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Macaws to Woodpeckers

Noting those found during 
Focus On Nature Tours
with an (*).  

1991 thru 2015 

In Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala
Honduras, Panama

Part 2 of a Central America Bird List with some Photos,
compiled by Armas Hill 



(t): a globally threatened or rare species, designated by Birdlife International
 (t1): critical
 (t2): endangered
 (t3): vulnerable
(nt): a near-threatened species globally

In the list that follows, relating to sightings during FONT tours, the country & the months are noted.
CR:   Costa Rica    
GU:   Guatemala
HN:    Honduras
PN:    Panama

(CAi): introduced species in Central America

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT web-site 

Links to Bird Groupings in this part of this list:

Macaws, Parakeets, Parrots    Cuckoos   Owls    Potoos, Nighthawks, Nightjars    Swifts

Hummingbirds    Trogons    Kingfishers    Motmots    Jacamars    Puffbirds    Barbets

Toucans    Woodpeckers  

Links to Other Parts of this Central American Bird List:

Part #1: Tinamous to Doves     Part #3: Manakins to Thrashers     Part #4: Thrushes to Buntings

Links to Lists of Birds of:   Belize    Costa Rica    Guatemala    Honduras    Panama  

Links to Lists & Photo Galleries of Other Nature, including Central American:

Mammals    Butterflies    Amphibians, Reptiles    Marine life, inc. Fish, Crustaceans

Links to Information about Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours:

in Central America     by month, in:   2015   2016   or:   by geographic location 

Other Links:

FONT Past Tour Highlights

Directory of Photos in this Website



Macaws, Parakeets, Parrots

  1. Great Green Macaw  (t3) (*) (ph) ______  CR:mar,apr,dec/jan  (closely related to the Military Macaw of Mexico & northern South America, and by some has been considered conspecific)
    Ara a. ambigua 
    (the other subspecies is an isolated population in western Ecuador)

    Great Green Macaw

  2. Military Macaw  (GUr)  (*)  ______  GU:apr
    Ara militaris mexicanus

  3. Scarlet Macaw  (*) (ph) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,jul,dec  GU:mar,apr,jun  HN:feb,mar,dec
    Ara macao 
    (2 subspecies in Costa Rica)
    Ara macao cyanopterus 
    (northern subspecies, south to Nicaragua, extending into northeast Costa Rica)
    Ara m. macao 
    (most populations in Costa Rica)  

    Scarlet Macaws

  4. Red-and-green Macaw  (*) (ph)  ______  PN:feb

    Red-and-green Macaws

  5. Green Parakeet  (*) ______  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec
    Psittacara (formerly Aratinga) holochiora rubritoquis

  6. Pacific Parakeet  (*)  ______  GU:apr,jul,dec
    Psittacara (formerly Aratinga) strenua

  7. Crimson-fronted Parakeet (or Conure)  (*)  ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  PN:feb  (total range only from southeastern Nicaragua to western Panama)
    (formerly Aratinga) finschi 

    The Crimson-fronted Parakeet (or Conure) has also been called the Finch's Parakeet.

  8. Aztec Parakeet (or Conure)  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec
    (formerly Aratinga) astec

    The Aztec Parakeet was considered by some as part of the Olive-throated Parakeet (or Conure) when it included the Jamacian population.

    Aztec Parakeets
    (photo by Dick Tipton)

  9. Orange-fronted Parakeet (or Conure(*) ______  CR:jan,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:feb,mar,apr,jun,dec  HN:feb
    Eupsittula (formerly Aratinga) c. canicularis

  10. Brown-throated Parakeet (or Conure(*) ______ CR:feb  PN:feb,mar,jul  
    (formerly Aratinga) pertinax

    The Brown-throated Parakeet is a recent arrival in Costa Rica from Panama, now fairly common in southern Pacific lowlands. 

  11. Sulphur-winged Parakeet  (*) ______  CR:feb,mar  PN:feb,mar  (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Pyrrhura h. hoffmanni

  12. Barred Parakeet  (*) ______  CR:apr  GU:apr,jun
    Bolborhynchus l. lineola

  13. Orange-chinned Parakeet  (*) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb  PN:jan,feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov  
    Brotogeris j. jugularis

    Another name for the Orange-chinned Parakeet has been the "Tovi  Parakeet".  

  14. Red-fronted Parrotlet  (t3) (*) ______  CR:mar  (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Touit costaricensis 

    The Red-fronted Parrotlet was at one time considered a race of the Blue-fronted Parrotlet of eastern Panama & northern South America. 

  15. Spectacled Parrotlet  (*)  ______  PN:jul
    Forpus conspicillatus

  16. Brown-hooded Parrot  (*) (ph) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:aug
    Pionopsitta h. haematotis

  17. Blue-headed Parrot  (*) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,nov
    Pionus menstuus rubigularis

  18. White-crowned Parrot  (*) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul  HN:feb  PN:feb
    Pionus senilis 

  19. White-fronted Amazon (or Parrot(*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec
    Amazona albifrons nana

    White-fronted Amazon
    (photo by Dick Tipton)

  20. Yellow-lored Amazon (or Parrot(*)  ______  BZ:apr
    Amazona xantholora

  21. Red-lored Amazon (or Parrot(*) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul  HN:mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Amazona autumnalis salvini

  22. Yellow-naped Amazon (or Parrot(t3) (*) ______  CR:mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:mar,apr,jun,jul
    Amazona a. auropalliata 

  23. Yellow-headed Amazon (or Parrot)  (*) ______  HN:apr
    Amazona oratrix

  24. Yellow-crowned Amazon (or Parrot)  (*) ______  PN:mar,jul,nov
    Amazona ochrocephala panamensis 

  25. Mealy Amazon (or Parrot)  (*)  ______  BZ:apr  CR:feb,,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug
    Amazona farinosa virenticeps


  26. Black-billed Cuckoo  (*) ______  CR:feb,mar  PN:nov
    Coccyzus erythropthalmus 

  27. Yellow-billed Cuckoo  (*) ______  CR:apr  GU:apr
    Coccyzus americanus 
    (now monotypic)

  28. Mangrove Cuckoo  (*) (ph) ______  CR:jan,mar,dec/jan
    Coccyzus minor 
    (now monotypic)

    Mangrove Cuckoo
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet)

  29. Cocos Cuckoo ______  (endemic to the Cocos Islands, well offshore from mainland Costa Rica, in the Pacific) 
    Coccyzus ferrugineus

  30. Squirrel Cuckoo  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,nov
    Piaya cayana thermophila

    Squirrel Cuckoo
    (photo by Dick Tipton)

  31. Groove-billed Ani  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul
    Crotophaga sulciroxtris 
    (now monotypic, as a "second form" in Mexico now extinct)

    Groove-billed Anis in the Guanacaste region of Costa Rica
    (upper photo by Alan Brady; 
     lower photo by Virginia Woodhouse during a FONT Costa Rica Tour in March 2012)

  32. Smooth-billed Ani  (*) (ph) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,jul  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,nov
    Crotophaga ani 

  33. Greater Ani  (CRr) (*)  ______  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,nov
    Crotophaga major

    In Costa Rica, a single Greater Ani was sighted, a few times, at Tortuguero in early 2003 & December 2004. 

  34. Striped Cuckoo  (*) ______  BZ:apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:mar,apr,jun  HN:apr  PN:feb,mar,jul
    Tapera naevia excellens

  35. Pheasant Cuckoo ______  GU:jan,mar  PN:jul
    Dromococcyx phasianellus 

  36. Lesser Roadrunner  (*) ______  GU:feb,apr,jun
    Geococcyx velox

  37. Lesser Ground Cuckoo  (*) ______  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU
    Morococcyx e. erythropygus

  38. Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoo ______  
    Neomorphus geoffroyi


  39. American Barn Owl  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jun  PN:feb,aug
    Tyto furcata pratincola

    The American Barn Owl, Tyto furcata, was part of the Barn Owl of Eurasia & Africa, Tyto alba

    During one night, as we drove along a road during one of 
    our tours in Belize, we saw 6 Barn Owls on fence posts.
    (photo by Andy Smith)

  40. Guatemalan Screech Owl  (*) ______  GU:jan,feb,mar,jun
    (formerly Otus) guatemalae

    Megascops guatemalae dacrysistactus  ______ 
    (subspecies from northern Nicaragua to northern Costa Rica)
    Megascops guatemalae guatemalae  ______ 
    (subspecies from Vera Cruz in Mexico south to Honduras)
    There are 2 other subspecies in Mexico.

    The Guatemalan Screech Owl occurs in humid as well as semi-arid evergreen or semi-deciduous forests from sea level to 1500 meter.

    The Guatemalan Screech Owl and the Vermiculated Screech Owl (below) have been considered conspecific.    

  41. Vermiculated Screech Owl  (*)  ______  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan
    (formerly Otus) vermiculatus  (monotypic)

    The Vermiculated Screech Owl ranges from Costa Rica to northwestern Colombia. It inhabits tropical forests with high humidity and many epiphytes, mainly in the lowlands but it can be as high as 1,200 meters above sea level. 

  42. Bearded Screech Owl  (t3) (*)  ______  GU;jun  
    (formerly Otus) barbarus  (monotypic) 

    Megascops barbarus
    has also been called the Bridled Screech Owl. 

  43. Bare-shanked Screech Owl  (*) ______  CR:mar,dec/jan  (total range from Costa Rica to northwestern Colombia)
    (formerly Otus) clarkii  (monotypic)

  44. Tropical Screech Owl (*) ______  CR:mar,apr  PN:feb,mar,aug  
    (formerly Otus) choliba luctisonus  (subspecies from Costa Rica to northwestern Colombia)

  45. Whiskered Screech Owl  ______
    (formerly Otus) trichopsis  (monotypic)

    Megascops trichopsis mesamericanus  ______  (subspecies from southern Mexico to Nicaragua, with the red morph fairly common)
    There are 2 other subspecies in Mexico. 

  46. Pacific Screech Owl  (*) (ph)  ______  CR:mar,apr,dec/jan  GU:apr  (was said, at one time, to be part of the Western Screech Owl of North America)
    (formerly Otus) cooperi  (monotypic) 

    A Pacific Screech Owl photographed during a FONT tour in Costa Rica
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  47. Crested Owl  (*) ______  CR:mar,dec/jan  GU:jan,dec  PN:aug
    Lophostrix cristata 
    (the single member of its genus)

    Lophostrix cristata stricklandi  ______  (subspecies from southern Mexico to western Colombia, this subspecies in general is grayish-brown, with yellow eyes and a slightly different voice)
    Lophostrix critata wedeli  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Panama to northwestern Venezuela, with yellow eyes)

    The subspecies L. c. stricklandi may actually be specifically distinct . Further study of its DNA and vocalizations is needed.

  48. Great Horned Owl  (*) (ph)  ______  CR:mar  GU:jun
    Bubo virginianus mayensis  (subspecies from Mexico to western Panama)

  49. Spectacled Owl  (*) (ph)  ______  CR:feb,mar,jul,dec/jan  PN:nov
    Pulsatrix perspicillata

    Pulsatrix perspiciliata chapmani 
    ______  (subspecies from eastern Costa Rica to Ecuador)
    Pulsatrix perspiciliata saturata  ______  (subspecies from southern Mexico to western Panama, a darker subspecies with a uniformly sooty-black head and back, finely-barred below) 

    Spectacled Owl

  50. Guatemalan Pygmy Owl  (*) ______  GU:mar,apr,dec  (was part of the Mountain Pygmy Owl)
    Glaucidium cobanense

    The Guatemalan Pygmy Owl is no longer a subspecies of Glaucidium gnoma, the Mountain Pygmy Owl of Mexico and the southwestern US.
    It is separated due to vocal differences. Molecular studies need to be done to confirm the new taxonomic status.

    The Guatemalan Pygmy Owl occurs in mountain forests at higher elevations in Chiapas in southern Mexico and in Guatemala and Honduras.

    To differentiate from the Ridgway's, formerly Ferruginous, Pygmy Owl, it (the Ridgway's) has distinct pale streaks on the crown and forehead. See the photo below of the Ridgway's Pygmy Owl.
    The Guatemalan Pygmy Owl is geographically separated from the Costa Rica Pygmy Owl (below).

  51. Central American Pygmy Owl  (*) ______  CR:mar,jul  GU:apr,dec 
    Glaucidium griseiceps 

    The range of the Central American Pygmy Owl is from southeastern Mexico to Panama. It occurs in tropical humid evergreen forests and bushlands, and also in plantations and semi-open areas, from sea level to hills, up to 1300 meters in Guatemala.

    The Ridgway's, or Ferruginous, Pygmy Owl (below) is generally larger and longer-tailed, and with a streaked crown.      

  52. Costa Rican Pygmy Owl  (*) ______  CR:mar,apr,dec/jan  
    Glaucidium costaricanum

    The Costa Rica Pygmy Owl is closely related to the Mountain Pygmy Owl of Mexico & the southwestern US, and was not really a subspecies of the Andean Pygmy Owl of South America, as formerly thought. 

    Glaucidium costaricanum occurs from central Costa Rica to western Panama, and possibly also in eastern Panama. Its distribution is not yet fully known.
    It inhabits cloud forest and mountain forests with clearings, from 900 meters up to the timberline.

  53. Ridgway's Pygmy Owl  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:feb  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU  HN:feb,dec  PN  
    Glaucidium ridgwayi

    The Ridgway's Pygmy Owl has, for a long time, been considered a subspecies of the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl, Glaucidium brasilianum, now said to be a species of South America.
    It has been separated on the basis of DNA data and vocal differences.

    Glaucidium ridgwayi ridgwayi 
    ______  (subspecies from Texas & Mexico south to northwestern Colombia)
    There is another subspecies in western Mexico & southern Arizona in the US.

    The Ridgway's Pygmy Owl is a highly polymorphic species, with gray-brown and red morphs, and intermediates.

    It generally occurs in open woodlands and semi-open areas, sometimes with cacti and thorny scrub, usually in the lowlands but sometimes up to 1500 meters above sea level or slightly higher.   

    The Ridgway's Pygmy Owl
    (photo by Dick Tipton)

  54. Mexican Wood Owl  (*)  ______  BZ:feb,mar   CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  PN:feb,aug
    Strix squamulata

    The Mexican Wood Owl has been considered part of the Mottled Owl, now a South American species.

    Strix squamulata centralis  ______ 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to southwestern Ecuador)
    There are 2 other subspecies in Mexico. 

  55. Black-and-white Owl  (*)  ______  CR:mar,apr,dec/jan  GU:jan  HN:dec  PN:feb,aug
    (formerly Ciccaba) nigrolineata  (monotypic)

  56. Fulvous Owl  (*)  ______  GU:apr,jun 
    Strix fulvescens 

    The Fulvous Owl was once conspecific with the Barred Owl (of North America & Mexico), but its voice is more like that of the Spotted Owl (also of North America & Mexico). 

    The Fulvous Owl occurs as far south as Honduras. It occupies mountain pine forests and humid evergreen pine-oak forests from 1200 to 3100 meters above sea level.

  57. Stygian Owl  (*)  ______  GU:jun
    Asio stygius 

    Asio stygius robustus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Mexico, Guatemala, & Belize)

  58. Striped Owl  (*) (ph)  _____  CR:feb,mar,jul  HN:dec  PN
    Asio (has been Pseudoscops) clamator

    Asio clamator forbesi  ______  (subspecies from Mexico to Panama, smaller & paler than the nominate of South America)

  59. Burrowing Owl  (ph)  ______
    Athene cunicularia

    Athene cunicularia hypugaea  ______ 
    (subspecies from Canada to Panama)
    There are 14 other subspecies throughout the Americas

    Very rare in Costa Rica, there's a specimen of a Burrowing Owl from the slope of the Irazu Volcano in December 1990. 

  60. Unspotted Saw-whet Owl  (nt) (CRr) (*)  ______  CR
    Aegolius ridgwayi 

    Aegolius ridgwayi has been treated as a subspecies of the Northern Saw-whet Owl.

    The Unspotted Saw-whet Owl, a bird not known well anywhere, is said to occur in Costa Rica from 2,500 meters above sea level up to the timberline, in mountain forests and cloud forests.
    In Guatemala, it is said to occur down to 1400 meters above sea level.  

    Two doubtful races of the Unspotted Saw-whet Owl may be, it has been suggested, hybrids between the Northern Saw-whet Owl and the Unspotted Saw-whet Owl. 
    Aegolius ridgwayi rostratus  ______  (in Guatemala)
    Aegolius ridgwayi tacanenis  ______  (in Chiapas, in southern Mexico)

  61. Oilbird  (CRr) (ph)  ______
    Steatornis caripensis 
    (the single member of its genus & family)  

    Oilbirds occur mostly in northern South America, where they reside in groups, by day, in caves. 
    In Costa Rica, no such population has been discovered, but, over the years, 2 specimens have been collected, from Cerro de la Muerte and Monteverde, Also, an individual was photographed dayroosting in Corcorvado National Park, and there's been another sighting above Horqueras de Sarapiqui,
    Oilbirds feed at night, with a hovering flight, on palms and wild avocados. They emit a slow series of clicks in flight.     


  62. Great Potoo (*) ______  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  PN:feb
    Nyctibius g. grandis

  63. Common Potoo (*) (ph)  ______  CR:jan,mar  PN:mar
    Nyctibius griseus panamensis 

    Common Potoo at its nest (note egg)
    (photo by Ruben Campos)

  64. Northern Potoo  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  GU:jul
    Nyctibius jamaicensis

    A Northern Potoo at rest during the day, 
    photographed during one of our tours in Belize
    (photo by Alan Brady) 

  65. Short-tailed Nighthawk  (*) ______  CR:mar,jul  GU:jan,mar  HN:dec  PN:aug 
    Lurocalis semitorquatus noctivagus

    Another name for Lurocalis semitorquatus has been the Semicollared Nighthawk. 

  66. Common Nighthawk (*) ______  CR:mar  GU:jan,mar,apr,jun  PN:mar
    Chordeiles minor panamensis 
    (other subspecies occur in Costa Rica as migrants)

  67. Lesser Nighthawk  (*) ______  BZ:feb  CR:jan,feb,mar,jul,dec  GU:jan,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:apr  PN:mar
    Chordeiles acutipennis littoralis 
    (other subspecies occur in Costa Rica as migrants)

  68. Ocellated Poorwill ______
    Nyctiphrynus ocellatus

  69. Yucatan Poorwill  (*) ______  BZ:mar,apr  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun
    Nyctiphrynus yucatanicus 

  70. Pauraque  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,apr  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,nov
    Nyctidromus albicollis intercedens 
    (the single member of its genus)

    (above photo by Marie Gardner)
    (lower photo by Ruben Campos, during the March 2010 FONT Costa Rica tour)  

  71. Buff-collared Nightjar  (*)  ______  GU:apr,jun
    Antrostomus (formerly Caprimulgus) ridgwayi troglodyte

  72. Yucatan Nightjar  (*)  ______  HN:apr
    Antrostomus (formerly Caprimulgus) badius

  73. Dusky Nightjar (*) ______  CR:mar  (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    (formerly Caprimulgus) saturatus  (monotypic)

  74. Rufous Nightjar  (*) (ph) ______  PN:mar
    Antrostomus (formerly Caprimulgus) rufus

  75. Chuck-will's-widow   ______  
    Antrostomus (formerly Caprimulgus) carolinenis 

  76. Mexican Whip-poor-will  (*)  ______  GU:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec
    Antrostomus (formerly Caprimulgus)  arizonae chiapensis 
    (subspecies in Guatemala)

  77. White-tailed Nightjar  (*)  ______  CR:jan,feb,mar  PH:feb
    (formerly Caprimulgus) cayennensis albicauda

  78. Spot-tailed Nightjar  ______
    (formerly Caprimulgus) maculicaudus


  79. American Black Swift  (*) ______  CR:mar  GU:apr
    Cypseloides niger costaricensis

  80. White-chinned Swift  (*) ______  CR:feb,jul
    Cypseloides cryptus 

  81. Spot-fronted Swift ______
    Cypseloides cherriei

  82. Chestnut-collared Swift  (*) ______  CR:jan,mar,apr  GU:mar,apr  HN:mar
    (formerly Cypseloides) rutilus  (monotypic)

  83. White-collared Swift  (*) ______  BZ:mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:feb,mar,apr,jun,dec  HN:mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,aug,nov
    Streptoprocne zonaris bouchelli

  84. Gray-rumped Swift  (*) ______  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan
    Chaetura cinereiventris phaeopygos

  85. Band-rumped Swift  (*) ______  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Chaetura spinicaudus aetherodroma 

  86. Costa Rican Swift  (*) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,jul
    Chaetura fumosa 

    The Costa Rican Swift has been considered conspeciric with the more-southerly Band-rumped Swift, Chaetura spinicaudus.
    The range of the Costa Rican Swift is in southern Costa Rica and the adjacent Chiriqui province in Panama. 

  87. "Dusky-backed" Vaux's Swift  (*) ______  BZ:feb,mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:apr,dec  PN:feb
    Chaetura vauxi richmondi

  88. Chimney Swift  (*)  ______  HN:apr
    Chaetura pelagica

  89. Short-tailed Swift  (*) ______  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct
    Chaetura b. brachyura

  90. White-throated Swift  (*)  ______  GU:jun,dec
    Aeronautes saxatalis nigrior 

  91. Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift  (*) ______  BZ:feb  CR:jan,feb,mar,dec  GU:mar  PN:mar,jul,aug
    Panyptila c. cayennensis

  92. Great Swallow-tailed Swift  (*) ______  GU:apr
    Panyptila sanctihieronymi


  93. Band-tailed Barbthroat  (*) (ph)  ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,jul  PN:jul
    Threnetes ruckeri ventosus 

    During the FONT tour in southern Costa Rica in February 2004, a Band-tailed Barbthroat was seen at its nest.

  94. Bronzy Hermit  (*) ______  CR:feb,mar  PN:feb
    Glaucis aenea 

    During the FONT tour in southern Costa Rica in February 2004, a Bronzy Hermit was seen at its nest.

  95. Green Hermit  (*) (ph)  ______  CR:mar,apr,dec/jan  PN:feb
    Phaethornis guy coruscus

    Green Hermit
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet)

  96. Long-billed Hermit  (*) ______  BZ:feb,apr  CR:jan.feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr  HN:feb,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug 
    Phaethornis longirostris cephalus

    The Long-billed Hermit was, at one time, part of the Long-tailed Hermit, a species now restricted to South America.    

  97. Stripe-throated Hermit  (*) (ph) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,apr  HN:feb,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug
    Phaethornis striigularis saturatus
    (genus formerly said to be Pygmornis  

    The Stripe-throated Hermit was conspecific with the Little Hermit of northeastern South America.
    Another name of the bird in Central America has been the "Boucard's Hermit", Phaethornis adolphi.   

    A Stripe-throated Hermit at its nest on a large blade of grass
    (photographed in Costa Rica by Alan Brady)

  98. White-whiskered Hermit  (ph)  ______
    Phaetornis yaruqui

    A White-whiskered Hermit found in the Darien region of Panama on July 10, 1996 was said to be the first record of the species for both Panama and Central America.

  99. White-tipped Sicklebill  (*) (ph) ______  CR:feb,mar  PN:feb
    Eutoxeres aquila salvini  

    During the FONT tour in southern Costa Rica in February 2004, a White-tipped Sicklebill was seen at its nest.

    White-tipped Sicklebill

  100. Green-fronted Lancebill  (*) ______  CR:mar,dec/jan
    Doryfera ludovicae veraguensis

  101. Scaly-breasted Hummingbird (*) ______  CR:feb,mar,apr  GU:apr  HN:apr  PN:feb,jul,aug  
    (has been Phaeochroa) cuvierii  
    Campylopterus cuvierii roberti 
    (subspecies in eastern Costa Rica)

    Campylopterus cuvierii maculicauda 
    (subspecies in western Costa Rica)

    Another name for Campylopterus cuvierii has been "Cuvier's Hummingbird".

  102. Wedge-tailed Sabrewing  (*)  ______  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun
    Campylopterus curvipennis pampa

  103. Rufous Sabrewing  (*)  ______  GU:mar,apr,jun,dec
    Campylopteus rufus  (monotypic)  

  104. Violet Sabrewing  (*) (ph) ______  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:mar,apr,jul  HN:feb  PN:feb,mar
    Campylopterus hemileucurus mellitus

    Violet Sabrewing
    (photo courtesy of Doris Potter)

  105. White-necked Jacobin  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  HN:feb  PN:feb,mar,aug
    Florisuga m. mellivora

    Two photos of White-necked Jacobins.
    Above: a male.  Below: a female.  
    (lower photo by Marie Gardner, during the FONT tour in Belize in April 2011)

  106. Brown Violetear  (*) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU  PN:feb
    Colibri delphinae 
    (now monotypic)

  107. Green Violetear  (*) (ph) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,jul,dec  GU:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar
    Colibri thalassinus cabanidis

    Above & below: Green Violetears photographed during FONT tours in Costa Rica
    (upper photo by Rosemary Lloyd; lower photo by Virginia Woodhouse during a March 2012 tour) 

  108. Green-breasted Mango (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr 
    Anthracothorax prevostii gracilirostris

    Another name for Anthracothorax prevostii has been the  "Prevost's Mango".

  109. Veraguan Mango  (*) ______  PN:feb,mar
    Anthracothorax veraguensis 

    The Veraguan Mango has been considered conspecific with the Green-breasted Mango (above). Until recently, it has been considered as endemic to Panama, but it has been found in southern Costa Rica.  

  110. Black-throated Mango  (*) (ph) ______  PN:feb,mar,jul
    Anthracothorax nigricollis 

  111. Violet-headed Hummingbird  (*) (ph) ______  CR:feb,mar,jul,dec/jan  PN:feb,mar
    Klais guimeti merrittii 
    (the single member of its genus) 

    During the FONT tour in southern Costa Rica in February 2004, a Violet-headed Hummingbird was seen at its nest.

    Violet-headed Hummingbird
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet)

  112. Emerald-chinned Hummingbird  (*) ______  GU:mar.apr,dec  HN:feb  
    Abeilla a. abeillei 

    Another name for Abeilla abeillei has been the Abeille's Hummingbird.

  113. Black-crested Coquette (*) ______  CR:mar  GU:apr
    Lophornis helenae 

  114. White-crested Coquette (*) ______  CR:feb,mar  (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Lophornis adorabilis

    Another name for Lophornis adorabilis has been the "Adorable Coquette".

  115. Rufous-crested Coquette  (ph)  ______  (rare in Panama, even more rare in southwestern Costa Rica) 
    Lophornis delattrei

    Rufous-crested Coquette
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet)

  116. Green Thorntail (*) ______  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan
    (formerly Popelairia) conversii  (monotypic)

  117. Canivet's Emerald  (*)  ______  GU:jan,mar,apr,dec  (has been part of the former Fork-tailed Emerald)
    Chlorostilbon caniveti 

  118. Salvin's Emerald (*) ______  CR:mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:feb,apr,jul,dec  HN:feb,dec
    Chlorostilbon (caniveti) salvini

    The Salvin's Emerald and the more-southerly Garden Emerald have been split from what was the Fork-tailed Emerald; some say that the Salvin's Emerald is a subspecies of the Canivet's Emerald

  119. Garden Emerald (*) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct  (total range limited to Costa Rica & Panama)
    Chlorostilbon assimilis  (monotypic)

    The Garden, Canivet's, and the Salvin's Emeralds have been split from what was the Fork-tailed Emerald

  120. Violet-crowned Woodnymph (*) ______  BZ:apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  PN:feb,aug
    Thalurania colombica venusta 

    The Violet-crowned Woodnymph (above) and the Green-crowned Woodnymph (below) have been merged (by the AOU in 2013), with the combined species called the Crowned Woodnymph. 
    The merge is based upon apparent interbreeding in Colombia.
    In Panama, however, the two are not known to come into contact with each other.   

  121. Green-crowned Woodnymph  (*)  ______  PN:jul
    Thalurania fannyi

  122. Fiery-throated Hummingbird (*) (ph)  ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,jul  PN:feb  (total range restricted to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Panterpe i. insignis 
    (1 of 2 subspecies in Costa Rica) (the single member of its genus)

    Fiery-throated Hummingbird
    (photo by Ruben Campos)

  123. Blue-throated Sapphire (*) ______  CR:feb,mar,dec/jan  GU  HN:feb  (has also been called Blue-throated Goldentail)
    Hylocharis e. eliciae 

    During the FONT tour in southern Costa Rica in February 2004, a Blue-throated Sapphire was seen at its nest.

  124. Violet-bellied Hummingbird  (*) (ph)  ______  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug
    Damophila julie panamensis

  125. Sapphire-throated Hummingbird  (*) ______  PN:feb,jul,aug
    Lepidopyga c. coeruleogularis 
    (subspecies in western Panama)
    Lepidopyga coeruleogularis confinis 
    (subspecies in eastern Panama)

  126. Berylline Hummingbird  (*) ______  GU:feb,mar,apr,jun,dec  HN:feb,mar
    Amazilia beryllina devillei

  127. Blue-tailed Hummingbird  (*)  ______  GU:mar,apr,jun,dec
    Amazilia cyanura guatemalae

  128. Azure-crowned Hummingbird  (*)  ______  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN: feb,mar 
    Amazilia c. cyanocephala  

    Another name for Amazilia cyanocephala has been Red-billed Azurecrown.

  129. Charming Hummingbird (*) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar  PN:mar  (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Amazilia decora 

    Another name for Amazilia decora has been Beryl-crowned Hummingbird. It has been considered conspecifrc with the Blue-chested Hummingbird.

  130. Blue-chested Hummingbird (*) ______  CR:mar  PN:feb,mar,aug,oct
    Amazilia amabilis 

  131. Snowy-bellied Hummingbird (*) (ph)  ______  CR:jan,feb,mar  PN:jan,feb,mar,jul,aug  (total range is Costa Rica & Panama)
    Amazilia edward niveoventer

    Snowy-bellied Hummingbird
    (photo by Marie Grenouikket)

  132. Mangrove Hummingbird (t2) (CRe) (*) ______  CR:feb,jul,dec/jan  (total range limited to the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, where it occurs only in mangroves) 
    Amazilia boucardi 

  133. White-bellied Emerald ______  BZ:feb,mar  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul  HN:apr,dec
    Amazilia candida

  134. Steely-vented Hummingbird (*) ______  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan
    Amazilia saucerrottei hoffmanni

  135. Buff-bellied Hummingbird  (*)  ______  GU:jan.feb,mar,apr,jun,dec
    Amazilia y, yucatanensis 

  136. Cinnamon Hummingbird (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec
    Amazilia rutila corallirostris

    Cinnamon Hummingbird
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet) 

  137. Rufous-tailed Hummingbird (*) (ph) ______ BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct
    Amazilia t. tzacatl

    Two Photos of Rufous-tailed Hummingbirds
    (photo below by Marie Gardner during the FONT tour in Belize in April 2011)  

  138. Stripe-tailed Hummingbird (*) ______  CR:mar,dec/jan  HN:dec  PN:feb,mar
    Eupherusa eximia

  139. Black-bellied Hummingbird (*) ______  CR:mar,jul,dec/jan  (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Eupherusa nigriventris

  140. Snowcap (*) (ph)  ______  CR:mar  (total range from southern Honduras to western Panama)
    Microchera albocoronata parvirostris 
    (the single member of its genus)

    An adult male Snowcap  
    (photo courtesy of Larry O'Meallie) 

  141. White-tailed Emerald (*) ______  CR:mar  PN:feb,mar  (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Elvira chionura

  142. Coppery-headed Emerald (CRe) (*) (ph) ______ CR:mar,jul,dec/jan  (total range limited to Costa Rica) 
    Elvira cupreiceps

    Coppery-headed Emerald
    This hummingbird is one of just a few birds endemic to Costa Rica.

  143. Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer (*) ______  CR:mar,jul,dec/jan  PN:nov  (was previously called Red-footed Plumeleteer)
    Chalybura urochrysia melanorrhoa

  144. White-vented Plumeleteer  (*) ______  PN:feb,mar,aug
    Chalybura buffoni micana

  145. Amethyst-throated Hummingbird  (*)  ______  GU:feb,mar,apr,jun,dec
    Lampornis amethystinus salvini  

  146. Green-throated Mountain-gem  (*) ______  GU:apr,jun,dec  HN:feb
    Lampornis viridipallens

  147. White-bellied Mountaingem (*) ______  CR:mar,apr,jul  (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Lampornis hemileucus 

  148. Gray-tailed Mountaingem (CRe) (*) (ph)  ______  CR:feb,mar,jul  (this, and the White-throated and Purple-throated Mountaingems have been considered conspecific; when so, the name was Variable Mountaingem (total range limited to southern Costa Rica)
    Lampornis cincereicauda 

    A male Gray-tailed Mountaingem
    (photo by Ruben Campos)

  149. Purple-throated Mountaingem (*) ______  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  (has been considered conspecific with the Gray-tailed and White-throated Mountaingems, the latter in Panama) (total range limited to Nicaragua & Costa Rica) 
    Lampornis calolaema 
    (3 subspecies in Costa Rica)

  150. White-throated Mountaingem (*) ______  PN:feb,mar  (very closely related to the Gray-tailed Mountaingem, and has been considered by some to be conspecific)
    Lampornis castaneoventris

  151. White-eared Hummingbird  (*) (ph)  ______  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,dec  HN:feb
    Basilinna l. leucotis

    The White-eared Hummingbird is commonly seen 
    during FONT tours in the mountains of Guatemala. 

  152. Garnet-throated Hummingbird  (*)  ______  GU:feb,apr,jun,dec
    Lamprolaima rhami 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  153. Green-crowned Brilliant (*) (ph) ______  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan
    Heliodoxa jacula henryi

    A Green-crowned Brilliant in Costa Rica
  154. Magnificent Hummingbird (*) (ph) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:feb,mar,apr,jun,dec  PN:feb  (the subspecies in northern Central America, Mexico, & the southwest US, has been called the "Rivoli's Hummingbird")
    Eugenes fulgens spectabilis

  155. Purple-crowned Fairy (*) ______  CR:mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun  HN:dec  PN:feb,jul,aug
    Heliothryx barroti 

  156. Plain-capped Starthroat (*) ______  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:feb,apr,jun
    Heliomaster c. constantii

  157. Long-billed Starthroat (*) ______  CR  GU:mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul
    Heliomaster l. longirostris

  158. Slender Sheartail  (*) ______  GU:dec
    Doricha enicura  (monotypic)

  159. Sparkling-tailed Hummingbird  (*)  ______  GU:feb,mar,apr,jun,dec  
    Tilmatura dupontii 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

    Another name for Tilmatura dupontii has been the Dupont's Hummingbird.

  160. Magenta-throated Woodstar (nt) (*) ______  CR:feb,mar,dec/jan  PN:feb,mar  (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Calliphlox bryantae 

  161. Ruby-throated Hummingbird (*) (ph) ______  CR:feb,mar,dec/jan  GU:mar,apr,dec  HN:dec  PN:feb(rare)
    Archilochus colubris 

  162. Broad-tailed Hummingbird  (*)  ______  GU:feb
    Selasphorus platycercus 
    (monotypic, as S. p. guatemalae
    now merged)

  163. Scintillant Hummingbird (*) (ph) ______  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  PN:feb,mar  (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Selasphorus scintilla 

    Scintillant Hummingbird
    (upper: male) (lower: female)
    (photos taken by Marie Gardner during a FONT tour in Costa Rica)   

  164. Volcano Hummingbird (*) (ph) ______   CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul  PN:feb,mar  (red-gorgeted form in Costa Rica formerly considered a species: the "Cerise-throated Hummingbird", Selasphorus simoni (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama) 
    Selasphorus flammula 
    Selasphorus f. flammula 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica, at Irazu & Turrialba volcanoes)
    Selasphorus flammula simoni 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica, at Poas & Barva volcanoes)
    Selasphorus flammula torridus 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica, in the Talamanca range)

    A male Volcano Hummingbird 
    photographed during a FONT tour

  165. Glow-throated Hummingbird  (t3)  ______  PN:feb  (total range limited to Panama)
    Selasphorus ardens 

  166. Wine-throated Hummingbird  (*) ______  GU:dec  
    Atthia e. ellioti 


  167. Resplendent Quetzal (nt) (*) (ph) ______  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,apr,jun,dec  HN:feb  PN:feb,mar
    Pharomachrus m. morcinno 
    (subspecies in Guatemala) 
    Pharomachrus mocinno costaricensis 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)

    Above: a male Resplendent Quetzal in Guatemala, 
    of the subspecies Pharomachus morcinno morcinno. 
    This quetzal is the national bird of Guatemala.
    Below: the feathers of a male Resplendent Quetzal, outside a nest hole.
    (photo below by the Virginia Woodhouse, during a FONT tour
     in Costa Rica in March 2012) 

    Below: a male Resplendent Quetzal in Costa Rica,
    of the subspecies Pharomachus morcinno costaricensis.

  168. Slaty-tailed Trogon  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul  HN:feb  PN:feb,mar,aug,nov  
    Trogon massena hoffmanni  

    Another name for Trogon massena has been the Massena Trogon.

    Above & below: Slaty-tailed Trogons
    (upper photo by Daniel Leon Cordero; lower photo by Marie Grenouillet)

  169. Lattice-tailed Trogon  (*) ______ N  (total range restricted to Costa Rica & western Panama)  
    Trogon clarthratus

  170. Baird's Trogon  (nt) (*) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar  (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Trogon bairdii

    The Baird's Trogon is closely related to, and has been said by some to be conspecific with the White-tailed Trogon (below) of Panama and northern South America.
    Another name for the Baird's Trogon is "Vermilion-breasted Trogon".   

    A male Baird's Trogon photographed during a FONT tour
    in southern Costa Rica in March 2012
    (photo by Virginia Woodhouse) 

  171. Black-headed Trogon  (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul  HN:feb,mar,dec  
    Trogon melanocephalus 

    The Black-headed Trogon has been considered conspecific with the Citreoline Trogon of Mexico.

    Black-headed Trogon
    (note the blue eye-ring)

  172. Mountain Trogon  (*)  ______  GU:feb,mar,apr,jun,dec  
    Trogon mexicanus 

    Another name for Trogon mexicanus has been the Mexican Trogon.

  173. Elegant Trogon  (*)  ______  CR:apr,dec/jan
    Trogon elegans lubricus

    The northernmost race of the Elegant Trogon, in Mexico and the southwest US, has been called Coppery-tailed Trogon.

  174. Collared Trogon  (*) ______  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb  PN:feb,mar
    Trogon collaris puella
    Trogon collaris
      "Orange-bellied Trogon":
    range in Costa Rica & western Panama 

  175. Black-throated Trogon (*) ______  CR:feb,mar,jul,dec/jan  PN:feb,mar,aug
    Trogon rufus tenellus

  176. Gartered Trogon (*) (ph) ______   BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul  HN:feb  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,nov   
    Trogon caligatus
    (formerly violaceus) concinnus

    The Gartered Trogon was part of the Violaceous Trogon of South America.

    Above: Gartered Trogon  (note the yellow eye-ring)
    Below: In a distant tree, a Gartered Trogon by a large wasp nest,
    where it was feeding on the insects.
    (Photo below by Virginia Woodhouse during the FONT tour 
     in southern Costa Rica in March 2012) 

  177. White-tailed Trogon  (*)  ______  PN:feb,aug,nov  
    Trogon chlonurus  (monotypic)

    The White-tailed Trogon has been split from the Green-backed Trogon, Trogon viridis, of South America. 

  178. Black-tailed Trogon  (*) ______  PN:feb,mar,jul
    Trogon melanurus macroura


  179. Ringed Kingfisher (*) (ph) ______   BZ:mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,mar,apr,mayjun,jul,dec  HN:apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    (formerly Ceryle) t. torquata

  180. Belted Kingfisher (*) (ph) ______   BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:mar,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,dec  HN:feb,dec  PN:nov
    (formerly Ceryle) alcyon  (monotypic)

  181. Amazon Kingfisher (*) ______  BZ:feb  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,aug,oct,nov
    Chloroceryle amazona 
    (now monotypic)

  182. Green Kingfisher (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar
    Chloroceryle americana septentrionalis

    Green Kingfisher
    (photo by Andy Smith)

  183. American Pygmy Kingfisher (*) (ph) ______  BZ:apr  CR:jan,mar,apr,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  PN:feb,aug
    Chloroceryle a. aenea

    An American Pygmy Kingfisher photographed during the FONT tour in Belize in April 2011  
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  184. Green-and-rufous Kingfisher  (*)  ______  PN:feb
    Chloroceryle inda


  185. Broad-billed Motmot (*) ______  CR:mar,dec/jan  PN:mar,aug,oct,nov
    Electron platyrhynchum minus

  186. Turquoise-browed Motmot (*) (ph) ______  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:apr,jun  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec
    Eumomota superciliosa australis 
    (the single member of its genus)

    Above & below: Turquoise-browed Motmots
    (Upper photo by Alan Brady, 
     lower photo by Virginia Woodhouse during a FONT tour 
     in northern Costa Rica in March 2012)

  187. Rufous Motmot (*) ______  CR:mar  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug
    Baryphthengus martii semirufus

  188. Blue-diademed Motmot (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec
    Momotus lessonii 

    The Blue-diademed Motmot was part of the former expanded Blue-crowned Motmot which has been split into 5 species in Central & South America. Now, the Blue-crowned Motmot is restricted to northeastern Mexico.

    The geographic range of the Blue-diademed Motmot is in eastern Mexico and most of Central America, south to western Panama. 

    Another name for Momotus lessonii is the Lesson's Motmot.

    Blue-diademed Motmot
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet) 

  189. Whooping Motmot  (*) (ph)  ______  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct
    Momotus subrufescens

    The Whooping Motmot was part of the former expanded Blue-crowned Motmot which has been split into 5 species in Central & South America. Now, the Blue-crowned Motmot is restricted to northeastern Mexico. 

    The geographic range of the Whooping Motmot is from central & eastern Panama into northwestern South America to western Ecuador and northwestern Peru.

    Another name for Momotus subrufescens is the Tawny-bellied Motmot.

  190. Russet-crowned Motmot  (*)  ______  GU:feb,apr,jun
    Momotus mexicanus castaneiceps

  191. Keel-billed Motmot  ______
    Electron carinatum

  192. Tody Motmot  (*)  ______  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:dec
    Hylomanes momotula

  193. Blue-throated Motmot  (*)  ______  GU:apr,jun,jul,dec
    Aspatha gularis  (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) 


  194. Rufous-tailed Jacamar (*) (ph) ______  BZ:apr  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul
    Galbula ruficauda melanogenia

    A Rufous- tailed Jacamar photographed during a FONT tour
  195. Great Jacamar ______
    Jacamerops aureus 
    (the single member of its genus)


  196. White-necked Puffbird (*) ______  CR:feb,mar,apr,dec/jan
    (formerly Bucco) hyperrynchus

  197. Black-breasted Puffbird (*) ______  PN:feb,mar,aug,nov
    Notharchus pectoralis 

  198. Pied Puffbird (*)  ______  CR:mar,apr,dec/jan  PN:feb,jul,aug
    (formerly Bucco) tectus subtectus

  199. White-whiskered Puffbird (*)  ______  CR:feb,apr  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  PN:feb,mar,aug,oct  (an alternate name would be "White-whiskered Softwing")
    Malacoptila panamensis fuliginosa

  200. White-fronted Nunbird (*) ______  CR:mar,apr,jul
    Monasa morphoeus grandior

  201. Lanceolated Monklet ______
    Micromonacha lanceolata


  202. Red-headed Barbet (*) (ph)  ______  CR:mar,dec/jan
    Eubucco bourcieri salvini

    Red-headed Barbet

  203. Spot-crowned Barbet (*) ______  PN:aug,nov
    Capito maculicoronatus
  204. Prong-billed Barbet (*) ______  CR:mar,apr,dec/jan  PN:feb,mar  (total range limited to Costa Rica & western Panama)
    Semnornis frantzii  (monotypic)


  205. "White-throated" Emerald Tocuanet  (*)  ______  GU:jan,feb,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb
    Aulacorhynchus prasinus virescens

  206. "Blue-throated" Emerald Toucanet (*) (ph) ______  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  PN:feb,mar
    Aulacorhynchus prasinus caeruleogularis 
    (a distinct subspecies from the "White-throated" Emerald Toucanet of northern Central America)

    An Emerald Toucanet photographed during a FONT tour
    in Costa Rica  

  207. Collared Aracari (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr.jun,jul  HN:feb,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Pteroglossus t. torquatus

    Collared Aracari
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  208. Fiery-billed Aracari (*) (ph) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,dec
    Pteroglossus frantzii 

    Fiery-billed Aracari was considered by some as conspecific with the Collared Aracari.  

    A Fiery-billed Aracari photographed during a FONT Costa Rica tour
  209. Yellow-eared Toucanet ______
    Selenidera spectabilis

  210. Keel-billed Toucan (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,apr,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov  
    Ramphastos sulfuratus brevicarinatus

    An alternate name for Ramphastos sulfuratus is the "Rainbow-billed Toucan". 

    Keel-billed Toucans
    The species is the national bird of Belize.

  211. Chestnut-mandibled Toucan (*) (ph)  ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,jul,dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,nov
    Ramphastos swainsonii

    The Chestnut-mandibled Toucan is now said to be part of the Black-mandibled Toucan of northern South America, Ramphastos ambiguus.
    An alternate name for the Chestnut-mandibled Toucan has been the "Swainson's Toucan". 


  212. Olivaceous Piculet (*) ______  CR:jan,mar  PN:feb
    Picumnus olivaceus flavotinctus

  213. "Guatemalan" Northern Flicker  (*)  ______  GU:feb,mar,apr,jun,dec  HN:feb
    Colaptes auratus mexicanoides

  214. Spot-breasted Woodpecker  (*)  ______  PN:jul
    Colaptes punctigula

  215. Acorn Woodpecker (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:apr,dec  PN:feb,mar
    Melanerpes formicivorus striatipectus

  216. Black-cheeked Woodpecker (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb  CR:mar,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun  HN:dec  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Melanerpes pucherani 
    (formerly Centurus or Tripsurus pucherani)  (monotypic)

    Black-cheeked Woodpecker
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  217. Red-vented Woodpecker  ______  BZ:apr
    Melanerpes pygmaeus

  218. Golden-fronted Woodpecker  (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:feb,mar,apr  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr,dec
    Melanerpes aurifrons 
    (formerly Centurus aurifrons)

  219. Golden-naped Woodpecker (*) (ph) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar  (total range limited to Costa Rica and western Panama)
    Melanerpes c. chrysauchen 
    (formerly Tripsurus, then Centurus c. chrysauchen )

    Golden-naped Woodpecker
    (photographed by Alan Brady in Costa Rica)  

  220. Hoffmann's Woodpecker (*) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  (total range from southern Honduras to Costa Rica)
    Melanerpes hoffmannii 
    (formerly Centurus hoffmannii)  (monotypic)

  221. Red-crowned Woodpecker (*) ______  CR:jan,feb,mar,jul  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug,oct,nov
    Melanerpes r. rubricapillus 
    (formerly Centurus r. rubricapillus) 

  222. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (*) (ph) ______  CR:dec/jan,mar  GU:feb,apr,dec
    Sphyrapicus varius 

  223. Hairy Woodpecker (*) (ph) ______  CR:feb,apr,jul,dec/jan  GU:feb,mar,apr,jun,dec  PN:feb,mar
    Picoides villosus sanctorum

  224. Smoky-brown Woodpecker (*) ______  BZ:mar  CR:mar,jul,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul  PN:feb
    Picoides fumigatus sanguinolentus  (formerly Veniliornis fumigatus sanguinolentus)

  225. Red-rumped Woodpecker ______  CR:mar
    Veniliornis kirkii

  226. Golden-olive Woodpecker (*) (ph) ______  BZ:feb,mar  CR:feb,mar,dec/jan  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec  HN:mar,apr  PN:feb
    Colaptes rubiginosus yucatanensis 
    (formerly Piculus rubiginosus yucatanensis)
    Colaptes rubiginosus maximus 
    (formerly Piculus rubiginosus maximus
    (subspecies in the highlands of Guatemala)

    Golden-olive Woodpecker
    (photo by Dick Tipton)

  227. Rufous-winged Woodpecker (*) ______  CR:feb,dec/jan   (total range from eastern Honduras to western Panama) 
    Piculus simplex 

    The Rufous-winged Woodpecker is closely related to the Stripe-cheeked Woodpecker of Panama and the White-throated Woodpecker of South America.

  228. Golden-green Woodpecker  (*) ______  PN:feb
    Piculus chrysochloros aurosus

  229. Cinnamon Woodpecker (*) ______  CR:jul  PN:feb,mar,aug
    Celeus loricatus diversus

  230. Chestnut-colored Woodpecker (*) ______  BZ:apr  CR  GU:jan,mar,apr,jun,jul,dec
    Celeus castaneus 

  231. Lineated Woodpecker (*) (ph)  ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:jan,feb,mar,apr,jul,dec  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,mar,apr  PN:feb,oct,nov
    Dryocopus lineatus 

    Dryocopus lineatus similis 
    (subspecies in northwest Costa Rica)
    Dryocopus l. lineatus 
    (subspecies in most of Costa Rica) 

    Lineated Woodpecker

  232. Crimson-crested Woodpecker  (*) ______  PN:feb,mar,jul,aug
    Campephilus melanoleucos malherbii

  233. Pale-billed Woodpecker (*) (ph) ______  BZ:mar,apr  CR:feb,mar,apr,jul  GU:jan,feb,mar,apr,may,jun,jul,dec  HN:feb,apr 
    Campephilus g. guatemalensis

    Another name for Campephilus guatemalensis has been the "Flint-billed Woodpecker".

    A Pale-billed Woodpecker photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

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