PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876 


during Focus On Nature Tours 

including tours in the 

Tinamous to Swifts

Noting those found during 
Focus On Nature Tours
with an (*).  

1991 thru 2015

during the months of February, 
 April, May, July, and August

Part 1 of a List of Ecuador Birds 
compiled by Armas Hill,
with some photos.

There have been 21 FONT birding tours in Ecuador,
during which
over 1,100 species of birds have cumulatively been seen.
Presently 1,637 species of birds are in this 4-part list. 

Photo at upper right: A LONG-TAILED POTOO roosting during the day
in the Amazonian Rainforest in eastern Ecuador
(photographed by Alan Brady during a FONT tour) 
A close-up photo of this bird is in the list below (number #450)

Links to Groupings of Birds in this List:

Tinamous    Chachalacas, Guans, Curassows    Waterfowl    Seabirds    Grebes    

Flamingos, Ibises, Spoonbill, Stork    Herons, Egrets, Bitterns   Cormorants, Anhinga

Tropicbird, Frigatebirds, Pelicans, Boobies
    Raptors    Trumpeter     Rails, Crakes, Allies     

    Skuas, Gulls, Terns, Skimmer    Pigeons, Doves     Macaws, Parakeets, Parrots    

Cuckoos     Owls    Oilbird, Potoos    Nighthawks, Nightjars    Swifts

There is relatively new information in this list regarding the taxonomy of owls, and their vocalizations.

Links to Other Parts of this Ecuador Bird List:

Part 2: Hummingbirds to Flycatchers     Part 3: Antshrikes to Woodcreepers 

Part 4: Vireos to Grosbeaks  


Indicating regions visited (as follows):

az:   Amazonian Ecuador  (including the areas of La Selva & Sacha Lodges along the Rio Napo) 
po:   Podocarpus National Park (including the Rio Bombuscara area, near Zamora)
si:     the area of "San Isidro" near Cosanga, on the east Andean slope  

nm:  the areas of Nono Mindo Road and/or Mindo
po:   Podocarpus National Park (including near Loja)

H:     FOUND IN THE HIGH ANDES (mostly or always).
cu:    Cuenca, west into the mountains to El Cajas
po:    Podocarpus National Park (including the Cajanuma area)


Specific Locations: 

BR:  Buenaventura Reserve (Umbrellabird Lodge)
CN:  Canande Reserve (Canande Lodge)
CP:  Copalinga cabins & restaurant, near Zamora in southeast Ecuador 
JR:  Jorupe Reserve (Urraca Lodge)
TR:  Tapichalaca Reserve (Casa Simpson)
UR:  Utuana Reserve
YR:  Yanacocha Reserve 

These locations codes are followed by:
c: common    fc: fairly common    u: uncommon    r: rare    vr: very rare

(t)       a globally threatened or rare species, designated by Birdlife International
             (t1): critical       (t2): endangered       (t3): vulnerable
(nt):    a near-threatened species globally
(Ee):   species endemic to Ecuador
(Ge):   species endemic to the Galapagos
(Er):    rare species in Ecuador
(Ei):    introduced species in Ecuador

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website 

A primary reference for this list has been the "The Birds of Ecuador - Status, Distribution, and Taxonomy"  by Robert S. Ridgely and Paul J. Greenfield, published in 2001.

More than 2,100 birds that have been found during FONT South America Birding Tours, in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, & Venezuela.  

Additional Links:

Birds of the Amazonian Region     Rare Birds of the Andes & Patagonia

Mammals of South America  (with some photos)
Ecuador Mammals  (with some photos)

Butterflies of South America  (with some photos)     Moths of South America  (with some photos) 

Tropical Plants, including some in South America  (with some photos)

A Photo Gallery of Moths and Butterflies during FONT Ecuador Tours in 2013 & 2014 

DURING FONT ECUADOR TOURS IN:    April 2013    July 2013    April/May 2014

Information about Upcoming FONT Tours:
by month in: 
2015   2016   or:  by geographic locations worldwide 

A Chronological List of all scheduled FONT birding & nature tours

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in Ecuador & Brazil

Directory of Photos in this Web-site




  1. Gray Tinamou  (t3) (*)  _____  E  CP:fc
    Tinamus tao

    The Gray Tinamou has been classified as a near threatened species in Ecuador.

  2. Black Tinamou  (t3) (Er)  ______
    Tinamus osgoodi

    A Black Tinamou was at Wildsumaco on March 5, 2013. The species occurs more commonly to the north of Ecuador in Colombia, but also to the south of Ecuador in Peru. 

  3. Great Tinamou  (nt) (*)  _____ E,az  CN:u
    Tinamus major

  4. White-throated Tinamou  (nt)  _____
    Tinamus guttatus

  5. Highland Tinamou  (*)  ______ E,si   TR:r
    Nothocercus bonapartei

  6. Tawny-breasted Tinamou  (*)  _____  E,si   TR:u  YR:r
    Nothocercus julius

  7. Little Tinamou (*) ______ W,E,az,nm   BR:u  CN:c  CP:fc  JR:u
    Crypturellus soui

  8. Brown Tinamou _____
    Crypturellus obsoletus

  9. Bartlett's Tinamou  (*)  ______  E,az
    Crypturellus bartletti

  10. Undulated Tinamou (*)  _____ E,az
    Crypturellus undulatus

  11. Cinereous Tinamou (*)  _____ E,az
    Crypturellus cinerens

  12. Berlepsch's Tinamou _____  CR:u
    Crypturellus berlepschi 

    The Berlepsch's Tinamou has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.

  13. Variegated Tinamou (*)  ______ E,az
    Crypturellus variegatus

  14. Pale-browed Tinamou  (nt) (*)  _____ W   JR:c
    Crypturellus transfasciatus 

    The Pale-browed Tinamou has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.

  15. Tataupa Tinamou _____
    Crypturellus tataupa

  16. Curve-billed Tinamou  (*)  ______  H  YR:u
    Nothoprocta curvirostris  

  17. Andean Tinamou _____   UR:fc
    Nothoprocta pentlandii 


  18. Speckled Chachalaca (*) (ph)  _____  E,az  CP:c
    Ortalis guttata

    A Speckled Chachalaca photographed during the FONT tour
    in southern Ecuador in April 2014
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  19. Rufous-headed Chachalaca  (t3) (*) (ph)  _____ W   BR:fc  CN:r  JR:fc
    Ortalis erythroptera

    The Rufous-headed Chachalaca has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador. 

    A Rufous-headed Chachalaca photographed during
    the FONT tour in Ecuador in July 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  20. Crested Guan (*) (ph) _____ W   BR:u  CN:u
    Penelope purpurascens aequatorialis

    The Crested Guan has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  21. Bearded Guan  (t3) (*) _____ W,po   TR:u
    Penelope barbata 

    The Bearded Guan has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  22. Spix's Guan  (*) _____ E,az
    Penelope jacquacu

  23. Andean Guan  (*) _____ W,H,E,nm,si   YR:u
    Penelope montagnii

  24. Baudo Guan  (t3)  _____  CR:r
    Penelope ortoni 

    The Baudo Guan has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  25. Wattled Guan  (nt) (*) _____  E,si
    Aburria aburri 

    The Wattled Guan has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador. 

  26. Sickle-winged Guan  (*) (ph)  _____  W,E,nm,si   BR:u  CP:u  TR:u
    Chamaepetes goudotii

    A Sickle-winged Guan photographed during the April 2013 FONT tour in Ecuador
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  27. Blue-throated Piping Guan  (t3) (*) _____ E,az
    Pipile cumanensis

  28. Salvin's Curassow  (*) _____ E,az
    Mitu salvini 

    The Salvin's Curassow has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.

  29. Nocturnal Curassow  (*) _____ E,az
    Nothocrax urumutum

  30. Great Curassow  (t3)  _____  CN:vr
    Crax rubra

    The Great Curassow is classified as "vulnerable" globally, but in Ecuador it is one of the rarest and most endangered cracids in the country, with, it is believed, less than 200 individuals remaining. 
    It is classified as a critically endangered species in Ecuador. 

  31. Wattled Curassow  (t3)  _____
    Crax globulosa

    The Wattled Curassow has been classified as a critically endangered species in Ecuador. 

  32. Marbled Wood Quail  (nt) (*) _____ E,az,po
    Odontophorus gujanensis

  33. Rufous-fronted Wood Quail  (*) _____ W,E,si   BR:fc  CN:fc  TR:r
    Odontophorus erythrops

  34. Dark-backed Wood Quail  (t3) (*) _____ W,nm
    Odontophorus melanonotus 

    The Dark-backed Wood Quail has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador. 

  35. Rufous-breasted Wood Quail  (nt) (*) (ph)  _____  W,nm  CP:u
    Odontophorus speciosus 

    The Rufous-breasted Wood Quail has been classified as a near threatened species in Ecuador.  

    Rufous-breasted Wood Quail photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2013 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  36. Starred Wood Quail  _____
    Odontophorus stellatus

  37. Tawny-faced Quail  _____  CN:u
    Rhynchortyx cinctus 

    The Tawny-faced Quail has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.


  38. Horned Screamer  (*)  _____ W,E,az
    Anhima cornuta 

    The Horned Screamer has been classified as an endangered species in Ecuador. 

  39. Fulvous Whistling Duck  (*)  _____
    Dendrocygna bicolor

  40. Black-bellied Whistling Duck  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Dendrocygna autumnalis

  41. Orinoco Goose  (nt)  _____
    Neochen jubata 

    The Orinoco Goose has been classified as an endangered species in Ecuador.

  42. Muscovy Duck  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az
    Cairina moschata 

    The Muscovy Duck has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  43. Andean Teal  (*)  _____ H,cu   TR:u 
    Anas andium    

    The Andean Teal is regarded as a separate species from the Speckled Teal, Anas flavirostris.

  44. White-cheeked Pintail  (*) (ph)  _____  G,W 
    Anas bahamensis rubrirostris 
    (subspecies in Ecuador) 

    Another name for Anas bahamensis has been the Bahama Pintail.

  45. Yellow-billed Pintail  (*) (ph)  _____ H
    Anas georgica spinicauda 
    (the only other subspecies is on South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic Ocean) 

  46. Northern Pintail  (Er) (ph)  ______
    Anas acuta

    A male Northern Pintail at Lago San Pablo in Imbabura province, on June 28, 2012, was said to be a first for Ecuador.
    The species has occurred rarely in South America mostly in Colombia & Venezuela, but also it has been said in Brazil.

  47. Northern Shoveler  (Er) (ph)  ______
    Anas clypeata

    On December 17, 2012, 26 Northern Shovelers were at the La Tola Road, in Esmealdas province. 
    The species was also at Laguna Mica, in Antisana on February 9, 2013.

  48. Blue-winged Teal (*) (ph)  _____ G,H
    Anas d. discors

  49. Cinnamon Teal  _____
    Anas cyanoptera borreroi 
    (a resident subspecies in the Andes) 

    The Cinnamon Teal has been classified as an extirpated species in Ecuador. 

  50. Southern Pochard  (Er) (*)  _____
    Netta erythrophthalma

    The Southern Pochard has been classified as a critically endangered species in Ecuador.

  51. Torrent Duck  (*) (ph)   _____ W,H,E,nm,po,si   TR:u
    Merganetta armata colombiana

    A female Torrent Duck photographed during the FONT tour 
    in Ecuador in April 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  52. Lesser Scaup  (Er) (ph)  ______
    Aythya affinis

    A Lesser Scaup was collected at the Carolina Marshes (now Park) in Quito, back in May 1922.
    More recently, a female Lesser Scaup was found in February 2012 during a waterbird census at 2 sites: Laguna Yambo in Cotopaxi province and Lago San Pablo in Imbabura province. It was at he second of these locations in March 2012.  

    In early February 2013 (Feb 3 & 8), over 80 Lesser Scaup were at La Segua. The species was also present there, in smaller numbers, in late January.
    4 Lesser Scaup were at Laguna San Pedro on February 23, 2013.       

  53. Ring-necked Duck  (Er) (ph)  ______
    Aythya collaris

    A female Ring-necked Duck at Laguna Mica in Antisana on February 25, 2013 was said to be the 2nd record for Ecuador. 
    Earlier that same month, on February 3, 2013, 2 Ring-necked Ducks were at La Segua with a flock (of more than 80) Lesser Scaup (above).  

  54. Andean Duck  (*)  _____ H
    Oxyura ferruginea

  55. Comb Duck  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E   JR:r 
    Sarkidiornis melanotos 

    The Comb Duck is no longer conspecific with what is now the Knob-billed Duck of Africa and Asia. 

    Sarkidiornis melanotos has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.  

    A Comb Duck in flight, photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour in July 2013.
    During that tour, about 500 Comb Ducks were seen. 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  56. Masked Duck  (*)  _____ W
    Nomonyx dominicys


  57. Galapagos Penguin  (t2) (Ge) (*)  _____ G
    Spheniscus mendiculus

  58. Humboldt Penguin  (t3) (ph)  _____
    Spheniscus humboldti  

    The Humboldt Penguin has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador. 

  59. Waved Albatross  (t1) (*) (ph)  _____ G,W
    Phoebastria irrorata

    The Waved Albatross only breeds on one island of the Galapagos (Hood) and on Isla de la Plata, another small island off the Ecuadorian mainland. 
    The Waved Albatross has been classified as an endangered species in Ecuador and the Galapagos. 

    A Waved Albatross seen during the FONT tour in Ecuador in July 2013.
    This bird was one in only two pairs nesting that year on the offshore Ecuadorian island 
    of Isla de la Plata. 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  60. Black-browed Albatross  (t2) (ph)  _____
    Thalassarche melanophris

  61. Cape Petrel  (ph)  _____  
    Daption capense

    The Cape Petrel is also called the Pintado.

  62. Galapagos Petrel  (t1) (Ge) (*)  _____ G 
    Pterodroma phaeopygia

    The Galapagos Petrel was part of the former Dark-rumped Petrel when it was merged with the Hawaiian Petrel.

    The Galapagos Petrel is classified as an endangered species in Ecuador.

  63. Black Petrel  (t3) (*)  _____  
    Procellaria parkinsoni

    Procellaria parkinsoni
    has also been called the Parkinson's Petrel. It has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  64. Pink-footed Shearwater  (t3) (ph)  _____
    Puffinus creatopus

    The Pink-footed Shearwater has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  65. Buller's Shearwater  (t3)  ______
    Puffinus bulleri 

    The first record of a Buller's Shearwater in Ecuador was one washed up on a beach on January 1, 1992, near Palmar in western Guayas.
    The Buller's Shearwater has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.  

  66. Galapagos Shearwater  (Ge) (*)  _____ G   
    Puffinus subalaris 

    The Galapagos Shearwater has been considered part of the Audubon's Shearwater, but genetics have shown it to be more closely related to the Christmas Island Sheareater, Puffinus nativitatis.

  67. Wedge-tailed Shearwater (*)  _____ G
    Puffinus pacificus

  68. Sooty Shearwater (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Puffinus griseus

  69. Leach's Storm Petrel (*)  _____ G
    Oceanodroma leucorhoa

  70. Band-rumped Storm Petrel (*)  _____ G
    Oceanodroma castro

  71. Wilson's Storm Petrel  (ph)  ______
    Oceanites oceanicus 

  72. White-vented Storm Petrel  (nt) (*)  _____ G  
    Oceanites gracilis

    Oceanites gracilis
    has also been called the Elliot's Storm Petrel.

  73. Wedge-rumped Storm Petrel  (nt) (*)  _____ G  
    Oceanodroma tethys

    Oceanodroma tethys
    has also been called the Galapagos Storm Petrel. It is classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.

  74. White-faced Storm Petrel  (ph)  _____
    Pelagodroma marina

  75. Least Storm Petrel  (*)  _____
    Oceanodroma microsoma 

  76. Markham's Storm Petrel _____
    Oceandroma markhami

  77. Black Storm Petrel _____
    Oceandroma melania

  78. Hornby's Storm Petrel  _____
    Oceanodroma hornbyi 

    Oceanodroma hornbyi
    has also been called the  Ringed Storm Petrel.  


  79. Least Grebe  (*) (ph)   _____ W
    Tachybaptus dominicus

  80. Pied-billed Grebe (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Podilymbus podiceps

  81. Silvery Grebe  (*) (ph)  _____ H
    Podiceps occipitalis 

    The Silvery Grebe has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

    A Silvery Grebe photographed during the FONT tour
    in Ecuador in April 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  82. Great Grebe  (Er) (*) (ph)  _____  W
    Podiceps major 

    A single Great Grebe was seen during the July 2013 FONT tour in southern Ecuador, at a marsh not far from the seacoast on El Oro province.    
    As the species was neither in "the book" nor in our list, we thought at the time that it might have been "new" for Ecuador. 
    It turned out to be nearly so, as one (the first for the country) had been seen a few months earlier further north along the Ecuadorian coast.
    The Great Grebe normally occurs in southern South America, where we've seen it numerous times during FONT tours in Chile, Argentina, and far-southern Brazil in Rio Grande do Sul.   


  83. American Flamingo  (*) (ph)  _____ G
    Phoenicopterus ruber

  84. Chilean Flamingo  (*) (ph)   _____ W
    Phoenicopterus chilensis 

  85. Glossy Ibis  (*) (ph)   _____ W
    Plegadis falcinellus

    Over 650 Glossy Ibis were at shrimp farms west of La Segua, Chone on September 22, 2012. 

  86. Bare-faced Ibis  (Er) _____
    Phimosus infuscatus

  87. American White Ibis  (*) (ph)   _____
    Eudocimus albus

  88. Scarlet Ibis  (Er) (ph)  ______
    Eudocimus ruber 

    2 Scarlet Ibis were by Lago Agrio, near Cuyabeno on March 19, 2013.

  89. Green Ibis  (*)  _____ E,az
    Mesembrinibis cayennensis

  90. Black-faced Ibis  (*) (ph)   _____
    Theristicus melanopis 

    The Black-faced Ibis has been classified as an endangered species in Ecuador.

  91. Roseate Spoonbill  (*) (ph)   _____ E
    (formerly Ajaia) ajaja

  92. Wood Stork  (ph)   _____   BR:vr  TR:vr
    Mycteria americana 

  93. Jabiru  (Er) (ph)  ______
    Jabiru mycteria

    The Jabiru has been classified as a critically endangered species in Ecuador.  


  94. Cocoi Heron  (*) (ph)   _____ W,E,az
    Ardea cocoi

  95. Great Blue Heron  (Er) (*) (ph)  _____ G,W
    Ardea herodias

  96. Little Blue Heron  (*) (ph)   _____ W,E,az  CN:r
    Egretta caerulea

  97. Great Egret  (*) (ph)   _____ W,E,az,po   BR:vr  JR:u
    (formerly Ardea) alba

  98. Snowy Egret  (*) (ph)   _____ W,E,az   BR:vr  CN:r  JR:u
    Egretta thula

  99. Tricolored Heron  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Egretta tricolor

  100. Striated Heron  (*) (ph)   _____ W,E,az,po  CN:u
    Butorides striatus

  101. Green Heron  (Er) (ph)  _____
    Butorides virescens

  102. Lava Heron  (Ge) (*)  _____ G  
    Butorides sundevalli

    Butorides sundevalli
    has also been called the Galapagos Heron.

  103. Zigzag Heron  (nt) (*) (ph)  _____ E,az
    Zebrilus undulatus

    A Zigzag Heron
    (photo by Frank Stermitz)

  104. Western Cattle Egret  (*) (ph)   _____ W,E,az,nm,si   BR:r  CN:u  JR:r
    Bubulcus ibis

    The Western Cattle Egret is in parts of Europe and Africa, and now in much of the Americas. The Eastern Cattle Egret, Ibis coromandus, is in eastern Asia. 

  105. Agami Heron  (t3) (*) (ph)  _____ E,az  
    Agamia agami

    Agamia agami
    has also been called the Chestnut-bellied Heron. 

  106. Capped Heron  (ph)  _____
    Pilherodius pileatus 

  107. Black-crowned Night-Heron  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E
    Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli

  108. Yellow-crowned Night-Heron  (*) (ph)  _____ G,W
    Nyctanassa violacea

  109. Boat-billed Heron  (*) (ph)   ______ E,az
    Cochlearius c. cochlearius 

  110. Rufescent Tiger Heron  (*) (ph)   _____ W,E,az
    Tigrisoma lineatum

  111. Fasciated Tiger Heron  (nt)  _____  E,si   BR:r  CN:r
    Tigrisoma fasciatum

  112. Pinnated Bittern  (*) (ph)  _____
    Botaurus pinnatus 

    The Pinnated Bittern has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador. 

  113. Least Bittern  (*) (ph)   _____ E
    Ixobrychus exilis 

  114. Stripe-backed Bittern  (Er)  ______
    Ixobrychus involucris


  115. Red-billed Tropicbird  (*) (ph)  _____ G,W
    Phaethon aethereus 

  116. Magnificent Frigatebird  (*) (ph)   _____ G,W  CN:vr
    Fregata magnificens

    A female Magnificent Frigatebird 
    photographed during the FONT tour
    in Ecuador in July 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)  

  117. Great Frigatebird  (*)  _____ G
    Fregata minor  

  118. Brown Pelican  (*) (ph)   _____ G,W
    Pelecanus occidentalis murphyi

  119. Peruvian Pelican  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Pelecanus thagus

  120. Peruvian Booby  _____
    Sula variegata 

    The Peruvian Booby has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador. 

  121. Blue-footed Booby (*) (ph)   _____ G,W
    Sula nebouxii

    Above: Blue-footed Boobies diving and feeding. 
    Photographed from shore during the FONT Ecuador Tour in May 2014.   
    Below: the blue feet of Blue-footed Boobies 
    photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour in July 2013 
    on the island Isla de la Plata off the west coast of Ecuador 
    (both photos by Marie Gardner)

  122. Nazca Booby  (*) (ph)   _____ G,W 
    Sula granti 

    The Nazca Booby was part of the Masked Booby.

    A Nazca Booby during the FONT tour in Ecuador in July 2013,
    on the offshore island of Isla de la Plata,
    one of the few places where the species nests.

    Below: During another, previous FONT tour an adult Nazca Booby 
    with its large chick, in the Galapagos Islands, another nesting location. 

  123. Red-footed Booby  (*) (ph)   _____ G,W
    Sula sula

  124. Brown Booby  (Er) (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Sula leucogaster


  125. Neotropic Cormorant  (*) (ph)   _____ W,E,az  CN:r
    Phalacrocorax brasilianus

  126. Flightless Cormorant  (t2) (Ge) (*)  _____ G 
    Phalacrocorax harrisi

    Phalacrocorax harrisi
    has also been called the Galapagos Cormorant.

  127. Guanay  Shag  (nt)  _____  
    Phalacrocorax bougainvillii

    Phalacrocorax bougainvillii
    is also called the Guanay Cormorant. It has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador. 

  128. Anhinga  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az
    Anhinga anhinga 


  129. Andean Condor (*) (ph)   _____ H,cu
    Vultur gryphus 

    The Andean Condor has been classified as an endangered species in Ecuador.  

    An Andean Condor in flight, photographed during the FONT tour
    in Ecuador in April 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  130. King Vulture (*) (ph)   _____ E,az    BR:vr  CN:u  JR:u
    Sarcoramphus papa

  131. Black Vulture (*) (ph)   _____ W,E,az,nm,po,si   BR:c  CN:fc  CP:fc  JR:c  UR:fc  TR:u
    Coragyps atratus

  132. Turkey Vulture (*) (ph)   _____ W,Eaz,nm,po   BR:c  CN:fc  CP:c  JR:fc  UR:c  TR:u
    Cathartes aura

  133. Greater Yellow-headed Vulture (*)  _____ E,az
    Cathartes melambrotus

  134. Pearl Kite (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Gampsonyx swainsonii

    A Pearl Kite photographed during the FONT tour
    in Ecuador in July 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  135. White-tailed Kite  (*) (ph) _____  E,si
    Elanus leucurus

  136. Gray-headed Kite (*)  _____ W,E,nm   BR:r  CN:r
    Leptodon c. cayanensis

  137. Swallow-tailed Kite (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,az,nm,si   BR:fc  CN:fc  CP:fc  JR:fc  TR:u
    Elanoides forficatus yetapa

  138. Hook-billed Kite (*)  _____ E,az,nm  CN:r
    Chondrohierax uncinatus

  139. Double-toothed Kite (*)  _____ E,az,nm   BR:vr  CN:u  CP:vr
    Harpagus bidentatus

  140. Rufous-thighed Kite  (Er)  ______
    Harpagus diodon

  141. Plumbeous Kite (*)  _____ E,az,po   BR:u  CN:u
    Ictinia plumbea

  142. Mississippi Kite  (Er)  ______
    Ictinia mississippiensis

  143. Snail Kite (*) (ph)   _____ W,E,az  CN:vr
    Rostrhamus sociabilis 

    The Snail Kite has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  144. Slender-billed Kite (*)  _____ E,az
    (formerly Rostrhamus) hamatus

  145. Bicolored Hawk  (*)  _____ W,E,si   BR:vr  CN:r  JR:r  TR:vr
    Accipiter bicolor

  146. Gray-bellied Hawk  (nt)  _____
    Accipiter poliogaster

  147. Tiny Hawk  (*)  _____ W,E,nm   BR:vr  CN:r  CP:vr
    Accipiter superciliosus

  148. Plain-breasted Hawk  (*)  _____ W,H,E,nm,po,si   BR:r  TR:u  UR:fc  YR:fc
    Accipiter ventralis 

  149. Semicollared Hawk  (nt) (*)  _____  E,si  TR:vr
    Accipiter collaris

  150. Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle  (*) (ph)   _____ H,po   TR:r  UR:fc  YR:u
    Geranoaetus melanoleucus

  151. Variable Hawk  (*) (ph)  _____ W,H,cu,po   BR:r  TR:r  UR:fc  YR:u 
    Geranoaetus polyosoma 
    (formerly Buteo polyosoma)

    The Variable Hawk includes the "Puna Hawk" and the "Red-backed Hawk".

    A Variable Hawk
    in flight, photographed during
    the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  152. Zone-tailed Hawk  (*) (ph)   _____ W   BR:vr  JR:u
    Buteo albonotatus

  153. Swainson's Hawk  (*) (ph)   _____ E   BR:vr  CN:vr
    Buteo swainsoni

  154. Short-tailed Hawk  (*) (ph)   _____ W,E   BR:u  CN:u  CP:vr  JR:u
    Buteo brachyurus

  155. Broad-winged Hawk  (*)  _____ W,H,E,cu,si   BR:u  CN:u  TR:fc  UR:r
    Buteo platypterus

  156. Roadside Hawk  (*) (ph)   _____ W,E,az,nm,po,si   BR:u  CN:u  CP:c  JR:r  UR:fc  TR:fc
    Rupornis magnirostris 
    (formerly Buteo magnirostris)

  157. White-rumped Hawk  (*)  _____ E,si   TR:r  UR:r
    Buteo leucorrhous

  158. White-throated Hawk  (*)  _____ TR:r  UR:r  YR:r
    Buteo albigula 

    The White-throated Hawk is the only Austral-Neotropical migrant, evidence has shown, to migrate over the dry Atacama Desert in Chile & Peru and then across the Equator in the northern Andes in Ecuador. 
    The species breeds in Argentina & Chile during the Austral summer.

    At one time, the Buteo albiguta was considered a race of the Short-tailed Hawk (above), Buteo brachyurus.    

  159. Gray-lined Hawk  (*) (ph)  _____ BR:u  CN:r
    Buteo nitidus 

    The Gray-lined Hawk was conspecific with the Gray Hawk, Buteo plagiatus, from northern Central America north into the United States.

  160. Galapagos Hawk  (t3) (Ge) (*)  _____ G
    Buteo galapagoensis

  161. Bay-winged Hawk  (*) (ph)  _____ JR:fc  UR:r  
    Parabuteo unicinctus

    In North America, Parabuteo unicinctus is called the Harris' Hawk.  

  162. Black-collared Hawk  (ph)  _____
    Busarellus nigricollis

  163. Gray-backed Hawk  (t2) (*) (ph)  _____ W    BR:fc  CN:r  JR:u
    Pseudastur occidentalis 
    (was Leucopternis occidentalis)

    The Gray-backed Hawk, virtually an endemic in Ecuador, has been classified as an endangered species in the country. 


    Above & below: a Gray-backed Hawk photographed during 
    the FONT Ecuador Tour in July 2013.
    In the lower photo, the bird is about to take flight. 

  164. White Hawk  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az  CP:u
    Pseudastur albicollis 
    (was Leucopternis albicollis)

  165. Black-faced Hawk  (*)  _____ E,az
    Leucopternis melanops

  166. Plumbeous Hawk  (nt) _____  CN:r
    Cryptoleucopteryx plumbea 
    (was Leucopternis plumbea

    The Plumbeous Hawk has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.

  167. Semiplumbeous Hawk  _____  CN:u
    Leucopternis semiplumbea 

    The Semiplumbeous Hawk has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador. 

  168. Barred Hawk  (*)  _____ W,E,nm,si   BR:u  CP:vr
    Morphnarchus princeps 
    (was Leucopternis princeps)

    Other names for Morphnarchus princeps have been the Black-chested Hawk and the Prince Hawk. 

  169. Slate-colored Hawk  (*)  _____  E,az
    Buteogallus schistacea 
    (was Leucopternis schistacea)

  170. Savanna Hawk  (*) (ph)  _____ W   BR:r  JR:u
    Buteogallus meridionalis

  171. Great Black Hawk  (*) (ph)  _____ W   BR:r  CN:r
    Buteogallus urubitinga

  172. Common Black Hawk  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Buteogallus anthracinus

  173. Montane Solitary Eagle  (nt) (*)  _____  E,si   BR:vr  CP:vr  TR:vr
    Buteogallus solitarius 
    (was Harpyhaliaetus solitarius)

    The Montane Solitary Eagle has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  174. Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle  (*)  _____  E,si   CN:r
    Spizaetus melanoleucus 
    (was Spizastur melanoleucus)

  175. Ornate Hawk-Eagle  (nt) (*) (ph) _____ W,E,az   BR:vr  CN:r
    Spizaetus ornatus

  176. Black Hawk-Eagle  (*) _____ E,az,si   BR:r  CN:u
    Spizaetus tyrannus

  177. Harpy Eagle  (nt) (*) (ph)  _____ E,az  CN:vr
    Harpia harpyja 

    The Harpy Eagle has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  178. Crested Eagle  (nt)  _____
    Morphnus guianensis 

    The Crested Eagle has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador. 

  179. Black-and-Chestnut Eagle  (t3) (*) _____ W,E,nm,si   TR:r
    Oroaetus isidori 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) 

    The Black-and-chestnut Eagle has been classified as vulnerable species in Ecuador. Its population in the country is thought to be a maximum of 200 mature individuals.  

    Oroaetus isidori has also been called the Isidor's Eagle.

  180. Cinereous Harrier  (*) (ph)  _____ H
    Circus cinereus  

    The Cinereous Harrier has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  181. Crane Hawk  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E   JR:r
    Geranospiza c. caerulescens 
    (subspecies in eastern Ecuador)
    Geranospiza caerulescens balzarensis 
    (subspecies in western Ecuador) 

  182. Osprey  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,az    BR:vr  CN:r
    Pandion haliaetus carolinensis

  183. Laughing Falcon  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,az   BR:u  CN:u  JR:u
    Herpetotheres c. cachinnans 
    (subspecies in eastern Ecuador)
    Herpetotheres cachinnans fulvescens 
    (subspecies in western Ecuador) 

  184. Barred Forest Falcon  (*) _____ W,nm   BR:u  CN:u  CP:u
    Micrastur ruficollis

  185. Lined Forest Falcon  (*) _____ E,az
    Micrastur gilvicollis 

  186. Plumbeous Forest Falcon  (t3)  _____  CN:r
    Micrastur plumbeus 

    The Plumbeous Forest Falcon has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  187. Slaty-backed Forest Falcon  (*) _____ E
    Micrastur miraandollei

  188. Collared Forest Falcon  (*)  _____  E,si  JR:r  CN:r  CP:u
    Micrastur semitorquatus

  189. Buckley's Forest Falcon  _____
    Micrastur buckleyi

  190. Black Caracara  (*) _____ E,az  CP:u
    Daptrius ater

  191. Red-throated Caracara  (*) _____ E,az  CN:vr
    Ibycter americanus

  192. Yellow-headed Caracara  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az
    Milvago chimachima

  193. Carunculated Caracara  (*) (ph)  _____  H,cu   YR:u
    Phalcoboenus carunculatus

    A Carunculated Caracara photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2013 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  194. Mountain Caracara  _____
    Phalacoboenus megalopterus

  195. Northern Crested Caracara  (*) (ph)  _____ W   BR:u  JR:fc
    Caracara cheriway

  196. Bat Falcon  (*) (ph)  _____  W,E,az   BR:r  CN:u  CP:vr  JR:r
    Falco rufigularis

    A Bat Falcon photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2014.
    During that tour, we saw a pair of Bat Falcons in the very same tree
    where we had see two the previous year, in April 2013.
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  197. Orange-breasted Falcon  (nt) (ph)   _____  E,si
    Falco deiroleucus

    The Orange-breasted Falcon has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.  

  198. Aplomado Falcon  (*) (ph)  _____ W   YR:r
    Falco femoralis

  199. Peregrine Falcon  (*) (ph)  _____  H,E,si   YR:r
    Falco peregrinus   

    The Peregrine Falcon has been classified as an endangered species in Ecuador.

    During a FONT tour in Ecuador, a Peregrine Falcon was seen at the monument at the Equator north of Quito. That bird was observed during that one sighting in both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres.    

  200. Merlin  (*) (ph)  _____ W,H,E,si
    Falco columbarius

  201. American Kestrel  (*) (ph)  _____ W,H,E,nm,po,si   BR:r  TR:r  UR:r  YR:u
    Falco sparverius  


  202. Gray-winged Trumpeter  (*) _____ E,az
    Psophia crepitans 

    The Gray-winged Trumpeter has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.


  203. Limpkin  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,az
    Aramus guarauna


  204. Ecuadorian Rail  (*)  _____  W,H    
    Rallus aequatorialis

    What is now the Ecuadorian Rail was part of the Virginia Rail of North America and Mexico.

  205. Mangrove Rail  ______
    Rallus longirostris cypereti

    What is now the Mangrove Rail was part of the more-northerly Clapper Rail, now Rallus crepitans. 
    The Mangrove Rail has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  206. Blackish Rail  _____  TR:r
    Pardirallus nigricans

  207. Plumbeous Rail  (*) _____ H
    Pardirallus sanguinolentus

  208. Spotted Rail  (*)  _____  W
    Pardirallus maculatus  

  209. Rufous-necked Wood Rail  _____   JR:u
    Aramides axillaris 

    The Rufous-necked Wood Rail has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.

  210. Brown Wood Rail  (t3)  _____  CN:r
    Aramides wolfi 

    The Brown Wood Rail has been classified as an endangered species in Ecuador.

  211. Gray-necked Wood-Rail  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az
    Aramides calopterus

  212. Red-winged Wood Rail  _____
    Aramides calopterus 

  213. White-throated Crake  (*) _____ W   BR:fc  CN:fc
    Laterallus albigularis

  214. Rufous-sided Crake  _____
    Laterallus melanophaius

  215. Black-banded Crake  _____
    Laterallus fasciatus

  216. Russet-crowned Crake  _____
    Laterallus viridis

  217. Galapagos Rail  (t3) (Ge)  _____
    Laterallus spilonotus

  218. Chestnut-headed Crake  (*) _____ E
    Anurolimnas castaneiceps

  219. Gray-breasted Crake  (*) _____
    Laterallus exilis

  220. Uniform Crake  _____
    Amaurolimnas concolor

  221. Sora  _____  CR:r
    Porzana carolina 

  222. Yellow-breasted Crake  ______
    Porzana flaviventer

  223. Paint-billed Crake  _____  CN:r
    Neocrex erythrops

  224. Colombian Crake  _____  CN:r
    Neocrex colombianus

  225. Andean Coot  (*) _____ H,cu  
    Fulica ardesiaca

    Fulica ardesiaca
    has been called the Slate-colored Coot.

  226. American Coot  (Er)  ______
    Fulica americana 

    The American Coot has been classified as an extirpated species in Ecuador. 

  227. Common Gallinule  (*) (ph)  _____ W 
    Gallinula galeata

  228. Purple Gallinule  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,az
    Porphyrula martinica

    Above: an adult Purple Gallinule during 
    the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2014. 
    Below: a very young bird at the same place and time.
    Hard to believe that what is below will evolve 
    to what is above. 
    (photos by Marie Gardner) 

  229. Azure Gallinule  (*) _____ E,az
    Porphyrula flavirostris

  230. Sunbittern  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,nm   BR:vr  CN:r
    Eurypyga helias

  231. Sungrebe  (ph)  _____
    Heliornis fulica


  232. Wattled Jacana  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,az
    Jacana jacana

  233. Peruvian Thick-knee  _____   JR:vr
    Burhinus superciliaris  

    The Peruvian Thick-knee has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  234. American Oystercatcher  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Haematopus palliatus

  235. Southern Lapwing  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az
    Vanellus chilensis cayennensis

  236. Pied Plover  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,az
    (has been Vanellus) cayanus  

    The Pied Plover has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador. 

  237. Andean Lapwing  (*) ______ H   YR:vr
    Vanellus resplendens

  238. Killdeer  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Charadrius vociferus

  239. Black-bellied Plover  (*) (ph)  _____ G,W,E,az 
    Pluvialis squatarola

    Pluvialis squatarola
    is called, in the Old World, the Grey Plover.

  240. American Golden Plover  (*) (ph)  _____ G,W
    Pluvialis dominica

  241. Pacific Golden Plover  (Er) (ph)  ______
    Pluvialis fulva

  242. Snowy Plover  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Charadrius nivosus occidentalis

  243. Wilson's Plover  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Charadrius wilsonia beldingi

  244. Semipalmated Plover  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Charadrius semipalmatus 

  245. Collared Plover  (*) _____ W,E,az
    Charadrius collaris 

  246. Piping Plover  (nt) (Er) (ph)  _____
    Charadrius melodus

    The Piping Plover has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  247. Tawny-throated Dotterel  (Er)  _____
    Oreopholus ruficollis

    The Tawny-throated Dotterel has been classified as an extirpated species in Ecuador.

  248. Ruddy Turnstone  (*) (ph)  _____ G,W
    Arenaria interpres

  249. Surfbird  _____
    Aphriza virgata

  250. Solitary Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az  CN:r
    Tringa solitaria

  251. Lesser Yellowlegs  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,az
    Tringa flavipes

  252. Greater Yellowlegs  (*)  _____ W,E,az
    Tringa melanoleuca

  253. Spotted Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,az,cu,nm   BR:vr  CN:u  JR:u  TR:r
    Actitis macularia

  254. Wandering Tattler  (*) _____ G
    Heteroscelus incanus

  255. Willet  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    (formerly Catoptrophorus) semipalmatus

  256. Upland Sandpiper  _____  E,si   TR:r  YR:r
    Bartramia longicauda

  257. Red Knot  (*) (ph)  _____ G
    Calidris canutus

  258. White-rumped Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az
    Calidris fuscicollis

  259. Least Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  _____ G,W
    Calidris minutilla

  260. Baird's Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,si   TR:r  YRvr
    Calidris bairdii

  261. Western Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Calidris mauri

  262. Semipalmated Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Calidris pusilla

  263. Pectoral Sandpiper  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Calidris melanotos

  264. Sanderling  (*) (ph)  _____ G,W
    Calidris alba

  265. Dunlin  (ph)  ______
    Calidris alpina

  266. Curlew Sandpiper  (Er) (ph)  ______
    Calidris ferruginea

  267. Stilt Sandpiper  (ph)  _____  TR:vr
    (formerly Micropalama) himantopus

  268. Buff-breasted Sandpiper  (nt) (ph)   _____
    Tryngites subruficollis

    The Buff-breasted Sandpiper has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.

  269. Short-billed Dowitcher  (*) (ph)  _____ W 
    Limnodromus griseus

  270. Long-billed Dowitcher  (Er)  ______
    Limnodromus scolopaceus

    A Long-billed Dowitcher at Lago San Pablo in Imbabura province, found on March 3, 2012, was the first confirmed field sighting of the species in Ecuador.
    Prior to that, specimens were collected in Canar province on October 9, 1896 and in Chimborazo province on December 14, 1929.  

  271. Whimbrel  (*) (ph)  _____ G,W
    Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus

  272. Hudsonian Godwit  (ph)  _____
    Limosa haemastica 

    The Hudsonian Godwit has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador. 

  273. Marbled Godwit  (ph)  ______
    Limosa fedoa

    11 Marbled Godwits were at Bahia de Caraquez on September 22, 2012.

  274. South American Snipe  (ph)  _____  E,si
    Gallinago paraguaiae

  275. Wilson's Snipe  (Er)  ______
    Gallinago delicata

    A Wilson's Snipe was at San Pedro on March 10, 2013.

  276. Noble Snipe  (*) _____ H  (has also been called Paramo Snipe)
    Gallinago nobilis 

  277. Andean Snipe  _____   TR:fc  YR:fc
    Gallinago jamesoni

  278. Imperial Snipe  (nt)  _____   TR:u  YR:u
    Gallinago imperialis

  279. Puna Snipe  (Er) (ph)  ______
    Gallinago andina

  280. Black-necked Stilt  (*) (ph)  _____ G,W
    Himantopus mexicanus

  281. American Avocet  (Er) (ph)  ______
    Recurvirostra americana 

  282. Wilson's Phalarope  (*) _____ W,H
    Phalaropus tricolor

  283. Red-necked Phalarope  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Phalaropus lobatus

  284. Red Phalarope  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Phalaropus fulicaria

  285. Rufous-bellied Seedsnipe  (*) _____ H
    Attagis gayi

  286. Least Seedsnipe  (ph)   _____
    Thinocorus rumicivorus 

    The Least Seedsnipe has been classified as an extirpated species in Ecuador. 


  287. Pomarine Skua  (ph)   _____
    Stercorarius pomarinus

  288. Parasitic Jaeger  (ph)   _____  
    Stercorarius parasiticus

    Stercorarius parasiticus
    is called, in the Old World, the Arctic Skua.

  289. Long-tailed Jaeger  (Er) (ph)  ______
    Stercorarius longicaudus  

  290. Chilean Skua  (Er) (ph)  ______
    Stercorarius chilensis

  291. South Polar Skua  (Er) (ph)  ______
    Stercorarius maccormicki

  292. Kelp Gull  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    Larus dominicanus

  293. Herring Gull  (Er)  ______
    Larus argentatus smithsonianus

  294. Lesser Black-backed Gull  (Er) (ph)  _____
    Larus fuscus

  295. Ring-billed Gull  (Er) (ph)  ______
    Larus delawarensis

  296. California Gull  (Er) (ph)  _____
    Larus californicus

  297. Belcher's Gull  (Er)  ______
    Larus belcheri 

  298. Gray-hooded Gull  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    (formerly Larus) c. cirrocephalus

    A Gray-hooded Gull photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour
    in May 2014 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  299. Andean Gull  (*) (ph)  _____  H,cu
    (formerly Larus) serranus

    An Andean Gull photographed during the FONT tour
    in Ecuador in April 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  300. Gray Gull  (*) (ph)  _____  W
    (formerly Larus) modestus

  301. Lava Gull  (t3) (Ge) (*) _____  G
    (formerly Larus) fuliginosus  (monotypic) 

  302. Franklin's Gull  (*) (ph)  _____ CN:vr
    (formerly Larus) pipixcan  (monotypic)

  303. Laughing Gull  (*) (ph)  _____  W
    (formerly Larus) atricilla  (monotypic)

  304. Sabine's Gull  (ph)   _____
    Xema sabina 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus)

  305. Swallow-tailed Gull  (*) (ph)  _____ G
    Creagrus furcatus 
    (monotypic, and the single member of its genus) 

    Swallow-tailed Gull

  306. Gull-billed Tern  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    (formerly Sterna) nilotica

  307. Large-billed Tern  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az
    Phaetusa simplex 

    The Large-billed Tern has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.

  308. Yellow-billed Tern  (*) _____ E,az  
    Sternula superciliaris

    Another name for Sternula superciliaris has been the Amazon Tern.

  309. Peruvian Tern  (t2)  _____
    Sternula lorata 

    The Peruvian Tern has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador. 

  310. Least Tern  (Er)  ______
    Sternula antillarum

  311. Caspian Tern  (Er)  ______
    (formerly Sterna) caspia

  312. Royal Tern  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    (formerly Sterna) maxima

  313. Elegant Tern  (nt) (ph)  _____
    (formerly Sterna) elegans 

    The Elegant Tern has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador. 

  314. Sandwich Tern  (*) (ph)  _____ W
    (formerly Sterna) sandvicensis acuflavida

  315. Common Tern  (*) _____ W
    Sterna hirunda 

    A Common Tern at Lago San Pedro on December 11, 2012 was said to be the first highland record for Ecuador.
    There was one previous record known for the Rio Napo.

  316. Arctic Tern  (ph)  _____
    Sterna paradisaea

  317. South American Tern  (Er) (ph)  ______
    Sterna hirundinacea

  318. Bridled Tern  (ph)  _____
    (formerly Sterna) anaethetus 

    The Bridled Tern has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador. 

  319. Black Tern  (ph)   _____
    Chlidonias niger

  320. Inca Tern  (ph)  _____
    Larosterna inca

  321. Brown Noddy  (*) _____ G
    Anous stolidus

  322. Black Skimmer  (*) (ph) _____ E,az
    Rynchops niger 

    The Black Skimmer has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.


  323. Galapagos Dove  (Ge) (*) _____ G
    Zenaida galapagoensis

  324. Feral Pigeon (i) (*) _____ W,H,E
    Columba livia

  325. Band-tailed Pigeon  (*) (ph)  _____ W,H,E,cu,nm,po,si   BR:u  TR:c  UR:fc  YR:fc
    (formerly Columba) fasciata

  326. Scaled Pigeon  _____
    (formerly Columba) speciosa

  327. Pale-vented Pigeon  (*) _____ W,E,az  CN:u  CP:c
    (formerly Columba) c. cayennensis  (subspecies in eastern Ecuador)
    Patagioenas cayennensis occidentalis  (subspecies in western Ecuador)

  328. Ruddy Pigeon  (t3) (*) _____ W,E,az,nm   BR:r  CN:fc  CP:u  TR:u
    (formerly Columba) subvinacea

  329. Plumbeous Pigeon  (*)  _____ W,E,az,nm   BR:u
    (formerly Columba) plumbea

  330. Dusky Pigeon  _____  CR:c
    (formerly Columba) goodsoni

  331. Peruvian Pigeon  (t3)  ______
    (formerly Columba) oenops

    The Peruvian Pigeon has recently been found in Ecuador. The largest population of this vulnerable species is in the Peruvian side of the Maranon valley.
    Patagioenas oenops has been classified as a vulnerable species, both globally and in Ecuador. ;  

    Another name for Patagioenas oenops has been the Maranon Pigeon.  

  332. Eared Dove  (*) (ph)  _____ H,cu,nm,po   BR:r  JR:fc  UR:fc  YR:u
    Zenaida auriculata

  333. West Peruvian Dove  (*) _____   
    Zenaida meloda 

    What is now the West Peruvian Dove was part of the White-winged Dove of North and Central America. 

  334. Common Ground Dove  (*) (ph)  _____ H
    Columbina passerina quitensis

  335. Plain-breasted Ground Dove  (*) _____ W
    Columbina minuta

  336. Ruddy Ground Dove  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az
    Columbina talpacoti

  337. Ecuadorian Ground Dove  (*) _____ W   BR:u  CN:u
    Columbina buckleyi

  338. Croaking Ground Dove  (*) _____ W,cu,po   JR:u
    Columbina cruziana 

  339. Black-winged Ground Dove  (*) _____ H
    Metriopelia melanoptera

  340. Blue Ground Dove  (*) _____ W,E,az   BR:r  CN:r
    Claravis pretiosa

  341. Maroon-chested Ground Dove  _____  E,si   TR:r
    Claravis mondetoura

  342. White-tipped Dove  (*) _____ W,H,E,az,nm   BR:fc  CN:r  JR:c  UR:c  YR:r
    Leptotila verrreauxi

  343. Pallid Dove  (*) _____ W   BR:u  CN:u
    Leptotila pallida

  344. Gray-fronted Dove  (*) _____ E,az  CP:c
    Leptotila rufaxilla

  345. Ochre-bellied Dove  (t3) (*)  _____   BR:r  UR:r  JR:u
    Leptotila ochraceiventris

    The Ochre-bellied Dove has been classified as an endangered species in Ecuador.

  346. Sapphire Quail-Dove  (t3) (*) _____ E,az
    Geotrygon saphirina

  347. Indigo-crowned Quail-Dove  _____  CN:u
    Geotrygon purpurata 

    The Indigo-crowned Quail-Dove has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  348. Olive-backed Quail-Dove  _____  CN:r
    Geotrygon veraguensis 

    The Olive-backed Quail-Dove has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.

  349. White-throated Quail-Dove  (*) (ph)  _____  W,E,nm,po,si   BR:u  JR:fc(at higher elevation)  TR:u  UR:fc  YR:u
    Geotrygon frenata 

    A White-throated Quail-Dove photographed during 
    the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)   

  350. Ruddy Quail-Dove  (*) _____ E,az   BR:vr  CN:r
    Geotrygon m. montana

  351. Violaceous Quail-Dove  (Er)  _____
    Geotrygon violacea


  352. Blue-and-Yellow Macaw  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az
    Ara ararauna

    Blue-and-yellow Macaws photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  353. Military Macaw  (t3)  _____  CP:vr
    Ara m. militaris 

    The Military Macaw has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  354. Great Green Macaw  (t3) (ph)  _____  CN:r  
    Ara ambigua

    Another name for Ara ambigua is the Buffon's Macaw.

    By whatever name, Ara ambigua has been classified as a critically endangered species in Ecuador.

    A Great Green Macaw in a mural on the side of a building,
    photographed at the Cerro Blanco Reserve in western Ecuador,
    during the FONT tour there in May 2014.  

  355. Scarlet Macaw  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az
    Ara m. macao

  356. Red-and-green Macaw  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az
    Ara chloroptera 

    The Red-and-green Macaw has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

    Red-and-Green Macaws

  357. Chestnut-fronted Macaw  (*) _____ E,az
    Ara severa castaneifrons

  358. Red-bellied Macaw  (*) _____ E,az
    (formerly Ara) manilata

  359. White-eyed Parakeet  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az  CP:u  TR:u
    (formerly Aratinga) leucophthalmus callogenys

  360. Scarlet-fronted Parakeet  (*) _____ W   
    (formerly Aratinga) wagleri 

    Psittacara wagleri
    has also been called the Red-fronted Parakeet.

  361. Red-masked Parakeet  (nt) (*) (ph)  _____ W   BR:fc  JR:fc
    (formerly Aratinga) erythrogenys  (monotypic) 

    The Red-masked Parakeet has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador. 

    A Red-masked Parakeet photographed during 
    the FONT tour in Ecuador in July 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  362. Dusky-headed Parakeet  (*) _____ E,az
    Aratinga weddellii 

  363. Golden-plumed Parakeet  (t3) (*)   _____  TR:u
    Leptosittaca branickii 

    The Golden-plumed Parakeet has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador. 

  364. Yellow-eared Parrot  (t1)  _____
    Ognorhynchus icterotis 

    The critically endangered Yellow-eared Parrot is now apparently extinct in Ecuador. Only a tiny hope exists of relocating it in the country. 
    The Yellow-eared Parrot has been classified as a critically endangered species, globally and in Ecuador.

  365. El Oro Parakeet  (t3) (Ee) (*) (ph)  _____ W   BR:u
    Pyrrhura orcesi 

    The El Oro Parakeet has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

    El Oro Parakeet

  366. Maroon-tailed Parakeet  (*) _____ E,az  CR:fc
    Pyrrhura melanura 

  367. White-breasted Parakeet  (t3) (Ee) (*) _____ E,po   CP:u  TR:r  
    Pyrrhura albipectus

    Pyrrhura albipectus
    has also been called the White-necked Parakeet. It has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador. Endemic to the county, it may now be classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.  

  368. Barred Parakeet  (*) _____ W,E,nm,si   TR:u
    Bolborhynchus lineola

  369. Blue-winged Parrotlet  (*) _____ E,az
    Forpus xanthopterygius

  370. Pacific Parrotlet  (*) (ph)  _____  W,po   BR:u  CN:u  JR:c
    Forpus coelestis

    A Pacific Parrotlet photographed during
    the FONT Ecuador Tour in July 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)  

  371. Dusky-billed Parrotlet  (*)   _____  E,az  
    Forpus s. sclateri

    Forpus sclateri
    has also been called the Sclater's Parrotlet.

  372. Gray-cheeked Parakeet  (t2) (*) _____ W   BR:u  JR:c
    Brotogeris pyrrhopterus

    The Gray-cheeked Parakeet has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador, but it may now be either vulnerable or endangered in the country.    

  373. Cobalt-winged Parakeet  (*) _____ E,az
    Brotogeris cyanoptera

  374. Sapphire-rumped Parrotlet  _____
    Touit purpurata 

  375. Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet  (t3)  _____
    Touit huetii

  376. Blue-fronted Parrotlet  _____   BR:r  CN:r
    Touit dilectissima

    The Blue-fronted Parrotlet has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.

  377. Spot-winged Parrotlet  (t3)  _____
    Touit stictoptera 

    The Spot-winged Parrotlet has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.  

  378. Black-headed Parrot  (*) _____ E,az  (has also been called Black-headed Caique)
    Pionites melanocephala

  379. Rose-faced Parrot  _____   BR:r  CN:fc  (has also been called Beautiful Parrot)
    Pionopsitta pulchra

  380. Saffron-headed Parrot  (t3) _____  CN:vr
    Pionopsitta pyrilia  (monotypic)

  381. Orange-cheeked Parrot  (nt) (*) _____ E,az 
    Pyrilia (or Pionopsitta) barrabandi

    Pyrilia barrabandi
    has also been called the Barraband's Parrot.

  382. Red-faced Parrot  (t3) (*) _____ H,po
    Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops

    The Red-faced Parrot has been classified as an endangered species in Ecuador.

  383. Short-tailed Parrot  _____
    Graydidasculus brachyurus

  384. Blue-headed Parrot  (*) _____ W,E,az  CR:fc
    Pionus menstruus 

  385. Red-billed Parrot  (*) _____ W,E,nm,si   TR:fc
    Pionus sordidus

  386. Speckle-faced Parrot  (*)  ______  E,si  TR:fc  YR:vr   
    Pionus tumultuosus

    The Speckle-faced Parrot includes the "White-capped Parrot", Pionus tumultuosus seniloides.

    Pionus tumultuosus
    has also been called the Plum-crowned Parrot. 

  387. Bronze-winged Parrot  (*) _____ W,mn   BR:c  CN:fc
    Pionus chalcopterus

  388. Red-lored Amazon  (*) _____ CN:vr
    Amazona autumnalis lilacina

    The subspecies Amazona autumnalis lilacina in western Ecuador is by some called the Lilacine Amazon.   

    Amazona autumnalis lilacina has been classified as vulnerable in Ecuador.

  389. Festive Amazon  _____
    Amazona festiva

  390. Yellow-crowned Amazon  (*) _____ E,az
    Amazona ochrocephala

  391. Orange-winged Amazon  (*) _____ E,az
    Amazona amazonica

  392. Scaly-naped Amazon  (*) _____ W,E,nm,si   TR:fc
    Amazona mercenaria

  393. Mealy Amazon  (*) _____ E,az  CN:fc
    Amazona farinosa

  394. Red-fan Parrot  (ph)  _____
    Deroptyus accitrinus


  395. Hoatzin  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az
    Opisthocomus hoazin


  396. Black-billed Cuckoo  (*) _____ W   BR:r  CP:vr  JR:r
    Coccyzus erythropthalmus

  397. Yellow-billed Cuckoo  (*) _____ W,E,si
    Coccyzus americanus

  398. Pearly-breasted Cuckoo  _____
    Coccyzus euleri

  399. Dark-billed Cuckoo  (*) _____ G,W
    Coccyzus melacoryphus

  400. Gray-capped Cuckoo  _____   JR:r
    Coccyzus lansbergi

  401. Squirrel Cuckoo  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,az,nm,po,si   BR:fc  CN:fc  CP:fc  JR:u  TR:u
    Piaya cayana

  402. Black-bellied Cuckoo  (*) _____ E
    Piaya melanogaster

  403. Little Cuckoo  (*) _____ W,E   BR:u  CN:u  CP:vr
    Coccycua minuta

  404. Dwarf Cuckoo  (Er)  ______
    Coccycua pumila

    A Dwarf Cuckoo at Las Penas, in Esmeraldas province, on December 12, 2012 was said to be the first record for Ecuador.  

  405. Greater Ani  (*) _____ E,az
    Crotophaga major

  406. Smooth-billed Ani  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,az,nm,po   CN:u  CP:c  TR:u
    Crotophaga ani

  407. Groove-billed Ani  (*) (ph)  _____ G,W,po   BR:u  JR:c
    Crotophaga sulcirostris

  408. Striped Cuckoo (*) _____ W,nm   BR:r  CN:u  UR:r  JR:r
    Tapera naevia

  409. Pheasant Cuckoo  _____
    Dromococcys phasianellus

  410. Pavonine Cuckoo  (*) _____ E
    Dromococcys pavoninus

  411. Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoo  _____
    Neomorphus geoffroyi

  412. Red-billed Ground Cuckoo  (Er)  ______
    Neomorphus pucheranii

  413. Banded Ground Cuckoo  (t3)  _____  CN:r
    Neomorphus radiolosus 

    The Banded Ground Cuckoo has been classified as an endangered species in Ecuador.


  414. American Barn Owl  (*) (ph)  _____  E,si   JRr  
    Tyto furcata 

    The American Barn Owl has been part of the Barn Owl of Eurasia & Africa, Tyto alba.
    But Tyto furcata is a heavier bird, with a larger and stouter head and body, and with much more powerful talons. 

    Tyto furcata contempta
      ______  (subspecies in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru; the male has a much longer wing than the female, 312mm for the male & 291 mm for the female)

  415. Galapagos Barn Owl  (*)  ______  (considered distinct from the American Barn Owl
    Tyto punctatissima 

  416. Tropical Screech Owl  (*) (ph)  _____ E
    (formerly Otus) choliba 

    Megascops choliba crucigerus  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Ecuador, and north in eastern Colombia & south in eastern Peru) 

    Three morphs of the Tropical Screech Owl are known: gray-brown, red, brown.

  417. Choco Screech Owl  ______  BR:r  CN:u
    (formerly Otus) cenralis

    The Choco Screech Owl occurs in lowland humid forests in western Ecuador and western Colombia. As its common name suggests, much of its range is in the region of the Choco.

    In the past, the Choco Screech Owl has been part of the Vermiculated Screech Owl, Megascops vermiculatus, that ranges into Central America, and the Roraiman Screech Owl, Megascops roraimae, of Venezuela, northern Brazil, and the Guianas.  
    These 3 species of Screech Owls (Choco, Vermiculated, Roraiman) are very similar to each other in appearance, but are easily separated by their voice.
    Megascops roraimae has been called the Foothill Screech Owl, with a range extending west into Ecuador.
    Megascops vermiculatus has been called the Middle American Screech Owl, and it included what is now the Guatemalan Screech Owl, Megascops guatemaiae.
    Some have still considered the Choco Screech Owl as part of the Vermiculated Screech Owl that occurs in western Colombia. Others inexplicably do not include the Choco Screech Owl in literature as either a species or a subspecies. It is not, for example, as either in the "Owls of the World, A Photographic Guide", by Heimo Mikkola (the source for much of the owl information in this list).            

  418. Peruvian Screech Owl  (*)  _____   JR:fc  UR:r
    (formerly Otus) roboratus  (monotypic)

    The Peruvian Screech Owl occurs only in southern Ecuador & northern Peru. It is locally uncommon to rare due to habitat destruction as it is dependent upon trees with holes for nesting.

    The Peruvian Screech Owl gives a long, somewhat undulating trill with equally spaced notes, beginning softly but increasing steadily to a higher volume.

  419. Tumbes Screech Owl  (*) (ph)  ______  W
    Megascops pacificus 

    The Tumbes Screech Owl was considered a subspecies of the Peruvian Screech Owl, but it has been separated on the basis of morphology and vocalization.
    More molecular and biological study is needed. The "split" has been thought by some to be premature.  

    The Tumbes Screech Owl is mostly in lowlands below 500 meters above sea level. It is often near human settlements.

    The Tumbes Screech Owl gives a rapid purring trill that lasts some 1.5 to 2 seconds, with a slight downward inflection.  


    Close to a tree trunk and behind leaves and branches, 
    a Tumbes Screech Owl, roosting during the day,
    photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour in July 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  420. Rufescent Screech Owl  _____   TR:r
    (formerly Otus) ingens

    Megascops ingens ingens  ______ 
    (subspecies on east slope of the Andes)
    The other subspecies is in Colombia & Venezuela.

  421. Colombian Screech Owl  (nt)  ______
    Megascops colombianus 

    The Colombian Screech Owl has been considered conspecific with the Rufescent Screech Owl. Further research is still needed, but Megascops colombianus is generally regarded as a full species.

    The Colombian Screech Owl occurs in northern Ecuador, and in Colombia, only on the western slope of the Andes between 1300 & 2100 meters above sea level.   

  422. Cinnamon Screech Owl  _____  (species described in 1986)
    (formerly Otus) petersoni  (monotypic)

    The Cinnamon Screech Owl occurs in southern Ecuador & northern Peru, on forested eastern foothills of the Andes. 
    It lives in moist cloud forests rich in epiphytic plants and mosses, from 1700 to 2500 meters above sea level.

    The Cinnamon Screech Owl may be closely related to the Cloud Forest Screech Owl, Megascops marshalli of Peru & Bolivia, rather than the Rufescent or Colombian Screech Owls as previously thought. 
    At one time, Megascops petersoni was considered a subspecies of the Cloud Forest Screech Owl, that was described in 1981.  

  423. Tawny-bellied Screech Owl  _____ 
    (formerly Otus) w. watsonii

    Megascops w. watsonii, in Ecuador, is said by some to the Northern Tawny-bellied Screech Owl, Megascops watsonii.
    The Southern Tawny-bellied Screech Owl is further east, in Brazil, south of the Amazon River. For it, the scientific name is Megascops usta. If split, both of the Tawny-bellied Screech Owls are monotypic.      

  424. Rio Napo Screech Owl  (*)  ______  E,az
    (formerly Otus) napensis

    Megascops napensis napensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Ecuador & eastern Colombia, in dense rainforest between 250 & 1500 meters above sea level)
    Other subspecies are in Peru & Bolivia.

    The Rio Napo Screech Owl in its call has a single phrase that lasts only 7 to 10 seconds.

    The Northern Tawny-bellied Screech Owl also lives in dense primary rainforest, but at a lower elevation.      

  425. White-throated Screech Owl  _____  E,si   JR:r(at higher elevation)  TR:u  UR:u
    (formerly Otus) albogularis

    Megascops albogularis albogularis  ______ 
    (subspecies in the Andes in Ecuador & Colombia; in Ecuador it is fairly common on both slopes)
    There are 3 other subspecies in Venezuela, Peru, and Bolivia.

    The White-throated Screech Owl occurs from 1300 to 3600 meters above sea level, but mostly between 2000 & 3000 meters.   

  426. Great Horned Owl  (ph)  _____   YR:r
    Bubo virginianus 

    Bubo virginianus nigrescrens 
    (subspecies in Ecuador & Colombia; the darkest of the many subspecies) 

  427. Crested Owl  (*) _____ E,az   BR:vr  CN:r
    Lophostrix cristata

    Lophostrix cristata cristata  ______ 
    (subspecies east of the Andes from Suriname & Venezuela south to northern Bolivia) 

  428. Spectacled Owl  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,az   BR:u  CN:u  JR:u
    Pulsatrix perspicillata

    Pulsatrix perspicillata chapmani  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Costa Rica to Ecuador)
    Pulsatrix perspicillata perspicillata  ______ 
    (subspecies from northern Colombia, Venezuela, & Guianas south to eastern Peru & Brazil)   

  429. Band-bellied Owl  (*) _____ E,si  CP:fc
    Pulsatrix melanota 

    Pulsatrix melanota generally inhabits dense and humid mountain forests between 700 & 1600 meters above sea level. But sometimes it is found in more open woodland and at lower elevations.

    The partly-overlapping Spectacled Owl has yellow eyes and no rusty bars on the belly.

    The Band-bellied Owl is said to give a short purring call followed by a sequence of 4 or 5 popping notes, with an emphasis on the 3rd note. Deep, muffled hoots have been recorded.     

  430. Andean Pygmy Owl  (*) _____ W,H,E,nm,po,si   TR:r  YR:u
    Glaucidium jardinii 

    The Andean Pygmy Owl occurs from the Venezuelan and Colombian Andes south to north-central Peru. It was conspecific with the more-northerly Costa Rican Pygmy Owl, but it has been separated they differ considerably in vocalizations.
    Glaucidium jardinii is found in semi-open cloud and mountain forests, and in other humid woodlands from 900 to 4000 meters above sea level.

    The song of the Andean Pygmy Owl consists of two different phrases. 
    The first has four or five short, struttering trills, at 0.35 second intervals. 
    The second has 5 to 10 staccato notes in rapid succession, with 4 per second at 0.15 second intervals.  

  431. Cloud Forest Pygmy Owl  (t3)  _____   BR:vr
    Glaucidium nubicola

    Glaucidium nubicola
    inhabits humid cloud forests on steep Andean slopes, from 1400 to 2000 meters above sea level.
    In Ecuador it has also been found in young secondary forest and forest edges with dense growth.  

    The Cloud Forest Pygmy Owl utters a long sequence of soft complets. 

  432. Central American Pygmy Owl  (Er)  ______
    Glaucidium griseiceps

    Glaucidium griseiceps
    was first found in Ecuador in July 1990 northwest of Alto Tambo when 2 pairs were seen and tae-recorded.
    Subsequently the species was tape recorded in 1997 at Playa de Oro along the Rio Santiago, in low foothills.

    The Central American Pygmy Owl has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  433. Subtropical Pygmy Owl  _____  (described as a new species in 1995) 
    Glaucidium parkeri 

    The Subtropical Pygmy Owl occurs on the eastern slopes of the Andes from southeastern Colombia to northern Bolivia in humid mountain forest and cloud forest with many epiphytes, mainly between 1450 & 1975 meters above sea level.   

    The Subtropical Pygmy Owl is notably smaller than the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl. The length of Glaucidium parkeri is 14 centimeters. That of Glaucidium brasilianum is 17 to 20 centimeters.  

  434. Ferruginous Pygmy Owl  (*) (ph)  _____ E,az
    Glaucidium brasilianum

    Glaucidium brasilianum ucayalae  ______ 
    (subspecies from southern Venezuela to Bolivia, also in Amazonian Brazil - in Ecuador in the east)

  435. Pacific Pygmy Owl  (*) (ph)  _____  W,po   BR:r  JR:c  UR:r  (another name is the Peruvian Pygmy Owl, was part of the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl until 1991) 
    Glaucidium peruanum 
    (said to be monotypic, but populations of higher & lower altitudes may be different, as of yet undescribed subspecies. Those in lower elevations often have a crown with some spots and many elongated shaft-streaks)

    The Pacific Pygmy Owl inhabits riparian thickets, mesquite, semi-arid woodlands and bushlands with cacti and thorny shrubs, but it also occurs in city parks and in agricultural areas with trees.

    Glaucidium peruanum is only on the western side of the Andes, from western Ecuador south to northern Chile.
    Generally it is found in lowlands and up to 2400 meters above sea level. Locally, it can be higher, to 3000 meters. 

    A Pacific Pygmy Owl photographed during 
    the FONT tour in western Ecuador in July 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)  

  436. Amazonian Pygmy Owl  ______  (described as a new species in 1990)
    Glaucidium hardyi 

    The Amazonian Pygmy Owl inhabits primary rainforest, where it lives in epiphyte-rich forest canopy. It occurs up to about 850 meters above sea level. Its geographic range includes eastern Ecuador.

    Glaucidium hardyi gives a melodious trill consisting of 10 to 30 fluted notes in a rapid staccato, with some 10 notes per second.   

  437. Black-and-white Owl  _____   BR:u  CN:r
    Strix nigrolineata 

    The Black-and-white Owl inhabits rainforest and gallery forest, and swamps and flooded deciduous woodlands and mangroves from sea level to 2400 meters. It can be found not far from human habitation.

    The call of the Black-and-white Owl sometimes sounds like that of the Black-banded Owl (below). The two will respond to one another's calls, and there has been interbreeding between Strix nigrolineata and Strix bubula in Colombia.    

  438. Black-banded Owl  (*) _____ E,az   YP:r
    Strix bubula

    Strix bubula bubula  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Colombia to northern Argentina)

  439. Mottled Owl  (*) _____ E,az   BR:u  JR:r(at higher elevation)
    Strix virgata

    Strix virgata virgata  ______ 
    (subspecies east of the Andes from northern Colombia to eastern Ecuador)  

    The following species, Strix squamulata, has been part of the Mottled Owl.

  440. Mexican Wood Owl  ______  CN:r
    Strix squamulata

    Strix squamulata centralis  ______
      (subspecies from southern Mexico to southwestern Ecuador; in Ecuador west of the Andes) 

  441. Rufous-banded Owl  (*) _____ E,si   TR:u
    Strix albitarsis 

    The Rufous-banded Owl generally inhabits cloud forests and mountain forests, mainly from 1700 to 3700 meters above sea level. But sometimes it is found in open areas with scattered trees between forested areas.  

  442. Burrowing Owl  (*) (ph)  _____ W,H
    Athene cunicularia

    Athene cunicularia pichinchae  ______ 
    (subspecies in the Andes in western Ecuador; dark gray-brown above, with rather dense dusky barring below)
    Athene cunicularia punensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in coastal areas from southwestern Ecuador to northwestern Peru; small and pale, with less extensive barring below)   

  443. Short-eared Owl  (ph)  _____  E,si   TR:r  YR:r
    Asio flammeus 

    Asio flammeus bogotensis  ______ 
    (subspecies from Colombia to Peru, this subspecies smaller and darker than others, with a more rusty wash)  

  444. Galapagos Short-eared Owl  (*)  _____ 
    Asio galapagonensis 

    Asio galapagonensis
    has been regarded as an aberrant subspecies of the widespread Short-eared Owl, Asio flammeus, but it has been separated due to long genetic isolation. 

  445. Stygian Owl  _____   UR:r  YR:vr
    Asio stygius

    Asio stygius stygius  ______ 
    (subspecies from Colombia to Brazil) 

  446. Striped Owl  (*) (ph)  _____ W   CP:vr  JR:r
    (or Pseudoscops) clamator

    Asio clamator clamator  ______ 
    (subspecies from Colombia to Brazil)

    Another, as of yet unnamed subspecies has been found on the western slope in Ecuador and Peru, where confirmed records exist from more than 10 localities. It appears to differ in voice, eye color, and morphology.          

  447. Buff-fronted Owl  _____
    Aegolius harrisii

    Aegolius harrisii harrisii  ______ 
    (subspecies from Venezuela to Bolivia)

    The Buff-fronted Owl lives in mountain forests and cloud forests, also dry forest and stunted alpine forests. In the Andes, it occurs between 1700 and 3900 meters above sea level, but it has also been found at lower altitudes.

    Aegolius harrisii utters very rapid whistled trills, with a quivering character, with some 15 notes per second and lasting 7 to 10 seconds. 

    The Buff-fronted Owl has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador. 


  448. Oilbird  (ph)  _____  W,E,si   BR:vr  TR:r
    Steatornis carpipensis

  449. Great Potoo  (*) _____ E,az
    Nyctibius g. grandis

  450. Long-tailed Potoo  (*) (ph) _____ E,az
    Nyctibius aethereus longicaudatus

    A Long-tailed Potoo roosting during the day in an Amazonian rainforest
    during a FONT tour in Ecuador
    (photo by Alan Brady)

  451. Common Potoo  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,az,nm   BR:u  CN:r  TR:r
    Nyctibius griseus 

    A Common Potoo photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  452. Andean Potoo  (*) (ph)  _____  E,si  TR:r
    Nyctibius maculosus

    An Andean Potoo photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  453. Rufous Potoo  _____
    Nyctibius bracteatus


  454. Short-tailed Nighthawk  (*) _____ E,az   BR:vr
    Lurocalis semitorquatus

  455. Rufous-bellied Nighthawk  (*) _____ E,si  TR:r  YR:r
    Lurocalis rufiventris

  456. Sand-colored Nighthawk  (*) _____ E,az
    Chordeiles rupestris

  457. Common Nighthawk  _____
    Chordeiles minor

  458. Lesser Nighthawk  (*) _____ W
    Chordeiles acutipennis

  459. Band-tailed Nighthawk  _____
    Nyctiprogne leucopyga 

  460. Nacunda Nighthawk  _____
    (formerly Podager) nacunda

  461. Pauraque  (*) (ph)  _____ W,E,az,nm   BR:fc  CN:fc  CP:c  JR:fc  TR:fc
    Nyctidromus a. albicollis

  462. Scrub Nightjar  (*)  ______   
    (formerly Caprimulgus) anthonyi

    Nyctidromus anthonyi
    has also been called Anthony's Nightjar. 

  463. Ocellated Poorwill  _____
    Nyctiphrynus ocellatus

  464. Choco Poorwill  (nt)   _____  CN:u
    Nyctiphrymus rosenbergi 

    The Choco Poorwill has been classified as a near-threatened species in Ecuador.

  465. Band-winged Nightjar  (*) _____ H,E,po,si   TR:u  UR:r  YR:fc
    (formerly Caprimulgus) longirostris  (the single member of its genus) 

  466. White-tailed Nightjar  _____
    (formerly Caprimulgus) cayennensis 

  467. Spot-tailed Nightjar  (Er)  ______
    (formerly Caprimulgus) maculicaudus

  468. Blackish Nightjar  (*) _____ E,az,po  CP:fc
    (formerly Caprimulgus) nigrescens

  469. Rufous Nightjar  (ph)  _____
    (formerly Caprimulgus) rufus 

  470. Ladder-tailed Nightjar  (*) _____ E,az
    Hydropsalis climacocerca

  471. Swallow-tailed Nightjar  (*) _____ H,E,si   TR:u
    Uropsalis segmentata

  472. Lyre-tailed Nightjar  (*) ______ W,E,nm,si   TR:r
    Uropsalis lyra


  473. White-collared Swift  (*) _____ W,H,E,az,nm,po,si   BR:u  CN:u  CP:fc  JR:fc  TR:u  UR:fc  YR:u
    Streptoprocne zonaris

  474. Chestnut-collared Swift  (*) _____ W,H,E,nm,po   BR:u  CN:u  CP:c  JR:u  UR:r  TR:u
    Cypseloides rutilus

  475. White-chinned Swift  (Er)  _____  E,si
    Cypseloides cryptus

  476. Spot-fronted Swift  (*)  _____  W,E,si
    Cypseloides cherriei

  477. White-chested Swift  (t3)  _____  
    Cypseloides lemosi 

    The White-chested Swift has been classified as a vulnerable species in Ecuador.

  478. White-tipped Swift  (*) _____ W,H,E,si
    Aeronautes montivagus

  479. Band-rumped Swift  _____  CR:fc
    Chaetura spinicauda

  480. Gray-rumped Swift  (*) _____ W,E,az,nm   BR:fc  CN:u  CP:c
    Chaetura cinereiventris

  481. Pale-rumped Swift _____ 
    Chaetura egregia

  482. Chimney Swift  (*) _____  CN:r
    Chaetura pelagica

  483. Short-tailed Swift  (*) _____ E,az
    Chaetura brachyura

  484. Tumbes Swift  (*)  _____JR:u   
    Chaetura ocypetes  

    The Tumbes Swift was part of the Short-tailed Swift (above).

  485. Neotropical Palm Swift  (*) _____ E,az
    Tachornis squamata

    The Neotropical Palm Swift has been called the Fork-tailed Palm Swift.

  486. Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift  (*) _____ W,E   BR:u  JR:u  CN:u
    Panyptila cayennensis

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