PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-8
 or 302/529-1876


and some other plants
in Northern Places
such as Alaska 
and including alpine plants 
Hokkaido in Japan

with those during 
Focus On Nature Tours
noted with an (*) 

1996 thru 2015
during tours in the months of May, June, September, and October

In this list, there are notes relating to MEDICINAL PLANTS.

An excellent book, and a source of some of the information in this list, is "Medicinal Plants of Iceland" by Arnbjorg Linda Johannsdottir.

The compilation of the following list of plants of Alaska, Iceland, and Hokkaido, Japan by Armas Hill 

Photo at upper right:  In Iceland, EUROPEAN CARDAMINE, Cardamine pratensis angustifolia,
formerly LADY SMOCK, Cardamine nymanii   
(photograph by Gerin Hood) 

Many of the photos below were taken during the June 2009 FONT Iceland Tour by participant, Gerin Hood. 
And she also took the time to do many  of the identifications. Thanks Gerin! 

A fine book about the plant life of Iceland is "A Guide to the Flowering Plants & Ferns of Iceland" by Hordur Kristinsson, published in 1986. There is a version in English.

A fine book about wildflowers and other plant life in Alaska is a "Field Guide to Alaskan Wildflowers", by Verna Pratt, published in 1989. 
Again, this book is a source of some of the information in this list, as are the other books noted here.  

Line drawings with this list are from another good book, "Wild Plants of America: A Select Guide for the Naturalist and Traveler", by Richard M. Smith, published in 1989.  

Another source for some information in this list is the book, "Medicinal Plants of Iceland", by Arnbjorg Linda Johannsdottir, published in 2012.

The book "Alpine Flowers of Hokkaido" has many wonderful photographs. But in it there is not a word in English. Nor, in English, is there a name of an author. There are scientific names of the plants in Latin.       

There have been 19, nearly 20 FONT tours in Iceland. And nearly 10 FONT tours in Alaska.    
Also, since 1990, there have been 37 FONT tours in Japan, with about half of them in Hokkaido.

Among the Plant Families in this list, links to these:

 Adder's-tongue (or Moonwort)    Algae    Arrow-grass    Arum (or Calla)    Barberry    Beech-fern    

Bellflower (or Bluebell)
    Birch    Birchroot    Bladderwort (or Birthwort)    Bogbean    Borage    

Broomrape    Buckthorn    Bunchflower    Bur-reed    Buttercup (or Crowfoot)    Clubmoss    

    Cypress    Daisy (or Aster)    Diapensia    Dock (or Buckwheat, Knotweed)    Dogbane    

Dogwood    Earthsmoke (or Fumitory)    Eel-grass    Fern & Hard-fern    Figwort (or Snapdragon)   

Flax    Gentian    Geranium    Ginseng    Gooseberry    Goosefoot    Grass    Heath    Holly    Honeysuckle

Horsetail    Hydrangea    Iris    Ivy    Lady-fern   Legume (or Pea)    Lily    Madder (or Bedstraw)

Mare's-tail    Mint    Mountain Parsley  (or Parsley Fern, Rockbrake)    Mustard    Nettle    Oleaster    

    Parnassus-grass    Parsley (or Celery)    Peony    Phlox (or Polemonium)    Pine    

Pink (or Carnation)
    Plantain    Polypod Ferns    Polypody    Pondweed    Poppy    Primrose   

Purslane    Quillwort    Rose    Rush    Sandlewood    Saxifrage    Sea Lavender    Sedge   

In the SEDGES: Eriophorum scheuchzeri, Alaska Cotton, or in Iceland called Hrafnafifa.  

Snakeberry    Soapberry    Spikemoss   Spleenwort    Spurge    Staff-vine (or Bittersweet)    Starwort    

St Johns Wort
    Stonecrop    Sundew    Teasel    Valerian    Violet    Water Lily   Water-milfoil    Willow    

Willow Herb (or Evening Primrose)
    Wintergreen    Wood-sorrel 


Additional Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in:    Alaska     Iceland     Japan    Elsewhere     

Birds during FONT Iceland Tours     Birds during FONT Alaska Tours     

Birds during FONT Japan Tours, in a list with photos in 2 parts

Other Lists and Photo Galleries in this website relating to Plants: 

Alaska Wildflowers (a list grouped by color)    Iceland Wildflowers (a list grouped by color) 

Texas Wildflowers (a list grouped by families)

Desert Plants of the Southwest US and Northern Mexico

Tropical Plants in the Americas  (in two parts, including the Caribbean, Mexico, Central and South America)  

Plants of the West Indies    Fruiting Plants and Others in Brazil    Wild Orchids in the Americas 

Wildflowers and Other Plants of the Mid-Atlantic Region of Eastern North America


AK:  occurs in Alaska
HK:  occurs in Hokkaido, Japan  (as an alpine plant)  
IC:   occurs in Iceland

(ph):  species with a photo or drawing in the FONT website

Numbers noted as (NW:xx) refer to pages with photos in the "National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Wildflowers of North America" by David Brandenburg, 2010 

Numbers noted as (ST:xx) refer to pages with an illustration in "The Sibley Guide to Trees" by David Sibley, 2009. 

A List of Northern Wildflowers and some Other Plants:

  Adder's-tongue, or Moonwort Family , OPHIOGLOSSACEAE   

  1. Northern Moonwort  ______  IC
    Botrychium boreale

  2. Lance-leaved Moonwort  ______  IC
    Botrycjium lanceolatum

  3. Common Moonwort  ______  HK  IC
    Botrychium lunaria

  4. Glossy Moonwort  ______  IC
    Botrychium simplex

  5. Small Adder's-tongue  ______  IC(very rare)
    Ophioglossum azoricum  

    Algae Family, FUCACEAE

  6. Bladderwrack (or Black Tang ______  IC
    Fucus vesiculosus

    Bladderwrack grows on rocky beaches. In Iceland, it is common along such coastlines.

    the entire plant
    Kelp tablets are available in health food stores and some pharmacies.
    Active substances are mucrilage, mannitol, fucosterin, fucoxanthin, sisantin, volatile oils and many minerals such as iodine. 

    Bladderwrack is used to treat an underactive thyroid gland (goitre). It is also useful for chronic fatigue and tiredness.

    Bladderwrack poultices are good for swollen joints and muscles.

    Arrow-grass Family, JUNCAGINACEAE

  7. Sea Arrow-grass  ______  IC
    Triglochin maritima

  8. Marsh Arrow-grass  ______  IC
    Triglochin palustris

    Arum, or Calla Family, ARACEAE

    also called AROIDS

  9. Wild Calla  ______  AK  (NW:73)
    Calla palustris

    Another name for Calla palustris is Water Arum. 

    The entire plant of the Wild Calla is poisonous, especially the berries.  

  10. Lysichiton camtschatcense  ______  HK

  11. Skunk-cabbage  (ph)  ______  HK  (NW:75)
    Symplocarpus foetidus  (var. latissima)

    Above & below: Skunk-cabbage
    (photo below by Rise Hill)

    Barberry Family, BERBERIDACEAE

  12. Berberis amurensis  ______  HK

  13. Diphylleia grayi  ______  HK

    Beech-fern, or Maiden Fern Family, THELYPTERIDACEAE

  14. Beech Fern  ______  IC
    Thelypteris phegopteris

  15. Thelypteris quelpaertensis  ______  HK   

    Bellflower, or Bluebell Family, CAMPANULACEAE

  16. Adenophora nikoensis   (var. petrophila)  ______  HK

  17. Adenophora pereskiifolia  ______  HK
    Adenophora pereskiifolia heterotricha  ______ 

  18. Adenophora triphylla  (var. hakusanensis)  ______  HK
    Adenophora triphylla  (var. japonica)  ______ 

  19. Adenophora uryuensis  ______  HK  

  20. Campanula aurita  ______  AK

  21. Campanula chamissonis  ______  HK

  22. Mountain Harebell  ______  AK  HK
    Campanula lasiocarpa

  23. Common Harebell  (or Bluebells of Scotland)  ______  AK  IC  (NW:184)    
    Campanula rotundifolia

  24. Arctic Harebell  ______  AK  IC  (NW:185)
    Campanula uniflora 

    Another name for Campanula uniflora is Arctic Bellflower.

  25. Lobelia sessilifolia  ______  HK

  26. Peracarpa carnosa  ______  HK 

  27. Platycodon grandiflorus  ______  HK

    Birch Family, BETULACEAE

  28. Speckled Alder  (*)  ______  AK  (ST:162)
    Alnus incana

  29. Green Alder  (*)  ______  AK  (ST:163)
    Alnus viridis
    Alnus viridis maximowiczii  ______  HK

    Other names for Alnus viridis are Mountain Alder, Sitka Alder, Siberian Alder.   

  30. Betula apoiensis  ______  HK

  31. Betula ermannii  ______  HK

  32. Kenai Birch  (*)  ______  AK  (ST:152)
    Betula kenaica

  33. Dwarf Birch  ______  IC
    Betula nana

  34. Resin Birch  ______  AK  (ST:152)
    Betula neoalaskana

  35. Paper Birch  ______  AK  (ST:151)
    Betula papyrifera 

  36. Downy Birch  (*)  ______  IC  (ST:155)
    Betula pubescens

    Other names for Betula pubescens are European White Birch and Hairy Birch. 

    Birchroot Family, MELANTHIACEAE

  37. Herb-Paris  ______  IC(rare)
    Paris quadrifolia 

    Bladderwort, or Birthwort Family, LENTIBULARIACEAE

  38. Common Butterwort  (ph)  ______  HK  IC(*)  (NW:296)
    Pinguicula vulgaris
    Pinguicula vulgaris  (var. macroceras)  ______ 

    In Iceland, the Common Butterwort is common throughout. It grows in peat bogs and marshlands.
    Common Butterwort was used, in the past, for making Icelandic skyr, and therefore has also been called the "curdle herb".
    The plant is carnivorous, catching and digesting small insects.  

    MEDICINAL USE: the leaves. 

    The Common Butterwort has been used successfully to treat whooping cough. Still, the herb can be used for dry, tickling coughs and persistent coughing attacks.
    The leaves are good for placing on bad sores, inflammation or cracked skin, and have been used to kill lice on the scalp.   

    Common Butterwort
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  39. Lesser Bladderwort  ______  IC
    Utricularia minor

    Bogbean Family, MENYANTHACEAE

  40. Bogbean  ______  AK  HK  IC  (NW:348)
    Menyanthes trifoliata

    Another name for Menyanthes trifoliata is Buckbean.

  41. Nephrophyllidium crista-galli japonicum  ______  HK  

    Borage Family, BORAGINACEAE

  42. Eritrichium nipponicum  (var. albiflorum)  ______  HK

  43. Oysterplant  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Mertensia maritima  

    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  44. Bluebells  ______  AK
    Mertensia paniculata

    Other names for Mertensia paniculata are: Lungwort, Languid Lady, Chiming Bells 

  45. Mertensia pterocarpa  (var. yesoensis)  ______  HK

  46. Alpine Forget-me-not  ______  AK
    Myosotis alpestris asiatica

  47. Field Forget-me-not  ______  IC
    Myosotis arvensis

  48. Yellow-and-blue Forget-me-not  ______  IC  (NW:573)
    Myosotis discolor

    Another name for Myosotis arvensis is Changing Forget-me-not. In Iceland, it is a rare alien in the south and southwest.

  49. Water Forget-me-not  ______  IC  (NW:158)
    Myosotis scorpioides

    Myosotis scorpioides
    is also called the European True Forget-me-not.

  50. Strict Forget-me-not  ______  IC
    Myosotis stricta

  51. Myosotis sylvatica  ______  HK

  52. Brook Forget-me-not  ______  AK
    Myosotis palustris

    In Alaska, the Brook Forget-me-not is an introduced species.

    Broomrape Family, OROBANCHACEAE

  53. Broomrape  (or Ground Cone ______  AK  HK
    Boschniakia rossica

    Buckthorn Family, RHAMNACEAE

  54. Rhamnus ishidae  ______  HK

    Bunchflower Family, TOFIELDIA

  55. Tofieldia coccinea  ______  HK
    Tofieldia coccinea  (var. kondoi)  ______ 

  56. Tofieldia okuboi  ______  HK

  57. Scottish Asphodel  ______  IC
    Tofieldia pusilla

    Bur-reed Family,

  58. Floating Bur-reed  ______  HK  IC
    Sparganium angustifolium 

  59. Sparganium glomeratum  ______  HK

  60. Sparganium gramineum  ______  HK

  61. Northern Bur-reed  ______  HK  IC
    Sparganium hyperboreum

  62. Least Bur-reed  ______  IC
    Sparganium minimum  

    Buttercup, or Crowfoot Family, RANUNCULACEAE

  63. Monkshood  ______  AK
    Aconitum delphinifolium delphinifolium
    Aconitum delphinifolium chamissonianum

    is a poisonous plant. It was once called Wolfbane, as it was used in bait for killing wolves. 

  64. Aconitum gigas  ______  HK

  65. Aconitum mashikense  ______  HK

  66. Aconitum sachalinense yesoense  ______  HK
    Aconitum sachalinense yesoense  (var. corymbiferum)  ______ 
    Acontium sachalinense ito-seiyanum  ______ 
    Acontium sachalinense ito-seiyanum  (var. compactum)  ______ 

  67. Acontium soyaense  ______  HK

  68. Acontium umbrosum  ______  HK

  69. Acontium yamazakii  ______  HK

  70. Aconitum yuparense  (var. yuparense)  ______  HK
    Aconitum yuparense  (var. apoiense)  ______ 

  71. Red Baneberry  (or Snakeberry)  ______  AK  (NW:454)
    Actaea rubra

    Baneberry is a very poisonous plant. As many as 6 berries has been known to cause death for a small child.   

  72. Anemone debilis  ______  HK

  73. Cut-leaf Anemone  ______  AK  (NW:459)
    Anemone multifida

    Another name for Anemone multiflora is Red Anemone.

  74. Narcissus-flowered Anemone  ______  AK  HK
    Anemone narcissiflora
    Anemone narcissiflora sachalnensis  ______ 

  75. Windflower  ______  AK
    Anemone parviflora

  76. Yellow Anemone  (or Richardson's Anemone ______  AK
    Anemone richardsonii

    This and other Anemone species are very poisonous, and should not be eaten.

  77. Anemone soyensis  ______  HK

  78. Blue Columbine  ______  AK
    Aquilegia brevistylla

  79. Aquilegia buergeriana  (var. oxysepala)  ______  HK

  80. Aquilegia flabellata  (var. pumila)  ______  HK

  81. Western Columbine  ______  AK
    Aquilegia formosa

  82. Callianthemum miyabeanum  ______  HK  

  83. Caltha fistulosa  ______  HK

  84. Mountain-marigold  ______  AK  (NW:463)
    Caltha leptosepala 

    Caltha leptosepala
    is also called the White Marsh-marigold.

  85. Yellow Marsh-marigold  (ph)  ______  AK  IC(*)  (NW:463)
    Caltha palustris

    The Yellow Marsh-marigold contains a poison when raw. 

    Yellow Marsh-marigold
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  86. Clematis alpina ochotensia  (var. ochotensis)  ______  HK

  87. Clematis fusca  ______  HK

  88. Coptis trifolia  ______  HK

  89. Tall Larkspur  ______  AK  (NW:467)
    Delphinium glaucum

    Tall Larkspur is a poisonous plant.

  90. Glaucidium palmatum  ______  HK

  91. Pulsatilla nipponica  ______  HK

  92. American Pasque Flower  (or Spring Crocus ______  AK  (NW:460)
    Pulsatilla patens

  93. Meadow Buttercup  ______  HK  IC  (NW:594)
    Ranunculus acris

    Another name for Ranunculus acris is Tall Buttercup.

    The species in the Ranunculus genus (this & the following) are poisonous and should not be eaten. 

  94. Goldilocks Buttercup  ______  IC(rare)
    Ranunculus auricomus

  95. Mountain Buttercup  ______  AK  (NW:464)
    Ranunculus eschscholtzii

    Another name for Ranunculus eschscholtzii is Eschscholtz's Buttercup.

  96. Glacier Buttercup  ______  IC
    Ranunculus glacialis

  97. Ranunculus horieanus  ______  HK

  98. Arctic Buttercup  ______  IC
    Ranunculus hyperboreus

    The Arctic Buttercup is a species characteristic of iron-rich spring-water seeping up through mud in bogs, in Iceland especially in the Central Highlands.
    In such places, in Iceland, it is often accompanied by Water Whorlgrass.  

  99. Snow Buttercup  ______  AK(*)
    Ranunculus nivalis

    In Alaska, the Snow Buttercup is in the eastern, central, and northern parts of the state.

  100. Western Buttercup  ______  AK
    Ranunculus occidentalis

  101. Pigmy Buttercup  ______  IC
    Ranunculus pygmaeus

  102. Creeping Buttercup  ______  IC  (NW:594)
    Ranunculus repens

    In Iceland, the Creeping Buttercup is a rather common naturalized alien. It is found on cultivated homefields, fertile pastures in villages, near houses and abandoned farms, and in gardens.

  103. Creeping Spearwort  (ph)  ______  HK  IC(*)
    Ranunculus reptans 

    Creeping Spearwort
    is found in moist soil.

    Creeping Spearwort
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour) 

  104. Thread-leaved Water-crowfoot  ______  IC
    Ranunculus trichophyllus

  105. Alpine Meadow-rue  ______  IC
    Thalictrum alpinum

  106. Thalictrum aquilegifolium intermedium  ______  HK

  107. Thalictrum baicalense  ______  HK

  108. Thalictrum integrilobum  ______  HK

  109. Thalictrum mimus  (var. kemense)  ______  HK
    Thalictrum mimus  (var. glabrescensi)  ______  
    Thalictrum mimus  (var. apoiense)  ______ 

  110. Thalictrum sachalinense  ______  HK

  111. Thalictrum tuberiferum  ______  HK

  112. Trautvetteria palmata  (var. palmata)  ______  HK
    Trautvetteria palmata  (var. borealis)  ______ 

  113. Trollius altaicus pulcher  ______  HK

  114. Trollius japonicus  ______  HK

  115. Trollius ledebourii  (var. polysepalus)  ______  HK

  116. Trollius riederianus  ______  HK

    Clubmoss Family, LYCOPODIACEAE

  117. Alpine Clubmoss  ______  IC
    Dipharium alpinum

  118. Fir Clubmoss  ______  IC
    Huperzia selago

  119. Interrupted Clubmoss  ______  AK  IC
    Lycopodium annotinum
    Lycopodium annotinum  (var. acrifolium)  ______ 

  120. Lycopodium chinense  ______  HK

  121. Lycopodium nikoense  ______  HK

  122. Lycopodium selago  ______  HK
    Lycopodium selago  (var. selago)  ______ 

  123. Lycopodium serratum  ______  HK

    Crowberry Family, EMPETRUM

  124. Crowberry  (or Mooseberry ______  AK  HK  IC
    Empetrum nigrum
    Empetrum nigrum japonicum  ______ 

    AN EDIBLE PLANT: The berries of Crowberry may be used for jelly or pies. They are easy to pick and keep well.      

    Cypress Family, CUPRESSACEAE

  125. Alaska-cedar  ______  AK(southeast)  (ST:73)
    Callitropis nootkatensis

    Other names for Callitropis nootkatensis are Nootka Cypress, Stinking Cypress, Yellow Cypress.

  126. Juniperus chinensis  (var. sargentii)  ______  HK

  127. Common Juniper  ______  IC
    Juniperus communis
    Juniperus communis nana  (var. nipponica)  ______ 
    Juniperus communis nana  (var. saxatilis)  ______ 

    Daisy, or Aster Family, ASTERACEAE

  128. Siberian Yarrow  ______  (NW:109)
    Achillea alpina 
    Achillea alpina camtschatica  ______ 

  129. Northern Yarrow  ______  AK
    Achillea borealis

  130. Yarrow  ______  IC  (NW:109)
    Achillea millefolium

    Another name for Achillea millefolium is Milfoil.

  131. Sneezewort  ______  HK  IC  
    Achillea ptarmica
    Achillea ptarmica macrocephalia (var. yezoensis)  ______ 

  132. Achillea sibirica  ______  AK

  133. Anaphalis lactea  ______  HK

  134. Pearly Everlasting  ______  (NW:93)
    Anaphalis margaritacea 
    Anaphalis margaritacea margaritacea  ______ 
    Anaphalis margaritacea yedoensis  ______  HK

  135. Pussy Toes  ______  AK
    Antennaria sp.

    In Alaska, there are numerous species of Antennaria, separated by minor characteristics. Some are pink, but the following species (the Cat's Paw) is a whit alpine species.    

  136. Alpine Cat's Foot  ______  IC
    Antennaria alpina

  137. Antennaria dioica  ______  HK

  138. Cat's Paw  ______  AK
    Antennaria monocephala 

  139. Alpine Arnica  ______  AK
    Arnica alpina angustifolia

  140. Arnica amplexicaulis  ______  AK

  141. Arnica chamissonis  ______  AK 

  142. Frigid Arnica  ______  AK
    Arnica frigida

  143. Meadow Arnica  ______  AK
    Arnica latifolia

  144. Lessing's Arnica  ______  AK
    Arnica lessingii

  145. Arnica sachalinensis  ______  HK

  146. Arnica unalaschcensis  (var. unalaschcensis)  ______  HK  

  147. Artemisia arctica sachalinensis  ______  HK

  148. Frigid Wormwood (or Prairie Sagebrush ______  AK
    Artemisia frigida

  149. Artemisia schmidtiana  ______  HK

  150. Artesmisia tanacetifolia  ______  HK

  151. Common Wormwood  ______  AK
    Artemisia tilesii

  152. Artemisia trifurcata  ______  HK

  153. Artemisia unalaskensis  ______  HK

  154. Siberian Aster  ______  AK
    Aster sibiricus

  155. Pineappleweed  ______  IC
    Chamomilla suaveolens

  156. Arctic Daisy  ______  AK
    Chrysanthemum arcticum arcticum

  157. Cirsium alpicola  ______  HK

  158. Cirsium apoense  ______  HK 

  159. Creeping Thistle  ______  IC
    Cirsium arvense

  160. Cirsium grayanum  ______  HK

  161. Cirsium hidakamontanum  ______  HK

  162. Cirsium kamschaticum  ______  HK

  163. Cirsium pectinellum  ______  HK
    Cirsium pectinellum  (var. alpinum)  ______ 

  164. Crepis gymnopus  ______  HK

  165. Crepis hokkaidoensis  ______  HK

  166. Marsh Hawk's-beard  ______  IC(very rare)
    Crepis paludosa

    In Iceland, Marsh Hawk's-beard is found only in the outer districts on both sides of Eyjafjordur. 

  167. Erigeron acer  (var. acer)  _____  HK
    Erigeron acer  (var. kamtschaticus)  ______  HK

  168. Alpine Fleabane  ______  IC
    Erigeron borealis

    In Iceland, Alpine Fleabane is common throughout. It grows on slopes and grassy moors.

    MEDICINAL USE: the whole plant, with the exception of the root

    Used EXTERNALLY, Alpine Fleabane is very useful to treat burns, inflammation, and melanoma ulcers. 
    Poultices of the herb are also effective in treating rheumatic inflammation and sore muscles. 

    Alpine Fleabane is useful as a gargle for mouth and throat ulcers and inflammation.

    Alpine Fleabane can be dangerous if used internally, It was used that way in the past, but it is now evident that protracted use can cause hepatic toxicity, which could even be fatal.     

  169. Snow Fleabane  ______  IC
    Erigeron humilis

  170. Coastal Fleabane  ______  AK
    Erigeron peregrinus

  171. Erigeron miyabeanis  ______  HK

  172. Erigeron thunbergii glabratus  (var. glabratus)  ______  HK
    Erigeron thunbergii glabratus  (var. angustifolis)  ______ 

  173. Dwarf Fleabane  ______  IC
    Erigeron uniflorus

  174. Marsh Cudweed  ______  IC
    Filaginella uliginosa

  175. Hawkweed  ______  IC
    Hieracium spp.

    The Hawkweeds are a very difficult group, having been divided, in Iceland, into about 200 microspecies, or varieties.   

  176. Alpine Hawkweed  ______  IC
    Hieracium alpinum

  177. Hypochaeris crepidioides  ______  HK

  178. Ixeridium dentatum nipponicum  (var. albiflorum)  ______  HK 

  179. Autumn Hawkbit  ______  IC
    Leontodon autumnalis

  180. Leontopodium discolor  ______  HK

  181. Leontopodium japonicum  ______  HK

  182. Leotopodium miyabeanum  ______  HK

  183. Oxeye Daisy  ______  IC  (NW:570)
    Leucanthemum vulgare

  184. Ligularia hodgsonii  ______  HK  

  185. Pineapple Weed  ______  AK
    Matricaria matricarioides

    Matricaria matricarioides is a different plant than Chamomilla suaveolens. Both have the common name Pineapple Weed.

    In Alaska, Matricaria matricarioides is introduced.

  186. Sea Mayweed  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Matricaria maritima

    Sea Mayweed
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  187. Highland Cudweed  ______  IC
    Omalotheca norvegica

  188. Dwarf Cudweed  ______  IC
    Omalotheca supina

  189. Heath Cudweed  ______  IC
    Omalotheca sylvatica

  190. Parasenecio auriculatus (var. bulbifera)  ______  HK

  191. Frigid Coltsfoot  ______  AK  (NW:107)
    Petasites frigidus

    Another name for Petasites frigidus is Sweet Coltsfoot.

  192. Northern Coltsfoot  ______  AK
    Petasites hyperboreus

  193. Arrowleaf Coltsfoot  ______  AK
    Petasites sagitus

  194. Picris hieracioides kamtschatica  ______  HK
    Picris hieracioides kamtschatica  (var. jessoensis)  ______ 
    Picris hieraciodes japonica  ______ 

  195. Icelandic Hawkweed  ______  IC
    Pilosella islandica

  196. Saussurea chionophylla  ______  HK

  197. Saussurea fauriei  ______  HK

  198. Saussurea kudoana  (var. kudoana)  ______  HK
    Saussurea kudoana  (var. yuparensis)  ______ 

  199. Saussurea riederi yesoensis  (var. yaeoensis)  ______  HK
    Saussurea riederi daisetsuensis   (var. insularis)  ______ 

  200. Saussurea yanagisawae  ______  HK

  201. Scorzonera rebunensis  ______  HK

  202. Marsh Fleabane  (or Mastodon Flower ______  AK
    Senecio congestus

  203. Senecio conterminus  ______  AK

  204. Senecio cymbalarioides  ______  AK

  205. Black-tipped Groundsel  ______  AK
    Senecio lugens

  206. Senecio nemorensis  ______  HK

  207. Senecio pauciflorus  ______  AK

  208. Beach Fleabane  ______  AK
    Senecio pseudo-arnica

  209. Triangular-leaved Fleabane  ______  AK  (NW:140)
    Senecio triangularis

    Another name for Senecio triangularis is Arrow-leaved Ragwort.

  210. Groundsel  ______  AK  IC
    Senecio vulgaris

  211. Canadian Goldenrod  ______  AK  (NW:135)
    Solidago canadensis  

  212. Solidago horicana  ______  HK

  213. Elegant Goldenrod  ______  AK
    Solidago lepida

  214. Northern Goldenrod  ______  AK  (NW:135)
    Solidago multiradiata

    Other names for Solidago multiradiata are Alpine Goldenrod and Rocky Mountain Goldenrod. 

  215. Solidago virgaurea asiatica  ______  HK
    Solidago virgaurea leiocarpa  ______ 

  216. Dandelion  (ph)  ______  IC(*)  (NW:569)
    Taraxacum spp.

    are very variable plants and are often separated into different numbers of microspecies. Since they reproduce by agamospermy, the distinction between many of the microspecies is unclear. 

    In Iceland, Dandelions are common "everywhere", growing in grassland, near homes and farms, and in the mountains.  

    MEDICINAL USE: roots and leaves, gathered before flowering

    The Dandelion is a very important medicinal herb. The roots and leaves are mixed to gain the most advantageous effects of both.
    The leaves, which are very nutritious, are diuretic and high in potassium (but have little effect on the liver). They are used, therefore, for oedema, especially if caused by a weak heart.   

    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  217. Taraxacum ceratophorum  ______  HK

  218. Taraxacum ohirenses  ______  HK

  219. Taraxacum shikotanense  ______  HK

  220. Taraxacum venustum  ______  HK

  221. Taraxacum yuparense  ______  HK
    Taraxacum yuparense  (var. grandisquamatum)  ______ 

  222. Tephroseris kawakamii  ______  HK

  223. Colt's-foot  ______  IC  (NW:572)
    Tussilago farfara

    Diapensia Family, DIAPENSIACEAE

  224. Diapensia  (or Lapland Diapensia ______  AK  HK  IC  (NW:212)
    Diapensia lapponica
    Diapensia lapponica obovata  ______ 
    AK  HK

  225. Schizocodon soldanelloides  ______  HK
    Schizocodon soldanelloides  (var. magnus)  ______ 

    Dock, or Buckwheat Family, POLYGONACEAE

  226. Aconogonon ajanense  ______  HK

  227. Aconogonon nakaii  ______  HK

  228. Aconogonon weyrichii  ______  HK
    Aconogonon weyrichii  (var. alpinum)  ______ 

  229. Bistorta officinalis  (var. pacifica)  ______  HK

  230. Alpine Bistort  ______  HK  IC(*)  (NW:433)
    Bistorta vivipara

    Other names for Bistorta vivipara are: Osterick, Snakeweed, Serpent-grass, Adderwort, and Viviparous Knotweed. 

    In Iceland, Alpine Bistort is very common throughout. It grows in nearly all types of soils, in the highlands as well as in settled areas at lower elevations.

    the root

    Alpine Bistort is used for various types of pain and hemorrhage in the digestive tract (for example, for gastritis and colitis).
    The root is also useful for gingivitis and soreness of the mouth and throat as well as for cervical soreness.
    A decoction of the root can be used to treat sores that are hard to heal.

  231. Iceland-purslane  ______  IC
    Koenigia islandica

  232. Mountain Sorrel  (ph)  ______  AK  HK  IC(*)  (NW:429)
    Oxyria digyna

    Oxyria digyna
    occurs commonly in Iceland, at ravines, cliffs, gravelly slopes, and rocky ground.

    Mountain Sorrel
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  233. Amphibious Bistort  ______  IC  (NW:431)
    Persicaria amphibia

    Another name for Persicaria amphibia is Water Smartweed.

  234. Wild Rhubarb  ______  AK
    Polygonum alaskanum

    AN EDIBLE PLANT: Young stems and leaves of the Wild Rhubarb may be eaten raw or cooked. 

  235. Common Knotgrass  ______  IC
    Polygonum aviculare

    MEDICINAL USE: the whole plant except the root

    Common Knotgrass is used mainly for internal hemorrhaging especially in the alimentary tract. It is especially effective against diarrhea.
    It can also be used for stones in the urinary tract, in which case the herb must be taken regularly for a long period.
    Crushed knotgrass inhaled through the nose is effective in curtailing nosebleeds.
    Poultices and ointments of knotgrass can be used for suppurating sores.   

  236. Pink Plumes  ______  AK
    Polygonum bistorta

    AN EDIBLE PLANT: Leaves of the Pink Plumes may be eaten raw or cooked. 

  237. Alpine Meadow Bistort  ______  AK
    Polygonum viviparum

    The boiled roots of the Alpine Meadow Bistort are a good source of starch , and the leaves of the plant may be eaten raw or cooked. 

  238. Common Sorrel  ______  IC
    Rumex acetosa

    In Iceland, Common Sorrel is very common, It grows in many types of dry soils, especially in grasslands and hayfields.  

    MEDICINAL USE: the leaves

    Common Sorrel is considered useful to treat oedema, especially if caused by malfunction of the liver which the herb is thought to stimulate and strengthen.
    It also can be good for poor appetite, scurvy, constipation, and hemorrhoids.

    A fresh juice of the leaves of Common Sorrel, diluted with vinegar, can be an excellent lotion for skin disorders, such as furuncles, mycosis, itchy eczema, and neoplasms.

    Mountain Sorrel, Oxyria dygina (above), has characteristics and effects similar to those of Common Sorrel.
    Sheep's Sorrel, Rumex acetosella (below), is often confused with Common Sorrel. 
    Sheep's Sorrel is a closely related, smaller herb.   

  239. Sheep Sorrel  ______  AK  IC
    Rumex acetosella

  240. Rumex alpestris  ______  HK

  241. Arctic Dock  ______  AK
    Rumex arcticus

  242. Curly Dock  ______  IC(rare alien)  (NW:592)
    Rumex crispus 

  243. Rumex gmelinii  ______  HK

  244. Northern Dock  ______  IC
    Rumex longifolius

    Dogbane Family, APOCYNACAE

  245. Vincetoxicum inamoenum  ______  HK

    Dogwood Family, CORNACEAE

    The genus Cornus has been said to be Chamaepericlymenum.

  246. Dwarf Dogwood  ______  AK  HK  (NW:204)
    Cornus canadensis

    Other names for Cornus canadensis are the Canadian Dwarf Cornel, and Bunchberry.

  247. Red Twig Dogwood  ______  AK
    Cornus stolonifera   

  248. Dwarf Cornel  ______  IC  HK
    Cornus suecicum

    Another name for Cornus suecica is the Swedish Dwarf Cornel. 

    Earthsmoke, or Fumitory Family, FUMARIACEAE

  249. Bolden Corydalis  ______  AK  (NW:250)
    Corydalis aurea

    Another name for Corydalis aurea is Scrambled Eggs.

  250. Corydalis curvicalcarata  ______  HK

  251. Few-flowered Corydalis  ______  AK
    Corydalis pauciflora

  252. Pale Corydalis  (or the Rock Harlequin)  ______  AK  (NW:251)
    Corydalis sempervirens

    In Alaska, Corydalis sempervirens is introduced.

  253. Dicentra peregrina  ______  HK

    Eel-grass Family, ZOSTERACEAE

  254. Eelgrass  ______  IC
    Zostera marina

    and Hardfern Families, BLECHNACEAE and DRYOPTERIDACEAE

  255. Hard Fern  ______  IC
    Blechnum spicant

  256. Holly Fern  ______  IC
    Polystichum lonchitis

    Figwort Family, SCROPHULARIACEAE

  257. Arctic Bartsia  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Bartsia alpina

    Arctic Bartsia
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  258. Elegant Paintbrush  ______  AK(*)
    Castilleja elegans

    In Alaska, the Elegant Paintbrush grows in interior Alaska and on the North Slope.

  259. Castilleja hyetophia  ______  AK

  260. Red Indian Paintbrush  ______  AK  (NW:538)
    Castilleja miniata

    Castilleja miniata
    has a few other common names including: Giant Red Indian Paintbrush, Great Red Indian Paintbrush, and Scarlet Red Indian Paintbrush.  

  261. Yellow Paintbrush  (or Coastal Paintbrush ______  AK
    Castilleja unalaschensis

  262. Arctic Eyebright  ______  IC
    Euphrasia arctica

  263. Cold Eyebright  ______  IC
    Euphrasia frigida

    MEDICINAL USE:  the entire plant when in flower, except the root 

    Cold Eyebright is one of the better herbs for persistent runny nose, sinus inflammation, and bronchitis.
    The plant strengthens mucous membranes and dries excessive secretions. Thereby it also counteracts gastroenteritis. 

  264. Euphrasia maximowiczii  (var. yesoensis)  ______  HK

  265. Euphrasia pectinata  (var. obtusiserrata)  ______  HK

  266. Mudwort  ______  IC
    Limosella aquatica

  267. Yellow Toadflax  (or Butter and Eggs ______  AK  (NW:597)
    Linaria vulgaris

    In Alaska, Linaria vulgaris has become naturalized. It is native to Eurasia. 

  268. Small Cow-wheat  ______  IC(rare & localized)
    Melampyrum sylvaticum

  269. Yellow Monkey-flower  (or Wild Snapdragon ______  AK  (NW::512)
    Mimulus guttatus

  270. Purple-flowered Monkey-flower  ______  AK  (NW:513)
    Mimulus lewisii

    Mimulus lewisii
    is also called Lewis' Monkey-flower.

  271. Mimulus sessilifolius  ______  HK

  272. Pedicularis apodochila  ______  HK

  273. Capitate Lousewort  ______  AK
    Pedicularis capitata

  274. Pedicularis chamissomis  (var. hokkaidoensis)  ______  HK
    Pedicularis chamissomis  (var. rebunensis)  ______ 

  275. Upright Lousewort  ______  IC
    Pedicularis flammea 

  276. Wooly Lousewort  ______  AK
    Pedicularis kanei kanei

  277. Pedicularis koidzumiana  ______  HK

  278. Labrador Lousewort  ______  AK
    Pedicularis labradorica

  279. Pedicularis lapponica  ______  AK

  280. Pedicularis oederi  ______  AK  HK
    Pedicularis oederi   (var. heteroglossa)  ______  HK 

  281. Pedicularis resupinata oppositifolia  ______  HK

  282. Pedicularis schistostegia  ______  HK

  283. Pedicularis verticillata  ______  HK

  284. Pedicularis yesoensis  ______  HK

  285. Penstemon frutescens  ______  HK

  286. Yukon Beardtongue  ______  AK
    Penstemon gormanii

  287. Yellow-rattle  (or Rattlebox ______  AK  IC  (NW:543)
    Rhinanthus minor

    In Iceland, Yellow-rattle is often called Peningagras (translated to "Penny-grass") by children because of the shape of the fruits, that they use as play money.  

    The flowers of the Yellow-rattle, or Rattlebox are small and inconspicuous, protruding from the calyx.
    The rather hairy calyx forms an urn-like structure that rattles when seeds within the ovary are mature, thus the common names for the plant.

  288. Blue Water-speedwell  ______  IC  (NW:529)
    Veronica anagallis-aquatica

  289. Alpine Speedwell  ______  IC
    Veronica alpina  

  290. Veronica americana  ______  AK

  291. Germander Speedwell  ______  IC
    Veronica chamaedrys

  292. Rock Speedwell  ______  IC
    Veronica fruticans 

  293. Heath Speedwell  ______  IC  (NW:596)
    Veronica officinalis

    Veronica officinalis is also called Common Speedwell.

    the dried plant in flower

    Heath Speedwell, or Common Speedwell, is sudorific, diuretic, an expectorant, and heals externally.
    It is used less for medicinal purposes now than it was in the past, as the herb has a very mild effect.
    It was traditionally used for many ailments, such as scurvy, lack of appetite, anorexia, kidney stones, rash and irritated skin. It was also thought to help dry cough.

  294. Common Field-Speedwell  ______  IC(introduced)
    Veronica persica

  295. Marsh Speedwell  ______  IC  (NW:529)
    Veronica scutellata

    Other names for Veronica scutellata are Narrow-leaved Speedwell and Grass-leaved Speedwell.

  296. Thyme-leaved Speedwell  (or Brook Veronica)  ______  AK  HK  IC
    Veronica serpyllifolia
    Veronica serpyllifolia humifusa  ______ 

  297. Veronica stelleri  ______  AK  HK
    Veronica stelleri  (var. longistyla)  ______  HK

  298. American Alpine-Speedwell  ______  AK  (NW:530)
    Veronica wormskjoldii

    Another name for Veronica wormskjoldii is Alpine Veronica. 

    Flax Family, LINACEAE

  299. Fairy Flax  ______  IC
    Limun catharticum

  300. Wild Blue Flax  ______  AK
    Limun perenne

    Gentian Family, GENTIANACEAE

  301. Whitish Gentian  ______  HK  (NW:253)
    Gentiana algida  

    Another name for Gentiana algida is Arctic Gentian.

  302. Glaucous Gentian  ______  AK  HK
    Gentiana glauca  

  303. Gentiana jamesii  ______  HK

  304. Gentiana nipponica  ______  HK

  305. Alpine Gentian  ______  IC
    Gentiana nivalis

  306. Gentiana thunbergii  ______  HK

  307. Gentiana triflora   (var. japonica)  ______  HK

  308. Northern Gentian  ______  HK  IC  (NW:255)
    Gentianella amarella
    Gentianella amarella takedae  ______ 

    Other names for Gentianella amarella included Autumn Gentian, Autumn Dwarf-Gentian, and Felwort.

  309. Northern Gentian  ______  IC
    Gentianella aurea

  310. Gentianella auriculata  ______  HK

  311. Field Gentian  ______  IC
    Gentianella campestris

  312. Serrate Gentian  ______  IC
    Gentianella detonsa

  313. Slender Gentian  ______  IC
    Gentianella tenella

  314. Arctic Felwort  ______  IC  (NW:257)
    Lomatogonium rotatum

    Another name for Lomatogonium rotatum is Marsh Felwort.

  315. Star Gentian  ______  AK  HK  (NW:257)
    Swertia perennis
    Swertia perennis cuspidata  ______ 

    Swertia perennis is also called Felwort.

  316. Swertia tetrapetala tetrapetala  ______  HK
    Swertia tetrapetala tetrapetala  (var. yezoalpina)  ______ 

  317. Tripterospermum trinervium  (var. involubile)  ______  HK 

    Geranium Family, GERANIACEAE

  318. Cranesbill  (or Wild Geranium______  AK  HK
    Geranium erianthum

  319. Geranium onoei  (var. onoei)  ______  HK

  320. Wood Crane's-bill  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Geranium sylvaticum

    The name "crane's-bill" is from the shape of the seed pods once the petals have faded. The seed heads snap open like bird beaks to release the seeds.
    Other common names for plants in GERANIACEAE, more to the south, are "stork's-bill" and "heron's-bill".   

    Wood Crane's-bill
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour) 

  321. Geranium yesoense  (var. yesoense)  ______  HK
    Geranium yesoense  (var. pseudopalustre)  ______ 

    Ginseng Family, ARALIACEAE

  322. Devil's Club  ______  AK
    Echinopanax horridum

    Gooseberry Family, GROSSULARIACEAE

  323. Ribes horridum  ______  HK

  324. Northern Black Currant  ______  AK
    Ribes hudsonium

  325. Northern Red Currant  ______  AK
    Ribes iriste

  326. Ribes japonicum  ______  HK

  327. Bristly Black Currant  (or Gooseberry ______  AK
    Ribes lacustre

  328. Ribes latifolium  ______  HK

  329. Trailing Black Currant  ______  AK
    Ribes laxiflorum 

  330. Ribes sachalinense  ______  HK

  331. Ribes triste  ______  HK

    Goosefoot Family, CHENOPODIACEAE

  332. Babington's Orache  ______  IC
    Atriplex glabriuscula

  333. Long-stalked Orache  ______  IC
    Atriplex longipes

  334. Fat-hen  ______  IC(an alien)
    Chenopodium album

  335. Strawberry Spinach  (or Strawberry Blite ______  AK  (NW:197)
    Chenopodium capitatum

    Chenopodium capitatum
    is also called Indian Paint.

    AN EDIBLE PLANT: The sweet fruit of Strawberry Spinach may be eaten raw or used for jelly and syrup. Its tasty leaves are very similar to those of its close relative, Spinach.  

    Grass Family, POACEAE

  336. Common Bent-grass  ______  IC
    Agrostis capillaris  

    Species in the genus Agrostis are generally referred to as bent-grasses.

  337. Agrostis flaccida   _____  HK

  338. Creeping Bent-grass  ______  IC
    Agrostis stolonifera

  339. Velvet Bent-grass  ______  IC
    Agrostis vinealis

  340. Orange Foxtail  ______  IC
    Alopecurus aequalis

  341. Marsh Foxtail   ______  IC
    Alopecurus geniculatus

  342. Meadow Foxtail  ______  IC
    Alopecurus pratensus

  343. Anthoxanthum nipponicum  ______  HK

    Species in the genus Anthoxanthum are generally referred to vernal grasses.

  344. Sweet Vernal Gras  ______  IC
    Anthoxanthum odoratum

  345. Hungarian Brome  ______  IC
    Bromus inermis

  346. Calamagrostis hakonensis  ______  HK

    Species in the genus Calamagrostis are generally referred to as reed-grasses.

  347. Calamagrostis neglecta inexpansa  ______  HK

  348. Calamagrostis purpurea langsdorfii  ______  HK

  349. Calamagrostis sachalinensis  ______  HK 

  350. Calamagrostis sesquiflora  ______  HK

  351. Narrow Small Reed-grass  ______  IC
    Calamagrostis stricta

  352. Whorl-grass  ______  IC
    Catabrosa aquatica

  353. Cock's-foot  ______  IC
    Dactylis glomerata

  354. Alpine Hair-grass  ______  IC
    Deschampsia alpina

    Species in the genus Deschampsia are generally referred to as hair-grasses.

  355. Deschampsia atropurpurea  (var. paramushirensis)  ______  HK  

  356. Tufted Hair-grass   ______  AK  HK  IC
    Deschampsia cespitosa
    Deschampsia cespitosa  (var. festucifolia)  ______ 
    Deschampsia cespitosa  (var. levis)  ______ 

  357. Slender Hair-grass  ______  AK
    Deschampsia elongata

  358. Wavy Hair-grass  ______  HK  IC
    Deschampsia flexuosa   

  359. Northern Couch  ______  AK  IC
    Elymus alaskanus

    Other names for Elymus alaskanus are Alaskan Wheatgrass and Alaska Wild Rye.

  360. Lyme Grass  (or Beach Rye Grass ______  AK  IC
    (or Leymus) arenarius

  361. Bearded Couch  ______  IC
    Elymus caninus

  362. Common Couch  ______  IC
    Elymus repens

    Common Couch
    occurs throughout Iceland. There, and elsewhere, it is around farms and in neglected gardens.
    it is regarded as among the worst of weeds.

    MEDICINAL USE: the rhizomes and stolons

    Common Couch is used extensively to treat urinary ailments, such as cystitis, prostatitis, nephritis, and discomfort from kidney stones and gravel.
    The plant can have a prompt effect relieving pain and cramps. It is completely harmless, even for children.  

  363. Elymus yubaridakensis  ______  HK

  364. Festuca ovina ruprechtii  ______  HK

  365. Meadow Fescue  ______  IC
    Festuca pratensis  

  366. Arctic Fescue  ______  IC
    Festuca richardsonii

  367. Red Fescue  ______  IC
    Festuca rubra

    The Red Fescue is closely related to Arctic Fescue and the two have been regarded as the same species.

    In Iceland, Red Fescue is introduced, and now widespread.

  368. Viviparous Fescue  ______  IC
    Festuca vivipara  

  369. Glyceria alnasteretum  ______  HK

    Species in the genus Glyceria are generally referred to as manna-grasses, or sweet-grasses. 

  370. Floating Sweet-grass  ______  IC
    Glyceria fluitans

  371. Hierochloe alpina  ______  HK

    Species in the genus Hierochloe are generally referred to as sweet-grasses.

  372. Holy-grass  ______  IC
    Hierochloe odorata

  373. Hierochloe pluriflora  ______  HK
    Hierochloe pluriflora  (var. intermedia)   ______ 

  374. Yorkshire-fog  ______  IC
    Holcus lanatus

  375. Squirreltail Grass  ______  AK
    Hordeum jubatum

  376. Wood Millet  ______  IC
    Milium effusum

  377. Mat Grass  ______  IC
    Nardus stricta

  378. Snow Goosegrass  ______  IC
    Phippsia algida

  379. Alpine Cat's-tail  ______  HK  IC 
    Phleum alpinum

  380. Timothy  ______  IC
    Phleum pratense

  381. Alpine Meadow-grass  ______  IC
    Poa alpina

    Species in the genus Poa are generally called meadow-grasses.

  382. Annual Meadow-grass  ______  IC
    Poa annua

  383. Wavy Meadow-grass  ______  IC
    Poa flexuosa

  384. Glaucous Meadow-grass  ______  IC
    Poa glauca

  385. Poa hayachinensis  ______  HK

  386. Wood Meadow-grass  ______  IC
    Poa nemoralis

  387. Smooth Meadow-grass  ______  IC
    Poa pratensis

  388. Rough Meadow-grass  ______  IC
    Poa trivialis

  389. Reflexed Saltmarsh-grass  ______  IC
    Puccinellia distans

  390. Common Saltmarsh-grass  ______  IC
    Puccinellia maritima

  391. Blue Moor-grass  ______  IC
    Sesleria albicans

  392. Spiked Oat-grass  ______  AK  HK  IC
    Trisetum spicatum

    Another name for Trisetum spicatum is Spiked Trisetum.

    Heath Family, ERICACEAE

  393. Bog Rosemary  ______  AK  HK  IC(very rare)  (NW:215)
    Andromeda polifolia

    In Iceland, the Bog Rosemary has recently been discovered in the northern part of the eastern fjords. 

    Bog Rosemary is very poisonous plant. It can cause rapid lowering of blood pressure if eaten..   

  394. Arctererica nana  ______  HK

  395. Alpine Bearberry  ______  AK  (NW:216)
    Arctostaphylos alpina

  396. Bearberry  (ph)  ______  AK  IC(*)  (NW:216)
    Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

    Another name for Arctostaphylos uva-ursi is Kinnikinnick.

    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)  

  397. Arctous alpina  (var. japonica)  ______  HK

  398. Bryanthus gmelininii  ______  HK

  399. Heather  ______  IC
    Calluna vulgaris

  400. Cassiope  ______  IC
    Cassiope hypnoides

  401. Cassiope lycopodioides  ______  HK

  402. Moss Heather  ______  AK
    Cassiope stelleriana

  403. Cladothamnus bracteatus  ______  HK

  404. Elloittia paniculata  ______  HK

  405. Epigaea asiatica  ______  HK

  406. Gaultheria adenothris  ______  HK 

  407. Gaultheria miqueliana  ______  HK

  408. Harrimanella stelleriana  ______  HK

  409. Leucothoe grayana  (var. hypoleuca)  ______  HK

  410. Trailing Azalea  (or Alpine Azalea ______  AK  HK  IC
    Loiseleuria procumbens

  411. Rusty Menziesia  ______  AK
    Menziesia ferruginea

    Other names for Menziesia ferruginea are Fool's Huckleberry and False Azalea.

  412. Menziesia multiflora  ______  HK

  413. Menziesia pentandra  ______  HK

  414. Monotropastrum humile  ______  HK

  415. Phyllodoce aleutica  ______  HK

  416. Mountain Heath  ______  HK  IC  (NW:220)
    Phyllodoce caerulea
    Phyllodoce caerulea  (var. yesoensis)  ______ 
    Phyllodoce caerulea  (var. marmorata)  ______ 

    Another somewhat inappropriate name for Phyllodoce caerulea has been Blue Heath. 

  417. Phyllodoce nipponica tsugifolia  ______  HK

  418. Rhododendron albrechtii  ______  HK

  419. Rhododendron aureum  ______  HK

  420. Rhododendron brachycarpum  ______  HK

  421. Rhododendron dauricum  ______  HK

  422. Rhododendron dilatatum  (var. boreale)  ______  HK

  423. Rhododendron kaempferi  (var. kaempferi)  ______  HK   

  424. Lapland Rosebay  ______  AK  (NW:219)
    Rhododendron lapponicum

  425. Bog Labrador Tea  (ph)  ______  AK(*)  HK  (NW:219)
    Rhododendron groenlandicum 
    (was Ledum latifolium, and Ledum groenlandicum)
    Rhododendron groenlandicum diversipilosum  ______ 

    Another species, the Northern Labrador Tea, Rhododendron tomentosum, was Ledum palustre.  

    When this drawing was made, the plant was called Labrador Tea, Ledum groenlandicum.

  426. Rhododendron tschonoskii  ______  HK 

  427. Therorhodion camtschaticum  ______  HK 

  428. Vaccinium hirtum  (var. pubescensi)  ______  HK  

  429. Common Cranberry  ______  IC  (NW:220)
    Vaccinium macrocarpum

    Another name for Vaccinium macrocarpum is Large Cranberry.

  430. Bilberry  (ph)  ______  IC(*) 
    Vaccinium myrtillus

    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)  

  431. Vaccinium ovalifolium  ______  HK
    Vaccinium ovalifolium  (var. alpinum)  ______ 

  432. Small Cranberry  ______  HK  (NW:220)
    Vaccinium oxycoccus  

  433. Vaccinium praestans  ______  HK

  434. Vaccinium smallii  ______  HK

  435. Bog Bilberry  (ph)  ______  AK  HK  IC(*)
    Vaccinium uliginosum
    Vaccinium uliginosum  (var. alpinum)  ______ 
    Vaccinium uliginosum  (var. japonicum)  ______ 

    Bog Bilberry
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  436. Cowberry  ______  AK  HK  IC(very rare)  (NW:220)
    Vaccinium vitis-idaea

    Other names for Vaccinium vitis-idaea are: Low-bush Cranberry, Mountain Cranberry, and Lingonberry. 

    Holly Family, AQUIFOLIACEAE

  437. Ilex crenata  (var. radicans)  ______  HK

  438. Ilex rugosa  ______  HK

  439. Ilex sugerrokii  (var. brevipadunculata)  ______  HK

    Honeysuckle Family, CAPRIFOLIACEAE

  440. Twin Flower  ______  AK  HK  (NW:191)
    Linnea borealis

    Linnea borealis
    is one of he few plants or animals named after Linnaeus, who knew it well from his exploration in northern Sweden. The name was given to the plant by Linnaeus' teacher in 1753.  

  441. Lonicera alpigena glehnii  ______  HK

  442. Lonicera chrysantha  (var. crassipes)  ______  HK

  443. Lonicera caerubea edulis  ______  HK
    Lonicera caerubea edulis  (var. venulosa)  ______ 

  444. Lonicera chamissoi  ______  HK

  445. Macrodiervilla middendorffiana  ______  HK  

  446. Red-berried Elder  ______  AK
    Sambucus racemosa 

    All parts of the Red-berried Elder, except for the pulp of the berries and the flowers, are poisonous.   

  447. High-bush Cranberry  ______  AK
    Viburnum edule

  448. Viburnum furcatum  ______  HK

  449. Viburnum koreanum  ______  HK

    Horsetail Family, EQUISETACEAE

  450. Field Horsetail  ______  AK  IC
    Equisetum arvense

  451. Water Horsetail  ______  IC
    Equisetum fluviatile

  452. Rough Horsetail  ______  IC
    Equisetum hyemale

  453. Marsh Horsetail  ______  IC
    Equisetum palustre

  454. Shady Horsetail  (ph)  ______  IC
    Equisetum pratense

    Shady Horsetail
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)   

  455. Wood Horsetail  ______  IC
    Equisetum sylvaticum

  456. Variegated Horsetail  ______  IC
    Equisetum variegatum

    Hydrangea Family,  HYDRANGEACEAE

  457. Hydrangea serrata  (var. yesoensis)  ______  HK

    Iris Family, IRIDACEAE

  458. Iris laevigata  ______  HK

  459. Iris sanguinea  ______  HK

  460. Wild Iris  (or Blue Flag ______  AK  HK
    Iris setosa

    Ivy, or Aralia Family, ARALIACEAE

  461. Oplopanax japonicus  ______  HK

    Lady-fern Family, ATHYRIACEAE

    including Shield-ferns

  462. Alpine Lady-fern  ______  HK  IC
    Athyrium ditentifolium

  463. Lady-fern  ______  AK  IC
    Athyrium filix-femina

  464. Athyrium rupestre  ______  HK

  465. Brittle Bladder-fern  (or Fragile Fern______  AK  IC
    Cystopteris fragilis

    In Iceland, the Brittle Bladder-fern is by far the most common fern, and the only one that is widespread throughout the country. 

  466. Dickie's Bladder-fern  ______  IC
    Cystopteris dickieana

  467. Northern Buckler-fern  ______  IC
    Dryopteris assimilis

  468. Wood-fern  ______  AK
    Dryopteris dilatata

  469. Male-fern  ______  IC
    Dryopteris filix-mas

  470. Fragrant Shield Fern  ______  AK
    Dryopteris fragans

  471. Oak Fern  ______  IC
    Gymnocarpium dryopteris

  472. Wilson's Filmy-fern  ______  IC
    Hymenophyllum wilsonii

  473. Ostrich Fern  ______  AK
    Matteuccia struthiopteris

  474. Alpine Woodsia  ______  IC
    Woodsia alpina

  475. Woodsia glabella  ______  HK

  476. Oblong Woodsia  ______  HK  IC
    Woodsia ilvensis

    Legume, or Pea Family, LEGUMINOSAE or FABACEAE

  477. Kidney Vetch  ______  IC
    Anthyllis vulneraria

    In Iceland, Kidney Vetch is rather common on the Reykjanes Peninsula, but rather rare elsewhere in the country.  

  478. Astragalus adsurgens  ______  HK

  479. Alpine Milk Vetch  ______  AK
    Astragalus alpinus

  480. Astragalus frigidus parviflorus  ______  HK

  481. Astragalus japonicus  ______  HK

  482. Astragalus membranaceus  (var. obtusus)  ______  HK

  483. Astragalus tokachiensis  ______  HK

  484. Hairy Arctic Milk Vetch  ______  AK
    Astragalus umbellatus

  485. Eskimo Potato  ______  IC
    Hedysarum alpinum

  486. Hedysarum hedysaroides  ______  HK

  487. Wild Sweet Pea  ______  IC
    Hedysarum mackenzii

    The root of the Wild Sweet Pea is said to be poisonous. 

  488. Hedysarum vicioides  (var. japonicum)  ______  HK

  489. Sea Pea  ______  IC(*)
    Lathyrus japonicus maritimus 

  490. Beach Pea  ______  AK
    Lathyrus maritimus maritimus  

    AN EDIBLE PLANT: the large pods of the Beach Pea are eaten, both raw and cooked

    But caution should be had with the plants of the Pea Family as they readily absorb selenium from the soil causing toxicity.   

  491. Marsh Pea  ______  IC(very rare)  (NW:245)
    Lathyrus palustris

    Another name for Lathyrus palustris is Marsh Vetchling.

  492. Meadow Vetchling  ______  IC
    Lathyrus pratensis

  493. Lespedeza bicolor  (var. nana)  ______  HK

  494. Arctic Lupine  ______  AK
    Lupinus arcticus

  495. Nootka Lupine  (ph)  ______  AK  IC(*)  
    Lupinus nootkatensis 

    Another name for Lupinus nootkatensis is Alaska Lupine. It is introduced in Iceland. 


    Above & below: Nootka Lupine, photographed during FONT tours in Iceland
    (upper photo by Gerin Hood, from our June 2009 tour, 
     lower photo by Marie Gardner during our tour in June 2015) 

  496. Yellow Oxytrope  ______  AK  HK
    Oxytropis campestris
    Oxytropis campestris  (var. rushiriensis)  ______ 

    Many of the Oxytropes contain a toxin and are commonly called Loco-weed, as grazing cattle are strangely affected by it causing an uneven gait.
    Oxytropes should not be eaten.  

  497. Oxytropis japonica  (var. sericea)  ______  HK

  498. Oxytropis maydelliana  ______  AK

  499. Oxytropis megalantha  ______  HK

  500. Blackish (or Purple) Oxytrope  ______  AK
    Oxytropis nigrescens

  501. Oxytropis retusa  ______  HK

  502. Oxytropis revoluta  ______  HK

  503. Oxytropis shokanbetsuensis  ______  HK

  504. Oxytropis viscida  ______  AK 

  505. Alsike Clover  ______  IC
    Trifolium hybridum

  506. White Clover  ______  IC  (NW:583)
    Trifolium repens

  507. Red Clover  (ph)  ______  IC(*)  (NW:583)
    Trifolium pratense 

    In Iceland, Trifolium pratense is introduced and partly naturalized. It occurs in grassy pastures and cultivated homefields. It is rather rare in Iceland. 

    Red Clover
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  508. Tufted Vetch  ______  IC
    Vicia cracca 

  509. Bush Vetch  ______  IC
    Vicia sepium

    Lily Family, LILIACEAE

    including MELANTHIACEAE (
    the genera ANTICLEA and HELONIOPSIS) 
    the genus JAPONOLIRION)

  510. Aletris foliata  ______  HK

  511. Aletris luteoviridis  ______  HK

  512. Allium maximowiczii  ______  HK
    Allium maximowiczii  (var. yezomonticola)  ______ 

  513. Allium schoenoprasum  (var. orientale)  ______  HK

  514. Allium splendens  ______  HK

  515. Anticlea sibirica  ______  HK

  516. Clintonia udensis  ______  HK

  517. Chocolate Lily  ______  AK  HK  (NW:314)
    Fritillaria camschatcensis
    Fritillaria camschatcensis  (var. keisukei)  ______ 

    Other names for Fritillaria camschatcensis are Kamchatka Fritillary and Rice Lily. 

  518. Heloniopsis orientalis  ______  HK

  519. Hemerocallis dumortierii  (var. esculenta)  ______  HK  

  520. Hosta sieboldii  ______  HK
    Hosta sieboldii  (var. restifolia)  ______ 

  521. Japonolirion osense  ______  HK
    Japonolirion osense  (var. saitoi)  ______ 

  522. Lilium medeoloides  ______  HK

  523. Lilium pensylvanicum  ______  HK

  524. Alp Lily  ______  AK  HK  (NW:315)
    Lloydia serotina 

  525. False Solomon's Seal  ______  AK
    Smilacina stellata

    Smilacina stellata is poisonous.

  526. Watermelon Berry  ______  AK  (NW:304)
    Streptopus amplexifolius
    Streptopus amplexifolius  (var. papillatus)  ______ 

    Other names for Streptopus amplexifolius are Twisted Stalk, Clasping-leaf Twisted Stalk, and Wild Cucumber.

    AN EDIBLE PLANT: The sweet juicy berries of the Watermelon Berry are used for jellies and syrups.
    The new shoots, younger leaves and flower buds are tasty additions to salads. 

  527. Small Twisted-stalk  ______  (NW:304)
    Streptopus streptopoides japonicus  ______  HK
    Streptopus streptopoides streptopoides  ______ 

  528. Trillium apetalon  ______  HK
    Trillium apetalon  (var. rubrocarpum)  ______ 

  529. Trillium camschatcense  ______  HK
    Trillium camschatcense  (var. kurilense)  ______ 

  530. Trillium hagae  ______  HK

  531. Trillium smallii  ______  HK

  532. Trillium tschonoskii  ______  HK
    Trillium tschonoskii  (var. atrorubens)  ______ 

  533. Trillium x miyabeanum  ______  HK

  534. Trillium x yezoense  ______  HK

  535. Veratrum album  ______  HK

  536. Veratrum maackii  ______  HK
    Veratrum maackii  (var. japonicum)   ______ 
    Veratrum maackii  (var. parviflorum)  ______ 

  537. Veratrum stamineum  ______  HK
    Veratrum stamineum  (var. lasiophyllum)  ______ 

  538. Green False Hellebore  ______  AK  (NW:301)
    Veratrum viride

    Another name for Veratrum viride is Indian-poke.

    Veratrum viride is very poisonous. If eaten, it can cause vomiting, paralysis, death.  

  539. Death Camas  (or Camas Wand Lily ______  AK
    Zygadenus elegans

    Zygadenus elegans has a highly toxic poison that causes vomiting, a lowered body temperature, and breathing difficulties. 

    Madder, or Bedstraw Family, RUBIACEAE

  540. Northern Bedstraw  ______   AK  IC  (NW:492)
    Galium boreale 

    Northern Bedstraw was used in early times as mattress stuffing because it is sweet scented and its square stems do not crush easily. 

  541. Galium kamtschaticum  (var. kamtschaticum)  ______  HK 

  542. Galium nakaii  ______  HK

  543. Slender Bedstraw  ______  IC
    Galium normanii

  544. Marsh Bedstraw  ______  IC(very rare)
    Galium palustre

    In Iceland, Marsh Bedstraw is found at only a few localities in the southwest.

  545. Small Bedstraw  ______  IC   
    Galium trifidum

  546. Sweet-scented Bedstraw  ______  AK  (NW:491)
    Galium triflorum

    Another name for Galium triflorum is Fragrant Bedstraw.

  547. Fen Bedstraw  ______  IC
    Galium uliginosum

  548. Yellow Bedstraw  ______  HK  IC  (NW:595)
    Galium verum
    Galium verum asiaticum   (var. trachycarpum)  ______ 

    Another name for Galium verum is Lady's Bedstraw. 

  549. Mitchella undulata  ______  HK  

    Mare's-tail Family, PLANTAGINACEAE

  550. Four-leaved Mare's-tail  ______  IC
    Hippuris tetraphylla

  551. Mare's-tail  ______  IC
    Hippuris vulgaris  

    the whole plant except for the root

    stops or inhibits internal or external hemorrhaging. It strengthens the lungs and liver, and it is thought to help with kidney stones.     

    Mint Family, LAMIACEAE

  552. Pyramidial Bugle  ______  IC
    Ajuga pyramidalis 

  553. Hemp-nettle  ______  IC
    Galeopsis tetrahit 

  554. White Dead-nettle  ______  IC
    Lamium album

  555. Red (or Purple) Dead-nettle  ______  IC  (NW:586)
    Lamium purpureum

  556. Nepeta subsessilis  ______  HK
    Nepeta subsessilis   (var. yesoensis)  ______ 

  557. Selfheal  ______  HK  IC  (NW:279)
    Prunella vulgaris
    Prunella vulgaris  (var. aleutica)  ______ 
    Prunella vulgaris asiatica  ______ 

    Prunella vulgaris is also called Heal-all.

  558. Scutellaria pekinensis  (var. ussuriensis)  ______  HK

  559. Wild Thyme  ______  IC
    Thymus praecox arcticus

    Thymus praecox is also called Creeping Thyme, with that name applied where the closely-related Thymus serpyllum does not occur.

    In Iceland, Wild Thyme is common throughout, growing on gravel flats and on dry moors and slopes.

    MEDICINAL USE: the entire plant in flower, except the root

    Wild Thyme is most commonly used for flu and colds, and especially for bronchitis and other lung ailments. It works as an antiseptic and expectorant.
    It can also be effective against various digestive ailments, such as gastric and intestinal inflammation. It is thought to work against helicobacter infections which cause gastritis and stomach ulcers. 
    Wild Thyme is used, often with other herbs, to relive cramps.    

  560. Thymus quinquecostatus  ______  HK
    Thymus quinquecostatus  (var. canescens)  ______ 

    Mountain Parsley, Parsley Fern, or Rockbrake Family 


  561. Parsley Fern  ______  HK  IC(very rare)
    Cryptogramma crispa

    Mustard Family, BRASSICADEAE, formerly CRUCIFERAE

  562. Arabidopsis kamchatica kamchatica  ______  HK

  563. Arabidopsis umezawana  ______  HK 

  564. Alpine Rock-cress  ______  IC
    Arabis alpina

  565. Holboell's Rockcress  ______  AK
    Arabis holboelli  

  566. Kamchatka Rockcress  ______  AK
    Arabis lyrata 

  567. Arabis serrata  (var. glauca)  ______  HK

  568. American Wintercress  ______  HK  (NW:173)
    Barbarea orthoceras  

  569. Winter-cress  ______  IC
    Barbarea vulgaris

  570. Bird's Rape  ______  AK
    Brassica rapa

    In Alaska, Brassica rapa is introduced.  

  571. Sea Rocket  ______  IC
    Cakile arctica

  572. Shepherd's Purse  ______  AK  IC
    Capsella bursa-pastoris

    In Alaska, the Shepherd's Purse is an introduced species.

  573. Alpine Bitter-cress  ______  IC
    Cardamine bellidifolia

  574. Cardamine fauriei  ______  HK

  575. Hairy Bitter-cress  ______  IC  (NW:176)
    Cardamine hirsuta

  576. Cardamine nipponica  ______  HK

  577. Lady Smock  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Cardamine nymanii

    Lady Smock
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland Tour)

  578. Purple Cress  ______  AK
    Cardamine purpurea

  579. Cardamine schinziana  ______  HK

  580. Cardamine trifida  ______  HK

  581. Cardamine yesoensis  ______  HK

  582. Northern Rock-cress  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Cardaminopsis petraea

    Northern Rock-cress
    is one of the most common wildflowers in Iceland in both the lowlands and highlands. It occurs in areas of gravel hills, screes, sand and lava fields. 

    Northern Rock-cress
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour) 

  583. Common Scurygrass  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Cochlearia officinalis 

    In Iceland, Common Scurvygrass is found widely on cliffs and rocks on tidal beaches and bird cliffs. It is also in inland areas.

    MEDICINAL USE: the leaves and roots, containing vitamin C and other vitamins, tannins, glycosides and strong oil containing among other things, sulphur

    Long before vitamins became known, common people in Iceland cured scurvy and various other ailments with scurvygrass.
    Today, in Iceland, it is used mainly for rheumatism, oedema, and various skin conditions, due to its purging effect on the blood.
    A strengthening and cleansing tincture of the herb can be prepared for use in the winter.    

    Common Scurvygrass
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  584. Flixweed  ______  IC(rare)
    Descurainia sophia

    In Iceland, Flixweed is a very rare alien.

  585. Alpine Whitlowgrass  ______  IC
    Draba alpina

  586. Golden Draba  ______  AK  (NW:171)
    Draba aurea  

  587. Draba borealis  ______  AK

  588. Draba hirta  ______  AK

  589. Hoary Whitlowgrass  ______  IC
    Draba incana

  590. Whitlowgrass  ______  AK
    Draba incerta

  591. Draba igarashii  ______  HK

  592. Draba japonica  ______  HK

  593. Draba kitadakensis  ______  HK

  594. Draba maxima  ______  AK

  595. Snow Whitlowgrass  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Draba nivalis

    Snow Whitlowgrass
    is rather rare in Iceland, found at rock outcrops and cairns in the northern and eastern parts of the island.

    Snow Whitlowgrass
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during FONT June 2009 Iceland Tour)
  596. Rock Whitlowgrass  ______  IC
    Draba norvegica

  597. Draba sachalinensis  ______  HK

  598. Draba ussuriensis  ______  HK

  599. Common Whitlowgrass  ______  IC  (NW:574)
    (or Draba) verna

  600. Hawkweed-leaved Treaclemustard  ______  IC
    Erysimum hieraciifolium

  601. Common Mustard  (or Ball Mustard)  ______  AK
    Leslia paniculata

  602. Macropodium pterospermum  ______  HK

  603. Parry's Wallflower  ______  AK
    Parrya nudicaulis interior 

  604. Northern Yellowcress  ______  IC
    Rorippa islandica

  605. Awlwort  ______  IC
    Subularia aquatica

  606. Field Penny-cress  ______  IC
    Thlaspi arvense

    In Iceland, Field Penny-cress is a rare alien. 

  607. Thlaspi japonicum  ______  HK

    Nettle Family, URTICACEAE

  608. Common Nettle  ______  IC  (NW:552)
    Urtica dioeca

    Another name for Urtica dioeca is Stinging Nettle.

    Oleaster Family, ELAEAGNACEAE

  609. Silverberry  ______  AK
    Elaeagnus commutata

  610. Soapberry  ______  AK
    Shepherdia canadensis

    The berries of Shepherdia canadensis are a favorite food of bears.

    Orchid Family, ORCHIDACEAE

    The numerous ORCHIDS of the world can be sad to be of 3 types. 
    1) Many grow on trees. They are EPIPHYTES.
    2) Those that grow on rocks are LITHOPHYTES.
    3) Those that grow in the ground are TERRESTRIALS.

    Numbers in this grouping noted as (BPO:xx) refer to pages with photos in the book "Botanica's Pocket Orchids", 2007.

    A list and photo gallery is being made of "Wild Orchids in the Americas", and a link to it will be here.

    Genus CALANTHE

    CALLANTHE is a widespread genus with about 150 terrestrial species, ranging from Africa to Tahiti and from Japan to Australia.
    Most of the plants prefer shaded areas, although some grow in strong light.  

  611. Calanthe nipponica  ______  HK

    Genus CALYPSO

    In CALYPSO there is only 1 species. It grows in temperate parts of the Northern Hemisphere.

  612. Calypso Orchid  (or Fairy Slipper ______  AK  HK  (BPO:119) (NW:375)
    Calypso bulbosa
    Calypso bulbosa  (var. speciosa)  ______ 

    Calypso bulbosa
    forms dense colonies in damp areas and marshes in coniferous forests. It grows to about 8 inches high.
    A single leaf may be up to 2.5 inches long and 2 inches across.  
    The leaf develops in the late summer and persists through winter, lying close to the ground.
    The single, nodding flower is about 1.5 inches long. Flowers appear in the early spring and are frost tolerant. 


  613. Bracted Orchid  ______  IC  (NW:383)
    Coeloglossum viride
    Coeloglossum viride  (var. bracteatum)  ______ 

    Other names for Coeloglossum viride are Long-bracted Orchid, Frog Orchid, and Satyr Orchid.


    In CORALLORHIZA there are 10 terrestrial species, mostly in North America.
    They are known as SAPROPHYTIC because the plants have no leaves and make little chlorophyll.
    Instead of roots, they have tangled underground rhizomes which are invaded by strands of mycorrhiza. That fungus digests decaying material in the soil, which nourishes the plants with carbohydrates.
    Because they do not rely on energy from the sun, CORALLORHIZA species usually flourish in dark woods.
    The perennial underground stems produce inflorescences unpredictably. 

  614. Northern Coralroot Orchid  ______  IC  (BPO:160) (NW:373)
    Corallorhiza trifida

    Another name for Corallorhiza trifida is Yellow Coralroot Orchid. It has an unusual distribution, being circumpolar around the North Pole, dipping into the USA in the Northeast and in the Rocky Mountains.
    A greenish color indicates the presence of some chlorophyll. Other species in the genus have brown or purple coloration.


    The 45 species of CYPRIPEDIUM are in Eurasia and North America. The main concentration is in Asia in the Himalayas.
    There are about 15 species in North America and 3 in Europe.
    Many tropical orchids that were classified as CYPRIPEDIUM are now in other genera such as PAPHIOPEDILUM, PHRAGMEDIUM, and SELENIPEDIUM, although all are still referred to as "slipper orchids".

    The lip of he flower in CYPRIPEDIUM forms a hollow pouch shaped like the toe of a slipper, a bulbous one.
    The lip's upper opening attracts bees and causes pollination. The area around the opening is very slippery so the insect falls very easily into it. Only bees of the right size are able to get through the basal openings, where the stigma and pollinia are located. As a bee passes through, pollination occurs.    

  615. Cypripedium calceolus  ______  HK  (BPO:180)

    Cypripedium calceolus
    is one of the most attractive and best known orchids in Europe. 
    It is widely distributed, in northern Spain, in one area of the British Isles, and through and middle and northern Europe, as far north as Siberia. In Asia, it also ranges to northern China and Hokkaido island in Japan.
    It is found from sea level to 8,300 feet in partly shaded forests with lime-rich soil.
    Due to its attractiveness, Cypripedium calceolus was heavily collected and so it is now rare and endangered in the wild.

    Cypripedium calceolus reaches up to 1 to 2 feet tall, and has 2 to 4 ovate leaves on the basal part of the stem.
    It has 1, or ra4rely 2 flowers up to 6 inches across. Flowering is only for 2 weeks, in late autumn and early winter.    

  616. Spotted Lady Slipper  ______  AK  HK
    Cypripedium guttatum

  617. Large-flowered Lady Slipper  ______  (BPO:182)
    Cypripedium macranthos  (var. flavum)  ______  HK
    Cypripedium macranthos  (var. macranthos)  ______ 

    Cypripedium macranthos has a wide distribution, from Russia through Siberia to Korea, northeast China, and Japan. 
    It grows from sea level up to 8,000 feet, under light shade in damp surroundings in forests and in meadows or under shrubs.
    Its leafy stem is 6 to 16 inches tall, and bears 3 to 5 ovate leaves, each from 4 to 5.5 inches long and up to 2.5 inches wide.
    The inflorescence usually has a single flower, about 2.5 inches across. Flowers appear in the summer. 

  618. White Lady Slipper  ______  AK  (NW:379)
    Cypripedium passerinum

    Other names for Cypripedium passerinum are Northern Lady Slipper, Small White Lady Slipper, and Sparrow's-egg Lady Slipper.

    Cypripedium passerinum is a Lady Slipper that occurs in northern Europe in Estonia where the photo was taken. 

    Cypripedium passerinum, a Lady Slipper  

  619. Cypripedium shanxiense  ______  HK

  620. Cypripedium ventricosum  ______  HK


    The "Marsh Orchids" or "Spotted Orchids" in DACTYLORHIZA occur in Europe, western and northern Asia, and North America.
    In the genus there are 33 variable species, all of them terrestrials.  
    DACTYLORHIZA species grow in bogs, grasslands, and pastures. Many have spotted leaves and most have pink flowers with darker pink spots.
    These plants often tend to hybridize naturally, and so there can be some problems with identification.   

  621. Dactylorhiza aristata  ______  AK  HK  (BPO:188)

    Dactylorhiza aristata
    has a unique distribution - from Korea and Japan, north through Russia's Kuril islands, the Kamchatka Peninsula and Komandorskije Islands, to Alaska's Aleutian Islands and mainland Alaska.   
    It is the only common orchid in that range that flowers in the summer, in early July. Its brilliant purple flowers lighten up the still bleak, foggy landscapes.

  622. Heath Spotted Orchid  ______  IC  (BPO:190)
    Dactylorhiza maculata

    Dactylorhiza maculata is one of the most widespread orchids in Europe. It is found in wet, acidic soils of heathlands and moorland bogs. 
    It is a variable species, but its leaves are always spotted.   

    Another species of orchid in the Dactylorhiza genus is in the photo below. It is Dactylorhiza incarnata, the Early Marsh Orchid, that occurs in northern Europe in Estonia where the photo was taken.   

    Early Marsh Orchid

  623. Dacylostalis ringens  ______  HK


  624. Ephippianthus schmidttii  ______  HK


    The 35 or so species in EPIPACTUS range from Europe to Ethiopia, across northern Asia to Japan, and in North America.
    They are terrestrial, usually growing in wet habitats, and with fleshy rhizomes and leafy stems often reaching a height up to 40 inches.   

  625. Epipactus papillosa  ______  HK

    Genus EPIPOGIUM 

  626. Epipogium aphyllum  ______  HK

    Genus GALEARIS

    In GALEARIS there are 2 or 3 terrestrial species found in North America and Japan. 
    The genus is closely related to ORCHIS.
    GALEARIS species lack tubers, but they have fleshy roots. They have a pair of broad leaves, and an erect inflorescence with prominent floral bracts and several flowers.   

  627. Galearis cyclochila  ______  HK

    Genus GOODYERA

    In GOODYERA there are small terrestrial species, occurring in the northern Temperate Zone, and in tropical forests of southeast Asia, Australia, and some Pacific islands.
    Most of the species grow in shady conditions on forest floors at low altitudes.
    The plants consist of a creeping rhizome that bends upward.   

  628. Dwarf Rattlesnake-plantain  ______  HK  (NW:388)
    Goodyera repens  

  629. Goodyera schlechtendaliana  ______  HK 


  630. Gymnadenia camtschatica  ______  HK

  631. Gymnadenia conopsea  ______  HK

    Genus LIPARIS

    In LIPARIS there are about 250 species, occurring on all continents except Antarctica. 
    The genus is closely related to MALAXIS.
    Species in LIPARIS grow in temperate climates as terrestrials, and in humid, tropical climates as epiphytes or terrestrials.
    The pseudobulb may be below or above ground. 
    The inflorescence of small flowers are colored red, orange, yellow, or green.    

  632. Liparis auriculata  ______  HK

  633. Liparis koreana  ______  HK

  634. Liparis krameri  ______  HK

  635. Liparis kumokiri  ______  HK

  636. Liparis purpureovittata  ______  HK

    Genus LISTERA

    Occurring in the northern Temperate Zone, in LISTERA there are about 25 diminutive and delicate terrestrial species.
    As one would walk in a northern woods, near bogs or mossy rocks, a pleasant and unexpected find of a LISTERA orchid could be had.
    If so, the flowers are well worth an inspection with a magnifying glass. They have a complicated "trigger mechanism" that explodes the pollinia on the backs of tiny insects. 

  637. Lesser Twayblade  ______  IC  (BPO:320) (NW:382)
    Listera cordata
    Listera cordata  (var. japonica)  ______ 

    Another name for Listera cordata is Heart-leaf Twayblade.

    Although the small species Listera cordata is one of the most widespread orchids in the world, it is seldom seen.
    Its distribution is in northern Europe, Asia, and America.
    Growing in wet, mossy woods, its height is up to 10 inches. Its two leaves are heart-shaped and about a quarter of an inch in diameter at the mid-stem section.
    There are up to 25 green to reddish-purple flowers. The appear during the summer and persist after pollination has occurred.   

  638. Listera nipponica  ______  HK

  639. Listera pinetorum  ______  HK

  640. Common Twayblade  ______  IC
    Listera ovata

    Genus MALAXIS

  641. Malaxis monophyllos  ______  HK


  642. Myrmechis japonica  ______  HK


  643. Neottianthe cucullata  ______  HK

    Genus PIPERIA

  644. Alaska Piperia  ______  AK  (NW:383)
    Piperia unalascensis

    Another name for Piperia unalascensis is Slender-spire Orchid. 


    PLATANTHERA is a terrestrial genus with about 200 species inhabiting temperate regions around the world.
    In parts of northern North America, these species are among the most conspicuous wildflowers in July and August.

    Most of the PLATANTHEREA species are in two subgroups:
    One, the dilatata/hyperborea complex is usually with white or green flowers, with a plain, narrow lip.  It has a northerly, transcontinental range in the US and Canada.
    The other subgroup are brightly colored fringed orchids, usually with incised lips. These species extend in North America from Newfoundland to Texas.

    The habitats for PLATANTHERA varies from woods to fields and peat bogs.
    All of the species are erect, and are usually tall and leafy with dense, many-flowered terminal inflorescences.
    The lip is typically long and curved downward. it contains nectar that attracts pollinating moths.         

  645. Platanthera chorisiana  ______  HK

  646. White Bog Orchid  ______  AK  (BPO:456) (NW:386)
    Platanthera dilatata

    Other names for Platanthera dilatata are Leafy White Orchid, Bog Candle, and Scentbottle.

    Where it occurs, the Platanthera dilatata can bloom en masse in roadside ditches and other places in the summer, during July.
    The plant exceeds 40 inches in height. There are two leaves up to 1 foot long. The flowers number about 70, each being about an inch in diameter.     

  647. Tall Green Orchid  ______  AK  (BPO:457)
    Platanthera huronensis

  648. Northern Green Orchid  ______  AK  HK  IC
    Platanthera hyperborea

  649. Platanthera mandarinorum ophrydioides  (var. monophylla)  ______  HK
    Platanthera mandarinorum ophrydioides  (var. orerades)   ______ 

  650. Platanthera metabifolia  ______  HK

  651. Platanthera sachalinensis  ______  HK 

  652. Platanthera takedae  ______  HK

  653. Platanthera tipudoides nipponica  ______  HK
    Platanthera tipudoides tipudoides  ______ 

    Genus POGONIA

    In POGONIA there are 2 or 3 terrestrial species. One species occurs in eastern North America. The other two species (below) are in Japan and China.
    The separated distribution was caused by glaciers during the Ice Ages, which caused POGONIA to disappear from the western side of North America.
    The plants have fleshy roots and a single leaf.    

  654. Pogonia japonica  ______  HK

  655. Pogonia minor  ______  HK


  656. Small-white Orchid  ______  IC
    Pseudorchis albida


    SPIRANTHES is a large genus of terrestrial orchids with nearly a worldwide distribution, as there are species of it on all continents except Antarctica.
    Most occur in tropical or subtropical areas, but some are in temperate North America, temperate Asia and Europe.
    They have thick, fleshy, tube-like roots, a basal rosette of leaves, and a tall inflorescence with a few to many small flowers in a spiral form at the upper part of the inflorescence.

  657. Hooded Ladies Tresses  ______  AK  (BPO:543) (NW:389)
    Spiranthes romanzoffiana  

    Spiranthes romanzoffiana has a northern distribution across North America. Further east, it also occurs in Ireland and the Hebrides Islands.
    It occurs in various habitats including bogs and roadsides, with scattered plants on disturbed ground.
    The plant is up to 20 inches tall with several slim, pointed leaves, each about 10 inches long and two-thirds of an inch wide.
    The inflorescence has up to 60 small, creamy flowers, distinguished by their reflexed lip. Flowering is in the autumn.  

    Parnassus-grass Family, CELASTRACEAE

    A family related to the Saxifrages. 

  658. Grass of Parnassus  (or Bog Star ______  AK  HK  IC
    Parnassia palustris 

    Parsley or Celery Family, APIACEAE

  659. Aegopodium alpestre  ______  HK

  660. Angelica acutiloba  ______  HK
    Angelica acutiloba lineariloba  ______ 

  661. Garden Angelica  ______  IC(*)
    Angelica archangelica

  662. Wild Celery  ______  AK
    Angelica lucidaq

  663. Angelica sachalinensis  (var. sachalinensis)  ______  HK

  664. Wild Angelica  ______  IC
    Angelica sylvestris

  665. Angelica ursina  ______  HK

  666. Cow Parsley  ______  IC
    Anthriscus sylvestris

  667. Bupleurum ajanense  ______  HK

  668. Bupleurum nipponicum  (var. yesoense)  ______  HK

  669. Caraway  ______  IC
    Carum carvi

  670. Poison Water Hemlock  ______  AK
    Cicuta mackenzieana

    As indicated in its common name, Cicuta mackenzieana is a poisonous plant.

  671. Cnidium cnidifolium  ______  AK

  672. Coelopleurum gmelinii  (var. trichocarpum)  ______  HK  

  673. Hemlock Parsley  ______  AK
    Conioselinum chinense

  674. Conioselinum filicinum  ______  HK

  675. Cow Parsnip  ______  AK  HK
    Heracleum lanatum

  676. Marsh Pennywort  ______  IC
    Hydrocotyle vulgaris

  677. Libanotis coreana  ______  HK

  678. Scots Lovage  (or Beach Lovage ______  AK  IC
    Ligusticum scoticum

  679. Sweet Cicely  ______  IC
    Myrrhis odorata

  680. Peucedanum multivittatum  ______  HK

  681. Peucedanum terebinthaceum  ______  HK

  682. Pleurospermum austriacum  ______  HK
    Pleurospermum austriacum uralense  ______ 

  683. Tilingia ajanensis  ______  HK
    Tilingia ajanensis angustissima  ______ 

  684. Tilingia holopetala  ______  HK

  685. Tilingia tachiroei  ______  HK

    Peony Family, PAEONIACEAE

  686. Paeonia japonica  ______  HK

  687. Paeonia obovata  ______  HK

    Phlox, or Polemonium Family, POLEMONIACEAE

  688. Tall Jacob's Ladder  ______  AK
    Polemonium acutiflorum

  689. Polemonium caeruleum yesoense  (var. yesoense)  ______  HK
    Polemonium caeruleum yesoense  (var. nipponicum)  ______ 
    Polemonium caeruleum laxiflorum  ______ 

  690. Beautiful Jacob's Ladder  ______  AK  (NW:412)
    Polemonium pulcherrimum

    Other names for Polemonium pulcherrimum include Pretty Jacob's Ladder, Showy Jacob's Ladder, or Showy Polemonium.

    Pine Family, PINACEAE

  691. American Larch  (*)  ______  AK  (ST:39)
    Larix laricina

    Other names for Larix laricina are Tamarack and Hackmatack.

  692. White Spruce  (*)  ______  AK  (ST:45)
    Picea glauca

  693. Black Spruce  (*)  ______  AK  (ST:48)
    Picea mariana 

    The Black Spruce often hybridizes with the White Spruce (above), and occasionally the Sitka Spruce (below).

  694. Sitka Spruce  ______  AK(south)  (ST:46)
    Picea sitchensis

  695. Lodgepole Pine  ______  AK(southeast)  (ST:19)
    Pinus contorta  (var. latifolia)

    Other names for Pinus contorta are Tamarack Pine and Scrub Pine. 

  696. Pinus pumila  ______  HK

  697. Western Hemlock  ______  AK(south)  (ST:43)
    Tsuga heerophylla

  698. Mountain Hemlock  ______  AK(southeast)  (ST:43)
    Tsuga mertensiana

    Pink, or Carnation Family, CARYOPHYLLACEAE

  699. Arenaria arctica  (var. arctica)  ______  HK
    Arenaria arctica  (var. rebunensis)  ______ 

  700. Arenaria katoana  ______  HK

  701. Arenaria macrocarpa  (var. yezoalpina)  ______  HK

  702. Arenaria merckioides  (var. merckioides)  ______  HK
    Arenaria merckioides  (var. chokaiensis)  ______ 

  703. Arctic Sandwort  ______  IC  (Note: the same common name as for Minuartia arctica
    Arenaria norvegica

  704. Arenaria verna  (var. japonica)  ______  HK

  705. Alpine Mouse-ear  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Cerastrium alpinum

    Alpine Mouse-ear
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland Tour)

  706. Arctic Mouse-ear  ______  IC
    Cerastrium arcticum

  707. Mouse-ear Chickweed  ______  AK
    Cerastrium arvense
    Cerastrium arvense  (var. mitsumorense)  ______ 

  708. Starwort Mouse-ear  ______  IC
    Cerastrium cerastoides

  709. Common Mouse-ear  ______  IC
    Cerastrium fontanum

  710. Smooth Mouse-ear  ______  IC
    Cerastrium glabratum

  711. Sticky Mouse-ear  ______  IC
    Cerastrium glomeratum

  712. Dianthus superbus  (var. speciosus)  ______  HK

  713. Sea Sandwort  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Honckenya peploides

    Sea Sandwort
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  714. Alpine Catchfly  ______  IC
    Lychnis alpina

  715. Ragged Robin ______  IC
    Lychnis flos-cuculi

    In Iceland, the Ragged Robin is in the south. It is rare elsewhere.

  716. Arctic Sandwort  ______  AK  (Note: the same common name as for Arenaria norvegica)
    Minuartia arctica

  717. Two-flowered Sandwort  ______  IC
    Minuartia biflora

  718. Mountain Sandwort  ______  IC
    Minuartia rubella

  719. Teesdale Sandwort  ______  IC
    Minuartia stricta

  720. Grove Sandwort  ______  AK
    Moehringia lateriflora

  721. Tufted Pearlwort  ______  IC
    Sagina caespitosa

  722. Snow Pearlwort  ______  IC
    Sagina nivalis

  723. Knotted Pearlwort  ______  IC
    Sagina nodosa

  724. Procumbent Pearlwort  ______  IC
    Sagina procumbens

  725. Alpine Pearlwort  ______  HK  IC
    Sagina saginoides

  726. Heath Pearlwort  ______  IC
    Sagina subulata  

  727. Moss Campion  (ph)  ______  AK(*)  IC(*)  (NW:196)
    Silene acaulis 

    Another name for Silene acaulis is Cushion-pink.

    Moss Campion
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour) 

  728. Silene hidaka alpina  ______  HK 

  729. Silene repens  (var. apoiensis)  ______  HK
    Silene repens  (var. latifolia)  ______ 

  730. Silene stenophylla  ______  HK

  731. Silene tokachiensis  ______  HK

  732. Sea Campion  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Silene uniflora

    Above & below: Two photos of Sea Campion
    (Both taken during FONT Iceland Tours
     upper photo in June 2006 by Cheryl Pearce; lower photo in June 2009 by Gerin Hood)

  733. Corn Spurry  ______  IC
    Spergula arvensis

  734. Lesser Spurry  ______  IC  (NW:192:for genus)
    Spergularia marina

  735. Northern Stitchwort  ______  HK  IC(rare)
    Stellaria calycantha

  736. Fleshy Stichwort  ______  IC
    Stellaria crassifolia

  737. Lesser Stitchwort  ______  IC
    Stellaria graminea

    In Iceland, the Lesser Stitchwort is one of the recent aliens. It has spread quickly through the Icelandic countryside in the last few decades. 

  738. Low Stitchwort  ______  IC
    Stellaria humifusa

  739. Common Chickweed  ______  IC  (NW:577)
    Stellaria media

    MEDICINAL USE:  entire plant in flower

    Common Chickweed is used mostly as a skin ointment against various types of inflammation, ulcers, and eczema.
    The herb is especially useful to relieve itching.
    Chickweed is used internally to treat rheumatism. The procumbent stalks can be used to treat illnesses caused by liver disorders and for gall stones.

    AN EDIBLE PLANT:  Chickweed makes a healthy addition to salads.   

  740. Stellaria nipponica (var. yezoensis)  ______  HK

  741. Stellaria pterosperma  ______  HK

  742. Stellaria ruscifolia  ______  HK

    Plantain Family, PLANTAGINACEAE

    includes the former GLOBULARIACEAE, the Globe Daisies

  743. Lagotis glauca  ______  HK

  744. Lagotis takedana  ______  HK

  745. Lagotis yesoensis  ______  HK

  746. Shoreweed  ______  IC
    Littorella uniflora

  747. Ribwort Plantain  ______  IC  (NW:591)
    Plantago lanceolata

    Plantago lanceolata is also called English Plantain.

  748. Greater Plantain  ______  IC  (NW:591)
    Plantago major

    Plantago major is also called Common Plantain.

  749. Sea Plantain  ______  IC
    Plantago maritima

  750. Pseudolysimachion kiusianum miyabei  (var. japonicum)  ______  HK

  751. Pseudolysimachion schmidtianum  (var. schmidtianum)  ______  HK
    Pseudolysimachion schmidtianum  (var. yeso-alpinum)  ______ 

    Polypod Fern Family, POLYPODIACEAE

  752. Crypsinus veitchii  ______  HK

    Polypody Family, POLYPODIACEAE

  753. Common Polypody  ______  IC
    Polypodium vulgare

    MEDICINAL USE: the rhizome

    Common Polypody is mostly used as a mild laxative. The rhizome is said to have a positive effect on persistent skin conditions, and is considered useful against mycosis, both dermal and in the digestive system. 
    It is also used to expel persistent phlegm from the respiratory tract and as a treatment for hoarseness and dry coughs.
    Smaller does are required for children.

    Pondweed & Horned Pondweed Familes, POTAMOGETONACEAE

  754. Red Pondweed  ______  IC
    Potamogeton alpinus

  755. Slender-leaved Pondweed  ______  IC
    Potamogeton filiformis

  756. Potamogeton fryeri  ______  HK

  757. Various-leaved Pondweed  ______  IC
    Potamogeton gramineus

  758. Broad-leaved Pondweed  ______  IC
    Potamogeton natans

  759. Perfoliate Pondweed  ______  IC
    Potamogeton perfoliatus

  760. Long-stalked Pondweed  ______  IC
    Potamogeton praelongus

  761. Lesser Pondweed  ______  IC
    Potamogeton pusillus

  762. Beaked Tasselweed  ______  IC(very rare)
    Ruppia maritima

  763. Horned Pondweed  ______  IC
    Zannichellia palustris

    Poppy Family, PAPAVERACEAE

  764. Alaska Poppy  ______  AK
    Papaver alaskanum

  765. Papaver alboroseum  ______  AK

  766. Papaver fauriei  ______  HK

  767. Papaver macounii  ______  AK

  768. Iceland Poppy  ______  AK  IC(rare)
    Papaver nudicaule

    In Iceland, Papaver nudicaule is an alien in gardens, waste places, and roadsides. 

    In Alaska, the Iceland Poppy is introduced, where it occurs along roadsides and in waste areas.

  769. Arctic Poppy  (ph)  ______  IC(*)  (NW:403)
    Papaver radicatum

    In Iceland, the Arctic Poppy grows in gravelly areas and scree. It is common in the area of the western fjords and in the southern part of eastern Iceland. It is rarer in other parts of the country.

    MEDICINAL USE: the flower

    The Arctic Poppy is analgesic, astringent, and a sedative. Its flowers have been used for various pains, and were also recommended for internal hemorrhaging, especially in the digestive tract.
    The flower has also been considered useful for insomniacs.

    Arctic Poppy
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

    Primrose Family, PRIMULACEAE

  770. Sweet-flower Rock-Jasmine  ______  (NW:447)
    Androsace chamaejasme  (var. lehmanniana)  ______  HK

    Another name for Androsace chamaejasme is Alpine Rock-Jasmine.

  771. Alpine Bells  ______  HK
    Cortusa matthioli pekinensis  (var. sachalinensis)

  772. Frigid Shooting Star  ______  AK
    Dodecatheon frigidum 

  773. Western Shooting Star  ______  AK  (NW:447)
    Dodecatheon pulchellum
    Dodecatheon pulchellum alaskanum 
    (subspecies in coastal areas of Alaska that is a shorter plant) 

    Another name for Dodecatheon pulchellium is Few-flowered Shooting Star. 

  774. Sea Milkwort  ______  IC  (NW:449)
    Glaux maritima

  775. Northern Primrose  ______  AK
    Primula borealis

  776. Pixie Eye Primrose  ______  AK  HK
    Primula cuneifolia
    Primula cuneifolia  (var. cuneifolia)  ______ 

  777. Greenland Primrose  ______  IC(very rare)
    Primula egaliksensis  

    In Iceland, the Greenland Primrose has been found at only one locality. 

  778. Primula farinosa  ______  HK 
    Primula farinosa  (var. matsumurae)  ______ 
    Primula farinosa  (var. samanimontana)  ______ 

  779. Primula hidakana  ______  HK
    Primula hidakana  (var. kamuiana)  ______ 

  780. Primula japonica  ______  HK

  781. Primula jesoana  (var. jesoana)  ______  HK
    Primula jesoana  (var. pubescens)  ______ 

  782. Primula modesta  ______  HK

  783. Primula sorachiana  ______  HK

  784. Strict Primrose  ______  IC
    Primula stricta

  785. Primula takedana  ______  HK

  786. Primula yuparensis  ______  HK

  787. Starflower  ______  AK  HK  IC  (NW:448)
    Trientalis europaea arctica

    Another name for Trientalis europea is Chickweed Wintergreen. 

    Purslane Family, PORTULACACEAE

  788. Blinks  ______  IC
    Montia fontana

    Quillwort Family, ISOETACEAE

  789. Spring Quillwort  ______  IC
    Isoetes echinospara

  790. Quillwort  ______  IC
    Isoetes lacustris

    Rose Family, ROSACEAE

  791. Alpine Lady's-mantle  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Alchemilia alpina

    Alpine Lady's-mantle
    is found in depressions on slopes, and in snowbeds, screes, and erosive soil. 

    Alpine Lady's-mantle 
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  792. Faeroeic Lady's-mantle  ______  IC
    Alchemilla faeroensis

    In Iceland, Alchemilla faeroensis is in far-eastern part of the country. Outside Iceland, it is known only in the Faeroe Islands. 

  793. Alchemia japonica  ______  HK

  794. Common Lady's-mantle  ______  IC
    Alchemilla vulgaris

    The Common Lady's-mantle is divided into several subspecies, sometimes treated as separate species. Some of them are rather easy to distinguish   

  795. Serviceberry  (or Juneberry ______  AK
    Amelanchier florida

  796. Aruncus dioicus  (var. kamtschaticus)  ______  HK

  797. Goatsbeard  ______  AK  (NW:473)
    Aruncus dioicus (or sylvester)

    Other names for Aruncus dioicus are White Goat's-beard and Bride's Feathers.   

  798. Cerasus nipponica  (var. kurilensis)  ______  HK

    Cerasus is now said to be a subgenus of Prunus.  

  799. Spring Beauty  ______  AK
    Claytonia sarmentosa

    AN EDIBLE PLANT:  Spring Beauty
    makes a nice addition to salads.

  800. Siberian Spring Beauty  ______  AK
    Claytonia sibirica 

    AN EDIBLE PLANT: Siberian Spring Beauty
    tastes similar to beet greens.

  801. Yellow Mountain Avens  ______  AK  (NW:486)
    Dryas drummondii

    Another name for Dryas drummondii is Yellow Dryas.

  802. Mountain Avens  (ph)  ______  AK  HK  IC(*)  (NW:486)
    Dryas octopetala 
    Dryas octopetala  (var. asiatica)  ______ 

    Another name for Dryas octopetala is Eight-petaled Avens.

    In Iceland, the leafy shoots of Dryas octopetala, found during all seasons, are called "Rjupnalauf", meaning "ptarmigan leaves". 

    Mountain Avens
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  803. Filipendula camtschatica  ______  HK

  804. Filipendula glaberrima  ______  HK

  805. Meadowsweet  ______  IC  (NW:594)
    Filipendula ulmaria

    Another name for Filipendula ulmaria is Queen-of-the-Meadow. 

  806. Beach Strawberry  ______  AK  (NW:477)
    Fragaria chiloensis  

    Other names for Fragaria chiloensis are Coast Strawberry and Sand Strawberrry.

  807. Fragaria iinumae  ______  HK 

  808. Wild Strawberry  (ph)  ______  IC  (NW:477)
    Fragaria vesca

    In Iceland, Wild Strawberries mature late (in July), and are usually rather small. When favorable conditions occur on fertile, sunny slopes, they ripen fully and are used for human consumption, being tastier than the larger, cultivated strawberries.   

    Wild Strawberry

  809. Wild Strawberry  ______  AK  (NW:477)
    Fragaria virginiana 

  810. Caltha Leaf Avens  ______  AK  HK
    Geum calthifolium

  811. Large Leaf Avens  ______  AK  (NW:484)
    Geum macropyllum macrophyllum
    Geum macropyllum perincisum 
    (subspecies in eastern & central Alaska)  

    Geum macropyllum
    is also called Big-leaf Avens.

  812. Geum (or Sieversia) pentapetala  ______  HK

  813. Water Avens  ______  IC  (NW:485)
    Geum rivale

    Another name for Geum rivale is Purple Avens.

  814. Ross Avens  ______  AK  (NW:485)
    Geum rossii

    Another name for Geum rossii is Alpine Avens.

  815. Partridge-foot  ______  AK  (NW:474)
    Luetkea pectinata

    Another name for Luetkea pectinata is Alpine Spiraea.

  816. Silverweed  ______  AK  IC
    Potentilla anserina anserina
    Potentilla anserina egedii  ______  Seaside Silverweed 

    In Alaska, Potentilla anserina is an introduced species.

  817. Alpine Cinquefoil  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Potentilla crantzii

    Alpine Cinquefoil
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour) 

  818. Potentilla dickinsii  ______  HK

  819. Beach Cinquefoil  (or Pacific Silverweed ______  AK
    Potentilla egedii grandis

  820. Tormentil  ______  IC(very rare)
    Potentilla erecta

  821. Shrubby Cinquefoil  (or Tundra Rose ______  AK  HK
    Potentilla fruiticosa
    Potentilla fruiticosa  (var. arbuscola)  ______ 

  822. Potentilla matsumurae  ______  HK
    Potentilla matsumurae  (var. apoiensis)  ______ 
    Potentilla matsumurae  (var. yuparensis)  ______ 

  823. Potentilla miyabei  ______  HK  

  824. Snow Cinquefoil  (or Snow Potentilla)  ______  AK  HK  (NW:478)
    Potentilla nivea
    Potentilla nivea  (var. yuparensis)  ______ 

  825. Norwegian Cinquefoil  ______  AK  (NW:478)
    Potentilla norvegica  

    Another name for Potentilla norvegica is Rough Cinquefoil.

  826. Marsh Cinquefoil  ______  AK  HK  IC
    Potentilla palustris  (or Comarum palustre)

    Another name for the Marsh Cinquefoil is Marsh Fivefinger.

  827. One-flowered Cinquefoil  ______  AK
    Potentilla uniflora

  828. Rosa acicularis  ______  HK

  829. Prickly Rose  ______  AK
    Rosa acicularis

  830. Glaucous Dog-rose  ______  IC
    Rosa dumalis

  831. Nootka Rose  ______  AK
    Rosa nutlatensis

  832. Burnet Rose  ______  IC
    Rosa pimpinellifolia

  833. Nagoonberry  ______  AK  (NW:488)
    Rubus arcticus

    The fruits of the Nagoonberry are dark red or purplish.

  834. Cloudberry  ______  AK  HK
    Rubus chamemorous

    Other names for Rubus chamemorous are Baked Appleberry and Salmonberry. 
    is a name used by Alaska native people for this species, but true Salmonberry is Rubus spectabilus (below). 

    In Alaska, berries of the Cloudberry ripen from August to September.   

  835. Trailing Raspberry  ______  AK  HK  (NW:488)
    Rubus pedatus 

    Another name for Rubus pedatus is Strawberry Bramble.

  836. Rubus pseudojaponicus  ______  HK

  837. Stone Bramble  ______  IC
    Rubus saxatilis

  838. Rubus vernus  ______  HK

  839. Canadian Burnet  ______  HK  (NW:473)
    Sanguisorba canadensis  
    Sanguisorba canadensis  (var. riishiriensis)  ______ 

  840. Sanguisorba japonensis  ______  HK

  841. Sanguisorba longifolia  ______  HK

  842. Great Burnet  ______  IC  (NW:473)
    Sanguisorba officinalis

  843. Sanguisorba poroshiriensis  ______  HK

  844. Sitka Burnet  ______  AK
    Sanguisorba stipulata

  845. Sanguisorba tenuifolia  ______  HK
    Sanguisorba tenuifolia  (var. grandiflora)  ______ 

  846. Creeping Sibbaldia  ______  IC  (NW:482)
    Sibbaldia procumbens

  847. Rowan  ______  IC
    Sorbus aucuparia

  848. Sorbus matsumurana  ______  HK

  849. Sorbus sambucifolia  ______  HK
    Sorbus sambucifolia  (var. pseudogracilis)  ______ 

  850. Mountain Ash  ______  AK
    Sorbus sitchensis

  851. Alaska Spiraea  (or Beauverd's Spiraea)  ______  AK
    Spiraea beauverdiana 

    AN EDIBLE PLANT:  The leaves of Alaska Spiraea can be brewed into a tea. 

  852. Birch-leaf Spirea  ______  HK  (NW:472)
    Spiraea betulifolia  
    Spiraea betulifolia  (var. aemiliana)  ______ 

  853. Spiraea media  (var. sericea)  ______  HK

  854. Spiraea miyabei  ______  HK

    Rush Family, JUNCACEAE

  855. Alpine Rush  ______  IC
    Juncus alpinus

  856. Iceland Rush  ______  IC
    Juncus arcticus intermedius

  857. Jointed Rush  ______  IC
    Juncus articulatus

  858. Juncus beringensis  ______  HK

  859. Two-flowered Rush  ______  IC
    Juncus biglumis

  860. Toad Rush  ______  IC
    Juncus bufonius

  861. Bulbous Rush  ______  IC
    Juncus bulbosus

  862. Chestnut Rush  ______  IC
    Juncus castaneus

  863. Juncus ensifolius  ______  HK

  864. Thread Rush  ______  IC
    Juncus filiformis

  865. Saltmarsh Rush  ______  IC
    Juncus gerardi

  866. Juncus kamtschatcensis  ______  HK

  867. Juncus mertensianus  ______  HK

  868. Frog Rush  ______  IC
    Juncus ranarius

  869. Heath Rush  ______  IC(rare)
    Juncus squarrosus

  870. Juncus triceps  ______  HK

  871. Three-leaved Rush  ______  IC
    Juncus trifidus

  872. Three-flowered Rush  ______  IC  HK
    Juncus triglumis  

  873. Curved Wood Rush  ______  IC
    Luzula arcuata
    Luzula arcuata  (var. unalasachkensis)  ______ 

  874. Heath Wood Rush  ______  IC
    Luzula multiflora

  875. Luzula oligantha  ______  HK

  876. Spiked Wood Rush  ______  IC
    Luzula spicata

  877. Sudetan Wood Rush  ______  IC
    Luzula sudetica
    Luzula sudetica  (var. nipponica)  ______ 

    Sandlewood Family, SANTALACEAE

  878. Timberberry  ______  AK  (NW:493)
    Geocaulon lividum

    Other names for Geocaulon lividum are Pumpkin Berry, Northern Comandra, and False Toadflax.

  879. Thesium refractum  ______  HK

    Saxifrage Family, SAXIFRAGACEAE

    In Alaska, there are many similar Saxifrages that grow in wet areas.
    All have edible leaves.  

  880. Boykinia lycoctonifolia  ______  HK

  881. Alaska Boykinia  ______  AK  (NW:504)
    Boykinia richardsonii

    Other names for Boykinia richardsonii are Bear-flower, Richardson's Boykinia, and Richardson's Brookfoam. 

  882. Smooth Alumroot  ______  AK  (NW:500)
    Heuchera glabra

    Another name for Heuchera glabra is Alpine Heuchera.

    Plants in the following genus, Mitella, are known as Miterworts, or Bishop's Caps. 

  883. Mitella integripetala  ______  HK

  884. Naked Miterwort  ______  HK  (NW:497)
    Mitella nuda

    Other names for Mitella nuda are Small Bishop's Cap or Bare-stemmed Bishop's Cap.   

  885. Yellow Mountain Saxifrage  ______  IC  (NW:509)
    Saxifraga aizoides 

  886. Yellow-spotted Saxifrage  ______  AK  HK  (NW:507)
    Saxifraga bronchialis
    Saxifraga bronchialis funstonii  (var. rebunshirensis)  ______ 

    Other names for Saxifraga bronchialis are Dotted Saxifrage and Matted Saxifrage.

  887. Tufted Saxifrage  ______  IC  (NW:508)
    Saxifraga caespitosa

    The Tufted Saxifrge is often divided into two subspecies:
    Saxifraga caespitosa caespitosa
    Saxifraga caespitosa decipiens

    They are often treated as separate species (Saxifraga caespitosa and Saxifrga rosacea).

    But as a subspecies, Saxifraga caespitosa decipiens has thinner, less compact clusters of leaf shoots, and large flowers with relatively large petals. 

    Saxifraga caespitosa is also called Tufted Alpine Saxifrage. 

  888. Nodding Saxifrage  ______  AK  IC  (NW:508)
    Saxifraga cernua

    Other names for Saxifraa cernua are Drooping Saxifrage and Bulblet Saxifrage.

  889. Pyramidal Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga cotyledon

  890. Rusty Saxifrage  ______  AK  (NW:505)
    Saxifraga ferruginea 

    Another name for Saxifraga ferruginea is Coast Saxifrage.

  891. Spider Whiplash Saxifrage  ______  AK  (NW:509)
    Saxifraga flagellaris

    Other names for Saxifraga flagellaris are Spider Saxifrage, Spider-plant, and Stoloniferous Saxifrage. 

  892. Saxifraga fortunei  (var. mutabilis)  ______  HK
    Saxifraga fortunei  (var. alpina)  ______ 

  893. Saxifraga fusca fusca  ______  HK 

  894. Meadow Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga granulata

  895. Yellow Marsh Saxifrage  ______  AK  IC  (NW:509)
    Saxifraga hirculus

    Another name for Saxifraga hirculus is Bog Saxifrage.

  896. Mossy Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga hypnoides 

  897. Saxifraga japonica  ______  HK

  898. Saxifraga lacinata  ______  HK

  899. Red-stemmed Saxifrage  ______  AK  (NW:505)
    Saxifraga lyallii

    Another name for Saxifraga lyallii is Lyall's Saxifrage.

  900. Saxifraga merkii  (var. merkii)  ______  HK

  901. Heart-leaf Saxifrage  ______  HK  (NW:505)
    Saxifraga nelsoniana  (var. reniformis)  

  902. Saxifrraga nishidae  ______  HK

  903. Alpine Snow Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga nivalis 

  904. Purple Mountain Saxifrage  ______  AK  IC  (NW:509)
    Saxifraga oppositifolia 
    Saxifraga oppositifolia oppositifolia 
    (subspecies in Alaska)

    Other names for Saxifraga oppositifolia are: Purple Saxifrage, Twinleaf Saxifrage, or the French Knot Plant  

  905. Silver Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga paniculata

  906. Brook Saxifrage  ______  AK
    Saxifraga punctata 

  907. Alpine Brook Saxifrage  ______  AK  IC  (NW:508)
    Saxifraga rivularis

    Other names for Saxifraga rivularis are Weak Saxifrage and Pygmy Saxifrage. 

    In Iceland, a small reddish mountain variety of the Alpine Brook Saxifrage, called the Arctic Brook Saxifrage, Saxifraga hyperborea, is sometimes said to be a separate species. It is rare in Iceland, usually above 2,700 feet above sea level.   

  908. Saxifraga sachalinensis  ______  HK 

  909. Starry Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga stellaris

  910. Slender Snow Saxifrage  ______  IC
    Saxifraga tenuis

  911. Prickly Saxifrage  ______  AK  (NW:507)
    Saxifraga tricuspidata

    Another name for Saxifraga tricuspidata is Three-tooth Saxifrage.

  912. Tiarella polyphylla  ______  HK

    Sea Lavender, or Plumbago Family, PLUMBAGINACEAE

  913. Thrift  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Almeria maritima 

    (photo by Cheryl Pearce during the June 2006 FONT Iceland Tour) 

    Sedge Family, CYPERACEAE 

    including here the family SCHEUCHZERIACEAE
    with only the one genus Scheuchzeria

  914. Baeothryon cespitosum  ______  HK

  915. Carex apoiensis  ______  HK

  916. Black Alpine Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex atrata

  917. Bicolored Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex bicolor

  918. Stiff Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex bigelowii

  919. Carex blepharicarpa  ______  HK
    Carex blepharicarpa  (var. dueensis)  ______ 

  920. Brownish Sedge  ______  IC(rare)  HK
    Carex brunnescens  

  921. Carex canescens  ______  HK

  922. Hair Sedge  ______  IC  HK
    Carex capillaris  

  923. Capitate Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex capitata 

  924. String Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex chordorrhiza

  925. White Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex curta

  926. Common Yellow Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex demissa

  927. Dioecious Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex dioeca

  928. Carex doenitzii  ______  HK

  929. Star Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex echinata

  930. Carex eleusinoides  ______  HK

  931. Glaucous Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex flacca 

  932. Large Yellow Sedge  ______  IC(rare)
    Carex flava

  933. Carex flavocuspis  ______  HK
    Carex flavocuspis  (var. rishirensis)  ______ 

  934. Glacier Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex glacialis

  935. Carex hakkodensis  ______  HK

  936. Hudson Bay Sedge  ______  IC(rare)
    Carex heleonastes

  937. Carex kabanovii  ______  HK

  938. Porsild's Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex krausei

  939. Hare's-foot Sedge  ______  IC  HK
    Carex lachenalii  

  940. Common Bog Sedge  ______  IC  HK
    Carex limosa  

  941. Livid Sedge  ______  IC  HK
    Carex livida  

  942. Lyngbye's Sedge  ______  IC  HK
    Carex lyngbyei  

    In Iceland, Carex lyngbyei is one of the few western species in Icelandic flora, unknown on the European continent. 

  943. Norway Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex mackenziei

  944. Thick-headed Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex macloviana

  945. Tall Bog Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex magellanica

  946. Curved Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex maritima

  947. Carex melanocarpa  ______  HK

  948. Carex mertensii  ______  HK

  949. Carex michauxiana  ______  HK

  950. Short-stalk Sedge  ______  AK
    Carex microchaeta

  951. Bristle Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex microglochin

  952. Carex middendorffii  ______  HK

  953. Nard Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex nardina

  954. Common Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex nigra

  955. Close-headed Alpine Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex norvegica  

  956. Carex oxyandra  ______  HK

  957. Pale Sedge  ______  IC(rare)
    Carex pallescens

    Carex pallescens
    has only been found at 2 locations in Iceland.

  958. Carnation Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex panicea

  959. Carex pauciflora  ______  HK

  960. Carex paupercula  ______  HK 

  961. Pill Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex pilulifera

  962. Flea Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex pulicaris

  963. Carex rapestris  ______  HK

  964. Mountain Bog Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex rariflora

  965. Carex rhynchophysa  ______  HK

  966. Carex rotundata  ______  HK

  967. Bottle Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex rostrata
    Carex rostrata  (var, rostrata)  ______ 

  968. Red Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex rufina

  969. Rock Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex rupestris

  970. Saltmarsh Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex salina

  971. Russet Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex saxatilis

  972. Carex schmiditii  ______  HK

  973. Small-fruited Yellow Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex serotina

  974. Carex stenantha  (var. taisetsuensis)  ______  HK

  975. Hoppner Sedge  ______  IC
    Carex subspathacea

  976. Carex subumbellata  (var. subumbellata)  ______  HK
    Carex subumbellata  (var. verecunda)  ______ 

  977. Carex stylosa  ______  HK

  978. Carex tenuiformis  ______  HK

  979. Carex traiziscana  ______  HK

  980. Carex tschonoskii  ______  HK

  981. Sheathed Sedge  ______  IC  HK
    Carex vaginata  

  982. Carex vanheurckii  ______  HK 

  983. Carex vesicaria  ______  HK

  984. Needle Spike-rush  ______  IC
    Eleocharis acicularis

  985. Eleocharis mamillata  (var. cyclocarpa)  ______  HK

  986. Common Spike-rush  ______  IC
    Eleocharis palustris

  987. Eleocharis mamillata  ______  HK

  988. Few-flowered Spike-rush  ______  IC
    Eleocharis quinqueflora

  989. Slender Spike-rush  ______  IC
    Eleocharis uniglumis

  990. Common Cottongrass  ______  IC(*)
    Eriophorum angustifolium

  991. Alaska Cotton  (ph)  ______  AK(*)  IC(*)
    Eriophorum scheuchzeri
    Eriophorum scheuchzeri  (var. tenuifolium)  ______ 

    Another name for Eriophorum scheuchzeri is Scheuchaer's Cottongrass.
    The name Alaska Cotton of course applies to the plant in Alaska.
    In Iceland, its Icelandic name is Hrafnafifa.
    Eriophorum scheuchzeri has been seen during FONT tours in both Alaska and Iceland. 

    Alaska Cotton, known in Iceland as Hrafnafifa
    photographed during a FONT tour in Iceland in June 2012
    (photo by Gabi Hauser) 

  992. Eriophorum vaginatum  (var. fauriei)  ______  HK

  993. Kobresia bellardii  ______  HK

  994. Bellard's Kobresia  ______  IC
    Kobresia myosuroides 

  995. Rhynchospora alba  ______  HK 

  996. Rannoch-rush, or Pod Grass  ______  HK
    Scheuchzeria palustris

  997. Scirpus maximowiczii  ______  HK

  998. Trichophorum alpinum  ______  HK

  999. Deergrass  ______  IC
    Trichophorum caespitosum

    Snakeberries, in the Family ASPARGACEAE

    often included in LILIACEAE

  1000. Maianthemum bifolium  ______  HK

  1001. Snakeberry  ______  AK  HK  (NW:303)
    Maianthemum dilatatum

    Other names for Maianthemum dilatatum are False Lily-of-the-Valley and Two-leaved False Solomon's-seal.  

    Soapberry Family,  SAPINDACEAE

    now including the Maples, long placed in their own family ACERACEAE

  1002. Butterfly Maple  ______  HK
    Acer tschonoskii

  1003. Acer ukurunduense  ______  HK

    Spikemoss Family, SELAGINELLACEAE

  1004. Lesser Clubmoss  ______  HK  IC
    Selaginella selaginoides

    Spleenwort, or Bird's-nest Fern Family, ASPLENIACEAE

  1005. Asplenium ruta-muraria  ______  HK

  1006. Forked Spleenwort  ______  IC
    Asplenium septentrionale

  1007. Maidenhair Spleenwort  ______  IC
    Asplenium trichomanes

  1008. Green Spleenwort  ______  HK  IC
    Asplenium viride

    Spurge Family, EUPHORBIACEAE    

  1009. Euphorbia tsukamotoi  ______  HK

    Staff-vine, or Bittersweet Family, CELASTRACEAE

  1010. Euonymus tricarpus  ______  HK

    Starwort Family, CALLITRICHACEAE

  1011. Peduncled Water-starwort  ______  IC
    Callitriche brutia

  1012. Hook-tipped Water-starwort  ______  IC
    Callitriche hamulata

  1013. Autumn Water-starwort  ______  IC
    Callitriche hermaphroditica

  1014. Vernal Water-starwort  _______  IC
    Callitriche palustris

  1015. Common Water-starwort  ______  IC
    Callitriche stagnalis

    St. John's Wort Family, HYPERICACEAE

    has been part of the Garcinia Family, CLUSIACEAE

  1016. Hypericum kamtschaticum  ______  HK

  1017. Hypericum samaniense miyabei  ______  HK

  1018. Hypericum yesoenze  ______  HK

  1019. Hypericum yojiroanum  ______  HK 

    Stonecrop Family, CRASSULACEAE

  1020. Pigmyweed  ______  IC(very rare)
    Crassula aquatica

  1021. Hylotelephium cauticola  ______  HK

  1022. Hylotelephium pluricaule  ______  HK
    Hylotelephium pluricaule ezawae  ______ 

  1023. Hylotelephium verticillaum  ______  HK

  1024. Phedimus kamtschaticus  ______  HK
    Phedimus kamtschaticus  (var. floribundus)  ______ 

  1025. Rhodiola ishidae  ______  HK

  1026. Roseroot  (ph)  ______  HK  IC(*)
    Rhodiola rosea

    As Roseroot can not survive continuous grazing, in Iceland it is usually found in steep cliffs, gorges, or lake islands not accessible by sheep.
    The plant is very much favored by sheep (so common in Iceland), and so it is easily exterminated from pastures except on inaccessible rock ledges. 
    Where land has been protected from grazing, or has had moderate or discontinuous grazing for several decades, Roseroot may be found in fertile heathland and on slopes.    

    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour) 

  1027. Moss Stonecrop  ______  IC  (NW:580)
    Sedum acre

    Other names for Sedum acre are Common Stonecrop, Biting Stonecrop, Golden-carpet, Wallpepper.  
    By whatever name, in Iceland, it is common everywhere, growing in gravelly, rocky, and sandy areas.

    MEDICINAL USE: the fresh plant before flowering, except the root. It has little or no effect after drying.

    Moss, or Common Stonecrop is considered useful to treat warts and corns, on which a poultice would be placed 3 or 4 times daily.
    The herb can also be useful for sores that are slow to heal. A weak infusion or liniment of the plant is best for sores.

    Stonecrop is only to be used externally. It can cause vomiting or diarrhea if taken internally. Externally, it can irritate the skin, causing a rash and blisters. 

  1028. Annual Stonecrop  ______  IC
    Sedum annuum 

  1029. Sedum japonicum japonicum  (var. senanense)  ______  HK

  1030. Roseroot  ______  AK
    Sedum rosea

    Other names for Sedum rosea are Rosewort and King's Crown. 

  1031. Hairy Stonecrop  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Sedum villosum

    Hairy Stonecrop
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

    Sundew Family, DROSERACEAE

  1032. Drosera anglica  ______  HK

  1033. Drosera obovata  ______  HK

  1034. Round-leaved Sundew  (ph)  ______  HK  IC  (NW:215)
    Drosera rotundifolia 

    Drosera rotundifolia is also called Common Sundew.

    Drosera rotundifolia
    grows in marshlands and fens. In Iceland, it is very rare, found mainly in the west and north.

    MEDICINAL USE: the whole plant, except the root

    Round-leaved, or Common Sundew contains antibacterial substances that are thought to be effective against various bacteria causing colds and bronchitis.
    It can relieve convulsive coughing spells, and it has been successfully used to treat whooping cough.
    It can also be useful for asthma and dry, tickling coughs.

    It is recommended that the herb be used when a cold begins, especially if accompanied by a dry, irritating cough, in order to prevent subsequent bacterial infection.

    Round-leaved Sundew, Drosera rotundifolia

    Teasel Family, DIPSACACEAE

  1035. Field Scabious  ______  IC
    Knautia arvensis

    In Iceland, Field Scabious is introduced in only a few places.. It is rare.

  1036. Scabiosa japonica  (var. acutiloba)   ______  HK

  1037. Devil's-bit Scabious  ______  IC
    Succisa pratensis

    Valerian Family, VALERIANACEAE

  1038. Patrinia gibbosa  ______  HK

  1039. Patrinia sibirica  ______  HK

  1040. Capitate Valerian  ______  AK
    Valeriana capitata

  1041. Valeriana fauriei  ______  HK

  1042. Common Valerian  ______  IC
    Valeriana officinalis

  1043. Hill Valerian   ______  IC
    Valeriana sambucifolia

    In Iceland, possibly all natural valerians are Valeriana sambucifolia, but the separation of it from Valeriana officinalis appears "rather vague".   

  1044. Sitka Valerian  ______  AK  (NW:553)
    Valeriana sitchensis

    Violet Family, VIOLACEAE

  1045. Western Dog Violet  ______  AK  (NW:559)
    Viola adunca

  1046. Viola alliariifolia  ______  HK

  1047. Viola biflora  ______  AK  HK

  1048. Viola blandaeformis  ______  HK

  1049. Viola brevistipulata brevistipulata  ______  HK
    Viola brevistipulata brevistipulata  (var. laciniata)  ______ 
    Viola brevistipulata hidakana  ______  HK
    Viola brevistipulata hidakana  (var. yesoana)  ______ 

  1050. Heath Dog-violet  ______  IC
    Viola canina

  1051. Viola collina  ______  HK

  1052. Viola crassa borealis  ______  HK

  1053. Northern Marsh Violet  ______  AK  IC
    Viola epipsila

  1054. Viola epipsiloides  ______  HK

  1055. Stream Violet  ______  AK  (NW:557)
    Viola glabella

    Another name for Viola glabella is Pioneer Violet.

  1056. Viola hultenii  ______  HK

  1057. Viola kamtschadalorum  ______  HK

  1058. Viola kitamiana  ______  HK

  1059. Alaska Violet  ______  AK
    Viola langsdorfii

  1060. Alpine Marsh Violet  ______  IC
    Viola palustris

  1061. Wood Violet  ______  AK
    Viola rentifolia

  1062. Common Dog-violet  ______  IC(rare)
    Viola riviniana

  1063. Viola sacchalinensis  ______  HK

  1064. Selkirk's Violet  ______  AK  HK
    Viola selkirkii

  1065. Wild Pansy  ______  IC  (NW:600)
    Viola tricolor

    Another name for Viola tricolor is Johnny-jump-up.

  1066. Viola variegata  ______  HK

  1067. Viola yubariana  ______  HK

    Water Lily Family, NYMPHAEACEAE

  1068. Yellow Pond Lily  ______  AK  (NW:356)
    Nuphar polysepala

    Another name for Nuphar polysepala is Indian Pond Lily.

  1069. Nuphar pumila  (var. pumila)  ______  HK
    Nuphar pumila  (var. ozensis)  ______ 

  1070. Nymphaea tetragona  (var. angusta)  ______  HK
    Nymphaea tetragona  (var. erythrostigmatica)  ______ 

    Water-milfoil Family, HALORAGACEAE

  1071. Alternate Water-milfoil  ______  IC
    Myriophyllum alterniflorum

  1072. Spiked Water-milfoil  ______  IC(rare)
    Myriophyllum spicatum

    Willow Family, SALICACEAE

    This family includes trees: Aspens, Cottonwoods, Poplars. 

  1073. Balsam Poplar  (*)  ______  AK  (ST:236)
    Populus balsamifera

  1074. European Aspen  (*)  ______  IC  (ST:231)
    Populus tremula

  1075. Quaking Aspen  (*)  ______  AK  (ST:230)
    Populus tremuloides

  1076. Black Cottonwood  ______  AK(southeast)  (ST:237)
    Populus trichocarpa

    Willows (in the genus Salix) hybridize quite easily making identification difficult.  

  1077. Alaska Willow  (or Felt Leaf Willow)  ______  AK
    Salix alaxensis

  1078. Arctic Willow  ______  AK
    Salix arctica

  1079. Bluish Willow  ______  IC
    Salix callicarpaea

  1080. Salix fuscescens  ______  HK

  1081. Dwarf Willow  (ph)  ______   IC(*)
    Salix herbeacea

    Dwarf Willow
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  1082. Woolly Willow  (ph)  ______  IC(*)
    Salix lanata

    Wooly Willow
    (photo courtesy of Gerin Hood, during the FONT June 2009 Iceland tour)

  1083. Salix nakamurana nakamurana  ______  HK

  1084. Salix nummularia  ______  HK  

  1085. Skeleton Leaf Willow  ______  AK
    Salix phlebophylla

  1086. Tea-leaved Willow  ______  IC
    Salix phylicifolia

  1087. Salix reinii  ______  HK

  1088. Round-leaf Willow  ______  AK
    Salix rotundifolia

  1089. Salix yesoalpina  ______  HK
    Salix yesoalpina  (var. neoreticulata)  ______ 
    Salix yesoalpina kurilensis  ______ 

    Willowherb, or Rosebay, or Evening Primrose Family, ONAGRACEAE

  1090. Small Enchanter's Nightshade  ______  HK  (NW:370)
    Circaea alpina  

    Another name for Circea alpina is Alpine Enchanter's Nightshade.

  1091. Chickweed Willow-herb  ______  IC
    Epilobium alsinifolium

  1092. Epilobium amurense cephalostigma  ______  HK

  1093. Alpine Willow-herb  ______  HK  IC
    Epilobium anagallidifolium

  1094. Rosebay Willow-herb  (or Common Fireweed ______  AK  HK  IC  (NW:362)
    (now Chamerion) angustifolium
    Chamerion angustifolium angustifolium 
    (subspecies in Alaska) 

    Other names for Chamerion angustifolium are Great Willow-herb and Narrow-leaved Fireweed.

  1095. Cliff Willow-herb  ______  IC
    Epilobium collinum

  1096. Epilobium fauriei  ______  HK

  1097. Hornemann's Willow-herb  ______  HK  IC  
    Epilobium hornemanni

  1098. White-flowered Willow-herb  ______  HK  IC  (NW:360)
    Epilobium lactiflorum

    Another name for Epilobium lactiflorum is Milky Willow-herb.

  1099. Arctic Riverbeauty  ______  IC  (NW:362)
    (now Chamerion) latifolium

    Other names for Epilobium latifolium are Broad-leaved Willow-herb, Broad-leaved Fireweed, Dwarf Fireweed, or simply River Beauty.

  1100. Broad-leaved Willow-herb  ______  IC
    Epilobium montanum

    In Iceland, the Broad-leaved Willow-herb is a very rare alien.

  1101. Marsh Willow-herb  ______  IC
    Epilobium palustre

  1102. American Willow-herb  ______  IC
    Epilobium watsonii 

    Wintergreen Family, PYROLACEAE

    PYROLACEAE is now said to be a subfamily in the Heath Family, ERICACEAE

  1103. One-flowered Wintergreen  ______  AK  HK  (NW:451)
    Moneses uniflora

    Other names for Moneses uniflora are Wood-nymph, Wax Flower, Single Delight, and Shy Maiden.

  1104. Pyrola alpina  ______  HK

  1105. Pink Pyrola  (or Wintergreen)  ______  AK  HK
    Pyrola asarifolia
    Pyrola asarifolia incarnata  ______ 

  1106. Pyrola faurieana  ______  HK

  1107. Arctic Wintergreen  ______  AK  IC(*)
    Pyrola grandiflora

    Another name for Pyrola grandiflora is Large-flowered Wintergreen.

    In Iceland, Arctic Wintergreen is widespread in the north and northeast.

    MEDICINAL USE: the leaves

    Wintergreen is considered effective to relieve pain and inflammation in the digestive tract. 
    It has also been used for pain in the urinary tract, especially pain resulting from kidney stones.
    It is thought to have a strengthening effect on the womb.

    Wintergreen is effective on wounds, and a tea or ointment of the herb is used for many types of eczema or sores which are slow to heal.
    A weak infusion of the leaves is considered a good wash for sensitive or swollen eyes.      

  1108. Lesser Wintergreen  ______  HK  IC  (NW:452)
    Pyrola minor

    Another name for Pyrola minor is Lesser Wintergreen. 

  1109. Pyrola renifolia  ______  HK 

  1110. Serrated Wintergreen  ______  AK  HK  IC  (NW:452)
    Orthilia secunda

    The Serrated Wintergreen has been said to be Pyrola secunda. Other names for it are One-sided Wintergreen, One-sided Shinleaf, and Sidebells.

    Wood-sorrel Family, OXALIDACEAE

  1111. Wood-sorrel  ______  HK  IC(very rare)
    Oxalis acetosella 

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