows:
    1. The male climbs nearly vertically, in a hovering flight, with the head bent downwards and the bill pointed toward the display object so that the male appears to be eyeing the display object as he ascends.
    2. The male stops in mid-air, 100 to 150 feet above and to the side of the display object. At that point the bird hovers, making no appreciable lateral movement, so that his azimuth with respect to the display object is no longer adjustable.
    3. Almost at once the male power dives, with a burst of wingbeats, with each burst terminating with the wings held to the sides. Several power bursts take place in the downward dive which is made at an angle of perhaps 65 to 75 degrees from the horizontal.
    4. The flight levels at several feet from the display object, and the male passes over the object almost horizontally.
    5. At the moment the bird is over the display object, the tail is lowered, and by some manipulation, poorly understood, the produces a sharp sound.
    6. At that point, the flight is slowed and the bird veers upward, rising in a hook-shaped course 10 to 15 feet above and beyond the display object, and then hovers at that position momentarily.
    7. He then moves upward again to approximately the same position where the initial dive started, and a new dive begins. 
    The number of dives is variable, from one to a dozen or more, but frequently from three to eight.

    The above-described display has been noted to be oriented directly into the afternoon sun (between about 5:15 & 5:55pm. At times of heavy overcast, the dives have been seen to be randomly oriented, but with usually little display activity at such times. Poor weather generally slows the tempo of the display dive.

    Alexander Skutch has distinguished two basically different types of display among hummingbirds, "dynamic" and "static".
    The dynamic type is exemplified by the Anna's Hummingbird display dive described above,
    Also, it is characteristic of the Broad-tailed Hummingbird, the Black-chinned Hummingbird, Costa's Hummingbird, the Rufous Hummingbird, Allen's Hummingbird, the Calliope Hummingbird, and the Ruby-throated Hummingbird - all of these are the most-northerly occurring hummingbirds.
    Central American species, such as the Rufous-tailed Hummingbird, White-eared Hummingbird, and Bumblebee Hummingbird do not have prominent display dives, but confine their display energy to singing and gorget-flashing at display posts, thus the static display type. 

    The above information about the display of the Anna's Hummingbird and others is from the Wilson Bulletin in March 1965. 

    (photos below; the top 2 photos of males by Marie Gardner and Larry O'Meallie;
    the next 3 photos of females and another at its nest with two young, by Howard Eskin)   

    The top photograph below was taken during a FONT tour in southern Arizona. 

    As noted below, the Anna's Hummingbird, normally in the West, has been in the East,
    in Delaware, one bird, from November to April, from 2012 into 2013.
    The photo below is the last one that was taken of that bird, obviously a male, on April 7, 2013.
    (photo by Howard Eskin)    

    The Anna's Hummingbird is a species of western North America, but vagrants can occur almost anywhere, most commonly in the fall & winter. 
    Out-of-range occurrences have been in these US states and Canadian provinces: Alabama (in November), interior Alaska (in September), Alberta (from June to October), Arkansas (in fall-winter), Colorado (from May to December), Delaware (from November to April), Florida (in fall-winter), Georgia (in fall-winter), Idaho (from September to May), Illinois (in fall-winter), Kansas (in fall-winter), Michigan (December to April), Minnesota (in fall-winter), Missouri (October to February), Mississippi (November to January), Montana (June to November), North Carolina (in fall-winter), New York (October to December), Oklahoma (in winter), Pennsylvania (in winter), Saskatchewan (from July to October),  South Carolina (in winter), Tennessee (in January), in northern & eastern Texas (from July to March), Utah (in the fall), Wisconsin (from August to January).

    The migration of the Anna's Hummingbird is not well understood. It does not appear to migrate in the "traditional sense". Year-round presence is some areas may well be due to breeding birds being replaced by migrants from other areas. 
    Large numbers of Anna's in the mountains of Arizona in the non-breeding season (July to October) have long been assumed to come from California, yet of the thousands of hummingbirds that have been banded in California and Arizona, ONLY ONE is has been shown to have traveled between the 2 states!     

  188. Costa's Hummingbird  ______  AZ(*) 
    Calypte costae

    The breeding range of the Costa's Hummingbird is mostly in the southwestern United States. Most winter in western Mexico. 
    (photo below, above photo by Larry O'Meallie; lower photo by Howard Eskin)       


    The Costa's Hummingbird is a species of desert scrub normally in the southwestern US and northwestern Mexico. Part of the population that breeds in the resident range migrates south in the winter along the Pacific coast of Mexico. 
    Vagrants have occurred in these US states and Canadian provinces: Alaska (from July to October), Alberta (in August), British Columbia (from
    April to June), Colorado (in May), Kansas (in November), western Texas (from September to January & in April), in central & southern Texas (from January to March), western Washington State (from August to October).  


  189. Bumblebee Hummingbird  ______  (another name has been Heloise's Hummingbird)
    Atthis heloisa

    Atthis heloisa heloisa  ______ 
    (subspecies in northeastern, central, & southern Mexico)
    Atthis heloisa margarethae  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwestern & western Mexico)   

    As noted above, the Bumblebee Hummingbird is a Mexican species. But 2 female specimens are said to have been collected in southern Arizona, at Ramsey Canyon, in the Huachuca Mountains, in July 1896. 

  190. Wine-throated Hummingbird  ______  GU(*)  (another name has been Elliot's Hummingbird)
    Atthis ellioti

    Atthis ellioti ellioti  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Mexico & Guatemala)
    Atthis ellioti selasphoroides  ______ 
    (subspecies in Honduras)


  191. Broad-tailed Hummingbird  ______  AZ(*)  CO(*)  GU(*)  MX(*)  NM(*)  TX(*)
    Selasphorus platycercus

    The breeding range of the Broad-tailed Hummingbird is from the west & the west-central United States to Mexico and western Guatemala. Wintering is in Mexico and Guatemala.

    The geographically isolated birds in Guatemala, formerly considered the subspecies Selasphorus platycercus guatemalae, have been merged, now making the species monotypic (that is, without subspecies).

    Selasphorus platycercus might be better placed in the genus Archilochus.            

    (photos below; upper photo of an adult male by Larry O'Meallie;
    middle photo of an immature male & lower photo of a female 
    by Doris Potter during the FONT tour in Arizona in Aug '08)

    The Broad-tailed Hummingbird is a species that summers, and breeds, mostly in the western United States, and winters mostly in Mexico. A small number winter along the Gulf Coast of the southeast US.
    Otherwise, out-of-range occurrences have been in these US states and one Canadian province: northern Arkansas (in November & December), British Columbia (in July), Delaware (in the winter), Florida (in January & February), Georgia (in the fall-winter), Illinois (in November), Indiana (in the winter), Kansas (from June to September), Michigan (from August to winter), Mississippi (in fall-winter), Nebraska (in August & September), New Jersey (in November), Oregon (from May to August), South Dakota (from June to September), in eastern & central Texas, and in Washington State (in August).    

  192. Rufous Hummingbird ______  AK(*)  AZ(*)
    Selasphorus rufus

    The breeding range of the Rufous Hummingbird is from southern Alaska to western Canada and the northwestern United States. As noted below, it winters mostly in Mexico, but with some in the United States.     
    (photos below, upper photo by Rick Wiltraut;
     middle & lower photos by Howard Eskin)  

    The Rufous Hummingbird is a long-distance migrant, summering, and breeding, as far north as southern Alaska, and wintering mostly in Mexico. Some, however, winter in the US, especially in the Southeast notably along the Gulf Coast, mostly in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Texas. A few also winter in the US in coastal southern California.

    The species seems strongly prone to wandering during it southbound migration in the fall. It has occurred in ALL of the US states east of the Rocky Mountains, and in most of the Canadian provinces. And so it can appear almost "anywhere", and is usually discovered at feeders.
    In the southbound Rufous Hummingbird migration, adult males travel first, with adult females following about 1 to 2 weeks later. The migration of the immature birds is the latest and the most drawn-out, occurring up to a month after that of the adult female.

    The Rufous Hummingbird is the only hummingbird that occurs, on occasion, in the Old World. In the spring, migratory overshoots have reached as far into Russian Siberia as the Chukotski Peninsula. 


    The above photo (by Howard Eskin) is of a juvenile male Selasphorus hummingbird.
    Two species in that genus, the Rufous (above) & the Allen's (below), cannot be differentiated in eastern North America without in-hand measurement.
    One can tell the bird in this photo is a juvenile by the white-tipped tail feathers.
    Adult females have white on the tail also, but this is a male because the rusty brown feathers go all the way down to the black on the tail. A female would have been green in that area.    

    Having a notch or emargination in the R2 tail feathers indicates that a hummingbird is a Rufous, rather than the nearly-identical Allen's Hummingbird (below).     

  193. Allen's Hummingbird  ______  AZ(*)
    Selasphorus sasin

    Selasphorus sasin sasin  ______ 
    (subspecies breeding along southern coastal Oregon & California and wintering from California to south-central Mexico)
    Selasphorus sasin sedentarius  ______ 
    (subspecies on offshore islands of southern California)   

    (the two upper photos below, of a first-year male; the two lower photos of an adult female,
     photos by Howard Eskin)


    The Allen's Hummingbird, a close relative of the Rufous Hummingbird, has one of the most restricted breeding ranges of any North American hummingbird, being confined from the Pacific Coast of southern California north to southern Oregon. Although its habitat has been strongly altered by human activity, the bird has adapted well to urban and suburban environments.

    Outside its breeding range, the Allen's Hummingbird is rare, but regular, in southern Arizona, and has occurred more rarely in New Mexico, west Texas, Utah, and Nevada. Some winter rarely along the Gulf Coast of the US.
    Fall-winter occurrences in eastern US states have been in: Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.

    In its limited breeding range, there are, as noted above, 2 subspecies. One, sedentarius, apparently originated on the offshore Channel Islands, and colonized, during the 20th Century, the nearby California mainland. It has recently spread, both north and south along the coast. Although this subspecies is essentially nonmigratory, an Allen's Hummingbird specimen from Louisiana has been identified as sedentarius.   

  194. Volcano Hummingbird  ______ CR(*)  PN(*)
    Selasphorus flammula

    Selasphorus flammula flammula 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica, at Irazu & Turrialba Volcanoes)
    Selasphorus flammula simoni 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica, at Poas & Barva Volcanoes)
    Selasphorus flammula torridus 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama, in the Talamanca Range)

    The red-gorgeted form in Costa Rica was formerly considered a species, the Cerise-throated Hummingbird, Selasphorus simoni.
    (photos below, taken during FONT tours in Costa Rica;
    upper photo by Bruce Christenson; middle photo by Alan Brady; 
    lower photo by Virginia Woodhouse during a FONT Costa Rica Tour in March 2012;
    all of these photos of S. f. torridus)

  195. Scintillant Hummingbird ______  CR(*)  PN(*)  (species described by Gould in 1851)
    Selasphorus scintilla

    The geographic range of the Scintillant Hummingbird is in Costa Rica & western Panama.   

    (photos below, taken by Marie Gardner during a FONT tour in Costa Rica)   

  196. Glow-throated Hummingbird  (t3)  ______  PN(*)
    Selasphorus ardens

    The geographic range of the Glow-throated Hummingbird is in west-central Panama.

  197. Calliope Hummingbird  ______  AZ(*)    (species described by Gould in 1847) 
    (formerly Stellula) calliope

    The breeding range of the Calliope Hummingbird is in southwestern Canada & the western United States. Wintering is mostly in southwestern Mexico. 
    (photos below; upper photo by Doris Potter)  

    The Calliope Hummingbird breeds in montane coniferous forests in parts of the western US and southwestern Canada. Most winter, as noted above, in southwestern Mexico. However, some winter along the Gulf Coast in the US, from Texas to northwestern Florida, mainly in Louisiana. More rarely, some winter in west Texas and in Arizona. 
    Otherwise, vagrants have occurred in these US states and one Canadian province: northern Alabama (in November), Arkansas (in November & December), central Florida (in March & April), northern Georgia (in the winter), Kansas (in July & August), Minnesota (in November & December), North Carolina (from October to March), Nebraska (from June to August), New Jersey (in November), Pennsylvania (in November), Saskatchewan (in July & August), South Carolina (from December to April), South Dakota (in August), Tennessee (from November to April) and in western & central Texas.

    (Below, the 2nd Calliope Hummingbird in Pennsylvania, in November 2012.
     The bird is feeding at Pineapple Sage. Photo by Joe Flood.)


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