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in South America

In Argentina, Brazil, Chile,
Ecuador, and Venezuela

With South American Mammals found
during Focus On Nature Tours
noted with an (*) 

Focus On Nature Tours during the months 
of February, March, June, July, August, 
September, October, November

1992 to 2015  


This List of South American Mammals compiled by Armas Hill

There have been 50 FONT Tours in Brazil.
In southern South America, 14 tours in Argentina and 19 in Chile.
In northern South America, 6 tours in Venezuela and 21 in Ecuador.

UPPER LEFT PHOTO: A GUANACO photographed during a FONT tour in Argentina

Links to Some of the Mammal Groupings in the following List: 

Opossums     Armadillos     Anteaters    Sloths    Rabbits    Squirrels & Other Rodents    Akodonts    

Porcupines    Agoutis    Cavies    Capybara    Degus & Tuco-tucos    Viscachas & Chinchillas    Cats    

Dogs & Foxes
    Bear    Seals    Otters & Allies    Raccoons    Bats    Marmosets & Tamarins    

New World Monkeys
    Dolphins    Whales    Peccaries    Cameloids    Deer   
Tapirs    Manatee

For its size, South America has by far the richest animal population of all the continents of the world.
It has a greater variety of bats and rodents than anywhere else.
Survivors from when the continent was "an island" include: the edentates (armadillos, anteaters, sloths),
the camelids (guanaco, vicuna, llama, alpaca). 
There are about 70 species of monkeys, in addition to tamarins and marmosets.
Also in South America, there are most species of fresh water fish, and there are twice as many bird species 
as there are in Africa. (There are links below to South American bird-lists.)


(t):    a globally threatened species, 
        designated by the IUCN 
(the International Union for Conservation of Nature)
            (t1): critically endangered    (t2): endangered    (t3): vulnerable 
(nt):  a globally near-threatened species, designated by the IUCN

(i):     an introduced species in South America

(ph):   species with a photo in the FONT website 
(a link to our photo directory below)

The following codes with an (*) indicates the mammal seen during a FONT tour (or tours) in that country.  

so:  southern Argentina (including Valdes Peninsula)
          tf:   Tierra del Fuego
BR:  Brazil
          af:   Alta Floresta (southern Amazonian)
          am: Amazonia (particularly the area of Manaus) 
          ig:   area of Iguazu Falls
          mn: Minas Gerais
mt:  Mato Grosso & Mato Grosso do Sul (including the Pantanal)
          rs:   Rio Grande do Sul          
          se:   southeast Brazil (the states of Rio de Janeiro & Sao Paulo)
BO:  Bolivia
CH:  Chile
          ce:  central Chile from the Pacific coast, up into the Andes
          fn:   in the far-north in areas of Arica & Lauca National Park
          so:   in southern Chile, including Chiloe Island  
tf:    Tierra del Fuego
EC:  Ecuador 
az:  Amazonian Ecuador, along the Napo and other rivers
          gp:  Galapagos 
          we:  western Ecuador
PE:   Peru 
PG:  Paraguay
UG:  Uruguay 
VE:   Venezuela
     ll: the Llanos

Some local names are in the following list beneath the scientific names, with the above two-letter country codes.

At this time, there are 644 species of mammals in the list that follows.  
Of these, about 125 species of mammals have been found during FONT South American tours.  

Additional Links:

Information about Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours:
by month in: 
2014   2015   or:  by geographic locations worldwide

A Chronological List of all scheduled FONT Tours   

Other Lists & Photo Galleries of Neotropical Mammals in:

Argentina    Brazil    Chile    Ecuador    Venezuela

Central America
    Mexico    Belize    Guatemala    Costa Rica

Other Lists & Photo Galleries of:   
Mammals    Birds     Butterflies    Amphibians, Reptiles

Bird-Lists (noting birds during previous FONT tours): 

A Complete List & a Photo Gallery of Argentina Birds:
Part 1: Tinamous to Flycatchers    Part 2: Antshrikes to Grosbeaks

A Complete List & a Photo Gallery of Brazil Birds
Part 1: Tinamous to Doves    Part 2: Macaws to Flycatchers    
Part 3: Antshrikes to Woodcreepers
Part 4: Vireos to Grosbeaks

Regional Lists of Brazilian Birds:
Mato Grosso    Minas Gerais    Southeast Brazil    Rio Grande do Sul    

A Complete List & a Photo Gallery of Chile Birds

Part 1: Tinamous to Coots
    Part 2: Thick-knee to Saltator

A Complete List of Ecuador Birds (with some photos):
Part 1: Tinamous to Swifts    Part 2: Hummingbirds to Flycatchers    
Part 3: Antshrikes to Woodcreeper
Part 4: Vireos to Grosbeaks


A List of Venezuela Birds  (with some photos)

Rare Birds in South America, in the Andes & Patagonia    Rare Birds in Brazil

Directory of Photos in the FONT Website  


List of South American Mammals:

       AMERICAN OPOSSUMS (globally just over 85 species, with some recently described)   


          in the family DIDELPHIDAE  


  1. Southern (or Black-eared) Opossum  ______  AR  BR(*) af,se  EC(*) we  VE(*) ll  (also called Common Opossum)
    Didelphis marsupialis
    AR name: Comadreja Grande
    BR name: Gamba de Orelha Preta

    Geographic range:
    from eastern Mexico to Brazil & Bolivia. 

    Didelphis marsupialis
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

  2. White-eared Opossum  (ph)  ______ AR  BR(*) af  EC  UG(*)  
    Didelphis albiventris
    BR: Gamba de Orelha Branca

    Geographic range:
    from Colombia & Venezuela to central Argentina

    A White-eared Opossum photographed during a FONT tour
    in Uruguay in October 2010
    (photo by Bob Enever)   

  3. Big-eared Opossum  ______  AR(*)  BR  (was part of the Southern, or Black-eared Opossum
    Didelphis aurita

    Geographic range:
    in eastern Brazil, Paraguay, & northeastern Argentina & southeastern Brazil


  4. Water Opossum (or Yapok)  ______  AR  EC
    Chironectes minimus

    Geographic range:
    from southern Mexico and Belize to northeastern Argentina  


  5. Thick-tailed Opossum  ______  AR  (another name is Lutrine Opossum)
    Lutreolina crassicaudata

    Geographic range:
    east of the Andes in Bolivia, southern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and northern Argentina.
    Another population, far to the north, was long known from only 2 specimens taken in Guyana. Recently (1976), 4 more specimens were collected from eastern Venezuela and later (in 1982) 9 were collected in eastern Colombia.
    It is possible that the species may be found to occur in the intervening region of central South America.    


  6. Gray "Four-eyed" Opossum  ______  BR  EC
    Philander opossum  

    Geographic range:
    from northeastern Mexico to Peru, Bolivia, and southwestern Brazil.

    Philander opossum
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

  7. Anderson's "Four-eyed" Opossum  ______  EC  (another name is Black "Four-eyed" Opossum
    Philander andersoni

    Geographic range:
    in eastern Colombia, Ecuador, southern Venezuela, western Brazil, Peru

  8. Bridled "Four-eyed" Opossum  ______  AR  (also called the Southeastern Four-eyed Opossum)
    Philander frenata

    Philander frenata
    was part of the Gray Four-eyed Opossum (above), Philander opossum,   

    Geographic range:
    from southeastern Brazil to Paraguay and northeastern Argentina, in coastal forest

  9. McIlhenny's "Four-eyed" Opossum  ______  (was part of the Black, or Anderson's Four-eyed Opossum)
    Philander mcilhennyi

    Geographic range:
    in western Amazonian Brazil & northeastern Peru, in rainforest


  10. Derby's Woolly Opossum ______  EC  (another name is Central American Woolly Opossum)
    Caluromys derbianus

    Geographic range:
    from southern Mexico to Ecuador 

  11. Brown-eared Woolly Opossum ______  AR  EC  (another name is Western Woolly Opossum
    Caluromys lanatus

    Geographic range:
    from Colombia to northern Argentina & southern Brazil

  12. Bare-tailed Woolly Opossum ______   
    Caluromys philander

    Geographic range:
    from Venezuela to southern Brazil 

    Caluromys philander
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758.


  13. Black-shouldered Opossum ______  
    Caluromysiops irrupta

    Caluromysiops irrupta
    is known with certainty only from 3 locations in southern Amazonian Brazil, and one on the upper Jaru Riverin west-central Brazil.
    A report from extreme southern Colombia is said to be doubtful.

    Caluromysiops irrupta
    was described in 1951.


  14. Bushy-tailed Opossum  ______  EC
    Glironia venusta 
    (the single member of its genus)

    Glironia venusta has been known from just a few specimens (8) collected in the Amazonian regions
    Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia. Said to be in humid tropical forests and assumed to be arboreal. 


  15. Linnaeus' Mouse-Opossum  (ph)  ______ EC(*) az, VE(*)  (another name is Murine Mouse-Opossum  
    Marmosa murina

    Geographic range:
    in northern & central South America; also Tobago.  

    Marmosa murina was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    A Linnaeus', or Murine Mouse-Opossum photographed 
    during a FONT tour in Venezuela.
    The small animal had been in the nest of bird's nest made of mud,
    the nest of a Hornero.

  16. Anderson's Mouse-Opossum (t1) ______ PE  
    Marmosa andersoni

    Geographic range:
    in southern Peru in the Cosnipata region near Cusco 

    Marmosa andersoni
    was described in 1972.

  17. Rufous Mouse-Opossum ______  EC  (another name has been Little Rufous Opossum
    Marmosa lepida 

    Geographic range:
    very locally from Surinam to Ecuador, Bolivia, & southern Brazil 

  18. Robinson's Mouse-Opossum ______  EC
    Marmosa robinsoni

    Geographic range:
    from Belize to Ecuador & Venezuela; also Trinidad & Tobago and Grenada 

  19. Red Mouse-Opossum ______  EC
    Marmosa rubra

    Geographic range:
    in eastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, northeastern Peru

  20. Tyler's Mouse-Opossum ______ VE  
    Marmosa tyleriana

    Geographic range:
    in southern Venezuela in the tepuis 

    Marmosa tyleriana
    was described in 1931.

  21. Dryland Mouse-Opossum (t2) ______  (another name is Guajira Mouse-Opossum 
    Marmosa xerophila

    Geographic range:
    in northwestern Venezuela & northeastern Colombia

    Marmosa xerophila
    was described in 1979.

    The following in the genus MARMOSA are in the subgenus MICOUREUS.

  22. White-bellied Woolly Mouse-Opossum  ______  AR  (another name has been Pale-bellied Woolly Mouse Opossum
    Marmosa constantiae  

    Geographic range:
    in Mato Grosso in Brazil, also Bolivia & northern Argentina 

  23. Long-furred Woolly Mouse-Opossum  ______  (known locally as the "Cuica")
    Marmosa demerarae   

    Geographic range:
    from Colombia, Venezuela, & the Guianas to eastern Peru, northern Bolivia, & northern Brazil

  24. Little Woolly Mouse-Opossum  ______  (was part of the Little Woolly Mouse-Opossum)
    Marmosa phaea

    Geographic range:
    from Panama to western Ecuador

  25. Bare-tailed Woolly Mouse-Opossum  ______  EC  (another name is Short-furred Woolly Mouse-Opossum)
    Marmosa regina 

    Geographic range:
    in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and central Amazonian Brazil 

  26. Tate's Woolly Mouse-Opossum  ______  AR
    Marmosa paraguayanus

    Geographic range:
    in southeastern Brazil, Paraguay, northeastern Argentina, in the Atlantic Forest

    Marmosa paraguayanus
    was described in 1931, and named after the American zoologist George Tate.    


  27. Aceramarca Gracile Mouse-Opossum  (t1)  ______
    Gracilinanus aceramarcae  

    Geographic range:
    in southern Peru & western Bolivia in Yungas

  28. Agile Gracile Mouse-Opossum  ______  AR
    Gracilinanus agilis  

    Geographic range:
    in eastern & south-central Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, northeastern Argentina

  29. Wood Sprite Gracile Mouse-Opossum  ______ 
    Gracilinanus dryas  

    Geographic range:
    in Colombia & northwestern Venezuela

  30. Emilia's Gracile Mouse-Opossum  ______
    Gracilinanus emiliae  
    (now includes Gracilinanus longicaudus of central Colombia; merged in 2001) 

    Geographic range:  in northern Brazil, Colombia, Suriname, French Guiana. Very few records

  31. Red-bellied Gracile Mouse-Opossum  (t1)  ______  
    Gracilinanus ignitus

    Gracilinanus ignitus is only known from the holotype specimen collected in 1962 in northwestern Argentina, in Jujuy in the Yuto region. The species was described in 2002.     

  32. Kalinowski's Gracile Mouse-Opossum  ______  
    Gracilinanus kalinowski  

    Geographic range;
    from Guyana to eastern Peru, very few records 

    Gracilinanus kalinowski was described in 1992.

  33. Northern Gracile Mouse-Opossum  ______
    Gracilinanus marica   

    Geographic range:
    in Colombia & northern Venezuela 

  34. Brazilian Gracile Mouse-Opossum  ______  AR
    Gracilinanus microtarsus  

    Geographic range:
    in southeastern Brazil, from Minas Gerais to Rio Grande do Sul, and in northeastern Argentina, in Missiones

  35. Sierra de Perjira Gracile Mouse-Opossum  ______  
    Gracilinanus perijae  

    Geographic range:
    in northeastern Colombia 

    Gracilinanus perijae
    was described in 1992.

  36. Chacoan Gracile Opossum  ______  AR  BR
    Cyptonanus chacoensis

    Geographic range:
    in Paraguay, southwestern Brazil, northern Argentina, in seasonally flooded grasslands & forests in & near the Gran Chaco. 

    Cyptonanum chacoensis
    was described in 1931.

  37. Red-bellied Gracile Opossum  ______  AR (endemic)
    Cryptonanus ignitus

    Cryptonanus ignitus
    was last seen in 1962, and is now presumed to be extinct. Its known geographical range was in the Jujuy province in northern Argentina. Where it occurred, the forest habitat has been destroyed.

    From a specimen, Cryptonanus ignitus was described in 2007.

  38. Agricola's Gracile Opossum  ______  BR (endemic)
    Cryptonanus agricolai

    Geographic range:
    in eastern Brazil, in caatigna and cerrado habitats.

    Cryptonanus agricolai
    was described in 2007. It was named after a Brazilian physician, Ernani Agricola.   

  39. Guahiba Gracile Opossum  ______  BR  (endemic)
    Cryptonanus guahybae

    Geographic range:
    in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, only known on 3 islands: Guahiba, Sao Lourenceo, and Taquara, in forests.

    Cryptonanus guahybae
    was described in 1931. 

  40. Unduavi Gracile Opossum  ______  BO  (endemic)
    Cryptonanus unduaviensis

    Geographic range: in northern Bolivia, in seasonally flooded grassland.

    Some specimens previously assigned to the Agile Gracile Mouse-Opossum, Gracililinanus agilis (above), are now said to be Cryponanus unduaviensis.

    Cryponanus unduaviensis was described in 1931

    The following genus MARMOSOPS 
    has been part of MARMOSA.

  41. Bishop's Slender Mouse-Opossum ______ PE  (was part of the Delicate Slender Mouse-Opossum)  
    Marmosops bishopi  

    Marmosops bishopi
    was described in 1981.

  42. Slim-faced Slender Mouse-Opossum  (t2)  ______
    Marmosops cracens  

    Geographic range: in northwestern Venezuela 

  43. Dorothy's Slender Mouse-Opossum  ______
    Marmosops dorothea  

    Geographic range:
    in central Bolivia & southern Amazonian Brazil

  44. Gray-bellied Slender Mouse-Opossum  ______ 
    Marmosops fuscata  

    Geographic range:
    in eastern Colombia, northern Venezuela, Trinidad

  45. Handley's Slender Mouse-Opossum  (t1)  ______
    Marmosops handleyi  

    Marmoscops handleyi
    is known only from the type locality in central Colombia, in the Antioquia region.

  46. Tschudi's Slender Mouse-Opossum  ______  EC  (another name is Andean Slender Mouse-Opossum
    Marmosops impavidus

    Geographic range:
    from eastern Panama to Venezuela and southern Peru & Bolivia 

  47. Gray Slender Mouse-Opossum  ______
    Marmosops incana  

    Geographic range:
    in eastern & southeastern Brazil, from Bahia to Parana, in Atlantic coastal forest  

  48. Junin Slender Mouse-Opossum  ______  (was part of the Delicate Slender Mouse-Opossum)
    Marmosops juninensis

    Geographic range:
    in central Peru

  49. Cerro Neblina Slender Mouse-Opossum  ______  (was part of the Andean Slender Mouse-Opossum)
    Marmosops neblina

    Geographic range:
    Venezuela, central Amazonian Brazil, and eastern Ecuador

  50. White-bellied Slender Mouse-Opossum ______ EC(*) az
    Marmosops noctivaga

    Geographic range: in western Amazonian Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia

  51. Delicate Slender Mouse-Opossum  ______
    Marmosops parvidens   

    Geographic range:
    in Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, Peru, central Brazil

  52. Sao Paulo Slender Mouse-Opossum  ______  (was part of the Gray Slender Mouse-Opossum)
    Marmosops paulensis

    Geographic range:
    in southeastern Brazil, from southern Minas Gerais & Sao Paulo

  53. Pinheiro's Slender Mouse-Opossum  ______  (was part of the Delicate Slender Mouse-Opossum 
    Marmosops pinheiroi

    Geographic range:
    French Guiana


    The following genus THYLAMYS has been part of MARMOSA.

  54. Cinderella Fat-tailed Opossum  ______  AR  (was part of the Elegant Fat-tailed Opossum)
    Thylamys cinderella

    Geographic range:
    in northwestern Argentina

  55. Elegant Fat-tailed Opossum  ______  AR  CH
    Thylamys elegans 

    Geographic range:
    in central Peru, Bolivia, Chile, northwestern Argentina

  56. Long-tailed Fat-tailed Opossum  ______
    Thylamys macrurus  

    Geographic range:
    southern Brazil, Paraguay

    Thylamys macrura
    was known as Marmosa grisea. 

  57. White-bellied Fat-tailed Opossum  ______  AR  CH  (also called Pallid Fat-tailed Opossum)
    Thylamys pallidior 

    Geographic range:
    in Bolivia, Argentina

  58. Common Fat-tailed Opossum  ______  AR  (also called the Small Fat-tailed Opossum)
    Thylamys pusillus  

    Geographic range:
    in central & southern Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, southern Bolivia

  59. Argentine Fat-tailed Opossum  ______  AR  (another name is the Sponsorial Fat-tailed Opossum)
    Thylamys sponsorius

    Thylamys sponsorius
    was part of the Elegant Fat-tailed Opossum (above).

    Geographic range:
    in northwestern Argentina  

  60. Velvety Fat-tailed Opossum  ______
    Thylamys velutinus  

    Geographic range:
    in east-central Brazil, in cerrado & caatinga habitats

  61. Buff-bellied Fat-tailed Opossum  ______  AR  (another name is the Pretty Fat-tailed Opossum
    Thylamys venustus

    Thylamys venustus
    was part of the Elegant Fat-tailed Opossum (above).

    Geographic range:
    in Bolivia & northwestern Argentina 

  62. Chacoan Pygmy Opossum  (t3)  ______  AR  (endemic)
    Chacodelphys formosa 
    (the only member of its genus; the genus erected in 2004)

    Until 2004, the Chacoan Pygmy Opossum was known from only one specimen that was collected in 1920 in the Formosa province in Argentina, in the chaco habitat.

    Chacodelphys formosa has been (since 1930) either Marmosa or Thylamys formosa, and later (after 1989) part of Gracilinanus agilus (above) and subsequently Gracilinanus formosus.   

    Chacodelphys formosa
    is the smallest known didelphid. It head-body length is 2.7 inches. Its tail 2.2 inches.


  63. Patagonian Opossum  ______  AR  
    Lestodelphys halli 
    (the single member of its genus)

    Lestodelphys halli has been known from just a few specimens (9) taken at 3 localities in Patagonia, Argentina.


    Brown "Four-eyed" Opossum  ______  AR
    Metachirus nudicaudatus
      (the single member of its genus)   

    Geographic range:
    from extreme southern Mexico to northeastern Brazil & northeastern Argentina


  64. Sepia Short-tailed Opossum  ______  EC
    Monodelphus adusta    

    Geographic range:
    from eastern Panama to western Venezuela & northern Peru 

  65. Three-striped Short-tailed Opossum  ______  BR
    Monodelphus americana  

    Geographic range:
    in northern & central Brazil

  66. Northern Red-sided Opossum  ______
    Monodelphus brevicaudata  

    Geographic range:
    in Venezuela, the Guianas, & northern Brazil

  67. Southern Short-tailed Opossum  ______  AR  (also called Yellow-sided Opossum)
    Monodelphus dimidiata

    Geographic range:
    in southeastern Brazil, Uruguay, eastern Argentina 

  68. Gray Short-tailed Opossum  ______  AR
    Monodelphus domestica

    Geographic range:
    in eastern & central Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay

  69. Emilia's Short-tailed Opossum  ______
    Monodelphus emiliae  

    Geographic range:
    in Amazonian Brazil & northeastern Peru

  70. Ihering's Short-tailed Opossum  ______  BR
    Monodelphus iheringi  

    Geographic range:
    in southern Brazil

  71. Pygmy Short-tailed Opossum   ______  AR
    Monodelphus kunsi  

    Geographic range:
    in Bolivia, Brazil, & Argentina

  72. Marajo Short-tailed Opossum  ______
    Monodelphus maraxina  

    Geographic range:
    on Isla Marajo in Para, northeastern Brazil

  73. Orinoco Short-tailed Opossum  ______  (was part of the Red-legged Short-tailed Opossum)  
    Monodelphus orinoci

    Geographic range:
    Venezuela, in the llanos

  74. Osgood's Short-tailed Opossum  ______
    Monodelphus osgoodi  

    Geographic range:
    in southern Peru & western Bolivia

  75. Chestnut-striped Short-tailed Opossum  ______  BR
    Monodelphus rubida  

    Geographic range:
    in eastern Brazil from Goias to Sao Paulo

  76. Long-nosed Short-tailed Opossum  ______  AR  BR
    Monodelphus scalops  

    Geographic range:
    in southeastern Brazil 

  77. Southern Red-sided Opossum  ______  AR  (has also been called Shrewish Short-tailed Opossum)
    Monodelphus sorex

    Geographic range:
    in southern Brazil, southeastern Paraguay, northeastern Argentina 

  78. Theresa's Short-tailed Opossum  ______
    Monodelphus theresa  

    Geographic range:
    in eastern Brazil, and in the Andes of Peru   

  79. One-striped Short-tailed Opossum  (t1)  ______  AR  BR   
    Monodelphus unistriata  

    Geographic range:
    in southeastern Brazil in the Itarare region of Sao Paulo; where known from the holotype collected before 1842. Another specimen is said to have been collected, more recently, in northeastern Argentina.  

    Monodelphus unistriata
    is possibly extinct.

    in the order PAUCITUBERCULATA: 
    highly relictual, there are 7 extinct families in the order

    in the family CAENOLESTIDAE


  80. Gray-bellied Shrew-Opossum (or Caenolestid) (nt)  ______  EC
    Caenolestes caniventer  

    Geographic range:
    in the Andes of southwestern Ecuador & northern Peru

  81. Andean Shrew-Opossum (or Caenolestid) (t3)  ______  EC  (another name has been Condor Shrew-Opossum 
    Caenolestes condorensis

    Geographic range:
    in Ecuador in the Cordillera del Condor 

    Caenolestes condorensis
    was described in 1996.

  82. Northern Shrew-Opossum (or Caenolestid) (t3)  ______  EC  (another name is Blackish Shrew-Opossum)
    Caenolestes convelatus  

    Geographic range:
    in the Andes of western Colombia & north-central Ecuador

  83. Dusky Shrew-Opossum (or Caenolestid ______  EC  (another name is Silky Shrew-Opossum)
    Caenolestes fuliginosus  

    Geographic range:
    in the Andes of northern & western Colombia, extreme western Venezuela, Ecuador 

  84. Caenolestes (or Lestoros) gracilis  ______

    Geographic range:
    in the Andes of southeastern Peru

  85. Incan Shrew-Opossum  ______
    (or Lestoros) inca

    Geographic range:
    in the Andes of south-central Peru

  86. Long-nosed Shrew-Opossum (or Long-nosed Caenolestid) (nt)  ______  AR  CH 
    Rhyncholestes raphanurus

    Rhyncholestes raphanurus
    was called the Chilean Shrew-Opossum, and includes what was Rhyncholestes continentalis in Chile. 

    Geographic range:
    in southern Chile & adjacent Argentina, in old growth evergreen temperate forests  

    in the order MICROBIOTHERIA:
    has the most restricted recent distribution of any order of mammals (other than possibly the extinct BIBYMALAGASIA)

    has been said to be in the magorder AUSTRALIDELPHIA  

    in the family MICROBIOTHERIIDAE:
    aside from the one surviving species, this is an otherwise extinct family of New World marsupials


  87. Monito del Monte  (nt)  ______  AR  CH  (the only species in its genus and its order) 
    Dromiciops australis  

    The Monito del Monte occurs only in south-central Chile from the vicinity of Concepcion south to Chiloe Island, and east to slightly beyond the Argentina border in the mountains.
    It inhabits dense, humid forests, especially places with thickets of Chilean Bamboo (Chusquea sp.)

    ARMADILLOS - Family Dasypodidae 
    (globally 21 species)

  88. Nine-banded (Long-nosed) Armadillo  (ph)  ______ AR(*)  BR(*) mt  EC 
    Dasypus novemcinctus
    AR name: Mulita Grande, Cachicamo, Tatu-hu
    BR name: Tatu-Galinha or Mulita Grande

    Geographic range:
    wide-ranging, from the south-central US to northern Argentina  

    Dasypus novemcinctus
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Nine-banded (Long-nosed) Armadillo

  89. Southern Long-nosed Armadillo  (nt)  ______  AR 
    Dasypus hybridus

    Geographic range:
    in southern Paraguay, northern Argentina, Uruguay, & southern Brazil, in grasslands

  90. Great Long-nosed Armadillo  ______  EC  
    Dasypus kappleri

    Geographic Range:
    from eastern Colombia to Suriname, south to Amazonian Brazil, in forests

  91. Hairy Long-nosed Armadillo ______  
    Dasypus pilosus

    Geographic range:
    in south-central Peru, in high elevations of the west Andean slope

  92. Llanos Long-nosed Armadillo ______ 
    Dasypus sabanicola

    Geographic range:
    in central Venezuela & central Colombia, in llanos & savannas  

  93. Seven-banded Armadillo ______  AR
    Dasypus septemcinctus

    Geographic range:
    from southeastern Amazonian & eastern Brazil to Bolivia, Paraguay, & northern Argentina, in grassland & forest 

  94. Yepes' Long-nosed Armadillo ______  AR  (also called Yepes' Mulita)
    Dasypus yepesi

    Geographic range:
    in northwestern Argentina, in Salta & Jujuy provinces

    Dasypus yepesi
    was described in 1995.

  95. Andean Hairy Armadillo  (t3)  ______  AR  CH
    Chaetophractus nationi

    Geographic range:
    in northern Chile in the altiplano & Bolivia in the puna

  96. Screaming Hairy Armadillo ______   AR
    Chaetophractus vellerosus

    Geographic range:
    from Bolivia & northwestern Paraguay to central Argentina, in dry sandy areas of chaco regions 

  97. Big Hairy Armadillo  (ph)  ______  AR(*)  CH
    Chaetophractus villosus

    Geographic range:
    southern Bolivia & Paraguay to southern Chile & Argentina.

    Above & below: the Big Hairy Armadillo, photographed during 
    the FONT tour in southern Argentina in December 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  98. Northern Naked-tailed Armadillo ______ 
    Cabassous centralis

  99. Chacoan Naked-tailed Armadillo  (nt)  ______  AR
    Cabassous chacoensis

  100. Greater Naked-tailed Armadillo  ______  AR(*) ne
    Cabassous tatouay

  101. Southern Naked-tailed Armadillo  ______  EC
    Cabassous unicinctus  

    Cabassous unicinctus
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

  102. Six-banded Armadillo (ph)  ______  AR  BR(*) mt  (has been called Yellow Armadillo)
    Euphractus sexcinctus 
    (the single member of its genus)
    BR: Tatu Peba or Tatu Peludo

    Geographic range:
    from Suriname & north-central Brazil south to Uruguay & northern Argentina, in rainforest & savanna

    Euphractus sexcinctus was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    Six-banded Armadillo

  103. Pichi  (nt)   ______  AR(*)  CH  (open areas of S & C Argentina & S & C Chile)
    Zaedyus pichiy 
    (the single member of its genus)
    AR: Pichi (Patagonico)

    Geographic range:
    in central & southern Argentina and central & southern Chile, in open areas

  104. Chacoan Fairy Armadillo ______  AR  (also called Greater Fairy Armadillo)
    Calyptophrae (formerly Chlamyphorus) retusus

  105. Pink Fairy Armadillo ______  AR
    Chlamyphorus truncatus

  106. Southern Three-banded Armadillo  (nt)  ______  AR
    Tolypeutes matacus

  107. Brazilian Three-banded Armadillo ______
    Tolypeutes tricinctus

  108. Giant Armadillo  (t3) (ph)  ______  AR  BR  EC
    Priodontes maximus
      (the single member of its genus)

    Giant Armadillo

    AMERICAN ANTEATERS - Family Myrmecophagidae 
    (3 species)

  109. Giant Anteater  (t3) (ph)  ______  AR  BR(*) az,mn,mt  EC  VE(*) ll
    Myrmecophaga tridactyla
    BR name: Tamandua Bandeira

    Myrmecophaga tridactyla
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    The above Giant Anteater was photographed at night during our Brazil Tour 
    in Mato Grosso do Sul in September 2006. 
    We saw a nice number of these animals both day & night.
    In the photo, the head of the anteater is to the right, with its long nose 
    toward the ground as the animal feeds. Note the small ear.  
    (Above photo by Andy Smith)
    Below is another photograph of a Giant Anteater, walking in open countryside 
    of Brazilian grassland.

    Giant Anteater

  110. Northern Tamandua  (ph)  ______  EC
    Tamandua mexicana

    Three subspecies of the Northern Tamandua occur in South America:
    Tamandua mexicana punensis in Ecuador & Peru, west of the Andes. 
    Tamandua mexicana opistholeuca in most of Colombia
    Tamandua mexicana instabilis in northern Colombia & Venezuela.

    Northern Tamandua

  111. Southern Tamandua  ______  AR  BR(*) mt  EC(*) az  VE(*) ll  
    Tamandua tetradactyla
    BR name: Tamandua Colete or Mambira or Tamandua Mirim
    EC & VE name: Tamandua or Oso Colmenero

    The Southern Tamadua
    is also called the Collared Tamandua, or Collared Anteater.  

    Tamandua tetradactyla
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    SILKY ANTEATER - Family Cyclopedidae  (1 species)

  112. Silky Anteater  ______  EC
    Cyclopes didactylus
      (the single member of its genus & family)  

    TWO-TOED SLOTHS - Family Megalonychidae 
    (2 species)

  113. Linnaeus' Two-toed Sloth  ______  EC  VE(*)  (was called the Southern Two-toed Sloth)
    Choloepus didactylus
    VE: Perezoso de Dos Dedos

    Choloepus didactylus
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

  114. Hoffmann's Two-toed Sloth  (ph)  ______  EC
    Choloepus hoffmanni 

    Hoffmann's Two-toed Sloth

    THREE-TOED SLOTHS - Family Bradypodidae 
    (totally 4 species)  

  115. Maned Three-toed Sloth (t2) (ph)  ______  BR(*) se
    Bradypus torquatus

    A rare Maned Three-toed Sloth.
    Bradypus torquatus,
    clinging on the trunk of a Cecropia Tree
    (photographed by Marie Gardner during the FONT March 2008 Brazil Tour) 

  116. Pale-throated Three-toed Sloth  ______  BR(*) am, VE(*)
    Bradypus tridactylus

  117. Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth  (ph)  ______  EC
    Bradypus variegatus 
    VE: Perezoso de Tres Dedos

    Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth

    RABBITS - Family Leporidae 
    (globally 57 species)

  118. Tapiti (or Forest Rabbit) ______  AR  BR(*) mn,mt  EC(*) an  (also called Brazilian Rabbit
    Silvilagus brasiliensis
    BR name: Coelho or Tapiti
    EC name: Conejo

    The Tapiti occurs up into high mountains, as in the Andes of Ecuador. 

    Silvilagus brasiliensis was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

  119. Eastern Cottontail  (ph)  ______ VE(*) 
    Sylvilagus floridannus

    Sylvilagus floridannus is mostly a North American species. Venezuela is at the southern end of its range.

  120. European Rabbit  (i)  ______  AR(*)  CH(*)
    Oryctolagus cuniculus
    CH name: Conejo

  121. European (or Brown) Hare  (i) (ph)  ______  AR(*)  CH(*)
    Lepus europaeus
    CH name: Liebre

    European Hares, pursued and pursuing. One both.
    During the FONT tour in Southern Argentina in December 2013.
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

    the gnawing mammals, in the Order Rodentia, which is the largest order of mammals with nearly 2,000 species worldwide 

    SQUIRRELS - Family Sciuridae  (globally 276 species worldwide)

  122. Guianan (or Brazilian) Squirrel  (ph)  ______  AR  BR(*) ig,mn,se
    Sciurus aestuans ingrami
    (in se Brazil)
    (in se Brazil)
    AR name: Ardilla Gris
    BR names: Esquilo or: Caxixe, Serelepe, Quatipuru, Caxinguele 

    A Guianan, or Brazilian, Squirrel photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  123. Southern Amazon Red Squirrel  (ph)  ______ BR(*) af  EC(*) az
    Sciurus spadiceus
    BR names: Esquilo or Quatipuru

    The Southern & Northern Amazon Red Squirrels are very similar. The Southern Amazon Red Squirrel is reddish, rather finely grizzled with black. 
    The Northern Amazon Squirrel is coarsely grizzled, with yellowish black on the back. Both species occur in Amazonian Ecuador. 

    Southern Amazon Red Squirrel
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet)

  124. Northern Amazon Red Squirrel  ______  EC(*) az  VE(*)
    Sciurus igniventris
    EC name: Huayuashi
    VE name: Ardilla

  125. Red-tailed Squirrel ______ EC  VE(*)
    Sciurus granatensis
    VE name: Ardilla 

  126. Guayaquil Squirrel  (ph)  ______  EC(*) we
    Sciurus stramineus
    EC names: Ardilla parda or Ardilla Nucha Blanca, or Ardilla Mora, or Ardilla Negra
    (with an assortment of local names as there is much individual variation of color within populations) 

  127. Bolivian Squirrel  ______  AR
    Sciurus ignitus
    AR name: Ardilla Roja

  128. Amazon Dwarf Squirrel ______  EC(*) az
    Microsciurus flaviventer

  129. Western Dwarf Squirrel  ______  EC
    Microsciurus mimulus

    BEAVERS - Family Castoridae 
    (globally 2 species, 1 in the Americas)

  130. American Beaver  (i) (ph)  ______  AR(*) tf  CH
    Castor canadensis 

    The American Beaver was introduced into Tierra del Fuego for their pelts. It is now quite common there.
    The introduction was in 1946 by Argentine fur breeders. When the fur industry declined, animals from that trade went into the wild. They have since spread north from the Strait of Magellan into the Andean forests of southern Chile, and they have colonized on many of the Fuegian islands.  


    American Beaver   

    NEOTROPICAL MICE - Subfamily Sigmodontinae  (totally about 460 species)

    Among the following rodents, the AKODONTS are a large group, of about 105 species. They are small to medium-sized field mice and grass mice, distributed mainly in the southern half of South America.
    They are adapted to terrestrial and semi-fossorial life, and they have a tail shorter than their head and body length.   

  131. Andean Altiplano Mouse  ______  AR  CH  (also called Andean Akodont)
    Abrothrix (or Chroeomys) andinus

  132. Gray Grass Mouse  (nt)  ______  AR
    Abothrix illuteus

  133. Jelski's Altiplano Mouse  ______  AR
    Abrothrix jelskii

  134. Woolly Grass Mouse  ______  AR  CH   (also called Woolly Akodont)
    Abrothrix lanosus
    CH name: Raton Colorado

  135. Long-haired Grass Mouse  ______  AR  CH  (also called Long-haired Akodont)
    Abrothrix longipilis
    CH name: Ratoncito lanudo

  136. Olive Grass Mouse  ______  AR  CH  (also called Olive Akodont)
    Abrothrix olivaceus
    (formerly xanthorhinus)
    AR name: Raton Hocico Bayo 
    CH name: Raton Olivaceo

  137. Sanborn's Grass Mouse  (nt)  ______  AR  CH  (also called Sanborn's Akodont)
    Abrothrix sanborni
    CH name: Raton negruzco

  138. Yellow-nosed Grass Mouse  ______  CH  (also called Yellow-nosed Akodont)
    Abrothrix xanthorhinus
    CH name: Raton Hocico Bayo  

  139. White-bellied Grass Mouse  ______  AR  CH
    Akodon albiventer
    CH name: Raton Ventriblanco 

  140. Azara's Grass Mouse ______  AR(*) ne  BR(*) se
    Akodon azarai 

  141. Bolivian Grass Mouse  ______  AR
    Akodon boliviensis

  142. Budin's Grass Mouse  ______  AR
    Akodon bidini

  143. Akondon caenosus  ______  AR

  144. Cursor Grass Mouse  ______  AR
    Akodon cursor
    AR name: Raton de Monte 

  145. Dolorous Grass Mouse  ______  AR
    Akodon dolores

  146. Smoky Grass Mouse  ______  AR
    Akodon fumeus

  147. Akodon glaucinus  ______  AR

  148. Hershkovitz's Grass Mouse  ______  CH
    Akodon hershkovitzi

  149. Intelligent Grass Mouse  ______  AR
    Akodon iniscatus

  150. Altiplano Grass Mouse  ______  AR
    Akodon lutescens  

  151. Markham's Grass Mouse  ______  CH  (also called the Wellington Akodont)
    Akodon markhami

  152. Montane Grass Mouse  ______  AR
    Akodon montensis

  153. Neuquen Grass Mouse  ______  AR
    Akodon neocenus

  154. Parana Grass Mouse  ______  AR
    Akodon paranaensis

  155. Philip Myers' Akodont  ______  AR
    Akodon philipmyersi

  156. Akodon polopi  ______  AR

  157. White-throated Grass Mouse  ______  AR
    Akodon simulator

  158. Spegazzini's Grass Mouse  ______  AR
    Akodon spegazzinii

  159. Forest Grass Mouse  ______  AR
    Akodon sylvanus

  160. Akodon tartareus  ______  AR

  161. Chaco Grass Mouse  ______  AR
    Akodon toba 

  162. Olrog's Chaco Mouse  ______  AR
    Andalgalomys olrogi

  163. Andean Mouse  ______  AR
    Andinomys edax

  164. Andean Big-eared Mouse  ______  AR
    Auliscomys sublimis

  165. Chaco Crimson-nosed Rat  ______  AR
    Bibimys chacoensis

  166. Large-tipped Crimson-nosed Rat  ______  AR
    Bibimys labiosus

  167. Torres' Crimson-nosed Rat  (nt)  ______  AR
    Bibimys torresi

  168. Brazilian Shrew-Mouse  ______  AR
    Blarinomys breviceps  

  169. Andean Long-clawed Mouse  ______  AR  CH 
    Chelemys macronyx
    CH name: Raton Topo Grande

    Other names for Chelemys macronyx are Andean Long-clawed Akodont, or Shrub Mole-Mouse

  170. Web-footed Marsh Rat  ______  AR(*) ne  (another name has been Red Marsh Rat)
    Nolochilus brasiliensis
    AR name: Rata Nutria Comun

  171. Waterhouse's Swamp Rat  ______  AR
    Scapteromys tumidus
    AR name: Rata de Pajonal

    MUSKRAT - Subfamily Arvicoliinae 
    (in the same subfamily as Voles & Lemmings, in which there are totally 140 species worldwide) 

  172. Muskrat  (i) (ph)  ______  CH(*) tf
    Ondatra zibethica

    The Muskrat was Introduced into Tierra del Fuego, as the Beaver, for their pelts. Now apparently more common than that species in ponds in treeless areas.

    TRUE MICE & RATS - Subfamily Murinae  (globally about 535 species)
  173. House Mouse (i) ______  BR(*) se, VE(*)
    Mus musculus
    BR: Cachita

  174. Brown Rat (i) ______ BR(*) am,fs
    Rattus norvegicus

    NEW WORLD PORCUPINES - Family Erethizontidae 
    (totally 17 species, in the Americas)

  175. Brazilian (or Prehensile-tailed) Porcupine  ______  AR  BR(*) mt
    Coendou prehensilis
    AR name: Coendu Misionero
    BR name: Ourico or Porco Espinho

    Coendou prehensilis
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

  176. Bicolor-spinned Porcupine ______  EC(*) az
    Coendou bicolor
    EC name: Puchan

  177. Koopman's Porcupine ______ BR
    Coendou nycthemera

  178. Bahia Hairy Dwarf Porcupine ______ BR
    Sphiggurus insidiosus

  179. Black-tailed Hairy Dwarf Porcupine ______ BR
    Sphiggurus melanurus

  180. Roosmalen's Hairy Dwarf Porcupine ______ BR
    Sphiggurus roosmalenorum

  181. Orange-spined Hairy Dwarf Porcupine ______  BR  (endemic)
    Sphiggurus villosus

    Geographic range: in southern Brazil

  182. Paraguaian Hairy Dwarf Porcupine  ______  AR
    Sphiggurus spinosus

  183. Brown Hairy Dwarf Porcupine  ______  VE
    Sphiggurus vestitus

    Geographic range:
    in Venezuela & Colombia, in tropical or subtropical moist lowland forest

  184. Frosted Hairy Dwarf Porcupine  ______  VE
    Sphiggurus pruinosus

    Geographic range:
    in Colombia and in northern & eastern Venezuela, in lowland tropical rainforest & cloud forest 

  185. Streaked Dwarf Porcupine  ______  EC
    Sphiggurus ichillus

    Geographic range:
    in eastern Ecuador, and possibly Peru, in lowlands

    Sphiggurus ichillus
    was described in 2001. It is nocturnal and boreal, and thus not easy to see (explaining why it was not found until so recently).  

  186. Bristle-spined Porcupine ______ BR
    Chaetomys subspinosus 
    (the single member of its genus)

    AGOUTIS & PACAS - Family Agoutidae
    (totally 16 species)

  187. Green Acouchi ______ EC(*) az
    Myoprocta exilis
    (formerly M. pratti)
    EC name: Guatusa Pequena or Papali 

  188. Red Acouchi ______  BR  EC
    Myoprocta acouchy

  189. Central American Agouti  (ph)  ______  EC(*) we
    Dasyprocta punctata

    In addition to occurring in southern Mexico and Central America, the Central American Agouti occurs in South America as far south as southern Ecuador and east to far-western Venezuela.
    There is also a highly disjunct population in southeastern Peru, far southwestern Brazil, Bolivia, western Paraguay, and far northwestern Argentina. This disjunct population is sometimes treated as a separate species, the Brown Agouti, Dasyprocta variegata.
    A major review of the geographic taxonomy may well be necessary.      

  190. Black Agouti ______  EC(*) az
    Dasyprocta fuliginosa
    EC name: Guatusa

  191. Azara's Agouti ______  AR(*) ne  BR(*) mt  PG(*)
    Dasyprocta azarae
    AR name: Acuti Rojizo
    BR name: Cutia

  192. Red-rumped Agouti  (ph)  ______ BR(*) af,am,mn  VE(*)
    Dasyprocta leporina
    (formerly D. agouti)
    BR name: Cutia
    VE name: Picure or Acure

    A Red-rumped Agouti photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  193. Black-rumped Agouti ______ BR
    Dasyprocta prymnolopha

  194. Lowland Paca ______  AR  BR(*) af,mt  EC   (another name is Spotted Paca)
    Cuniculus paca 
    (the genus name has been Agouti
    (the genus name has been Agouti
    AR & BR name: Paca

    Cuniculus paca
    was described by Linnaeus in 1766.

  195. Mountain Paca  ______  EC
    Cuniculus taczanowskii

    PACARANA - Family Dinomyidae 
    (1 species)

  196. Pacarana  (t2) ______  BR  EC 
    Dinomys branickii 
    (the single member of its genus)

    Geographic range:  in Peru & western Brazil, in the Amazon basin.

    CAVIES & GUINEA-PIGS  - Family Caviidae 
    (totally 16 species)

  197. Common Yellow-toothed Cavy  (t3CH) ______  AR  (has also been called Highland Cavy)
    Galea musteloides

  198. Spix's Yellow-toothed Cavy ______  BR(*) se
    Galea spixii

  199. Southern Mountain Cavy  (t3CH) (ph)  ______  AR(*)  (has also been called Lesser Cavy, or the Small Patagonian Cavy)  
    Microavia australis
    AR name: Cuis Chico

    A Small Patagonian Cavy photographed during the
    FONT tour in southern Argentina in December 2013.
    This mammal was at the Magellanic Penguin colony 
    at Punta Tomba, also using burrows.
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  200. Shipton's Mountain Cavy  (nt)  ______  AR(*) nw
    Microcavia shiptoni

  201. Brazilian Guinea-Pig ______  AR(*) ne  BR(*) mt  EC
    Cavia aperea
    AR names: Cuis (Campestre) or Cuis (Selvatico) or Cuis Grande

  202. Shiny Guinea-Pig ______
    Cavia fulgida

  203. Greater Guinea-Pig ______ (*) BR fs  (*) UG
    Cavia magna 

  204. Montane Guinea-Pig  (t3CH) ______  AR  (has also been called Tschudi's Cavy)
    Cavia tschudii

  205. Acrobat Cavy ______ (in Goias, Brazil, in the area of the Rio Sao Mateus)
    Kerodon acrobata

  206. Rock Cavy ______  BR(*) mn
    Kerodon rupestris

  207. Patagonian Mara  (nt) (ph)  ______  AR(*) so  (also known as Patagonian Cavy)
    Dolichotis patagonum
    AR name: Mara (Patagonica) or Liebre Patagonica

    Patagonian Mara

  208. Chacoan Mara ______ AR
    (formerly Pediolagus) salinicola
    AR name: Conejo de los Palos

    CAPYBARA - Family Hydrochoeridae 
    (1 species, in the Neotropics)
    (1 species, in the Neotropics)

  209. Capybara  (ph)  ______  AR(*) ne  BR(*) af,mt,fs  VE(*) ll
    Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris 
    (the single member of its genus & family)
    (the single member of its genus & family)
    AR name: Carpincho 
    BR names: Capivara or Cupido

    The Capybara is the world's largest rodent. It is mostly aquatic.

    Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris
    was described by Linnaeus in 1766.

    Capybaras were seen both day
    (above) & night (below) during our
    tours in Mato Grosso do Sul, not only in September 2006 
    (when these photos were taken), but during every FONT tour in that area. 

    Another photo (below) of an adult & young Capybaras was taken during the 
    FONT tour in Mato Grosso do Sul, in August 2008.

    DEGUS & allies - Family Octodontidae 
    (mostly in Argentina & Chile)

  210. Coruro  (t1CH)  ______  CH(*) so  
    Spalacopus cyanus 
    (the single member of its genus)
    Spalacopus cyanus maulinus 
    (subspecies in Chile)

    Geographic range: in central Chile, in sandy soils of lowlands

  211. Chilean Rock Rat  ______  AR  CH  
    Pithanotomys fuscus

    Geographic range:
    in the Andes of central Chile & west-central Argentina, in montane forests & bunchgrass. 

  212. Sage's Rock Rat  ______  AR  CH  
    Pithanotomys sagei 

    Geographic range:
    locally in the Andes in Neuquen province of west-central Argentina & Malleco province of central Chile, in montane forests & bunchgrass.  

  213. Bridge's Degu  (t3) (t2CH)  ______  AR  CH  
    Octodon bridgesi

    Geographic range:
    in the Andes of central Chile & west-central Argentina, in forests & bamboo thickets.

  214. Common Degu ______  CH(*) cc  (in semiarid scrub of W slope of Andes of north-central Chile)
    Octodon degus
    CH: Degu de las Pircas

  215. Moon-toothed Degu  (t2CH) ______  CH  (also called Coastal Degu
    Octodon lunatus 

    Geographic range:
    in north-central Chile, in dense thorn scrub of coastal mountains.

  216. Mountain Degu  ______  AR  CH(*) fn  
    Octodontomys gliroides

    Geographic range:
    in southwest Bolivia, northern Chile, & northwest Argentina, in open dry rocky habitats of the Andes. 

  217. Mountain Viscacha-Rat  ______  AR   
    Octomys mimax 
    (the single member of its genus)

    The Mountain Viscacha Rat is not to be confused with the former Mountain Viscacha, that has been split to be the Northern Viscacha and the Southern Viscacha, in the Viscacha & Chinchilla family.    

    Geographic range: in northwest Argentina, on arid rocky slopes in Andean foothills.

  218. Golden Viscacha-Rat  (t1)  ______  AR (endemic) 
    Pipanacoctomys aureus 
    (the single member of its genus)

    Geographic range: in northwest Argentina, in Catamarca province.

  219. Chalchalero Vizcacha-Rat  (t1)  ______  AR
    Salinoctomys loschalchalerosorum

  220. Plains Viscacha-Rat  (nt)  ______  AR
    Tympanoctomys barrerae 
    (the single member of its genus)

    TUCO-TUCOS - Family Ctenomyidae

  221. Argentine Tuco-tuco  (nt)  ______ AR  (in the Chaco Province)
    Ctenomys argentinus

    Geographic range:
    in Argentina, in the Chaco habitat 

  222. Southern Tuco-tuco  (t2)  ______  AR
    Ctenomys australis
    AR name: Tuco-tuco costero

  223. Azara's Tuco-tuco  (t3)  ______  AR
    Ctenomys azarae

  224. Berg's Tuco-tuco  (t3)  ______  AR
    Ctenomys bergi

  225. Bolivian Tuco-tuco  ______  AR
    Ctenomys boliviensis

  226. Bonetto's Tuco-tuco  (t2)  ______  AR
    Ctenomys bonettoi

  227. Brazilian Tuco-tuco ______  BR(*) mn
    Ctenomys brasiliensis 

  228. Budin's Tuco-tuco  ______  AR
    Ctenomys budini

  229. Colburn's Tuco-tuco  ______  AR
    Ctenomys colburni

  230. Puntilla Tuco-tuco  ______  AR
    Ctenomys coludo

  231. Tawny Tico-tuco  ______  AR(*) nw
    Ctenomys fulvus
    AR name: Tucotuco del Tamarugal 

  232. Magellanic Tuco-tuco  (t3)  ______  AR(*)  CH(*) fs
    Ctenomys magellanicus 
    AR name: Tuco-tuco Austral

  233. Natterer's Tuco-tuco  ______  AR
    Ctenomys nattereri

  234. Salta Tuco-tuco  ______  AR
    Ctenomys saltarius

    SPINY RATS - Family Echimyidae 
    (totally 81 species)

  235. Common Spiny Tree Rat  ______  BR(*) af  EC(*) az
    Mesomys hispidus

  236. Venezuelan Spiny Rat ______
    Proechimys amphichoricus

  237. Huallaga Spiny Rat ______
    Proechimys brevicauda

  238. Cuvier's Spiny Rat ______  (in the Guianas and eastern Amazonian Brazil)
    Proechimys cuvieri

  239. Hairy Spiny Rat  ______  BR(*) mn  (in forests of Minas Gerais, Brazil)
    Proechimys setosus

  240. Atlantic Bamboo Rat  ______  AR
    Kannabateomys amblyonyx

  241. Fischer's Guiara  ______  AR
    Euryzygomatomys spinosus

  242. Punar ______  (in rocky outcrops, cerrado and caatinga of Paraguay & eastern Brazil)
    Thrichomys apereoides

    COYPU - Family Myocastoridae

  243. Coypu  (ph) ______  AR(*) ba  BR(*) fs, se  CH(*) ce
    Myocastor coypus
    AR & CH name: Coipo 
    BR name: Ratao do Banhado

    The Coypu is also known as the Nutria.

    A Coypu, or Nutria, photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

    VISCACHAS & CHINCHILLAS - Family Chinchillidae  (6 species)

  244. Northern Viscacha  (ph)  _____    BO(possibly)  CH(possibly)  PE
    Lagidium peruanum

    This and the following species, Lagidium viscacia, have been combined, as when so, it was called the Mountain Viscacha.  

    A Northern Viscacha, photographed during a FONT tour in far-northern Chile 

  245. Southern Viscacha  (ph)  ______  AR(*)  BO  CH(*)  PE
    Lagidium viscacia
    AR name: Chinchillon Comun
    CH name: Vizcacha de Montana    

    A Southern Viscacha, photographed during a FONT tour in central Chile

  246. Wolffsohn's Viscacha  ______  AR  CH
    Lagidium wolffsohni
    AR name: Chinchillon Anaranjado

    Geographic range:
    southwest Argentina & adjacent Chile 

  247. Ecuadorian Mountain Viscacha  (t1)  ______  EC
    Lagidium ahuacaense

    Lagidium ahuacaense
    was discovered in July 2005 at the Cerro El Ahuaca in Ecuador, where the only known population occurs, just over 300 miles north of the northernmost known population of the Northern Viscacha in Peru.
    The animal in Ecuador was first thought to be either possibly the Northern Viscacha, Lagidium peruanum, or a new species. Three years later, it was determined to be new, based on morphological and DNA sequence differences.
    Lagidium ahuacaense was formally described in 2009.

    The single known population of Lagidium ahuacaense that lives in rocky habitats on Cerro El Ahuaca, an isolated granite mountain in southern Ecuador, may be only a few dozen individuals.  

  248. Plains Viscacha  ______  AR
    Lagostomus maximus
    AR name: Vizcacha

  249. Long-tailed Chinchilla  (ph)  ______  CH(*) fn
    Chinchilla lanigera 

    Above & below: Chinchillas

    Short-tailed Chinchilla

  250. Short-tailed Chinchilla  (t1) (t2CH) ______  AR  BO(*)
    Chinchilla brevicaudata

    CHINCHILLA-RATS  - Family Abrocomidae 
    (9 species)

  251. Budin's Chinchilla-Rat  ______  AR
    Abrocoma budini

  252. Ashy Chinchilla-Rat  ______  AR(*) nw
    Abrocoma cinera

  253. Famatina Chinchilla-Rat  ______  AR
    Abrocoma famatina

  254. Sierra del Tontal Chinchilla-Rat  ______  AR
    Abrocoma shistacea

  255. Uspallata Chinchilla-Rat  ______  AR
    Abrocoma uspallata

  256. Punta de Vacas Chinchilla-Rat  ______  AR
    Abrocoma vaccarum

    CATS - Family Felidae 
    (globally 39 species)

  257. Jaguarundi   ______  AR  BR(*) mt  EC
    yagouaroundi  (the genus has been Herpailurus and Felis
    AR names: Gato Eyra, Gato Moro

  258. Colocolo  (nt)  ______  CH  EC
    Leopardus colocolo  (has been Felis colocolo)

    Traditionally, Leopardus colocolo has included the two species the follow below, the Pantanal Cat and the Pampas Cat.
    The subsequent splitting of those two from the Colocolo has been based on differences in pelage color and pattern, and cranial measurements.
    However, it has been said that the split is not supported by genetic work, so some taxonomists maintain the Pantanal Cat and the Pampas Cat as subspecies of Leopardus colocolo.  

    Geographic range of the more restricted Colocolo: in highlands of northern Chile & in forests of central Chile, on the west slope of the Andes.  
  259. Pantanal Cat ______  BR(*) mt   
    Leopardus braccata  (has been Felis braccata)
    BR name: Gato Palheiro

    The Pantanal Cat and the Pampas Cat (below), Leopardus pajeros, have, by some, been split from the Colocolo (above), Leopardus colocolo.   

    Geographic range:
    in southwestern & southern Brazil.

    The Pantanal Cat (formerly part of the more-westerly and southerly Pampas Cat)
    photographed at
    night during a FONT tour in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. 

  260. Pampas Cat  ______  AR(*)  BO  CH  EC  PE
    Leopardus pajeros 
    (has been Felis pajeros)

    The Pampas Cat and the Pantanal Cat (above), Leopardus braccata, have, by some, been split from the Colocolo (also above), Leopardus colocolo.

    Geographic range:
    on the east slope of the Andes from Ecuador to northwestern Argentina; also in lowlands of Argentina & southern Chile.  

    In central to northwestern Argentina, the Pampas Cat occurs at altitudes below 4,070 feet above sea level in grassland, mesophytic and dry forest, and shrubland.
    In southern Argentina and far-southern Chile, the Pampas Cat is found in Patagonian steppes and shrubland below 3,600 feet above sea level.    

    In 2005, there were said to 5 subspecies of the Pampas Cat:
    L. p. pajeros, widely in Argentina and in southern Chile 
    L. p. crespoi, in northwestern Argentina, on the eastern slope of the Andes
    L. p. thomasi, in Ecuador, in the Andes 
    L. p. garleppi, in Peru, in the Andes
    L. p. steinbachi, in Bolivia, in the Andes
    Based on two specimens, L. p. steimbachi is larger and paler than L. p. garleppi. But due to it being such a small sample. some consider the two as synonyms.
    Some, included above in the nominate in southern Argentina & southern Chile, have been said to be another subspecies, L. p. crucinus, based on their larger size and dull pelage. 

  261. Geoffroy's Cat  (nt)  ______  AR(*)  CH(*) fs 
    Leopardus geoffroyi  (has been Felis geoffroyi)
    CH name: Gato Montes

    Geographic range:
    in Bolivia, Paraguay, southern Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina & Chile.

  262. Kodkod  (t3)  ______  AR  CH
    Leopardus guigna 
    (has been Felis guigna)

    Geographic range: in south-central Chile & southwestern Argentina.

  263. Ocelot  (t2)  ______  AR  BR(*) mt  EC  
    Leopardus pardalis  (has been Felis pardalis)
    AR name: Gato Onza, Ocelote
    BR name: Gato do Mato Grande

    Geographic range:
    from Texas/Mexico south to northern Argentina & southeastern Brazil.

    Leopardus pardalis
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    (above & below)  photographed at night during 
    FONT tour in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
    This wonderful animal has been seen nicely during many FONT tours in that area.    


  264. Oncilla  (t3)  ______  AR  BR  EC  (another name is the Little Spotted Cat)
    Leopardus tigrinus  (has been Felis tigrinus)

    Geographic range: from Costa Rica south to northern Argentina & southeastern Brazil.

  265. Margay  (nt)  ______  AR  BR  EC   
    Leopardus wiedii  (has been Felis wiedii)

    Geographic range: from Mexico south to northern Argentina & Uruguay.

  266. Puma  (ph)  ______  AR  BR  EC  VE(*) ll   
    Puma concolor  (has been Felis concolor)
    AR & CH names: Puma, Leon Americano

    Other common names for the Puma are: Cougar, Mountain Lion, and Panther.

    Geographic range:
    one of the most extensive of all American mammals, from southwest Canada to southern Chile & Argentina

    Puma concolor
    was described by Linnaeus in 1771.


  267. Andean Mountain Cat  (t2)  ______  AR  CH
    Leopardus jacobita  (the genus has been Felis and Oreallurus)

    Geographic range: in southern Peru, southwestern Bolivia, northern Chile, & northwestern Argentina, in high altitude rocky regions. 

  268. Jaguar  (nt) (ph)  ______  AR  BR(*) mt  EC
    Panthera onca  (has been Jaguarius onca)
    BR name: Onca Pintada  

    Geographic range:
    from Mexico to northern Argentina & southern Brazil

    Panthera onca
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    A Link to a Feature about:  JAGUARS 

    The Jaguar (above & below) 
    This mighty animal has been seen during 3 FONT Brazil tours 
    in Mato Grosso do Sul in 4 years.

    There is a black, or melanistic form of the Jaguar in South America. 
    About 6 per cent of Panthera inca are the "Black Jaguar". 

    Below: both forms of the Jaguar together, photographed at a zoo
    in Guatemala

    DOGS & FOXES - Family Canidae 
    (globally 35 species)

  269. Maned Wolf  (nt) (ph)  ______  AR(*) ne  BR(*) mn,mt
    Chrysocyon brachyurus
    AR name: Aguara Guazu, Lobo de Crin
    BR name: Lobo Guara 

    A Link to a Feature about:  the MANED WOLF

    Three photos of the Maned Wolf  

    This lower photo of a Maned Wolf after dark at a monastery 
    in the remote hills of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as seen during a number of FONT tours.

  270. Gray Fox ______  VE(*)  (a North American species occurring as far south as northern Colombia & Venezuela)
    Urocyon cinereoargenteus    

  271. Colpeo (Fox)  ______  AR(*)  fs tf  CH(*) cc tf  EC
    Lycalopex culpaeus  (the genus has been Pseudalopex and Dusicyon)  
    AR name: Zorro Colorado
    CH name: Zorro Culpeo
    There are 6 subspecies. On Tierra del Fuego (in Argentina) called Fuegian Fox, P. c. magellanicus)

  272. South American Gray Fox  (ph) ______  AR(*) so  BR(*) fs  CH(*) fs tf  EC  (including the Pampas Fox)
    Lycalopex griseus 
    (the genus has been Pseudalopex and Dusicyon)  
    AR name: Zorro Gris, Chilla
    CH name: Zorro Chilla

    There are 7 subspecies of the South American Gray Fox. 
    One of them, the Pampas Fox, of e. Bolivia, s. Brazil, w. Paraguay, and central & eastern Argentina has been said by some to be Lycalopex gymnocercus, AR name: Zorro Pampa 

    Above & below: South American Gray Foxes. photographed during FONT tours
    Above: during the November 2009 tour in Chile 
    Below: during the December 2013 tour in Argentina
    (upper photo by Robert Hinz; lower photo by Marie Gardner)

  273. Darwin's Fox  (t1)  (ph)  ______  CH(*) so  (also called the Chiloe Fox; it has been said to be a dark form of the Pampas Fox)    
    Lycalopes fulvipes 
    (the genus has been Pseudlopex and Dusicyon) 
    CH name: Zorro Chilote

    The Darwin's Fox was known from only a specimen collected by Charles Darwin in 1833, until it was rediscovered in 1922. It is now considered a relict species confined to patches of old growth Valdivian forest in Chile, in Las Lagos and Araucania. It is a critically endangered species. 


    The Darwin's, or Chiloe Fox, photographed on Chiloe Island  

  274. Sechura Fox  ______  EC  PE
    (formerly Pseudalopex) sechurae

  275. Crab-eating Fox  (ph)  ______  AR  BR(*) mt  VE(*) ll    
    Cerdocyon thous 
    (the genus has been said to be Dusicyon
    BR name: Graxaim or Cachorro do Mato

    There are said to be 7 subspecies of the Crab-eating Fox.

    Geographic range:
    from Colombia south to northern Argentina & Uruguay, in forest & savannas. 

    Cerdocyon thous
    was described by Linnaeus in 1766.

    Above & below: Crab-eating Foxes photographed at night during  
    a FONT Brazil tour in Mato Grosso do Sul.  
    The species has been seen during every FONT tour in that area.

  276. Hoary Fox ______  BR(*) mn   (in the cerrado & caatinga of highlands of interior east-central Brazil)
    (has been said by some to be Dusicyon) vetulus

  277. Short-eared Dog ______  BR(*) af  EC
    Atelocynus (has been said by some to be Dusicyon) microtis

    The Short-eared Dog is a rarely seen animal.

  278. Bush Dog  (nt)  ______  AR  EC 
    Speothos venaticus

    BEARS - Family Ursidae 
    (globally 8 species)

  279. Spectacled (or Andean) Bear  (t3)  ______  AR(rare)   EC
    Tremarctos ornatus

    Geographic range:
    from western Venezuela south to Bolivia and rarely northwestern Argentina, in mountain forests 

    EARED SEALS - Family Otariidae 
    (globally 14 species) 

  280. Galapagos Sea Lion  (t3)  ______  EC(*) gp
    Zalophus californianus wollebacki 

    The Galapagos Sea Lion is a subspecies, or race of the California Sea Lion.  

  281. Southern (or South American) Sea Lion  (ph)  ______  AR(*) so tf  BR(*) fs  CH(*) fn ce so 
    Otaria byronia 
    (has been Otaria flavescens)
    AR & CH names: Lobo de un Pelo

    Southern Sea Lions by a fish market along a river in Valdivia in southern Chile
    during the FONT tour in November 2011 
    (photo by Frank Stermitz)
  282. South American Fur Seal ______  AR(*) tf
    Arctocephalus australis
    AR name: Lobo de los Pelos

  283. Galapagos Fur Seal  (t3)  ______ EC(*) gp
    Artocephalus galapagoensis 

    EARLESS SEALS - Family Phocidae 
    (globally 20 species)

  284. Southern Elephant Seal  (ph)  ______  AR(*) so
    Mirounga leonina
    AR name: Elefante Marino

    The male Southern Elephant Seal is the largest seal in the world, followed in size by the Northern Elephant Seal and the Leopard Seal.
    The male Southern Elephant Seal is four to five times the size of the female.
    A single male Southern Elephant Seal can have as many as 150 females in its harem.

    Two Southern Elephant Seals photographed during the FONT tour 
    in southern Argentina in December 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)  

    When they are not on the beach, and are far out at sea, Southern Elephant Seals spend very little time at the surface of the water.
    They dive repeatedly, generally for more than 20 minutes, hunting their prey, squid and fish, at depths of 1,300 to 3,300 feet below the surface of the sea.
    They are the deepest diving air-breathing non-cetaceans, going as deep as the maximum record of 6,998 feet.

    Adult female Southern Elephant Seals typically weight from 880 to 2,000 pounds.
    Adult males weigh from 4,900 to 8,800 pounds, and measure from 14 to 19 feet long.
    An adult female averages 1,700 pounds in weight. Mature males average 7,000 pounds.
    The largest ever measured was 22.5 feet long and was estimated to weigh 11,000 pounds.

    OTTERS & ALLIES - Family Mustelidae 
    (globally 68 species)

  285. Greater Grison (or Huron) ______  BR(*) af  EC
    Galictis vittata 
    BR name: Furao or Furax

  286. Lesser Grison  (ph)  ______  AR(*) so  BR(*) fs  CH(*) so
    Galictis cuja

    Lesser Grison

  287. Tayra  ______  AR  BR(*) af,am,mn,se  EC
    Eira barbata
    BR name: Irara

    The Tayra is rather like a South American Marten

    Eira barbata was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

  288. Tropical (or Amazon) Weasel ______  BR  EC
    Mustela africana

  289. Colombian Weasel  (t2)  ______  EC
    Mustela felipei

  290. Long-tailed Weasel  ______  EC
    Mustela frenata 

  291. Patagonian Weasel  ______  AR
    Lyncodon patagonicus

  292. Humboldt's (or Patagonian) Hog-nosed Skunk  (ph)  ______  AR(*) fs  CH(*) fs
    Conepatus humboldti
    AR names: Zorrino Patagonico, Zorrino Chico
    CH name: Chingue de la Patagonia

    Geographic range:
    in southern Chile & southern Argentina, in grasslands & scrub

    A Humboldt's, or Patagonian Hog-nosed Skunk photographed 
    during the FONT Southern Argentina Tour in December 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)  

  293. Molina's Hog-nosed Skunk ______  AR
    Conepatus chinga

    Geographic range:
    Peru, southwestern Bolivia, Paraguay, northern & central Chile, northern & west-central Argentina, Uruguay, and possibly in southern Brazil, in open grasslands 

  294. Striped Hog-nosed Skunk ______  BR  EC
    Conepatus semistriatus

    Geographic range:
    from Mexico to Venezuela & Peru, in forest clearings, forest edge, & pastures; also in east-central Brazil in caatinga & cerrado habitats  

  295. Giant Otter  (t2) (ph)  ______  AR  BR(*) af mt  EC  (another name has been Brazilian Otter)
    Pteronura brasiliensis
    BR name: Ariranha

    Geographic range:
    from southeastern Colombia & French Guiana south to Bolivia, southern Brazil, northern Argentina, and Uruguay, locally in lowland-forest rivers and lakes. 

    The Giant Otters above were photographed during a FONT tour in the Pantanal of Brazil.
    Another photo and an color illustration of the species are below.  

    The photo below of 2 Giant Otters was taken during 
    the FONT Brazil Tour in August 2008.
    The animals was first seen resting on wooden steps along a riverbank.
    Later, they entered the water, and swam away.

  296. Neotropical River Otter  ______  AR  BR(*) mt rs se  EC
    (formerly Lontra) longicaudus
    AR name: Lobito Comun, Guairao
    BR name: Lontra or Cachorro-d'agua

    Geographic range:
    from Mexico south to Peru, northern Argentina, Uruguay, in clear fast-flowing streams and rivers, & in coastal lagoons.  

  297. Marine Otter  (t2) (ph)  ______  AR  CH(*) so
    (formerly Lontra) felina
    CH names: Nutria Marina, Nutria del Mar, Chungungo

    Geographic range:
    from Peru to southern Chile & extreme southern Argentina, along rocky seacoasts 

    A Marine Otter photographed during the November 2011 FONT Chile Tour  
    (photo by Frank Stermitz)

  298. Southern River Otter  (t2)  ______  AR  CH(*) so
    (formerly Lontra) provocax  

    Geographic range: in southern Chile & southern Argentina, in lakes & streams, and along rocky coasts

    RACCOONS - Family Procyonidae 
    (globally 19 species)

  299. Crab-eating Raccoon  (ph)  ______  AR  BR(*) mt  EC  VE(*) ll
    Procyon cancrivorous
    BR name: Mao Pelada

    Crab-eating Raccoon, photographed during a FONT tour in Venezuela
  300. South American Coati  (ph)  ______  AR(*) ig  BR(*) ig mn mt se  EC
    Nasua nasua
    AR names: Coati, Pisote
    BR names: Quati or Quatimunde

    Nasua nasua
    was described by Linnaeus in 1766."Nasua" is from the Latin meaning "nose".

    When is a Coati a Coatimundi? Female Coatis and their young associate in bands of 5-12 individuals, but adult males are solitary. This difference at first confused biologists, who described the solitary males as a separate species. The use of the name "coatimundi" (meaning "lone Coati" in the Guarani language) for this species reflects the same error. 

    Above: Two photos of the South American Coati
    Below: a group of them seen during the FONT Brazil tour in August 2008.

  301. White-nosed Coati  (ph)  ______  EC(*) we
    Nasua nurica

  302. Mountain (or Andean) Coati ______  EC  (other names are the Dwarf or Little Coati)
    Nasuella olivacea

    There are 3 subspecies of Nasuelia olivacea:
    N. o. meridensis
    N. o. olivacea
    N. o. quitensis

  303. Allen's Olingo  ______  EC
    Bassariscus alleni

  304. Bushy-tailed Olingo  ______  EC
    Bassariscus gabbii

  305. Kinkajou  (ph)  ______ BR  EC
    Potos flavus

    A Kinkajou
    photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Rosemary Lloyd)

    SHEATH-TAILED BATS - Family Emballonuridae  (globally 51 species)

  306. Proboscis Bat ______ BR(*)  EC(*) az  (another name is Long-nosed Bat)
    Rhynchonycteris naso

    Proboscis Bat

  307. Ecuadorian Sac-winged Bat  (t2)  ______  EC
    Balantiopteryx infusca

  308. Shaggy Bat ______ BR  EC
    Centronycteris maximiliani

  309. Northern Ghost Bat  ______  EC
    Diclidurus albus

  310. Greater Sac-winged Bat ______ BR(*) af,mt  EC  (another name is Greater White-lined Bat
    Saccopteryx bilineata

  311. Frosted Sac-winged Bat  ______  EC
    Saccopteryx canescens

  312. Amazonian White-lined Bat ______ BR
    Saccopteryx gymnura

  313. Lesser Sac-winged Bat ______ BR  EC  (another name is Lesser White-lined Bat)
    Saccopteryx leptura

  314. Chestnut Sac-winged Bat ______ BR  EC
    Cormura brevirostris

  315. White-winged Dog-like Bat ______ BR
    (formerly Peroymus) leucoptera

  316. Greater Dog-like Bat ______ BR  EC
    Peropteryx kappleri

  317. Lesser Dog-like Bat ______ BR  EC  (another name has been Trinidad Dog-like Bat)
    Peropteryx macrotis

  318. Smoky Sheath-tailed Bat ______ BR
    Cyttarops alecto

    FISHING BATS - Family Noctilionidae 
    (2 species)

  319. Greater Bulldog Bat  (ph)  ______  AR  BR(*) af  EC(*) az  VE(*) ll
    Noctilio leporinus

    Noctilio leporinus
    is also called the Greater Fishing Bat.
    Noctilio albiventris
    (below) is also called the Lesser Fishing Bat, or the Southern Bulldog Bat.

    Greater Bulldog Bat

  320. Lesser Bulldog Bat ______  AR  BR(*) af,mn  EC
    Noctilio albiventris

    LEAF-CHINNED BATS - Family Mormoopidae 
    (globally 8 species) 

  321. Ghost-faced Bat  ______  EC
    Mormoops megalophylla

  322. Davy's Naked-backed Bat  ______  BR
    Pteronotus davyi

  323. Big Naked-tailed Bat  ______  EC
    Pteronotus gymnonotus

  324. Lesser Moustached Bat ______ BR
    Pteronotus personatus

  325. Common Moustached Bat ______ BR
    Pteronotus parnellii

    FREE-TAILED BATS - Family Molossidae

  326. Cinnamon Dog-faced Bat  ______  AR
    Cynomops abrasus

  327. Greenhall's Dog-faced Bat  ______  EC
    Cynomops greenhalli

  328. Para Dog-faced Bat  ______  AR
    Cynomops paramus

  329. Southern Dog-faced Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Cynomops planirostris

  330. Black-bonneted Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Eumops auripendulus

  331. Dwarf Bonneted Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Eumops bonariensis

  332. Big Bonneted Bat  ______  AR
    Eumops dabbenei

  333. Wagner's Bonneted Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Eumops glaucinus

  334. Patagonian Bonneted Bat  ______  AR
    Eumops patagonicus

  335. Western Mastiff Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Eumops perotis

  336. Equatorial Dog-faced Bat  (t3)  ______  EC
    Molossopsa aequatorianus

  337. Rufous Dog-faced Bat  ______  AR
    Molossops neglectus

  338. Dwarf Dog-faced Bat  ______  AR
    Molossops temminckii

  339. Black Mastiff Bat  ______  EC
    Molossus ater

  340. Bonda Mastiff Bat  ______  AR  EC  (another name is Thomas' Mastiff Bat)
    Molossus currentium (formerly bondae)

  341. Velvety Free-tailed Bat  (ph)  ______  AR  EC  (another name is Pallas' Mastiff Bat)
    Molossus molossus

    Velvety Free-tailed Bat, or Pallas' Mastiff Bat

  342. Black Mastiff Bat  ______  AR
    Molossus rufus

  343. Broad-eared Bat  ______  AR 
    Nyctinomops laticaudatus

  344. Big Free-tailed Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Nyctinomops macrotis

  345. Big Crested Mastiff Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Promops centralis

  346. Brown Mastiff Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Promops nasutus

  347. Brazilian (or Mexican) Free-tailed Bat  (ph)  ______  AR  EC
    Tadarida brasiliensis 

    Brazilian Free-tailed Bat

    AMERICAN LEAF-NOSED BATS - Family Phyllostomidae 
    (globally 155 species)

  348. Tailed Tailless Bat  ______  AR  EC  (now that's a name!)
    Anoura caudifer

  349. Handley's Tailless Bat  ______  EC
    Anoura cultrata

  350. Tube-lipped Nectar Bat  (ph)  ______  EC(*)  (species described in 2005)
    Anoura fistulata

    Overall, the Tube-lipped Nectar Bat is thought to be uncommon. It occurs in subtropical Andean forest, from about 3,000 to 6,600 feet above sea level.
    It is said to be endemic to Ecuador (but who knows, it may be in nearby Peru).

    The long tongue of Anoura fistulata is similar, in anatomy, to that of an anteater. That tongue, of the bat, is the longest known tongue of any mammal in the world in relation to the size of the mammal. It goes into the bat as far as the ribcage.
    The length of the bat is 2 inches. The length of its tongue is 3 and a half inches.   

    The Tube-lipped Nectar Bat was seen during the FONT April 2014 tour in southern Ecuador, as it came to hummingbird feeders after dark at the Tapichalaca Reserve (south of the Podocarpus National Park). 
    To and from the feeders, the bats flew very fast, but a better view of the animal could be seen in the photo below.


    A Tube-lipped Nectar Bat photographed during the FONT tour
    in southern Ecuador in April 2014 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  351. Geoffroy's Tailless Bat  ______  EC
    Anoura geoffroyi

  352. Minor Long-nosed Bat  ______  EC
    Choeroniscus minor

  353. Greater Long-tailed Bat  (t3)  ______  EC
    Choeroniscus periosus 

  354. Big-eared Woolly Bat  ______  AR  EC  (another name is Woolly False Vampire Bat)
    Chrotopterus auritus

  355. Commissaris' Long-tongued Bat  ______  EC
    Glossophaga commissarisi

  356. Miller's Long-tongued Bat  ______  
    Glossophaga longirostris 

  357. Pallas' Long-tongued Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Glossophaga soricina  

  358. Graybeard Bat  ______  BR  EC  (other names have been Davies' Big-eared Bat, and Bartica Bat)  
    Glyphonycteris daviesi

  359. Tricolored Big-eared Bat  ______  BR  EC
    Glyphonyceris sylvestris

  360. Dark Long-tongued Bat  ______  EC
    Lichonycteris obscura

  361. Chestnut Long-tongued Bat  ______  EC
    Lionycteris spurelli

  362. Handley's Nectar Bat  (t3)  ______  EC
    Lonchophylla handleyi

  363. Western Nectar Bat  (t3)  ______  EC
    Lonchophylla hesperia

  364. Godman's Nectar Bat  ______  EC
    Lonchophylla mordax

  365. Orange Nectar Bat  ______  EC
    Lonchophylla robusta

  366. Thomas' Nectar Bat  ______  EC
    Lonchophylla thomasi     

  367. Long-legged Bat  ______  AR  BR  EC
    Macrophyllum macrophyllum

  368. Behni's Big-eared Bat ______ BR
    (formerly Glyphonycteris) behnii

  369. Orange-throated Big-eared Bat ______ BR
    (formerly Lampronycteris) brachyotis

  370. Hairy Big-eared Bat ______ BR  EC
    Micronycteris hirsuta

  371. Little Big-eared Bat ______ BR  EC
    Micronycteris megalotis

  372. Common Big-eared Bat ______ BR
    Micronycteris microtis

  373. White-bellied Big-eared Bat ______ BR  EC
    Micronycteris minuta

  374. Niceforo's Big-eared Bat ______ BR
    Micronycteris nicefori

  375. Golden Bat  ______  BR
    Mimon bennettii

  376. Striped Hairy-nosed Bat  ______  BR  EC
    (formerly Anthorhina) crenulatum

  377. Tomes' Sword-nosed Bat ______ BR  EC  (another name has been the Common Sword-nosed Bat)
    Lonchorhina aurita

  378. Pygmy Round-eared Bat  ______  EC
    Lophostoma brasiliense

  379. White-throated Round-eared Bat  ______  EC
    Lophostoma silvicolum

  380. Greater Round-eared Bat ______  AR  BR
    Tonatia bidens

  381. White-throated Round-eared Bat ______ BR
    Tonatia silvicola

  382. Pale-faced Bat  ______  EC
    Phylloderma stenops 

  383. Pale Spear-nosed Bat ______  AR  BR  EC
    Phyllostomus discolor

  384. Lesser Spear-nosed Bat  ______  EC
    Phyllostomus elongatus

  385. Greater Spear-nosed Bat  ______  EC
    Phyllostomus hastatus

  386. Fringe-lipped Bat  ______  EC
    Trachops cirrhosus 

  387. Chestnut Short-tailed Bat  ______  EC
    Carollia castanea

  388. Seba's Short-tailed Bat ______  AR  EC(*) az
    Carollia perspicillata

  389. Anderson's Fruit-eating Bat  ______  EC
    Artibeus anderseni

  390. Fringed Fruit-eating Bat ______ AR  BR
    Artibeus fimbriatus 

  391. Fraternal Fruit-eating Bat  (t3)  ______  EC
    Artibeus fraterculus

  392. Silver Fruit-eating Bat ______ BR  EC
    Artibeus glaucus

  393. Artibeus intermedius  ______  EC

  394. Jamaican Fruit-eating Bat  (ph)  ______  BR  EC
    Artibeus jamaicensis

    Jamaican Fruit-eating Bats

  395. Great Fruit-eating Bat ______ AR  BR(*) mt  EC  VE(*)
    Artibeus lituratus

  396. Dark Fruit-eating Bat  ______  EC
    Artibeus obscurus

  397. Pygmy Fruit-eating Bat  ______  EC
    Artibeus phaeotis

  398. Flat-faced Fruit-eating Bat  ______  AR
    Artibeus planirostris

  399. Toltec Fruit-eating Bat  ______  EC
    Artibeus toltecus

  400. Salvin's Big-eyed Bat  ______  EC
    Chiroderma salvini

  401. Little Big-eyed Bat  ______  EC
    Chirodrma trinitatum

  402. Hairy Big-eyed Bat  ______  EC
    Chiroderma villosum

  403. Velvety Fruit-eating Bat  ______  EC
    Enchisthenes hartii

  404. MacConnell's Bat  ______  EC
    Mesophylla macconnelli

  405. Short-headed Broad-nosed Bat  ______  EC
    Platyrrhinus brachycephalus

  406. Thomas' Broad-nosed Bat  ______  EC
    Platyrrhinus dorsalis

  407. Heller's Broad-nosed Bat  ______  EC
    Platyrrhinus helleri

  408. Buffy Broad-nosed Bat  ______  EC
    Platyrrhinus infuscus   

  409. White-lined Broad-nosed Bat  ______  AR
    Platyrrhinus lineatus

  410. Greater Broad-nosed Bat  ______  EC
    Platyrrhinus vittatus

  411. Ipanema Bat  ______  AR
    Pygoderma bilabiatum

  412. Hairy Little Fruit Bat  ______  EC
    Rhinophylla alethina

  413. Fischer's Little Fruit Bat  ______  EC
    Rhinophylla fischerae

  414. Dwarf Little Fruit Bat  ______  EC
    Rhinophylla pumila

  415. Aratathomas' Yellow-shouldered Bat  ______  EC
    Sturnira aratathomasi

  416. Bidentate Yellow-shouldered Bat  ______  EC
    Sturnira bidens

  417. Bogota Yellow-shouldered Bat  ______  EC
    Sturnira bogotensis   

  418. Hairy Yellow-shouldered Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Sturnira erythromos

  419. Little Yellow-shouldered Bat  ______  AR
    Sturnira lilium

  420. Highland Yellow-shouldered Bat  ______  EC
    Sturnira ludovici

  421. Louis' Yellow-shouldered Bat  ______  EC
    Sturnira luisis

  422. Greater Yellow-shouldered Bat  ______  EC
    Sturnira magna  

  423. Tschudi's Yellow-shouldered Bat  (nt)  ______  AR
    Sturnira oporaphilum

  424. Tilda's Yellow-shouldered Bat  ______  EC
    Sturnira tildae

  425. Common Tent-making Bat  (ph)  ______  EC
    Uroderma bilobatum

    Common Tent-making Bats
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  426. Brown Tent-making Bat  ______  EC
    Uroderma magnirostrum

  427. Spectral Bat  ______  EC
    Vampyrum spectrum

  428. Striped Yellow-eared Bat  ______  EC
    Vampyressa nymphaea

  429. Southern Little Yellow-eared Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Vampyressa pusilla

  430. Common Vampire Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Desmodus rotundus

  431. White-winged Vampire Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Diaemus youngi  

  432. Hairy-legged Vampire Bat  ______  EC
    Diphylla ecaudata

    VESPER BATS - Family Vespertilionidae 
    (globally 364 species)

  433. Southern Myotis  ______  AR
    Myotis aelleni

  434. Silver-tipped Myotis  ______  AR  EC
    Myotis albescens 

  435. Chilean Myotis ______ CH(*) ce
    (formerly Leuconoe) chiloensis

  436. Atacama Myotis ______ CH(*) fn
    (formerly Selysius) atacamensis

  437. Myotis dinellii  ______  AR

  438. Hairy-legged Myotis  ______  AR  EC
    Myotis keaysi

  439. Yellowish Myotis  ______  AR
    Myotis levis

  440. Black Myotis  ______  AR  EC
    Myotis nigricans

  441. Montane Myotis  ______  EC
    Myotis oxyotus

  442. Riparian Myotis  ______  AR  EC
    Myotis riparius

  443. Red Myotis  (nt)  ______  AR
    Myotis ruber

  444. Velvety Myotis  ______  AR  EC
    Myotis simus

  445. Eptesicus andinus  ______  EC

  446. Brazilian Brown Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Eptesicus brasiliensis

  447. Diminutive Serotine  ______  AR
    Eptesicus diminutus

  448. Argentine Brown Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Eptesicus furinalis

  449. Harmless Serotine  (t3)  ______  EC
    Eptesicus innoxius

  450. Thomas' Big-eared Brown Bat  (nt)  ______  AR
    Histiotus laephotis

  451. Big-eared Brown Bat  ______  AR
    Histiotus macrotus

  452. Southern Big-eared Brown Bat  ______  AR
    Histiotus magellanicus

  453. Small Big-eared Brown Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Histiotus montanus

  454. Tropical Big-eared Brown Bat  ______  AR
    Histiotus velatus

  455. Desert Red Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Lasiurus blossevillii

  456. Hoary Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Lasiurus cinereus

  457. Southern Yellow Bat  ______  AR  EC
    Lasiurus ega

  458. Cinnamon Red Bat  ______  AR
    Lasiurus varius

    DISK-WINGED BATS - Family Thyroptera

  459. Peter's Disk-winged Bat  ______  EC
    Thyroptera discifera

  460. Spix's Disk-winged Bat  ______  EC
    Thyroptera tricolor

    SMOKY & THUMBLESS BATS - Family Furipteridae

  461. Smoky Bat  (t3)  ______  EC
    Amorphochilus schnablii

  462. Thumbless Bat  ______  EC
    Furipterus horrens 

    MARMOSETS & TAMARINS - Family Callitrichidae
      (globally 43 species)

  463. Buffy-tufted Marmoset (formerly one of the subspecies of Tufted-ear Marmoset) (t2) ______  BR(*) se (in Southeast Brazil, in Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, & Sao Paulo) 
    Callithrix aurita
    BR: Sauim or Sagui

  464. Buffy-headed Marmoset (formerly one of the subspecies of Tufted-ear Marmoset) (t2) (ph)  ______  BR(*) mn  (in east-central Brazil, locally in Minas Gerais, southern Espirito Santo, & Rio de Janeiro state)
    Callithrix flaviceps
    BR: Sauim or Sagui

    A Buffy-headed Marmoset photographed during the FONT tour 
    in Minas Gerais, Brazil, in March 2008
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  465. Black-tailed Marmoset (formerly one of the subspecies of Silvery Marmoset) ______ (*) BR mt  (in west & central Brazil, & in nearby Bolivia & Paraguay)
    Callithrix melanura 

  466. Silvery Marmoset ______ BR  (in eastern Amazonian Brazil, in Para state) 
    Callithrix argentata
    BR: Sauim or Sagui

  467. Rio Acari Marmoset ______ BR  (in central Amazonian Brazil)
    Callithrix acariensis

  468. Gold-and-white Marmoset ______ BR  (in central Amazonian Brazil, south of the Amazon River)
    Callithrix chrysoleuca

  469. Emilia's Marmoset ______ BR  (in southern Amazonian Brazil, in Rondonia & northern Mato Grosso)
    Callithrix emiliae

  470. Geoffrey's Marmoset ______ BR  (in east-central Brazil, in Minas Gerais & Espirito Santo)
    Callithrix geoffroyi

  471. Santarem Marmoset ______ BR  (in central Amazonian Brazil, south of the Amazon River)
    Callithrix humeralifera 

  472. Dwarf Marmoset ______ BR  (in south-central Amazonian Brazil)
    Callithrix humilis 

  473. Hershkovitz's Marmoset ______ BR  (locally in south-central Amazonian Brazil)
    Callithrix intermedia

  474. White-tufted Marmoset  (ph)  ______ BR(*)  (also called Common Marmoset)  (in northeast Brazil) 
    Callithrix jacchus

    The White-tufted Marmoset originally occurred along the northeastern coast of Brazil from the state of Piaui to that of Bahia.
    Through the release of captive individuals, it also occurs now in southeastern Brazil, where the first sighting in the wild in Rio de Janeiro was in 1929. Today it is common in the area of that city.  

    The White-tufted Marmoset was described by Linnaeus in 1758.  

    White-tufted Marmoset    

  475. Wied's Black-tufted Marmoset  (nt) (ph)  ______ BR  (endemic)
    Callithrix kuhlii 

    Geographic range:
    in east-central Brazil, in southern Bahia & extreme northwestern Minas Gerais    

    Callithrix kuhlii
    was described in 1985.

    Wied's Black-tufted Marmoset

  476. White Marmoset ______ BR  (in central Amazonian Brazil, in Para state)
    Callithrix leucippe

  477. Rio Manicore Marmoset ______ BR  (locally in central Amazonian Brazil)
    Callithrix manicorensis

  478. Marca's Marmoset ______ BR  (locally in south-central Amazonian Brazil)
    Callithrix marcai 

  479. Rio Maues Marmoset ______ BR  (locally in central Amazonian Brazil)
    Callithrix mauesi

  480. Black-headed Marmoset ______ BR  (very locally in south-central Amazonian Brazil)
    Callithrix nigriceps

  481. Black-tufted Marmoset ______ BR  (in northeast & east-central Brazil)
    Callithrix penicillata

  482. Satere-Maues' Marmoset ______ BR  (in central Amazonian Brazil)
    Callithrix saterei

  483. Pygmy Marmoset  ______  EC(*) az  (in eastern Ecuador, northeast Peru, & central Amazonian Brazil)
    Cebuella pygmaea
    EC: Mono de Bolsillo, or Leoncito

    The Pygmy Marmoset is the world's smallest true monkey.

    A family group of at least 5 Pygmy Marmosets was seen during a FONT tour at La Selva along the Napo River in Ecuador. 
    It is a very interesting mammal in that an entire family group will stay in one tree for up to a year feeding on sap. When the sap begins to run low, they'll leave the tree, moving to another, and "set-up shop" for another year.    

  484. Black-mantled Tamarin ______  (in rainforests of the Amazon basin in eastern Peru, & northwest Brazil) 
    Saguinus nigricollis 

  485. Graell's Tamarin  ______  EC(*)  az
    Saguinus graellsi
    EC: Chichico or Leoncito

    The Graell's Tamarin has been treated as a subspecies of the Black-mantled Tamarin, Saguinus grellsi, but it differs from it in having a dull olive-brown (not reddish-orange) lower back, rump, and thighs.    

  486. Pied Bare-faced Tamarin  (t1)  ______ BR(*) am  (in rainforests of the Manaus region, in central Amazonian Brazil - east of the Rio Negro & north of the Amazon River)
    Saguinus bicolor   

  487. Martin's Bare-faced Tamarin ______  BR  (has been considered conspecific with the Pied Bare-faced Tamarin, and was then-called the Brazilian Bare-faced Tamarin (in north-central Amazonian Brazil, north of the Amazon River) 
    Saguinus martinsi

  488. Brown-mantled Tamarin  ______ BR  EC  (has also been called Saddle-backed Tamarin)
    Saguinus fuscicollis

    Geographic range:
    in southern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, northern Bolivia, and northern & eastern Brazil, in dense forests.

  489. Golden-mantled Tamarin  ______  EC
    Saguinus tripartitus

  490. Emperor Tamarin ______ BR  (in dense lowland forests of eastern Peru & western Brazil)
    Saguinus imperator

  491. Mottle-faced Tamarin ______ BR  (in southeast Colombia & northwest Brazil)
    Saguinus inustus

  492. Red-chested Moustached Tamarin ______ BR  (in northern Bolivia & western Amazonian Brazil)
    Saguinus labiatus

  493. White-mantled Tamarin ______ BR  (in western Amazonian Brazil)
    Saguinus melanoleucus

  494. Red-handed Tamarin ______ BR(*) am  (in Guyana & northeast Amazonian Brazil, east of the Rio Negro, north of the Amazon River)
    Saguinus midas 

  495. Black-chested Moustached Tamarin ______ BR  (in northeast Peru & western Amazonian Brazil)
    Saguinus mystax

  496. Black Tamarin ______ BR  (in eastern Amazonian Brazil, south of the Amazon River)
    Saguinus niger 

  497. Red-capped Moustached Tamarin ______ BR  (in western Amazonian Brazil)
    Saguinus pileatus

  498. Black-faced Lion Tamarin (t1) ______ BR  (in southeast Brazil, in Sao Paulo state & Parana)
    Leontopithecus caissara

  499. Golden-headed Lion Tamarin (t2) (ph)  ______ BR  (in east-central Brazil, in southern Bahia & northeast Minas Gerais)
    Leontopithecus chrysomelas

    Golden-headed Lion Tamarin

  500. Black Lion Tamarin (t1) ______ BR  (in southeast Brazil, in 2 small remnant forest patches in Sao Paulo)
    Leontopithecus chrysopygus

  501. Golden Lion Tamarin (t1) ______ BR  (in southeast Brazil, in a few isolated forest patches in central & southern Rio de Janeiro state)
    Leontopithecus rosalia

    NEW WORLD MONKEYS - Family Atelidae 
    (globally 82 species)

  502. Black Howler Monkey  (ph)  ______  AR(*) ne  BR(*) mt  
    Alouatta caraya
    AR names: Mono Aullador Negro, Caraya
    BR names: Guariba or Bugio or Caraja

    Geographic range:
    in south-central Brazil, eastern Bolivia, Paraguay, & northwestern Argentina. 

    As in the photos below, the male of Black Howler Monkey is black; but the female is brown.

    Above: male Black Howler Monkey
    Below: female Black Howler Monkey
    Photographed during a FONT tour in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  503. Red-handed Howler Monkey ______  BR(*) af  (in central & northeast Brazil)
    Alouatta belzebul
    BR: Guariba

  504. Amazon Black Howler Monkey ______ BR  (C&E Amazonian Brazil, both N&S of the Amazon River)
    Alouatta nigerrima 

  505. Brown Howler Monkey  (ph)  ______  BR(*) mn,se  
    Alouatta guariba
    (formerly A. fusca)
    AR name: Mono Aullador Rufo
    BR names: Bugio or Ruivo or Guariba

    There are two subspecies of the Brown Howler Monkey:
    Alouatta g. guariba, the Northern Brown Howler  (t1)
    Alouatta guariba clamitans, the Southern Brown Howler

    The nominate subspecies is critically endangered, with, it is said, fewer than 250 individuals restricted to the area of the Jequitinhonha River, in eastern Brazil. That river flows from eastern Minas Gerais into Bahia to the ocean.

    In the subspecies A. g. clamitans of southern South America, adult males are bright reddish with a golden tint; most adult females are brown.

    Geographic range: from Bahia in Brazil south to northeastern Argentina, in the Atlantic Forest. 

    A male Brown Howler Monkey in the trees of a fine forest
    in Minas Gerais, Brazil during a FONT tour in October 2009  
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  506. Venezuelan Red Howler Monkey ______  EC(*) az  VE(*) hp  (Colombia, Venezuela, NW Brazil)
    Alouatta seniculus
    VE name: Mono Colorado
    EC name: Coto Mono

  507. Guyanan Red Howler Monkey ______  BR(*) am  (Guyana & NC Amazonian Brazil)
    Alouatta macconnelli

  508. Bolivian Red Howler Monkey ______ BR  (S Peru, Bolivia, SW Brazil)
    Alouatta sara

  509. Ecuadorian Mantled Howler Monkey  (t3)  ______  EC
    Alouatta palliata aequatorialis

    The Ecuadorian Mantled Howler Monkey is the southernmost subspecies of the Mantled Howler Monkey (ph) that ranges north to Mexico.
    Alouatta palliata aequatorialis ranges from Panama (possibly easternmost Costa Rica) through Colombia and Ecuador into northern Peru. 

  510. White-nosed Bearded Saki  (t3) ______  BR(*) af,am  (C Brazil, S of the Amazon River to Mato Grosso)
    Chiropotes albinasus
    BR: Cuxiu or Piroclucu or Piroculu

  511. Brown Bearded Saki  (t2) ______ BR  (in northeast Brazil)
    Chiropotes satanas

  512. Buffy Saki ______ BR  (in central Amazonian Brazil, south of the Solimoes River)
    Pithecia albicans 

  513. Gray Monk Saki ______ BR  (C & SW Amazonian Brazil, & S Peru to Bolivia)
    Pithecia irrorata

  514. Monk Saki ______ BR  EC  (S Colombia, E Ecuador, N Peru, & W Brazil)
    Pithecia monachus

  515. Guianan Saki ______ BR  (E Venezuela & French Guiana, & NE Brazil south to the Amazon River)
    Pithecia pithecia

  516. Equatorial Saki  ______  EC
    Pithecia aequatorialis

    Pithecia aequatorialis
    was described in 1987. Its geographic range is in Ecuador & Peru.  

  517. Red Uakari ______ BR  (in northern Peru & west-central Brazil)
    Cacajao calvus

  518. Black Uakari ______ BR  (SE Colombia, extreme S Venezuela, & NW Brazil)
    Cacajao melanocephalus

  519. White-headed Capuchin  (ph)  ______  EC  
    Cebus capucinus

    Cebus capucinus
    has been called the White-faced Capuchin or White-throated Capuchin. Its range is from Ecuador north into Central America to Honduras. 
    The subspecies in South America is the nominate, Cebus c. capucinus.     

    White-headed Capuchins photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Virginia Woodhouse)

  520. Wedge-capped Capuchin ______  VE(*) ll  (also called the Weeping Capuchin)  
    Cebus olivaceus
    VE name: Mono Chuco

    Geographic range:
    from Colombia to French Guiana, & in northern Brazil south to the Rio Negro & Amazon River, in forests.

  521. White-fronted Capuchin ______  BR  EC
    Cebus albifrons

    Geographic range:
    Colombia, Venezuela, northwestern Brazil, Ecuador, & northern Peru. 

  522. Ka'apor Capuchin ______ BR (endemic)  
    Cebus kaapori

    Geographic range:
    in northeastern Brazil, in Maranhao.

    The genus of the South American Capuchin monkeys BELOW was changed in 2011 from Cebus to Sapajus.
    That change was for the "robust capuchins", those in the former "Cebus apella group".
    The Capuchins ABOVE retained the Cebus genus, the "gracile capuchins", those in the former "Cebus capuccinus group".   

  523. Tufted Capuchin  ______  BR(*) af,am,mt  EC  (has been called the Brown Tufted Capuchin)
    (formerly Cebus) apella
    AR names: Cai Comun, Mono
    BR name: Macaco Prego

    Geographic range:
    from Colombia south to Peru & central Brazil.

    In 2005, the following were said to be subspecies of the Tufted Capuchin:
    S. a. apella
    S. a. fatuellus
    The above two subspecies were described by Linnaeus in 1758 & 1766 respectively.
    S. a. margaritae
    S. a. peruanus
    S. a. tocantinus

    Another subspecies, Sapajus apella macrocephalus, has been regarded by some as a separate species, the Large-headed Capuchin.
    It occurs in parts of Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.  

    Sapajus (formerly Cebus) apella was described by Linnaeus in 1758. For years, it had the common English name of Brown Capuchin.

  524. Black-striped Capuchin ______  AR(*) ne  BR(*)  (has been called Black-striped Tufted Capuchin
    (formerly Cebus) libidinosus

    Geographic range: in Bolivia, northern Argentina, Paraguay, & southern Brazil, in forests

  525. Black Capuchin  (ph)  ______  BR(*) mn,se  (has been called Black Tufted Capuchin)
    (formerly Cebus) nigritus

    Geographic range: southeastern Brazil, in the Atlantic Forest.  

    A Black Capuchin photographed during the FONT August 2007 tour
    in Southeast Brazil
    (photo by Dan Coleman)

  526. Golden-bellied Capuchin  (t1) ______ BR  (endemic)
    (formerly Cebus) xanthosternos

    Other names for Sapajus xanthosternos are Yellow-breasted Capuchin and Buffy-headed Capuchin. 

    Geographic range: in east-central Brazil, in southern Bahia & northern Minas Gerais, in forest remnants. 

  527. Blond Capuchin  (t1)  ______  BR (endemic)
    Sapajus flavius

    The critically endangered Blond Capuchin was rediscovered in 2006. Its estimated population is about 180 individuals.
    It was originally described in 1774, as Simia flavia, but without a type specimen.

    Geographic range: in northeastern Brazil, in the states of Paraiba, Pernambuco, and Alagoas. 

  528. White-fronted Spider Monkey  (t2)  ______  EC
    Ateles belzebuth

  529. White-cheeked Spider Monkey  (t2)  ______  BR(*) af  (was merged with a more widespread Black Spider Monkey)
    Ateles marginatus
    BR: Coata

    Ateles marginatus is endemic to Amazonian Brazil.

  530. Black Spider Monkey (v) ______ BR  (undisturbed primary rainforests from Guyana south into NE Amazonian Brazil, north of Amazon River, west to the Rio Negro)
    Ateles paniscus  

  531. Peruvian Spider Monkey ______ BR (E Peru, N Bolivia, & W Amazonian Brazil)
    Ateles chamek

  532. White-whiskered Spider Monkey  (t2) ______ BR  (EC Amazonian Brazil, south of the Amazon River)
    Ateles marginatus

  533. Black-headed Spider Monkey  (t1)  ______  EC  
    Ateles fusciceps

    Ateles fusciceps is said by some to be a subspecies of the Geoffroy's Spider Monkey, Ateles geoffroyi, of mostly Central America.   

  534. Southern Muriqui  (t1)  ______ BR  (was called "Woolly Spider Monkey")  (in southeast Brazil, in Atlantic forest remnants of Rio de Janeiro & Sao Paulo states)
    Brachyteles arachnoides

    These rare animals, the Southern & the Northern Muriquis (above & below) are the largest monkeys in the New World, up to 5 feet tall. The two Muriquis were taxonomically "split" in 1995.

  535. Northern Muriqui  (t1) (ph)  ______  BR(*)  mn  (was called "Woolly Spider Monkey" (in east-central Brazil, in Atlantic forest remnants from Bahia to Espirito Santo & Minas Gerais) 
    Brachyteles hypoxanthus


    These Northern Muriquis were photographed during a FONT tour 
    in May 2011 in Minas Gerais in Brazil  

  536. Gray Woolly Monkey  (ph)  ______ BR 
    Lagothrix cana

    Geographic range:
    southern Peru & southern Amazonian Brazil

    There are two subspecies of the Gray Woolly Monkey:
    Lagothrix cana cana in Brazil & Peru
    Lagothrix cana tschudi in southeast Peru.  

    This Woolly Monkey was photographed in southeastern Peru,
    making it Lagothrix cana tschudi,
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet)

  537. Brown Woolly Monkey  (t3)  ______ BR  EC  
    Lagothrix lagotricha

    Another name for Lagothrix lagotricha is the Humboldt's Woolly Monkey. 

    Geographic range:
    in southeastern Colombia, northeastern Ecuador, far northeastern Peru, & northwestern Amazonian Brazil east to the Rio Negro. 

  538. Silvery Woolly Monkey  (t3)  ______ BR  EC 
    Lagothrix poeppigii 

    Another name for Lagothrix poeppigii is the Poeppig's Woolly Monkey.

    Geographic range:
    in eastern Ecuador & northern Peru, & extreme western Amazonian Brazil, in highlands

  539. Colombian Woolly Monkey  (t1)  ______
    Lagothrix lugens

    Geographic range:

  540. Common Squirrel Monkey  (ph)  ______  EC(*) am
    Saimiri sciureus
    EC: Fraile, Frailecito, Barizo

    In the latest taxonomy, there are in total 5 squirrel monkey species, in Central & South America.

    Common Squirrel Monkey
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet)

  541. Bolivian Squirrel Monkey ______ BR  (Amazon basin of E Peru, Bolivia & SW Brazil)
    Saimiri boliviensis 

  542. Bare-eared Squirrel Monkey ______  BR(*) am  (C Amazonian Brazil, S of the Amazon River)
    Saimiri ustus

  543. Black Squirrel Monkey ______ BR  (W Amazonian Brazil)
    Saimiri vanzolinii

  544. Coppery Titi  ______  
    Callicebus cupreus

  545. White-tailed Titi  ______  EC(*) az
    Callicebus discolor
    EC: Zocayo, Saui

    The White-tailed Titi was considered part of the Coppery Titi (above), Callicebus discolor, now of Amazonian Brazil and Peru.   

  546. Dusky Titi ______ BR  (EC Amazonian Brazil, S of the Amazon River)
    Callicebus moloch

  547. Masked Titi  (t3) (ph)  ______  BR(*) mn  (EC Brazil, coastal forests of EC Minas Gerais, S Espirito Santo, & NE Rio de Janeiro)
    Callicebus personatus
    BR: Guigo or Saua

    A Masked Titi during a FONT tour in Minas Gerais, Brazil in October 2009 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  548. Black-fronted Titi  (t3) ______  BR(*) se  (Atlantic forest of S Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, & SW Rio de Janerio)
    Callicebus nigrifrons 

    The Black-fronted Titi, Callicebus nigrifrons, was formerly a subspecies of the Masked Titi, Callicebus personatus.  

  549. Baptista Lake Titi ______ BR  (C Amazonian Brazil, S of the Amazon River)
    Callicebus baptista

  550. Blond Titi (ce) ______ BR  (EC Brazil, in remnant forests of N Bahia)
    Callicebus barbarabrownae

  551. Prince Benhard's Titi ______ BR  (SC Amazonian Brazil)
    Callicebus bernhardi

  552. Brown Titi _____ BR  (SC Amazonian Brazil)
    Callicebus brunneus

  553. Booted Titi _____ BR  (C Amazonian Brazil)
    Callicebus calligatus

  554. Ashy-black Titi ______ BR  (C Amazonian Brazil)
    Callicebus cinerascens

  555. Coimbra-Filho's Titi (ce) ______ BR  (NE Brazil)
    Callicebus coimbrai

  556. White-tailed Titi ______ BR  (another name has been Double-browed Titi)
    Callicebus discolor

    Geographic range:
    west-central Amazonian Brazil

  557. Dubious Titi ______ BR  (WC Amazonian Brazil)
    Callicebus dubius

  558. Hoffmann's Titi ______ BR  (C Amazonian Brazil)
    Callicebus hoffmannsi

  559. Lucifer Titi ______ BR  EC  (S Colombia, E Ecuador, NE Peru, & W Amazonian Brazil)
    Callicebus lucifer

  560. Mourning Titi ______ BR  (NW Amazonian Brazil)
    Callicebus lugens

  561. Black-handed Titi  (formerly a subspecies of Masked Titi) ______ BR (Atlantic forest of EC Brazil, in SE Bahia & N Espirito Santo)
    Callicebus melanochir

  562. Pallid Titi ______ BR  (Paraguay & SC Brazil: the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul)
    Callicebus pallescens   

  563. Red-crowned Titi ______ BR  (C Amazonian Brazil)
    Callicebus purinus

  564. Kinglet Titi ______ BR  (C Amazonian Brazil)
    Callicebus regulus 

  565. Stephen Nash's Titi ______ BR  (WC Amazonian Brazil, not well known)
    Callicebus stephennashi

  566. Collared Titi ______ BR (C Amazonian Brazil)
    Callicebus torquatus

  567. Azara's Night Monkey ______ BR  (Amazonian Brazil south to NE Argentina)
    Aotus azarai

  568. Nancy Ma's Night Monkey ______ BR  (Western Amazonian Brazil)
    Aotus nancymaae

  569. Black-headed Night Monkey ______ BR  (E Peru & W&C Amazonian Brazil)
    Aotus nigriceps 

  570. Northern Night Monkey ______ BR  (E Colombia, S Venezuela, & NC Brazil)
    Aotus trivirgatus

  571. Gray-bellied Night Monkey ______ BR  EC  (another name has been Noisy Night Monkey)  
    Aotus vociferans

    Geographic range:
    Colombia, eastern Ecuador, northern Peru, & northwestern Amazonian Brazil

  572. Spix's Night Monkey  ______  EC
    Aotus vociferans

    AMAZON RIVER DOLPHIN(S) - Family Iniidae 
    (1 or 2 species)

  573. Amazon River Dolphin  (t3)  ______  BR(*) am  EC  VE(*) ll  (also called the Pink Dolphin. or Boto)
    Inia geoffrensis
    BR names: Boutu
    or Boto, also Boto Cor de Rosa  

    E name: Tonina 

    Subspecies of the Amazon River Dolphin include:
    Inia geoffrensis geoffrensis in the basins of the Amazon and the Araguaia/Tocantins Rivers
     (excluding the Madeira River drainage upstream of the Teotonio Rapids in Rondonia)
    Inia geoffrensis humboldtiana in the basin of the Orinoco River
    Inia geoffrensis boliviensis in the Bolivian portion of the Amazon basin upstream of the Teotonio Rapids in Rondonia, Brazil 
    Some, including the Society of Marine Mammalogy in 2012, consider the last of these to be a distinct species.

    Another species of dolphin also occurs in the Amazon River Basin, the Tucuxi (or Gray Dolphin), noted below.

    FRANCISCANA - Family Pontoporiidae 
    (1 species)

  574. La Plata Dolphin (or Franciscana)  ______  AR  BR se
    Pontoporia blainvillei
    AR name: Delfin del Plata

    MARINE DOLPHINS - Family Delphinidae 
    (globally 34 species)

  575. Rough-toothed Dolphin  ______  EC
    Steno bredanensis

  576. Dusky Dolphin  (ph)  ______  AR(*) so
    Lagenorhynchus obscurus
    AR name: Delfin Oscuro

    Dusky Dolphins

  577. Peale's Dolphin  (ph)  ______  AR  CH(*) tf
    Lagenorhynchus australis
    CH name: Delfin Griseoblanco

    Peale's Dolphin
    (photo by Cameron Rutt)

  578. Hourglass Dolphin  ______  AR
    Lagenorhynchus cruciger

  579. Commerson's Dolphin  (ph)  ______  AR  CH(*) tf
    Cephalorhynchus commersonii
    AR name: Tonina Overa
    CH name: Delfin Blanco

    The Commerson's Dolphin, a striking black-and-white marine mammal, much like a porpoise, is in the eastern Strait of Magellan. 
    During one FONT tour, we watched them in smooth water, apparently fishing with penguins. 


    Commerson's Dolphin

  580. Chilean Dolphin  (nt)  ______  AR
    Cephalorhynchus eutropia

  581. Short-beaked Common Dolphin  (ph)   ______  AR  CH(*) fn  EC
    Delphinus delphis
    CH name: Delfin Comun 

    Short-beaked Common Dolphins have been seen offshore from Arica, Chile, during FONT pelagic trips.

  582. Long-beaked Common Dolphin  ______  AR
    Delphinus capensis

  583. Common Bottlenose Dolphin  (ph)  ______  AR  BR(*) fs  
    Tursiops truncatus 
    AR name: Tonina

    Common Bottlenose Dolphins were seen during a FONT Far-Southern Brazil Tour from shore by a long rock jetty that extended about 2 miles out to sea, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 

  584. Pantropical Spotted Dolphin  ______  AR
    Stenella atteuata

  585. Striped Dolphin  ______  AR
    Stenella coeruleoalba

  586. Spinner Dolphin  ______  AR  EC
    Stenella longirostris

  587. Fraser's Dolphin  (ph)  ______  AR  EC
    Lagernodelphis hosei

  588. Southern Right Whale Dolphin  ______  AR
    Lissodelphis peronii

  589. Risso's Dolphin  (ph)  ______  AR  (also called Gray Grampus)
    Grampus griseus  

  590. Orca (or Killer Whale) (ph)  ______  AR(*) so  EC
    Orcinus orca
    AR name: Orca 

    Orcas have been seen in the surf, where there were seals and sea lions on the beach, during FONT tours along the Argentine coast at the Valdez Peninsula.  

  591. False Killer Whale  ______  AR  EC
    Pseudorca crassideus

  592. Pygmy Killer Whale  ______  EC
    Feresa attenuata

  593. Short-finned Pilot Whale  ______  EC
    Globicephala macrorhynchus

  594. Long-finned Pilot Whale  (ph)  ______  AR
    Globicephala melas
    AR name: Delfin Piloto

  595. Melon-headed Whale  ______  EC
    Peponocephala electra

    The Melon-headed Whale is closely related to the Pygmy Killer Whale (above) and the two Pilot Whales (also above).
    Collectively, these dolphin species are known by the common name of "blackfish".  

    Other names for Peponocephala electra are the Many-toothed Blackfish or the Electra Dolphin. 

  596. Tucuxi (or Gray Dolphin) ______  BR(*) am  EC 
    Sotalia fluviatilis
    BR name: Tucuxi 

    The Tucuxi occurs in South American rivers draining into the Atlantic and the Caribbean.
    It is found throughout the entire Amazon River basin, where it has been seen during FONT tours.
    Sotalia fluviatilis
    also occurs in coastal waters north to Panama, occasionally Costa Riva. 

    PORPOISES - Family Phocoenidae

  597. Spectacled Porpoise  ______  AR
    Phocoena dioptrica

  598. Burmeister's Porpoise  ______  AR
    Phocoena spinipinnis

    RIGHT WHALES - Family Balaenidae 
    (globally 5 species)

  599. Southern Right Whale ______  AR(*) so
    Balaena australis
    AR name: Ballena Franca Austral

    The Southern Right Whale has been seen in numbers in the ocean during FONT tours along the Argentine coast at the Valdes Peninsula.

    Family Neobalaenidae

  600. Pygmy Right Whale  ______  AR
    Caperea marginata

    RORQUALS - Family Balaenopteridae  (globally 8 species) 

  601. Humpback Whale  (ph)  ______  AR  EC(*) we
    Megaptera novaeangliae

    During FONT tours, Humpback Whales have been seen leaping completely out of the water 
    (as in the photo below), in the ocean off the coast of western Ecuador, 
    especially during boat trips offshore to Isla de la Plata  

    A leaping Humpback Whale

    Two photos below of the Humpback Whale, during the FONT Ecuador Tour in July 2013.
    In the lower photo, the humps on the back behind the dorsal fin can be seen, 
    the feature that gives the whale its common name.
    (photos by Marie Gardner)


  602. Northern (or Common) Minke Whale  (ph)  ______  AR  EC
    Balaenoptera acutorostrata

  603. Antarctic Minke Whale  ______  AR
    Balaenoptera bonaerensis

  604. Sei Whale  (t2)  ______  AR
    Balaenoptera borealis

  605. Bryde's Whale  ______  AR
    Balaenoptera edeni

  606. Fin Whale  (t2) (ph)  ______  AR  EC
    Balaenoptera physalus

  607. Blue Whale  (t2) (ph)  ______  AR  EC
    Balaenoptera musculus 

    Family Physeter

  608. Great Sperm Whale  (t3) (ph)  ______  AR
    Physeter macrocephalus

    Family Kogiidae

  609. Pygmy Sperm Whale  (ph)  ______  AR  EC
    Kogia breviceps

  610. Dwarf Sperm Whale  ______  AR  EC
    Kogia sima

    Family Ziphius

  611. Cuvier's Beaked Whale  (ph)  ______  AR  EC
    Ziphius cavirostris

  612. Arnoux's Beaked Whale  ______  AR
    Berardius arnuxii

  613. Shepherd's Beaked Whale  ______  AR
    Tasmacetus shepherdi

  614. Andrew's Beaked Whale  ______  AR
    Mesoplodon bowdoini

  615. Blainville's Beaked Whale  ______  EC
    Mesoplodon densirostris

  616. Ginkgo-toothed Beaked Whale  ______  EC
    Mesoplodon ginkgodens  

  617. Gray's Beaked Whale  ______  AR
    Mesoplodon grayi

  618. Hector's Beaked Whale  ______  AR
    Mesoplodon hectori

  619. Strap-toothed Whale  ______  AR
    Mesoplodon layardii

  620. Pygmy Beaked Whale  ______  EC
    Mesoplodon peruvianus

  621. Southern Bottlenose Whale  ______  AR
    Hyperoodon planifrons 

    PECCARIES - Family Tayassuidae  (3 or 4 species)

  622. Collared Peccary  (ph)  ______  AR  BR(*) mt  EC
    Pecari tajacu 
    (the genus has been Tayassu and Dicotyles)
    (the genus has been Tayassu and Dicotyles)
    AR name: Pecari de Collar
    BR names: Carero, Caititu, Porco-do-Mato-do-Colar

    Pecari tajacu
    is also known, in the northern part of its range, as the Javelina. 

    Pecari tajacu
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

  623. White-lipped Peccary  (nt) (ph)  ______  AR  BR(*) af  EC
    Tayassu pecari
    AR name: Pecari Labiado
    BR name: Queixada

    The White-lipped Peccary is larger than the Collared Peccary. The White-lipped Peccary is black with a white chin (and with no collar).

    White-lipped Peccary

  624. Giant Peccary  ______  BR (endemic)  
    Pecari maximus  

    Pecari maximus
    is a newly-described species, in 2007, but recently its designation as a species has been questioned.   

  625. Chacoan Peccary  (t2) ______ AR
    Catagonus wagneri

    CAMELS - Family Camelidae  (globally 7 species)

  626. Vicuna  (t3) (ph)  ______  AR(*) fn  CH(*) fn
    Vicugna vicugna
    AR & CH names: Vicuna


  627. Guanaco  (ph)  ______  AR(*) fs tf  CH(*) fn fs tf
    Lama guanicoe
    AR name: Guanaco


  628. Llama  (ph)  ______  AR(*) fn  CH(*) fn  (a domesticated animal)
    Lama glama
    AR & CH names: Llama

    Lama glama
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    A Llama photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  629. Alpaca ______  CH(*) fn  (a domesticated animal)
    Lama pacos
    AR & CH names: Alpaca

    Lama pacos
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Some Notes about the South American Lamoids  (the Llama, Alpaca, Guanaco, Vicuna):

    Combined there are an estimated 7.7 million of these animals, with 53% in Peru, 37% in Bolivia, 8% in Argentina, and 2% in Chile.
    The domestic Llamas and Alpacas (91% of the total) are far more numerous than the wild Guanacos and Vicunas (9%). Llamas (3.7 million) are slightly more abundant than Alpacas (3.3 million) and Guanacos (575,000) are much more common than Vicunas (85,000).
    Most Alpacas (91%) and Vicunas (72%) are in Peru, and the majority of Llamas (70%) are in Bolivia, and nearly all of the Guanacos (96%) are in Argentina. 
    The Guanaco has been decreasing during recent years due to hunting and competition with livestock. The Vicuna was reduced to a dangerously low population in the 1960's, but the species is now recovering under protection.

    DEER - Family Cervidae  (globally 47 species)  

  630. White-tailed Deer  (ph)  ______  EC  VE(*) ll  
    Odocoileus virginianus
    VE name: Venado (Llanero)

  631. Pampas Deer  (nt)  (ph)  ______  AR  BR(*) mt
    Odocoileus bezoarticus
    AR name: Venado de las Pampas

    Odocoileus bezoarticus
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758. 

    Pampas Deer

  632. Marsh Deer  (t3) (ph)  ______  AR(*) ne  BR(*) mt
    Blastocerus dichotomus
    AR name: Ciervo de los Pantanos
    BR name: Cervo do Pantanal

    Above: A Marsh Deer (& a Giant Cowbird) photographed during 
    a FONT Brazil tour in Mato Grosso do Sul.
    Below: Another Marsh Deer photographed during our tour there in March 2008.
    (photo below by Marie Gardner)  

  633. Gray (or Brown) Brocket (Deer)  (ph)  ______  AR(*) ne  BR(*) af fs mt  EC
    Mazama gouazoubira
    AR name: Corzuela Parda 
    BR name: Veado Vira

    A Gray Brocket Deer photographed during the FONT Brazil tour
    in Mato Grosso do Sul in March 2008
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  634. Red Brocket (Deer)  ______  AR  BR(*) af mt  EC
    Mazama americana
    BR name: Veado Mateiro

  635. Little Red Brocket (Deer)  ______  EC
    Mazama rufina

  636. Dwarf Brocket ______ PE
    Mazama chunyi

  637. Pygmy Brocket (Deer)  ______  AR  BR(*) ig
    Mazama nana
    AR name: Corzuela Enana 
    BR name: Bororo  

  638. Peruvian (or Northern) Guemal (or Huemul)  (t3) (ph)  ______  AR  CH(*) fn  EC(where now extinct) 
    Hippocamelus antisensis 

    AR & CH name: Taruca

    Hippocamelus antisensis
    is now considered distinct from the Chilean, or Southern Guemal (or Huemul), Hippocamelus bisuleus

    A Peruvian
    (or Northern) Guemal, photographed during a FONT tour in northern Chile
  639. Chilean (or Southern) Guemal  (t2)  ______  AR  CH
    Hippocamelus bisulcus
    AR name: Huemul 

  640. Northern Pudu ______ EC  PE
    Pudu mephistophiles

  641. Southern Pudu  (t3) (ph)  ______  AR  CH(*) so
    Pudu pudu
    AR & CH name: Pudu

    A Southern Pudu, a very small deer, said to be world's smallest,
    has been seen during FONT tours in Chile 

    TAPIRS - Family Tapiridae 
    (globally 4 species)

  642. Brazilian Tapir  (t3) (ph)  ______  AR  BR(*) af mt  EC
    Tapirus terrestris
    AR name: Tapir 
    BR name: Anta

    Tapirus terrestris
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

    Above: a young Brazilian Tapir
    Below: an adult and a young
    These photos were taken at a animal scientific research facility 
    in Paraguay during a FONT tour (mostly in Brazil) in August 2008.
    This tapir is an endangered species in Paraguay.

  643. Mountain (or Wooly) Tapir  (t2) ______  EC  (occurs in high montane forest & paramo in Colombia & Ecuador)
    Tapirus pinchaque

  644. Baird's Tapir  (t2) (ph)  ______  EC
    Tapirus bairdii

    Tapirus bairdii is mainly a Central American mammal. In South America, it is rare in Colombia, and even more if it still exists in Ecuador. It was said to range as far south as the Gulf of Guayaquil in Ecuador. 

    MANATEES - Family Trichechidae 
    (globally 3 species)

    (globally 3 species)

  645. Amazonian Manatee  (t3)  ______ BR  EC
    Trichechus inunguis


    "Mammals of the World, a Checklist"
    by Andrew Duff & Ann Lawson, 2004

    "Neotropical Rainforest Mammals, A Field Guide, Second Edition",
    text by Louise Emmons & illustrations by Francois Feer

    "Walker's Marsupials of the World"
    by Ronald Nowak, 2005

    To Top of Page

    A Link to a Listing of South American Butterflies:

    Butterflies of South America