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 or 302/529-1876

Fruiting Plants

and some other
Notable Plants
in that Country

with those during 
Focus On Nature Tours
thru 2014
noted with an (*) 

during tours in the months of 
January, February, March, April,  
May, July, November, and December

This List of Fruiting Plants, and some others, of Brazil 
compiled by Armas Hill 

Photo at upper right:  
photographed during a FONT tour in April 2014  
The fruit becomes purple when ripe.
(photo by Marie Gardner) 
There are 22 species of PASSION FRUIT in this list.

There have been 50 FONT birding and nature tours in Brazil over the years since 1991.
Armas Hill, of Focus On Nature, also made a number of trips to the country during the previous decade.
Those visits and the tours have been to nearly every part of Brazil, including:
the Amazonian region, southeastern Brazil including the Atlantic Forest, further inland in Minas Gerais 
and in and near Brasilia, in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul (including the Pantanal), 
in the area of Iguazu Falls, and as far south as the border with Uruguay in Rio Grande do Sul.
In these various places, in the big country, as Brazil is, there's an assortment of varied habitats,
including some tropical, some subtropical, and others temperate. 
Of course, the plant life varies accordingly.       
In the list that follows, below the scientific names are names in English and Portuguese (P:).
The families in the list are given (mostly) in alphabetical order, and genera within them are given alphabetically as well. 
Families that are "break-offs" from other families are at times here still with them, and may be out of alphabetical order. 

Links to Plant Families in this List:

ACTINIDIACEAE - Chinese Gooseberry family   including Kiwi

including Cashew, Mango, Hog Plum, Spanish Plum (neither true plums), Mombins

ANNONACEAE - Custard Apples   
including Soursop, Sweetsop, Custard Apple (or "Bull's Heart"), Monkey Banana, Corosol, Wild Cashina

APOCYNACEAE - Dogbanes   including Brazilian Sorva

ARACEAE - Aroids   including Ceriman (or "Banana de Macaco") 

ARECACEAE, was PALMAE - Palms   including Coconut Palm, Mauritia Palm
and referring to the significance of palms for birds such as Macaws 


BALSAMINACEAE - Touch-me-not

BIGNONIACEAE - Bignonias, Trumpet Creepers   including Calabash, Jacaranda trees, Tabebuia ("Ipe") trees


BRASSICADEAE - Mustards  (formerly CRUCIFERAE)

BROMELIACEAE  - Bromeliads   including Pineapple

BURSERACEAE - Torchwoods, or Incense Trees

CACTACEAE - Cacti   including Dragonfruit

CALOPHYLLACEAE  (previously in the CLUSIACEAE, or GUTTIFERAE family)  
including Mammee Apple 

CANNABACEAE - Canna  (now includes ULMACEAE)

CARICACEAE - Papaya Plants   including Papaya (or Pawpaw)

including Brazilian Souari Nut

CELASTRACEAE - Bittersweet, or Staff-vine

CHRYSOBALANACEAE   including Cocoplum (both black and red)


COMBRETACEAE - Bush Willows, Combretums, Almond

CONVOLVULACEAE - Morning Glories   including Sweet Potato

COSTACEAE - Costus Family   including Spiral Gingers

CUCURBITACEAE - Gourd, or Cucumbers   
including Watermelon, Winter Squash, Summer Squash (Zucchini), Cantaloupes, Honeydew, other melons, Balsam Pear 

including Panama Hat Plant

EBENACEAE - Ebony and Persimmon   including Persimmon

ERICACEAE - Heath   including Blueberries

EUPHORBIACEAE - Spurges   including Poinsettia, Rubber Tree 

FABACEAE - Legume, or Pea or Bean Family  (includes CAESALPINIOIDEAE, the Carob Plants, and MIMOSOIDEAE, the Mimosa Plants)
including Pernambuco (tree for making violins, the world's best), Tonka Bean Tree, Inga trees, Ice Cream Bean

FAGACEAE - Beech family   including Spanish Chestnut 



JUGLANDACEAE - Walnuts   including Pecan

LAMIACEAE, or LABIATAE - Mints   including Amazonian Basil

LAURACEAE - Laurel   including Avocado

LECYTHIDACEAE - Brazil Nut plants and allies   including Brazil Nut Tree, Cannonball Tree, Monkey Pot Tree 

LYTHRACEAE - Loosestrifes   including Pomegranate

MALPIGHIACEAE  including Peanut Butter Fruits, Shoemaker's Tree, Barbados Cherry

MALVACEAE - Mallows  (includes BOMBACACEAE, the Cotton Tree Plants)   including Saba Nut

MELASTOMATACEAE - Melastomes   including Mess Apple (or "Araca de Anta", "food of the Tapir") 

MELIACEAE - Mahogany


MORACEAE - Mulberry plants    including Breadfruit, Jackfruit, Fig, Strangler Fig, Mulberries

MUNTINGIACEAE   including Capulin

MUSACEAE - Banana plants, Heliconias   including Banana, Plantain

MYRTACEAE - Myrtles   including Guavas, Flying Saucer Fruit, Brazil Cherry, Rainforest Plum, Brazilian Grape, Rumberry, Lilly Pilly, Water Apple, Mountain Apple, Java Plum, Java Apple, Brush Cherry

NYCTAGINACEAE - Four O' Clocks   including Bougainvillea


OLACACEAE   including Hog Plum (not the same fruit as in ANACARDIACEAE)

ONAGRACEAE - Willowherb, Evening Primrose   including Fuchsias

OXALIDACEAE   including Star Fruit

PASSIFLORACEAE - Passionflowers

PHYLLANTACEAE   including Oriental Gooseberries  

POACEAE  (or GRAMINEAE)  - Grasses  
including Sugarcane, Rice, Corn

PONTEDERIACEAE - Water Hyacinth, Pickerel-weed

PROTEACEAE - Macadamia and allies   including Macadamia Nuts

RHAMNACEAE - Buckthorns   including Chinese Raisin, Jujubes

RHIZOPHORACEAE - Mangroves and allies

ROSACEAE - Rose   including Quince, Loquat, Strawberry, Apple, Apricot, Italian Plum, Sweet Almond, Peach, Nectarine, Japanese Plum, Pear, Apple Pear, Raspberries, Blackberries 

RUBIACEAE - Madders   including Coffee, Genips, Spanish Tamarind

RUTACEAE - Citrus, or Rue   including Lime, Sour Orange, Mandarin, Sweet Limes, Lemon (a hybrid), Citron, Grapefruit (a hybrid), Tangerine, Sweet Orange, Kumquats

SALICACEAE - Willows   including Pipewood (or Wild Honey Tree), Kei Apple, Governor's Plum, Batoko Plum

SANTALACEAE - Sandalwoods  (includes VISCACEAE, Mistletoes)

SAPINDACEAE - Soapberry family   including Aki (or Akee), Guarana (used in a popular Brazilian soft drink)

SAPOTACEAE - Sapote plants   including Star Apple, Massarandubas, Armadillo Fruit, Miracle Fruit

SOLANACEAE - Nightshades   including Tree Tomato

STERCULIACEAE - Cacao plants   including Cacao (or Cocoa)

URTICACEAE - Nettles  
including Cecropia trees, Amazon Tree Grape

VERBENACEAE - Vervains, Verbanas

VITACEAE - Grapes  
including various cultivated grapes




BR:  species that occurs in Brazil either as a native or cultivated plant
(every species in this list, those color-coded blue are fruits, those red are other plants)   
(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT web-site

In this list, Portuguese names follow the letter P:

Other Links:  

Information about Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours:
in the Caribbean 
    in Central America    in South America (Brazil and Ecuador)

or by month in:   2015    or:  by geographic locations worldwide 

Lists and Photo Galleries in this Website of Other Nature: 

Birds in:   the Caribbean    Central America    South America (Brazil)    South America (Ecuador) 

A list and Photo Gallery of Hummingbirds in 2 parts

Mammals:     the Caribbean    Central America    South America

Butterflies and Moths in:   the Caribbean      Central America    South America

Other Lists and Photo Galleries in this website relating to Plants: 

Tropical Plants in the Americas  (in two parts, including the Caribbean, Mexico, Central and South America) 

Tropical Plants on West Indian Islands in the Caribbean      WILD ORCHIDS OF THE AMERICAS

Wildflowers & Other Plants in Texas    Wildflowers & Other Plants in Eastern North America 

Desert Plants of the Southwest US & northern Mexico

Northern Plants in Alaska, Iceland, & the mountains of Hokkaido, Japan
(with some notes about medicinal and edible plants)

Links to Other Lists & Photo Galleries of Plants     
Directory of Photos in this Website

Books that have been sources for this list include:
"Aves Brasileiras e Plantas que as Atraem" by Johan Dalgas Frisch and Christian Dalgas Frisch, 2005
"Brazil, Amazon and Pantanal - the Ecotraveler's Wildlife Guide" by David Pearson and Les Beletsky, 2002  
"Brazilian Fruits and Cultivated Exotics" by Harri Lorenzi, Luis Bacher, Marco Lacerda, Sergio Sartori, 2006
"Hummingbirds, a Life-size Guide to Every Species" by Michael Fogden, Marianne Taylor, and Sheri Williamson, 2014
"Tropical Plants of the World" by Jens Rohwer, 2002 

     A List of Tropical Plants of the Americas:

Family ACTINIDIACEAE  (Chinese Gooseberry family)


  1. Actinidia deliciosa   ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, introduced there in 1970, from mountainous regions of southeast China) 
    P: Quiui

    Family ANACARDIACEAE  (Sumacs)


  2. Anacardium giganteum  ______  BR
    P: Caju Assu

  3. Anacardium humile  ______  BR
    Monkey Nut
    P: Cajuzinho

  4. Anacardium microcarpum  ______  BR
    P: Caju do Campo

  5. Anacardium occidentale  (ph)  ______  BR   
    (or Cashew Apple, or Cashew Nut (a tree with simple, alternating leaves)
    P: Caju

    The Caju, as it is called in Portuguese, is the fruit that produces the Cashew Nut. 
    Cajus hang down from the branches of an evergreen tree, and look rather like pears from a distance. But, up close, a kidney-shaped seed can be seen growing on the outside of the fruit.
    The leathery outer shell of the seed contains cardol, an oily liquid that is highly caustic and can cause skin ulcers, which is why it is recommended to remove the seed and discard. 
    Even though it may be tempting to try to extract the cashew, it should be left to "professionals" who have developed a method of roasting the seed in cylinders that collect the caustic but valuable cardol oil. They crack open the seed to release the nut and dry it.

    The Caju fruit is about 3 and a half inches in length, and the nut about one-quarter to one and a quarter inches.

    The Caju is yellow-orange to red as it matures, with a peachy floral fragrance. The juicy flesh has a sweet flavor and slight acidity and is quite astringent.

    At various places in the tropics, the Cashew may be used to produce liqueurs, sorbets, ice cream, and preserves.

    In Brazil, the Cashew is native to fields and coastal dunes in the northern part of the country. It is also widely cultivated in that area. 

    Birds that feed on the Cashew include: thrushes, tanagers, euphonias, parakeets, parrots, and others.

    A Caju photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


  6. Mangifera indica  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, brought there in the 16th Century, from India and Burma)
    (a tree with simple, alternating leaves)
    P: Mango, or Manga

    The Mango Tree is easily recognized by its dome-shaped crown of dull green leathery leaves growing on a short, thick trunk.
    The small green flowers grow in inconspicuous clusters. 
    Usually the fruit is kidney-shaped, with each fruit hanging down on a long stalk.
    When the fruit is ripe, its skin is pinkish or yellowish, lightly flecked with black and brown.
    The flesh is yellow-orange and is succulent yet fibrous, especially where it attaches to the single large stone.
    Mango is commonly served in the American tropics in breakfast fruit platters and in fruit salad deserts.


  7. Selerocarya birrea caffra  ______  BR
    P: Amarula

    Genus SPONDIAS

  8. Spondias axillaris  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Nepal)
    Hog Plum 
    (or Himilayan Ambarella)
    P: Caja do Himalaia

  9. Spondias dulcis  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Polynesian islands)
    P: Cajarana

  10. Spondias macrocarpa  ______  BR
    P: Caja Redondo

  11. Spondias mombia  ______  BR
    Yellow Mombin
    P: Tapereba

  12. Spondias pinnata  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Sri Lanka) 
    Indian Mombin
    P: Caja Grando

  13. Spondias purpurea  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Central America)
    Spanish Plum 
    (or Purple Mombin)
    P: Ciriguela, or Ceriguela

    Although the Portuguese "Ciriguela" translates to "plum", the fruit bears no resemblance to the European plum, and they are not related. 
    Spondias purpurea is in the same family as the Mango (above).
    The Ciriguela is oval-shaped and about 1 to 1 and a half inches in diameter. It has a large pit and little flesh.
    Depending on the variety, it turns yellow, orange, or red when it matures.

    When mature, the Ciriguela is made into a beverage or included in sorbets.

  14. Spondias tuberosa  ______  BR
    P: Imbu

  15. Spondias venulosa  ______  BR
    P: Caja Grande

    Family ANNONACEAE  (Custard Apples)

    Genus ANNONA

  16. Annona cacans  ______  BR
    P: Araticum Cagao

  17. Annona cherimola  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from the Andes in western South America) 
    P: Cherimoia

  18. Annona coriacea  ______  BR
    P: Araticum Liso
    or Marolo

  19. Annona crassiflora  ______  BR
    P: Araticum Cortica

  20. Annona glabra  ______  BR
    Pond Apple
    P: Araticum de Brejo

  21. Annona montana  ______  BR
    Mountain Soursop
    P: Araticum Acu

  22. Annona muricata  (*) (ph)  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from the West Indies)
    (a tree with simple, alternating leaves)
    P: Guanabana,
    or Graviola

    The Soursop Tree is a fast-growing tree with small, shiny leaves and yellowish-green flowers.
    The fruit is large, oval-shaped, and green in color.
    Its skin has a distinct spiny surface, and so the fruit is easily recognized in markets and roadside stalls.
    Some fruits attain a length of 8 inches, and a weight of 6 pounds is not unusual.
    The inside of the fruit is whitish-pink, and the flesh has the consistency of thick custard.
    The fruit is seldom cooked. More frequently it is sieved and served as cream, or soursop ice cream. It also made into drinks and sherbet. It retains its flavor even after deep-freezing for a period of time.   

  23. Annona reticulata  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Central America and the Caribbean)
    Custard Apple 
    (or Sugar Apple, or Bull's Heart
    P: Condessa, or Coracao de Boi

    Annona reticulata acquired its English names due to both its flavor and form: "Custard Apple" describes the flesh's creamy color, smooth texture, and delicately sweet taste. "Bull's Heart" refers to its symmetrical heart shape.
    The bulbous, lobed fruit, measuring about 3 to 6 inches wide, contains between 55 and 75 small seeds.

  24. Annona salzmannii  ______  BR
    Beach Sugar Apple 
    (or Beach Araticum)

  25. Annona squamosa  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Central America and the Caribbean)
    (or Sugar Apple)  (a tree with simple, alternating leaves) 
    P: Fruta do Conde

  26. Annona squamosa x Annona cherimola  ______  BR  
    P: Atemoya

    The Atemoya is a fertile hybrid between Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola (both above).

    Genus DUGUETIA

  27. Duguetia furfuracea  ______  BR
    P: Araticum

  28. Duguetia lanceolata  ______  BR
    P: Pindaiba

    Genus PORCELIA

  29. Porcelia macrocarpa  ______  BR
    Monkey Banana
    P: Banana de Macaco

    enus ROLLINIA

  30. Rollinia emarginata  ______  BR
    P: Araticum Mirim

  31. Rollinia mucosa  ______  BR
    Wild Sweetsop 
    (or Wild Cashina)
    P: Biriba

  32. Rollinia salicifolia  ______  BR
    P: Cortica Lisa

  33. Rollinia sericea  ______  BR
    P: Cortica Ourica

  34. Rollinia sylvatica  ______  BR
    P: Araticum do Mato

    Family APOCYNACEAE  (Dogbanes)


  35. Ambelana acida  ______  BR 
    P: Pepino do Mato

    Genus CARISSA

  36. Carissa macrocarpa  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southern Africa) 
    Natal Plum
    P: Carissa

    Genus COUMA

  37. Couma utilis  ______  BR
    Brazilian Sorva
    P: Sorva,
    or Sorvinha


  38. Hancornia speciosa  ______  BR
    P: Mangaba da Restinga

    Hancornia speciosa (var. pubescens)  ______  BR 
    P: Mangaba do Cerrado

    Family ARACEAE  (Aroids)

    Genus MONSTERA

  39. Monstera delicioso  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Central America and southern Mexico)
    (a climbing plant with simple alternating leaves)
    P: Banana de Macaco

    Other names for Monstera delicioso are Split Leaf  Philodendron and Swiss Cheese Plant. 

    Family ARECACEAE  (was PALMAE)  (Palms)   


  40. Acrocomia aculeata  ______  BR  (ranges from southern Mexico to northern Argentina)
    Macauba Palm
    S: Cocoyol, or Coyol

    Other names for Acrocomia aculeata are Macaw Palm, Coyol Palm and Grugru Palm.   

  41. Acrocomia sclerocarpa  ______  BR
    Bocaiuva Palm

    Acrocomia sclerocarpa
    has been (and still is) considered a variety of Acrocomia aculeata, the Macauba Palm (above).
    They are often solitary in drier areas. Trunks are occasionally swollen near the middle. 

    Genus ALPHANES

  42. Alphanes aculeata  ______  BR
    Coyupe Palm
    P: Cariota de Espinho


  43. Allagoptera arenaria  ______  BR
    Guriri Palm
    P: Buriri


  44. Astrocaryum aculeatum (or tucuma)  ______  BR
    Tucuman Palm
    P: Tucuma,
    or Tucuma do Amazonas

  45. Astrocaryum murumuru  ______  BR 
    P: Murumuru

  46. Astrocaryum vulgare  ______  BR
    Fiber Palm
    P: Tucuma do Para

    Genus ATTALEA

  47. Attalea dubia  ______  BR
    P: Indaia

    Genus BACTRIS

  48. Bactris ferruginea  ______  BR
    P: Mane Velo

  49. Bactris maraja  ______  BR
    P: Maraja

  50. Bactris setosa  ______  BR
    Jucum Palm
    P: Tucum

    Genus BUTIA

  51. Butia capitata  ______  BR
    Jelly Palm
    P: Butia

  52. Butia eriospatha  ______  BR
    Wooly Jelly Palm
    P: Butia Veludo

  53. Butia odorata  (*)  ______  BR
    Southern Jelly Palm
    P: Butia da Praia

  54. Butia purpurascens  ______  BR
    Purple Yatay Palm
    P: Butia Jatai

  55. Butia yatay  ______  BR
    Yatay Palm
    P: Butia Yatai

    Genus COCOS

  56. Cocos nucifera (*)  ______  BR  (native to the tropics by the western Pacific Ocean) 
    Coconut Palm 
    (a feather palm tree)
    P: Coco

    The Coconut is one of the most used plants in the world, and every part of it is used. It produces a beverage, fiber, food, fuel, and even utensils.
    The edible part of the fruit measures about 4 to 6 inches in diameter. 
    Generally, where it grows, the Coconut is available year-round.


  57. Copernicia alba (*)  ______  BR
    Carunda Palm

    The Carunda Palm is the dominant tree in the palm savannah areas of the Pantanal in Brazil. They are often surrounded by extensive grassy areas. 

    Genus EUTERPE

  58. Euterpre edulis  ______  BR
    Jussara Palm
    P: Jucara,
    or Palmito Doce

  59. Euterpre oleracea  ______  BR
    Assai Palm
    P: Acai do Para

  60. Euterpre precatoria  ______  BR
    Forest Assai Palm
    P: Acai da Mata

    Genus MAURITIA

  61. Mauritia flexuosa  (*)  ______  BR
    Mauritia Palm 
    (a fan palm tree)
    P: Buriti,
    or Miriti

    Other names for Mauritia flexuosa are Moriche Palm and Buriti Palm.

    Buriti Palms are important trees in parts of Brazil for the large, spectacular, and endangered Hyacinth Macaw, as are some other palm trees listed here, including:
    in the Pantanal of Brazil, Acrocomia sclerocarpa (above), and Scheelea phalerata (below)
    in the Amazonian region: Astrocaryum tucuma (above), Maximiliana regia (below), Orbignya martina (below).

    The diet of the Hyacinth Macaw consists primarily of the locally available nuts of these various palms noted here.
    The palm nuts are taken from the plant, or on the ground - with the latter sometimes as undigested remains in cattle droppings.
    Also, the macaws drink fluid from unripe palm fruits.
    The nests of Hyacinth Macaws are in hollow palm trees, including Mauritia flexuosa.
    In the northern part of the bird's range, it also nests in Enterolobium cyclocarpum, the large Earpod Tree, in the family FABACEAE.

    During a FONT tour in the southern Pantanal region, in Mato Grosso do Sul, we stayed at a remote lodge where we had some wonderful experiences the big Hyacinth Macaw, the largest of all the psittacids in the world.
    We observed them both near and further away, as "in the wild" they were sometimes at a distance. 
    But others we saw closely as the birds fed on palm nuts, that had been gathered from local trees and then placed on a large feeding tray, by the restaurant where we ate our own meals. 

    A Hyacinth Macaw photographed during 
    a FONT tour in Brazil


  62. Maximiliana maripa  ______  BR
    P: Inaja

  63. Maximiliana regia  ______  BR    


  64. Oenocarpus bacaba  ______  BR
    Bacaba Palm  (or Turu Palm)
    P: Bacaba 

  65. Oenocarpus batana  ______  BR
    P: Patana

  66. Oenocarpus distichus  ______  BR
    P: Bacaba de Leque

    Genus ORBIGNYA

  67. Orbignya martiana  ______  BR

  68. Orbignya phalerata  _____  BR
    American Oil Palm
    P: Babacu

    Genus PHOENIX

  69. Phoenix dactylifera  ______  BR  (now cultivated in northeast Brazil, from northern Africa, the Middle East, and India)
    Date Palm
    P: Tamara

    Genus SCHEELIA

  70. Scheelia butyracea  ______  BR
    P: Jaci

  71. Scheelia phalerata  ______  BR
    Bacuri Palm
    P: Acuri

    Genus SYAGRUS

  72. Syagrus cearensis  ______  BR
    P: Catole

  73. Syagrus coronata  ______  BR
    Licury Palm
    P: Licuri

  74. Syagrus flexuosa  ______  BR
    P: Acuma

  75. Syagrus macrocarpa  ______  BR
    P: Maria Rosa

  76. Syagrus oleracea  ______  BR
    P: Guariroba

  77. Syagrus romanzoffiana  ______  BR
    Robust Queen Palm
    P: Jeriva

  78. Syagrus schizophylla  ______  BR
    Arikury Palm
    P: Licuriroba

  79. Syagrus vagans  ______  BR
    P: Ariri

    Family ARAUCARIACEAE  (Araucarias)


  80. Araucaria heterophylla  ______  (native to Norfolk Island in the Pacific Ocean)
    Norfolk Island Pine 
    (a coniferous tree)

    Family BALSAMINACEAE  (Touch-me-not)


    Plants in IMPATIENS can be attractive to feeding hummingbirds.

    Family BIGNONIACEAE  (Trumpet Creepers, Bignonias) 

  81. Crescentia cujete  (ph)  ______  BR  (native to Central and South America)
    Calabash Tree 
    (with simple, alternating leaves) 
    P: Arbore de Cuia, or Cuite

    The fruit of the Calabash tree
    (photo courtesy of Michiel Koomen)


  82. Jacaranda mimosifolia  ______  (native to southern Brazil and northern Argentina)
    (tree with leaves pinnately divided) 

    Jacaranda trees, profusely in bloom with their light violet flowers, have been seen during FONT tours in the city parks of Buenos Aires, Argentina, in October and November. 

    The flowers of the Jacaranda tree can be especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds. 


  83. Parmentiera aculeata  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Central America)
    Cow Okra
    P: Guajilote

    Other English names for Parmentiera aculeata are Food Candle Tree and for the fruit, Tree Cucumber.


  84. Pyrostegia venusta  ______  (native to Brazil and Paraguay)
    Flame Vine 
    (or "Orange Creeper"(climbing plant with leaves pinnately divided or tripartite)
    P: Cipo de Sao Joao


  85. Spathodea campanulata  (ph)  ______   (native to tropical Africa)
    African Tulip Tree 
    (tree with leaves pinnately divided)

    African Tulip Trees photographed during a FONT tour    
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  86. Spathodea nilotica  ______  BR
    P: Espatodea 

    Spathodea nilotica
    is especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds. 
    is especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds. 

    Genus TABEBUIA

    The TABEBUIA trees noted below can be, when in bloom, especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.  

  87. Tabebuia aurea  ______  BR  (grows in the wild in Brazil and northern Argentina)

  88. Tabebuia avellanedae  ______  BR

  89. Tabebuia chrysantha  (*)  ______  BR  
    Gold Tree 
    (or Yellow Ipe (tree, as are others in Tabebuia, with leaves palmately divided)
    P: Ype Amarelo

    "Ipe", or "Ype" Trees, have been seen and enjoyed during many FONT tours in the Neotropics, as they are favored for food by many birds, and, at times, by monkeys.
    During the dry season, they, and Pink Trumpet Trees
    (below), are ablaze with color in the Pantanal in southern Brazil. 
    A particular hotel where we've often stayed in southeastern Brazil is called "Hotel do Ype"    

  90. Tabebuia chrysotricha  ______  BR

  91. Tabebuia heptaphylla  ______  BR  

  92. Tabebuia impetiginosa  (*)  ______  BR  

    Tabebuia impetiginosa
    are large trees that lose their leaves in the dry season, but late in the dry season, the tree suddenly produces an overwhelming mass of maroon flowers for about a week. 
    An individual tree can sometimes have two or three such mass-flowering episodes.
    Some other species of Tabebuia trees have bright yellow flowers, such as Tabebuia chrysantha (above).
    The strategy of massive flowering during just a few days is to attract pollinating insects, many of them bees.    
    Regarding the wood of Tabebuia trees, it is some of the heaviest and hardest in the American tropics. It is so heavy it does not float on top of water.    

  93. Tabebuia ochracea  ______  BR 

  94. Tabebuia rosea  (*)  ______  BR  (grows in the wild in South America in areas with alternating humidity)
    Pink Trumpet Tree 
    (with leaves palmately divided)

  95. Tabebuia vellosoi  ______  BR

    Genus TECOMA

  96. Tecoma stans  ______   (native from the southern US to northern Argentina) 
    Yellow Trumpet Flower 
    (a bush with leaves pinnately divided)

    The Yellow Trumpet Flower is among the most popular of ornamental plants from the tropics, and so it has many names.


    TECOMARIA species are especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds, in Brazil.

    Family BORAGINACEAE  (Borages)

  97. Cordia ecalyculata  ______  BR
    P: Cha-de-Bugre
    or Claraiba

    Birds that feed on the fruits of Cordia ecalyculata include: guans, trogons, pigeons, tanagers, aracaris, and others.

  98. Cordia glabrata  ______  BR

    The Louro is a tall tree, with a tall slender trunk that is grayish-white. It has white flowers that are very fragrant, and are visited by moths in the early morning, and by butterflies, bees, and beetles during the day.
    Because Cordia glabrata is fast-growing, it is suggested as an ideal native species for reforestation.        

  99. Cordia sellowiuana  ______  BR
    P: Jurute

    Birds that feed on the fruits of Cordia sellowiuana include: guans, trogons, pigeons, tanagers, aracaris, and others.  

    Family BRASSICADEAE  (Mustards)  - formerly CRUCIFERAE

    Genus CRATAEVA  (
    formerly in the family CAPPARACEAE)
    formerly in the family CAPPARACEAE)

  100. Crataeva tapia  _____  BR
    P: Tapia

    Family BROMELIACEAE  (Bromeliads)

    BROMELIACEAE contains about 2,000 species that range from tropical to warm-temperate regions of the New World.

    Genus ANANAS

  101. Ananas comosus  ______  BR  (native to the tropical Western Hemisphere)
    P: Abacaxi

    The Pineapple got its English name from the resemblance it has to the pine cone in the temperate regions.
    The plant was native to Central America and the West Indies. Columbus found it there when he arrived in 1492.
    Since then, it has become cultivated in much of the world, in the tropics, and it now a popular fruit many places.

    Because of the structure and arrangement of its leaves, the Pineapple plant can make maximum use of rain water, and so it is capable of living in dry conditions.
    The flowers of the plant arise deep in the center of the leaves where they bloom for only a brief period.
    About 10 months later, the fruit of the pineapple has grown and ripened and is ready for picking.

    Pineapple is used widely as a breakfast dish, a dessert, and in fruit salads. It also is used as accompaniment with meat dishes such as ham, gammon, and pork (all names for pretty much the same thing).
    Also Pineapple is often, in the tropics, a flavor in a juice, and it is used to make a delicious "squash drink".          

    Genus BROMELIA

  102. Bromelia antiacantha  ______  BR
    P: Gravata

    Genus GUZMANIA

    The bromeliads in GUZMANIA are favored foods for the hummingbird, the Straight-billed Hermit. 

    Family BURSERACEAE  (Torchwoods, or Incense Trees)

    Genus CANARIUM

  103. Canarium ovatum  ______  BR  (recently introduced in Brazil, from the Philippines)
    Pili Nut
    P: Noz Pili

    Family CACTACEAE  (Cacti)

    With about 140 genera and 2,000 species, nearly all found in warm arid parts of the Americas.

    Genus CEREUS

  104. Cereus jamacara  ______  BR
    Mandacaru Cereus
    P: Jamacaru


  105. Epiphyllum phyllanthus  ______  BR
    P: Pitaia Rosea


  106. Hylocereus lemairei  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from arid parts of Mexico)
    Red Pitaya
    P: Pitaia Vermelha

  107. Hylocereus undatus  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Mexico and Central America south to El Salvador)
    (or Strawberry Pear)
    P: Pitaia Branca


  108. Opuntia ficus-indica  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Mexico)
    Prickly Pear
    P: Figo da India

  109. Opuntia monacantha  ______  BR
    Prickly Pear
    P: Monducuru

  110. Opuntia paraguayensis  ______  BR
    P: Arumbeva


  111. Pilosocereus arrabidae  ______  BR  
    P: Facheiro da Praia


    A small genus of cacti with 6 species found in the coastal mountains of southeastern Brazil. 

  112. Schlumbergra truncata  ______  BR
    P: Flor-de-Maio

    When in flower, Schlumbergra truncata can be attractive to feeding hummingbirds.


  113. Selenicereus megalanthus  ______  BR  (occasionally cultivated in Brazil, from Ecuador)
    Yellow Pitaya
    P: Pitaia Amarela

  114. Selenicereus setaceus  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Bolivia and Paraguay) 
    Pineapple Cactus
    P: Saborosa


    Previously in the CLUSIACEAE, or GUTTIFERAE Family.

    Genus MAMMEA

  115. Mammea americana  ______  BR  (native to the West Indies and northern  South America)
    Mammee Apple 
    (or Santo Domingo Apple)

    Mammea americana
    is sometimes confused with the unrelated but similar-looking Mamey Sapote Tree (Pauteria sapota) whose fruit is also called Mammee, or Mamey.

    Family CANNA  (Canna)

    now includes ULMACEAE  (CELTIS and TREMA) 

    Genus CELTIS:  Hackberries

  116. Celtis iguanaea  ______  BR 
    P: Jameri

    Family CARICACEAE  (Papaya Plants)

    Genus CARICA

  117. Carica papaya  (ph)  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from elsewhere in tropical America)
    (or Pawpaw)  (a giant-rosette plant)
    P: Mamao,
    or Papaia

    Although said to be a tree, the stem of the Papaya (or Pawpaw) is largely hollow and the plant lacks the wood characteristic of normal trees.
    The stem is unbranched with a crown of large, palmate leaves springing from the top. There are separate male, female, and hermaphrodite plants, but only the females and hermaphrodites bear fruit.
    The fruits vary in size, with some attaining a weight of ten pounds or more.
    The flesh is yellowish-orange when ripe, with small dark seeds scattered in it.
    Papaya is often eaten as a breakfast dish with, at times, some lime squeezed over it.
    Both the fruit and the leaves contain papain, a protein-digesting enzyme. That enzyme can be extracted and used as a meat tenderizer.   

    Outside in nature, birds that feed on Papaya include: toucans, thrushes, an assortment of tanagers, euphonias, woodpeckers, and others. 

    Papaya, photographed during a FONT tour in Belize
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 


  118. Carpotroche brasiliensis  ______  BR
    P: Sapucainha

    that feed on Carpotroche brasilienis include various parakeets.  


  119. Jacaratia spinosa  ______  BR
    P: Jacaratia


  120. Vasconcella quercifolia  ______  BR
    Oak-leaved Papaya
    P: Mamaozinhu do Mato


    Genus CARYOCAR

  121. Caryocar brasiliense  ______  BR
    Brazilian Souari Nut
    P: Piqui

  122. Caryocar coriaceum  ______  BR
    P: Pequi

  123. Caryocar microcarpum  ______  BR
    P: Piquiarana

  124. Caryocar villosum  ______  BR
    P: Piquia

    Family CELASTRACEAE  (Bittersweet, or Staff-vine)


  125. Cheiloclinium cognatum  ______  BR
    P: Uarutama


  126. Peritassa campestris  ______  BR
    P: Bacupari

    Genus SALACIA

  127. Salacia elliptica  ______  BR
    P: Siputa

    Genus TONTELEA

  128. Tontelea micrantha  ______  BR
    P: Bacupari



  129. Chrysobalanus icaco  ______  BR  
    P: Ajuru

    Black Cocoplum  ______  BR 
    One of the smallest fruits of Chrysobalanus icaco, generally found on beaches of rivers and deltas of the lower Amazon, with trees growing more than 12 feet tall.   

    Red Cocoplum  ______  BR 
    Is the form of Chrysobalanus icaco having the largest fruit, generally found on beaches and coastal dunes as far south as Bahia. The plant is a prostrate tree.

    Genus COUEPIA

  130. Couepia bracteasa  ______  BR   
    P: Pajura

  131. Couepia longipendula  ______  BR
    Egg Nut
    P: Castanha de Galinha

  132. Couepia subcordata  ______  BR
    P: Marirana

    Genus LICANIA

  133. Licania salzmannii  ______  BR
    P: Oiti da Baia

    Genus PARINARI

  134. Parinari obtusifolia  ______  BR
    P: Fruta de Ema

    "Fruta de Ema" refers to the "Ema", the Brazilian name for the bird, the Greater Rhea.
    (photo during a FONT tour in Brazil)

    Family CLUSIACEAE  (Balsam, Clusias)

    Genus GARCINIA

  135. Garcinia acuminata  ______  BR
    P: Bacuri Azedo

  136. Garcinia brasiliensis  ______  BR
    P: Bacupari

  137. Garcinia cochinchinensis  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from "Indo-China, Cambodia and Vietnam)
    Fake Mangosteen
    P: Falso Mangustao

  138. Garcinia gardneriana  ______  BR
    P: Bacopare

  139. Garcinia livingstonei  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from central Africa)
    P: Imbe

  140. Garcinia macrophylla  ______  BR
    P: Bacuripari Verdadeiro

  141. Garcinia madruno  ______  BR
    P: Bacuri

  142. Garcinia mangostana  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Asia probably Malaysia)
    P: Mangostao

  143. Garcinia xanthochymus  -_____  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southern Asia)
    P: Mangostao Amarelo

    Genus PLATONIA

  144. Platonia insignis  ______  BR
    P: Bacuri Assu

    Genus RHEEDIA

  145. Rheedia laterifolia  ______  BR  (recently introduced in Brazil in the Sao Paulo area, from mid-altitude forests of Bolivia)
    P: Chachairu

    Family COMBRETACEAE  (Bush-willows, Combretums, Almond)

    includes a Bush-mangrove, in the genus CONOCARPUS, 
    and the White Mangrove, in the genus LAGUNCULARIA 


  146. Combretum grandiflorum  ______  BR

    Combretum grandiflorum
    is especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds. 
    is especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds. 

    Family CONVOLVULACEAE  (Morning Glories) 

    Genus IPOMOEA

  147. Ipomoea batatas  ______  (native to tropical America)
    Sweet Potato 

  148. Ipomoea lobata  ______  (native to tropical and subtropical America)
    Firecracker Vine 
    (or Spanish Flag (a climbing plant with simple, alternating leaves)

    With its tubular flowers, Ipomoea lobata differs markedly from other species in the genus. 

  149. Ipomoea quamoclit  ______  (native to tropical America)
    Cardinal Climber 
    (a climbing plant with simple, alternating leaves)
    P: Corda de Viola

    Family COSTACEAE  (Costus Family, inc. Spiral Gingers)

    Genus COSTUS

  150. Costus scaber  ______  BR
    a Spiral Ginger

    Costus scaber is a plant in northern Amazonian Brazil favored of food by the large and colorful hummingbird, the Crimson Topaz, Topaza pella
    That hummingbird has been seen during FONT tours north of Manaus.

    Family CUCURBITACEAE  (Gourds, or Cucumbers)


  151. Citrullus lanatus  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Africa)
    P: Melancia

    In the Watermelon, 93 per cent of the fruit is water.

    Genus CUCURBITA:  Pumpkins,
    or Squashes  (native to the American tropics; now grown throughout, including on Caribbean islands) 

    The genus CUCURBITA is composed of approximately 27 species, 19 or so of which are wild, and 6 domesticated. The center of diversity is in Mesoamerica.   

  152. Cucurbita moschata  ______  BR
    Winter Squash 

  153. Cucurbita pepo  ______  BR    
    Summer Squash 
    (or Zucchini 

    Genus CUCUMIS

  154. Cucumis melo (var. cantaloupensis)  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, and not much cultivated in Brazil, from Europe and east Africa) 
    P: Melao Charentals

    Cucumis melo (var. dudaim)  ______  BR 
    (not native to Brazil, and only rarely cultivated in Brazil, from India and Iran) 
    Pocket Melon
    P: Melao de Bolso

    Cucumis melo (var. inodorus)  ______  BR 
    (not native to Brazil, where it is widely cultivated, from the Iberian Peninsula) 
    Honeydew  (or Winter Melon)
    P: Melao do Tipo Honeydew

    Cucumis melo (var. reticulatus)  ______  BR 
    (not native to Brazil, from the United States)
    P: Melao Tipo  Cantaloupe,
    or Melao Tipo Galia

    As noted, two of the varieties of Cucumis melo are referred to as Cantaloupe.  

  155. Cucumis metuliferus  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from tropical Africa)
    Horned Melon 
    (or Kiwano)
    P: Quino


  156. Melancium campestre  ______  BR
    P: Melancia do Campo


  157. Momordica charantia  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Africa and Asia)
    Balsam Pear
    P: Melao de Sao Cactano

    Genus SICANA

  158. Sicana odorifera   ______  BR
    P: Crua



  159. Carindovica palmata  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Central America)
    Panama Hat Plant
    P: Bombonassa

    Family EBENACEAE  (Ebony and Persimmon)


  160. Diospyros brasiliensis  ______  BR
    P: Caqui do Mato

  161. Diospyros digyna  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Central America and Mexico)
    Black Persimmon 
    (or Black Sapote, or Chocolate Pudding Fruit)
    P: Sapota Preta

  162. Diospyros hispida  ______  BR
    P: Fruta de Boi  ("Fruit of the Bull")

  163. Diospyros inconstans  ______  BR
    P: Marmelinho

  164. Diospyros kaki  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Asia)
    P: Caqui

  165. Diospyros philippensis  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from the Philippines)
    Velvet Apple (or Mabolo)

    Family ERICACEAE  (Heath Family)


  166. Gaylussacia angustifolia  ______  BR
    P: Camarinha da Serra

  167. Gaylussacia brasiliensis  ______  BR
    P: Camarinha 


  168. Vaccinium ashei  ______  BR   (not native to Brazil, from the United States)
    P: Mirtilo

  169. Vaccinium corymbosum  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from the United States) 
    Highbush Blueberry
    P: Mirtilo Highbush

    Family EUPHORBIACEAE  (Spurges) 


  170. Alchornea glandulosa  ______  BR
    P: Tapia
    or Iricuruna 

    Birds that feed on the fruits of Alchornea glandulosa and other plants in that genus include: thrushes, tanagers, aracaris, vireos, Fork-tailed Flycatcher, other flycatchers, and Blue Dacnis.  

  171. Alchornea iricurana  ______  BR

  172. Alchornea sidaefolia  ______  BR

  173. Alchornea triplinervia  ______  BR 


  174. Antidesma bunius  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from India to the Philippines and northern Australia)
    P: Bignei

    Genus CROTON

  175. Croton floribundus  ______  BR

  176. Croton salutaris  ______  BR

  177. Croton urucurana  ______  BR
    P: Sangue de Drago
    or Urucurana

    Among the birds that feed on the fruits of Croton urucurana are pigeons and tinamous.


  178. Euphorbia pulcherrima  (ph)  ______  BR  (aid to be native to Mexico and Guatemala)
    (a bush with simple, alternating leaves)

    Feeding on a Poinsettia, a Malachite butterfly,
    photographed during a FONT tour in southeastern Brazil.

    Genus HEVEA

  179. Hevea brasiliensis  ______  (native to the Amazon region of Brazil)
    Para Rubber Tree 
    (with leaves palmately divided)
    P: Seringa

    During FONT tours in Amazonian Brazil, in the area of Manaus, we've seen "rubber trees" 
    in the forest, where they were native.
    During the "rubber boom", from about 1880 to 1910, that city in Manaus flourished.
    During our tours, we've visited the famous opera house in that city, from that era.    

    Family FABACEAE  (Legumes. or Peas)

    Included here in FABACEAE is the now subfamily CAESALPINIOIDEAE, the CAROB PLANTS 
    and the subfamily MIMOSOIDEAE, the MIMOSA PLANTS


  180. Bauhinia blakeana  ______  BR

    Bauhinia blakeana and Bauhinia variegata (below) can be especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.

  181. Bauhinia variegata  ______  BR
    Bauhinia variegata candida  ______  BR

    Genus CAESALPINIA  (
    was in CAESALPINIACEAE, now in subfamily CAESALPINIOIDEAE)) 

    Plants in CAESALPINIA are especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds, in Brazil and elsewhere. 

  182. Caesalpinia echinata  ______  BR  
    P: Pau-Brasil

    The Pernambuco tree grows in Brazil in the Mata Atlantica, the Atlantic Forest. It has been especially famous as the wood used in the bow for the world's best violins

    Genus CALLIANDRA  (
    now in subfamily MIMOSOIDEAE) 

    CALLIANDRA species are especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.  

  183. Calliandra haematocephala  ______  BR  (native to Bolivia)
    Red Powder Puff  
    (a bush with leaves pinnately divided)

  184. Calliandra inaequilatera  ______  BR

  185. Calliandra surinamensis  ______  BR  (native to northern South America)
    Pink Powder Puff 
    (a bush with leaves pinnately divided)  

  186. Calliandra tweedyi  ______  BR

    Genus DIPTERYX

  187. Dipteryx alata  ______  BR
    P: Cumaru

  188. Dipteryx odorata  ______  BR
    Tonka Bean Tree


  189. Enterolobium cyclocarpum  (*)  ______  BR  
    Elephant-ear Tree 
    (or Earpod Tree, or Ear Fruit Tree)

    Other names for Enterolobium cyclocarpum include Guanacaste Tree, Caro-caro.
    "Guanacaste" is the dry region of northwestern Costa Rica. The Guanacaste Tree, as it is known there, is the national tree of Costa Rica.   


    Species in ERYTHRINA can be especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds, including the Amazilia Hummingbird in South America.

  190. Erythrina crista-galli  ______  BR  (originally grew in South America, now cultivated elsewhere)
    Cockspur Coral Bean
      (this bush, and others in Erythrina, with leaves pinnately divided)

  191. Erythrina falcata  ______  BR

  192. Erythrina mulunga  ______  BR

  193. Erythrina speciosa  ______  BR
    P: Mulungu do Littoral

  194. Erythrina velutina  (ph)  ______  BR  (native to northern South America and parts of the Caribbean)
    Coral Tree

    Erythrina velutina
    was first described from the Brazilian offshore island Fernando de Noronha, where the native species there is now Erythrina velutina var. aurantiaca.   

    Erythrina velutina
    (photo by G. Kroeger, courtesy of Michiel Koomen)

  195. Erythrina verna  ______  BR

    Genus GLYCINE

  196. Glycine max  ______  BR  (native to Asia, now widely cultivated, more in the subtropics than the tropics)

    Genus HYMENAEA

  197. Hymenaea courbaril  ______  BR
    West Indian Locust 
    (or Stinking Toe)
    P: Guapinui,
    or Jatoba

  198. Hymenaea stigonocarpa  ______  BR
    P: Jatoba do Cerrado

    Genus INGA 
    (in the subfamily MIMOSOIDEAE) 

    There are about 300 species of Inga trees, with most of them in the Amazon forest region, but with some in the West Indies, Mexico, Central America, and other places in South America. 

    Inga species are canopy and subcanopy trees recognizable by their alternate, even-pinnate, leaves. 
    Their flowers are arranged in inflorescences that are "puffballs". The main part of each flower is the stamens, and it is the white filaments of the numerous stamens (25 to 130 per flower) that provide the visual attraction.
    The flowers of Inga trees are most attractive to hummingbirds, and to some other birds. and to various butterflies and moths.  
    That is because Inga flowers secrete a nectar, that is enthusiastically fed upon by the creatures just mentioned.
    Inga flowers often have a distinctive odor. Most are sweet-smelling, suggesting moths as pollinators. Others have a yeasty smell, suggesting bats as the pollinators. The rest only have a very faint odor or none. Perhaps odor is not important to the hummingbirds and butterflies that frequently visit them   

  199. Inga cinnamomea  ______  BR
    P: Inga Assu 

  200. Inga edulis  ______  BR
    Ice Cream Bean
    P: Inga Cipo

  201. Inga laurina  ______  BR
    P: Inga Cururu

  202. Inga marginata  ______  BR 
    P: Inga Feijao

  203. Inga sessilis  ______  BR
    P: Inga Macaco

  204. Inga vera  ______  BR
    P: Inga Banana

  205. Inga vulpina  ______  BR
    Pink-flowered Inga
    P: Inga Cabeludo

    Genus SENNA  (
    was in CAESALPINIACEAE, now in subfamily CAESALPINIOIDEAE)

  206. Senna leiandra  (was Cassia leiandra)  ______  BR
    P: Seruaia 


  207. Tamarindus indica  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from tropical Africa) 
    P: Tamarinho

    The Tamarind tree is tall, growing to a height of about 50 feet. On Caribbean islands, it is often planted as a wind-break to give protection during hurricanes and from strong winds.

    The ripe fruit of the Tamarind forms a small brown pod about 4 inches long. When mature the pod has a pulpy interior surrounding several large seeds.
    When still green, the fruit is slightly acidic and is used as a seasoning for fish and meat dishes.
    In the unripe state, it is added to curries.
    The ripe fruit is sometimes used to make a sugary sweet or candy which has a very spicy taste.
    The fruit can also be crushed to make a drink with a strong aromatic flavor, that can be refreshing.  

    Family FAGACEAE  (Beech family)

    Genus CASTANEA

  208. Castanea sativa  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Europe, North Africa)
    Spanish Chestnut 
    P: Castanha Europeia



  209. Endoplura uchi  ______  BR
    P: Uchi,
    or Uxi



  210. Poraqueiba sericea  ______  BR
    P: Umari

    Family JUGLANDACEAE  (Walnuts)

    Genus CARYA

  211. Carya illnoinensis  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from the United States)
    P: Noz Peca,
    or Noz Americana 

    Family LAMIACEAE, or LABIATAE  (Mints)

    Genus OCIMUM

  212. Ocimum micranthum (or campechianum ______  
    Amazonian Basil

    Other names for Ocimum micranthum (or campechianum) include Wild Sweet Basil, Peruvian Basil, Spice Basil, and Wild Mosquito Plant.

    Genus VITEX

  213. Vitex cymosa  ______  BR
    P: Taruma da Varzea

  214. Vitex montevidensis  ______  BR
    P: Taruma Preta

  215. Vitex polygama  ______  BR
    P: Taruma do Cerrado

    Family LAURACEAE  (Laurels)


  216. Cryptocarya aschersoniana  ______  BR
    P: Canela Batalha

    that feed on the fruits of Cryptocarya aschersoniana include: bellbirds, thrushes, the Kiskadee, guans, tanagers, euphonias, and others.   

    Genus PERSEA

  217. Persea americana  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Central America)
    P: Abacate 

    The tree Persea americana attains a height of about 30 feet and has dark green, shiny foliage and clusters of small, inconspicuous flowers, which are light green in color.
    It is not an easy tree to identify except for its characteristic fruit which, because of its shape, is sometimes called an "avocado pear". But, in fact, wild avocados vary enormously in their shape.  

    Family LECYTHIDACEAE  (Brazil Nut plants)


  218. Bertholletia exselsa  (*)  ______  BR
    Brazil Nut Tree 
    P: Castanha do Brasil

    Brazil Nut Trees
    are large, very large, growing up to 130 feet in height, rising solitarily well above the canopy of the both terra firme and flood plain (varzea) forests.
    The fruit of the tree is like a huge, heavy cannon ball (to 4.5 pounds), and almost as hard.
    When it falls during the fruiting season, one does not want to underneath.
    Inside that "cannon ball", the 15 to 20 large seeds are extracted only with considerable effort - even when done by a person with a machete.
    Rodents, such as Agoutis, however, on the forest floor can, with persistent gnawing, get to the delicious seeds inside.
    As each seed is 70 per cent fat, the rodent is full after eating one or two. The uneaten seeds are then taken and buried in a cache for another day.
    The pollination of Bertholletia exselsa is done by Orchid Bees, which must find alternate sources of nectar during the 11 months when the tree is not in flower.

    The name of the country, Brazil, is from the French word bresil, which originally referred to the reddish color dye that was traditionally extracted from the Brazil Nut.

    During FONT tours in Brazilian Amazon forests, Brazil Nuts have been found on the ground, but never did one fall on any of us as we were birding in the forest. 


    Eating, a  Brazilian Agouti, photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)             


  219. Couropita guianensis  ______  (native to northern South America)
    Cannonball Tree 
    (with simple, alternating leaves)

    Genus LECYTHIS

  220. Lecythis lanceolata  ______  BR
    P: Sapucaia Mirim

  221. Lecythis pisonis  ______  BR
    Monkey Pot Tree
    P: Sapucaia

    The "Monkey Pot" names refers to monkeys grasping a seed in the pyxidium and then being unable to extract the closed hand. So the empty pyxidium (that is the "monkey pot") is supposedly used with bait to catch monkeys.



  222. Strychnos spinosa  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from tropical Africa) 
    Green Monkey Orange  
    (or Massala) 
    P: Maciela    

    Family LYTHRACEAE  (Loosestrifes)

    Genus PUNICA

  223. Punica granatum  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, native to Iran) 
      (a bush with simple, opposite leaves)
    P: Roma

    Pomegranate fruits
    grow on a medium-sized tree, about 20 feet in height, with characteristically spiny branches.
    The flowers are reddish, sometimes even scarlet in color, and they have crinkly, paper-like petals.
    The fruit is round in shape and about the size of an orange. It has a thick, smooth, leathery skin which turns yellow-red when the fruit is ripe.
    The pulp inside is very juicy and contains a mass of small, white seeds.
    The peel of the fruit is rich in tannins which can be used to produce high quality leather. 

    Pomegranate is usually eaten raw, but sometimes the juice is used to make a drink called grenadine.



  224. Bunchosia argentea  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from the Andean region of South America, mainly Peru and Ecuador)
    Peanut Butter Fruit
    P: Ciruela Branca

  225. Bunchosia armeniaca  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from the Andean region of South America) 
    Peanut Butter Fruit
    P: Caferana


  226. Byrsonima basiloba  ______  BR
    P: Murici

    that feed on the fruits of Byrsonima basiloba and other plants in that genus include: curassows, the Rufous-vented Ground-Cuckoo, and the Spot-winged Wood-Quail.  

  227. Byrsonima crassifolia  ______  BR  
    Shoemaker's Tree
    P: Nance

    Other English names for Byrsonima crassifolia are Golden Spoon, Murici, or Sour Murici.  

  228. Byrsonima crispa  ______ BR

  229. Byrsonima myrifolia  ______  BR

  230. Byrsonima verbascifolia  ______  BR
    P: Murici do Campo

    Genus DICELLA

  231. Dicella nucifera  ______  BR
    P: Castanha de Cipo


  232. Malpighia emarginata  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil from Caribbean islands, Central America, and northern South America)
    Barbados Cherry 
    (a bush with simple, opposite leaves)
    P: Acerula

    The Barbados Cherry is a small tree, often pruned back and used for making ornamental hedges in gardens. 
    The fruit grows to about the size of an ordinary cherry. Its color varies at different stages in its development starting as a dull orange and then gradually darkening to a reddish-brown when mature.

    An interesting feature of the Barbados Cherry is its very high ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content. Weight for weight, it is much richer in this specific nutritional aspect than most citrus fruits. It is also said that its vitamin C is destroyed less easily by cooking than is the case with other fruits.
    The fruit is seldom eaten raw as its taste to too sharp for comfort, and so its is used in puddings, or made into jam, jelly and other preserves. 

    Family MALVACEAE  (Mallows)   

    includes here what was the family BOMBACACEAE, the COTTON TREE PLANTS,
    now the subfamily BOMBACOIDEAE 

    also included here is TILIACEAE
    (the genus CORCHORUS)

    Genus ABUTILON

  233. Abutilon megapotamicum  ______  (native to southern Brazil)
    Trailing Abutilon 
    (a bush with simple, alternating leaves)
    P: Lanterna Japonesa

    Abutilon megapotamicum
    can be attractive to feeding hummingbirds. 


  234. Bombacopsis glabra  (or Pachira glabra______  BR
    Saba Nut
    P: Castanha do Maranhao

    Genus BOMBAX

  235. Bombax ceiba  ______  BR
    Red Cotton Tree
    P: Bombax

    Bombax ceiba
    is in the subfamily BOMBACOIDEAE.

    When in bloom, Bombax ceiba can be especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds. 

    Genus CEIBA

  236. Ceiba speciosa  (was Chorisia speciosa ______  (native to southern Brazil and northern Argentina)
    Floss Silk Tree 
    (a tree with leaves palmately divided)
    P: Ceiba del Brasil 

    Ceiba speciosa
    is in the subfamily BOMBACOIDEAE.

    Genus CHORISIA

  237. Chorisia speciosa  ______  BR
    P: Paineira Rosa

    Chorisia speciosa is in the subfamily BOMBACOIDEAE. Its flowers can be especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.

    Genus COLA

  238. Cola acuminata  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from tropical Africa) 
    Cola Nut
    P: Noz de Cola

    Genus DOMBEYA

  239. Dombeya wallichii  ______  BR
    Pink Ball Tree

    Dombeya wallichii
    is a favored food source for the hummingbird, the Black Jacobin, Florisuga fusca.   
    is a favored food source for the hummingbird, the Black Jacobin, Florisuga fusca.   

    Genus DURIO

  240. Durio zibethinus  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Malaysia) 
    P: Duriao


  241. Eriotheca candolleana  ______  BR
    P: Embirucuzinho

    Eriotheca candolleana
    is in the subfamily BOMBACOIDEAE.

    Genus PACHIRA

  242. Pachira aquatica  ______  BR  (native to South America)
    Malabar Chestnut 
    (or Guiana Chestnut (a tree with leaves palmately divided)
    P: Monguba 
    Pachira aquatica
    is in the subfamily BOMBACOIDEAE. 


  243. Quararibea cordata  ______  BR
    South American Sapote Tree
    P: Sapota do Solimoes 

    Family MELASTOMATACEAE  (Melastomes)

    Genus BELLUCIA

  244. Bellucia grossulaioides  ______  BR
    Mess Apple
    P: Araca de Anta  ("de Anta", of the Tapir)

    The Anta, or Tapir, referred to with the plants above and below. 

  245. Bellucia imperialis  _____  BR
    P: Goiaba de Anta  ("de Anta", of the Tapir)

    Genus MOURIRI

  246. Mouriri pusa  ______  BR
    P: Puca


  247. Tibouchina urvilleana  ______  (native to Brazil)
    Glory Bush 
    (with simple, opposite leaves)

    Family MELIACEAE  (Mahogany)

    MELIACEAE is a family long famous for its cabinet-quality woods, and its stubborn taxonomic problems.  


  248. Sandoricum koetjape  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southeast Asia) 



  249. Chondodendron platyphyllum  ______  BR
    P: Jabuticaba de Cipo

    Family MORACEAE  (Mulberry plants)


  250. Artocarpus artilis  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, native to Malaysia and elsewhere in Asia, and Micronesia)
    (a tree with simple, alternating leaves) 
    P: Fruta Pao

  251. Artocarpus heterophyllus  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from India)
    P: Jaca

  252. Artocarpus integer  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Indonesia and Malaysia)
    P: Champedaque

  253. Artocarpus lakoocha  ______  BR  (not native in Brazil, from India)
    P: Lacucha,
    or Jaca de Macaco 

  254. Artocarpus odorratissima  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Malaysia and the Philippines)
    P: Marangue 

    Genus BROSIMUM

  255. Brosimum gaudichaudii  ______  BR
    Mama Cadela
    P: Maminha Cadela

    Genus FICUS

  256. Ficus carica  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southern Arabia)
    P: Figo

  257. Ficus insipida  (was Ficus crassiuscula______  BR
    Strangler Fig

    Genus MACLURA

  258. Maclura tinctoria  ______  BR    
    P: Taiuva

    Genus MORUS

  259. Morus alba  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from China)
    White Mulberry
    P: Amora Branca

  260. Morus nigra  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from China and Japan)
    Black Mulberry
    P: Amora Preta



  261. Muntingia calabura  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Mexico to Colombia)
    (or Calabura)
    P: Cereja do Parana

    Family MUSACEAE  (Banana Plants, Heliconias)


    species can be an especially good food source for certain hummingbirds. 
    With their deep flowers, the plants in this genus are favored by the White-tipped Sicklebill and the Buff-tailed Sicklebill, the hummingbirds with the most strongly curved bills.    
    Other hummingbirds that frequent HELICONIAS include: Bronzy Hermit, Rufous-breasted Hermit, Long-tailed Hermit, Band-tailed Barbthroat, Sooty Barbthroat, Pale-bellied Hermit, Violet Sabrewing, Gray-breasted Sabrewing.

  262. Heliconia psittacorum  ______  (native to Brazil and the Guianas)
    Parrot's Plantain
    (or Parakeet Flower (an herbaceous plant)

  263. Heliconia rostrata  (ph)  ______  (native to South America, in Argentina, Brazil and Peru, and Central America)
    Crab's Claws 
    (an herbaceous plant)

    Genus MUSA

  264. Musa x sapientum  (ph)  ______  BR  (wild bananas originally grew in southeast Asia)
    (a giant-rosette plant)
    P: Banana,
    or Pacova 

    The taxonomy of the Banana is involved.
    Here, sapientum relates to the "desert banana", that is the uncooked food eaten for breakfast, etc.
    The "x" prior to it indicates that it came from hybridization.
    "x paradisiaca" is used here (below) for the closely-related Plantain, which has to be cooked to be enjoyed.
    "x sapientum" is a hybrid from two "wild bananas" of southeast Asia: Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana.
    Among the many forms of bananas that now exist are Cavendish Bananas, Dwarf Bananas known as Lady Fingers, and the Jamaican Red Banana which has a pinkish peel. 

    An interesting book about the banana is "The Fish that Ate the Whale, the Life and Times of America's Banana King" by Rich Cohen, 2012.
    It tells about the banana, over the years, in business and history, and how it came to be as we know it now.
    About the banana itself, here's an excerpt from the book:

    "Some facts about the banana:

    It is not a tree. It's an herb, the world's tallest grass. Reaching, in perfect conditions, 30 feet, it's the largest plant in the world without a woody trunk.
    Its stem actually consists of banana leaves, big, thick, elephant ears, coiled like a roll of dollar bills.
    As the plant grows, the stem uncoils, revealing new leaves, tender at first, rough at last.
    The fruit appears at the end of a cycle, growing from a stem that bends toward the ground under its own weight.
    Because the plant is an herb, not a tree, the banana is properly classed as a berry.
    The plant grows from a rhizome, which, in the way of a potato, has no roots.
    It's outrageously top-heavy and can be felled, as entire fields sometimes are, by a strong wind.

    While the plant can be grown all over the world, it will, with two exceptions, bear fruit only in the tropics.
    Iceland and Israel are the exceptions. Iceland because it grows on the slopes of a volcano; Israel for reasons that remain mysterious.
    Various attempts to farm bananas commercially in the continental United States have failed.
    The "tree" bears a red flower, a delicate, bloody thing, a few days before it fruits.

    The banana's great strength as a crop is also its weakness: it does not grow from a seed, but from a cutting.
    When the rhizome is chopped into pieces and planted, each piece produces a "tree". (Even though the plant is not technically a tree, I keep calling it that.)
    In fact, the banana does not have a seed - I mean, yes, there is a stone at the bottom of the fruit, but try to plant it and watch what happens. Nothing. Time and evolution have rendered that stone useless.
    This means savings in seed and in the shipping of seed and so on, but it also means each fruit - I keep calling it a fruit too because I funny calling it a berry - is a clone, a replica of all the others of its species.
    Which means nice corporate uniformity but also poses a terrific danger - if a parasite or a disease mutates to kill one banana, it will eventually kill all members of that species."  

    In the 1960s, "Panama Disease" attacked large numbers of banana plantations, and new disease-resistant strains had to be developed. 

    Banana, not a tree, photographed during 
    a FONT tour in April 2014.
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  265. Musa x paradisiaca  ______  BR  (now, like the banana, grown throughout the American tropics)

    is the name given to a green form of the banana. Plantains do not ripen the same way as their cousins, the sweet bananas, and they are always less sweet.
    The individual fruits of the plantain are often bigger than a banana, and usually more horn-shaped.
    Plantains are one of the most prolific of all carbohydrate producing crops. It has been calculated that an area of ground capable of producing 50 pounds of wheat or 100 pounds of potatoes could carry as much as 4,000 pounds of plantains.

    Although plantains are less sweet than bananas, they are far more versatile in their use. They are often boiled and served with meat as part of a main course, but because their tissue has a starchier taste than that of bananas, plantains are best cooked with some spices, onions and pepper, or mixed in a casserole.
    Plantains are often cut into slices and fried in a pan of deep fat producing tasty crisps.

    Family MYRTACEAE  (Myrtles)

    Genus ACCA

  266. Acca sellowiana  ______  BR  (native to South America)
    Pineapple Guava 
    (a bush with simple, alternate leaves)
    P: Feijon
    , or Goiaba Serrana

    Genus ACMENA

  267. Acmena smithii  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Australia) 
    Lilly Pilly
    P: Jambinho Rosa


  268. Callistemon viminallis  (formerly Melaleuca viminallis)  ______  BR
    Weeping Bottlebush

    Callistemon viminalis is especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.


  269. Campomanesia adamantium  ______  BR
    P: Guabiroba do Campo

  270. Campomanesia aurea  _____  BR
    P: Guabirobinha do Campo

  271. Campomanesia guaviroba  ______  BR
    P: Guabiroba do Littoral

  272. Campomanesia guazumifolia  ______  BR
    P: Sete Capotes

  273. Campomanesia lineatifolia  ______  BR
    Perfume Guava
    P: Guabiraba

  274. Campomanesia neriiflora  ______  BR
    P: Guabiroba Branca

  275. Campomanesia phaea  ______  BR
    Flying Saucer Fruit
    P: Cambuci

  276. Campomanesia pubescens  ______  BR
    P: Guabiroba Felpuda

  277. Campomanesia schlechtendaliana  _____  BR
    P: Guabiroba Rugosa

  278. Campomanesia sessiliflora  ______  BR
    P: Guabiroba Verde

  279. Campomanesia xanthocarpa  ______  BR
    P: Guabiroba

    Campomanesia xanthocarpa littoralis  ______  BR
    P: Guabiroba Rasteira   

    Genus EUGENIA

  280. Eugenia brasiliensis  ______  BR
    Brazil Cherry
    P: Grumichama

  281. Eugenia calycina  ______  BR
    Savanna Cherry
    P: Cereja do Cerrado

  282. Eugenia candolleana  ______  BR 
    Rainforest Plum
    P: Ameixa da Mata 

  283. Eugenia copacbanensis  ______  BR
    Copacabana Guava
    P: Cambui Amarelo Grande

  284. Eugenia dysenterica  ______  BR
    P: Cagaita

  285. Eugenia florida  ______  BR 
    P: Guamirim, or Pitanga

  286. Eugenia involucrata  ______  BR
    Cherry of the Rio Grende
    P: Cereja de Rio Grande

  287. Eugenia itaguahiensis  ______  BR
    P: Grumixama Mirim

  288. Eugenia klotzschiana  ______  BR
    P: Pera do Campo

  289. Eugenia leitonii  ______  BR
    P: Araca Piranga

  290. Eugenia luschnathiana  ______  BR
    P: Pitomba

  291. Eugenia lutescens  ______  BR
    P: Perinha

  292. Eugenia multicostata  ______  BR
    P: Araca Piranga

  293. Eugenia myrcianthes  ______  BR
    P: Pessego do Mato

  294. Eugenia neonitida  ______  BR
    P: Pitangola

  295. Eugenia patrisii  ______  BR
    P: Ubaia

  296. Eugenia pitanga  ______  BR
    Savanna Pitanga
    P: Pitanga do Cerrado

  297. Eugenia pyriformis  ______  BR 
    P: Uvaia 

  298. Eugenia reinardtiana  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Australia) 
    Cedar Bay Cherry
    P: Cereja Australiana 

  299. Eugenia stipitata  ______  BR
    P: Araca Boi

  300. Eugenia speciosa  ______  BR
    P: Laranjinha do Mato

  301. Eugenia uniflora  ______  BR
    Surinam Cherry
    P: Pitanga

  302. Eugenia victoriana  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from northern South America, mainly Colombia)
    P: Guaiabila


  303. Myrcianthes pungens  ______  BR
    P: Guabiyu


  304. Myrciaria aureana  ______  BR
    White Jaboticaba
    P: Jaboticaba Branca

  305. Myrciaria caulifloa  ______  BR
    Brazilian Grape
    P: Jaboticaba

  306. Myrciaria coronata  ______  BR
    P: Jaboticaba Coroada

  307. Myrciaria dubia  ______  BR
    P: Cacari

  308. Myrciaria floribunda  ______  BR
    P: Camboim

  309. Myrciaria glazioviana  _____  BR
    P: Cabeludinha

  310. Myriciaria grandifolia  ______  BR
    P: Jaboticaba grauda

  311. Myriciaria jaboticaba  ______  BR
    P: Jaboticaba Murta

  312. Myriciaria oblongata  ______  BR
    P: Jaboticaba Azeda

  313. Myriciaria phitrantha  ______  BR
    P: Jaboticaba Costada

  314. Myriciaria tenelia  ______  BR
    P: Camboim

  315. Myriciaria trunciflora  ______  BR
    P: Jaboticaba de Cabinho

    Genus PLINIA

  316. Plinia edulis  ______  BR
    P: Cambuca Verdadeiro

  317. Plinia rivularis  ______  BR  
    P: Guaburiti

    Genus PSIDIUM

  318. Psidium acutangulum  ______  BR
    Para Guava
    P: Araca Pera

  319. Psidium cattliannum  ______  BR
    Strawberry Guava 
    (or Cattley Guava)
    P: Araca de Coroa

  320. Psidium conereum  ______  BR
    P: Araca Cinzento

  321. Psidium firmum  ______  BR
    P: Araca do Cerrado

  322. Psidium friedrichsthalianum  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from mostly Central America, and northern South America)
    Cas Guava
    P: Goiaba de Costa Rica,
    or Guiaba da Agua 

  323. Psidium guajava  _____  BR  (native to tropical America)
    Guava  (a bush with simple, opposite leaves) 
    P: Goiaba

    Psidium guajava (var. minor)  ______  BR
    Dwarf Guava  
    P: Goiaba Miniatura

    Other English names for Psidium guajava also include: Yellow Guava, Apple Guava.

    In the tropics, Guava is available much of the year. When it ripens on the tree, the air is filled with the smell of the fruit, as it falls to the ground, where it ferments, emanating an exotic smell, reminding one that he or she is in the tropics.
    Such was the smell where the photo below was taken, at Copalinga, during one of our tours in southern Ecuador. 
    That rotting fruit, yes, the source of the exotic smell, attracts many butterflies, some bright and colorful, and again making one appreciate one's time in a tropical setting.   

    Psidium guajava is native to southern Mexico and Central and South America, where is also now widely cultivated. 
    In South America, now, it is very common, for example in Brazil, where on the tables at many meals it is in various forms, from jellies to juices. The hard-textured jellies are often served with cheese. 

    The fruit itself has a variety of forms, sizes, and colors, but most commonly it is spherical, about 1 and a half to 2 and a quarter inches in diameter, with a green to yellowish skin and pulp. 
    Other varieties have rose-colored or white flesh. (The rose coloration is the common variety in Brazil.)
    The skin is very thin, and the inside of the fruit is characterized by a somewhat sandy flesh, like that of a pear, and with a cluster of seeds.

    Guavas are consumed fresh when fully ripened, or turned into preserves and sorbet, or into refreshing drinks.

    In the Yucatan region of Mexico, Guayabo is the prime ingredient of an exotically flavored local ice cream called Helado de Crema Morisca.
    In the city of Manaus in Amazonian Brazil, there are wonderful places where a large variety of tropically flavored ice creams are sold, including among those flavors, Guava.

    (some of the above from the book: "Yucatan, Recipes from a Culinary Expedition" by David Sterling)   

    On the tree, a fruit of the Guava, during
    a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  324. Psidium guineense  ______  BR
    Brazilian Guava
    P: Araca do Campo

  325. Psidium rufum  ______  BR
    P: Araca Roxo

  326. Psidium salutare  ______  BR 
    P: Araca Rasteiro


  327. Rhodomytus tomentosa  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southeast Asia)   
    P: Mirtilo Peludo

    Genus SYZYGIUM

  328. Syzygium aqueum  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from India)
    Water Apple
    P: Jambo Branco

  329. Syzygium cumini  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from India and Sri Lanka)
    Java Plum
    P: Jambolao

  330. Syzygium jambox  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from India and Malaysia)
    Rose Apple
    P: Jambo

  331. Syzgium malaccense  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Polynesia)
    Mountain Apple
    P: Jambo Vermelho

  332. Syzgium paniculatum  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil)
    Brush Cherry
    P: Jambinho

  333. Syzgium samarangense  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from the Malay Archipelago)
    Java Apple
    P: Jambo Rosa

    Family NYCTAGINACEAE  (Four O'Clocks)  (W)


  334. Bougainvillea spectabilis  ______  BR  (native to Brazil)
    (a climbing plant with simple, alternating leaves)

    Family NYMPHAEACEAE  (Water Lilies)

    Genus VICTORIA

  335. Victoria amazonica  (*)  ______  BR
    Amazon Water Lily  

    The Amazon Water Lily, Victoria amazonica, is the largest of all the NYMPHAEACEAE water lilies.
    Floating on the water's surface, they are up to 9 feet in diameter.
    Their flowers are white the first night they are opened, and become pink the next night.

    During FONT Brazil Tours, in Amazonia near Manaus, we've seen the very big Amazon Water Lilies, as we've been on boats, from which we've also seen Pink River Dolphins, Gray Dolphins (the "Tucuxi"), Amazonian Manatee, and many birds, including Agami Heron and Harpy Eagle.          

  336. Victoria cruziana  (*)  ______  BR  (native to Paraguay, southern Brazil, northern Argentina)
    Santa Cruz Water Lily

    We've seen the Santa Cruz Water Lily on rivers during FONT tours in the area of Iguazu Falls.

    Family OLACACEAE

    Genus XIMENIA

  337. Ximenia americana  ______  BR
    Hog Plum
    P: Limaozinho da Praia

    Family ONAGRACEAE  (Willowherb, or Evening Primrose)

    Genus FUCHSIA

  338. Fuchsia regia  ______  BR
    Vining Fuchsia
    P: Brinco de Princesa


    Genus AVERRHOA

  339. Averrhoa bilimbi  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southeast Asia) 
    P: Limao de Caiena,
    or Biri-biri

  340. Averrhoa carambola  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Indonesia and Malaysia)
    Star Fruit
    P: Carambola

    Family PASSIFLORACEAE  (Passionflowers)

    includes TURNERACEAE


    There are at least 400 different species of PASSIFLORA with many distributed throughout the tropics, with some as well in temperate countries.
    The PASSIFLORA flowers have a characteristic and unique shape (see photo below), and the arrangement of the floral parts has been said to symbolize the cross of the crucifixion, hence the name "Passion Fruit".
    Some species have small ball-shaped fruits. 
    One species in particular, Passiflora edulis (var. edulis) is grown commercially for its fruit.

    Some members of the PASSIFLORA genus are host plants for the butterfly: Agraulis vanillae, the Gulf Fritillary.
    species are also visited for their nectar by the hummingbird, the Long-tailed Hermit.  

  341. Passiflora alata  (*)  ______  BR
    Fragrant Granadilla
    P: Maracuja

    The Fragrant Granadilla is a fruit-bearer widely cultivated in Brazil, where it also occurs in nature from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul, in the Atlantic Forest and other habitats.  
    During one of the FONT tours in the southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, a Fragrant Granadilla was seen right by the side of a main highway. A nice sight it was.  

  342. Passiflora ambigua  ______  BR
    P: Granadilla de Mont

  343. Passiflora amethystina  ______  BR
    P: Maracuja de Cobra

  344. Passiflora caerulea  ______  BR
    Blue Passion Fruit
    P: Maracuja Azul

  345. Passiflora cincinnata  ______  BR
    Crato Passion Fruit
    P: Maracuja Mochila

  346. Passiflora coccinea  ______  BR
    Red Granadilla
    P: Maracuja Poranga

  347. Passiflora edulis  ______  BR  
    Purple Passion Fruit 
    (a climbing plant with simple, alternating leaves)
    P: Maracuja Roxa

    Passiflora edulis
    is also called the Purple Granadilla. 
    It is a vine-like plant, which climbs by means of long, green tendrils, grown commercially for its fruits, which become purple when ripe. The flesh is usually eaten raw in fruit salads.
    The pulp can also be squashed and the juice made into a cool and refreshing drink. 
    It is also used to make an ice cream with a distinctive flavor.

    A Passion Fruit photographed during a FONT tour in May 2014.
    This fruit was growing on the side of the home 
    of one our South American friend.
    In his home, we drank a wonderful juice from the fruit.  

  348. Passiflora eichleriana  ______  BR
    Butterfly Passion Flower
    P: Maracuja de Cobra

  349. Passiflora elegans  ______  BR
    P: Maracuja de Estalo

  350. Passiflora foetida  ______  BR   
    Wild Water Lemon
    P: Maracuja Fedido

  351. Passiflora galbana  ______  BR
    P: Maracuja do Mato

  352. Passiflora giberti  ______  BR
    P: Maracuja Bravo

  353. Passiflora laurifolia  ______  BR
    Yellow Granadilla
    P: Maracuja Laranja

  354. Passiflora loefgrenii  ______  BR
    P: Maracuja de Alho

  355. Passiflora mucronata  ______  BR
    P: Maracuja de Restinga,
    or Sururu 

  356. Passiflora nitida  ______  BR
    Bell Apple
    P: Maracuja Suspiro

  357. Passiflora picturata  ______  BR
    P: Maracuja Redondo

  358. Passiflora quadrangularis  ______  BR    
    Giant Granadilla 
    (a climbing plant with simple, alternating leaves)
    P: Maracuja Assu

  359. Passiflora serrato-digitata  ______  BR
    P: Maracuja Pedra 

  360. Passiflora setacea  ______  BR
    P: Maracuja Sururuca

  361. Passiflora tennifila  ______  BR
    P: Maracuja de Cobra

  362. Passiflora vitiflora  ______  BR  
    Grape-leaved Passion Fruit
    P: Maracuja Folha de Uva

    Two species of heliconiine butterflies, Heliconius cydno  and Heliconius hecale, often lay their eggs on the tendrils and leaf tips of Passiflora vitiflora.
    Two other butterflies, Eueides aliphera and Philaethria dido, lay their eggs on the mature leaves of the plant, and their larvae feed on those older leaves.   



  363. Phyllanthus acidus  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Madagascar)
    Otaheite Gooseberry 
    (or Malay Gooseberry)
    P: Groselha da India

  364. Phyllanthus emblica  ______ BR  (not native to Brazil, from tropical Asia) 
    P: Fruto de Malaca

    Family POACEAE, or GRAMINEAE   (Grasses)


  365. Dendrocalamus giganteus  ______  (native to southeast Asia, now in parks in the tropics)
    Giant Bamboo


  366. Saccharum officinarum  ______  BR   (now widely cultivated; thought to have originated in New Guinea)
    P: Cana de Acucar

    Genus ORYZA

  367. Oryza sativa  (ph)  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Asia)
    Asian Rice 
    (or Rice

    Rice being cultivated. The rice was native to Asia, the Cattle Egrets in the photo native to Africa.
    (photo by Marie Gardner)   

    Genus ZEA
  368. Zea mays  ______  BR
    Sweet Corn

    Family PONTEDERIACEAE  (Water Hyacinth, Pickerel-weed)

    There are about 35 species in PONTEDERIACEAE. All are freshwater aquatics, but only Eichhornia crassipes is truly free-floating.


  369. Eichhornia crassipes  (*)  ______  BR  (native to South America)
    Water Hyacinth
    P: Aguape,
    or Jacinto Aquatico

    Family PROTEACEAE  (Macadamia and allies)


  370. Grevillea banksii  ______  BR
    Banks' Grevillea

    Grevillea banksii
    is especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.


  371. Macadamia integrifolia  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from the Australian coast) 
    Smooth-shelled Macadamia Nut
    P: Macadamia 

  372. Macadamia tetraphylla  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from subtropical Australia)
    Rough-shelled Macadamia Nut 
    P: Macadamia Doce

    Family RHAMNACEAE  (Buckthorns)

    Genus HOVENIA

  373. Hovenia dulcis  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from subtropical Asia)
    Chinese Raisin
    P: Uva Chinesa


  374. Rhamnidium elaeocrpum  ______  BR
    P: Saguaraji

    Genus ZIZiPHUS

  375. Ziziphus joazeiro  ______  BR
    P: Jua

  376. Ziziphus jujuba  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from subtropical China)
    Chinese Jujube
    P: Jujuba Chinesa

  377. Ziziphus mauritiana  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from India and southeast Asia)
    Indian Jujube
    P: Jujuba Indiana

  378. Ziziphus mistol  ______  BR
    P: Olho de Boi

    Family RHIZOPHORACEAE  (Mangroves)

    including here PELLICIERACEAE  (
    the genus PELLICIERA) 

    Mangroves, or Mangles in Spanish, are a group of unrelated woody plants that grow along tropical coasts.
    They generally occur in physical habitats that in temperate regions would be occupied by salt marshes.

    "Mangrove" is not a precise taxonomic classification. Generally any tree that grows directly from a subtidal or intertidal substrate may be termed a mangrove. 

    The Black Mangrove is in a different family, ACANTHACEAE.
    The White Mangrove and the Buttonwood Mangrove are in the family COMBRETACEAE.


  379. Rhizophora mangle  (*)  ______  BR  
    Red Mangrove

    Family ROSACEAE  (Rose)

    Genus CYDONIA

  380. Cydonia oblonga  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southeastern Europe and Asia Minor)
    P: Marmelo


  381. Eriobotrya japonica  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Japan)
    P: Nespera

    Genus FRAGARIA

  382. Fragaria x ananassa  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, where it has been cultivated since 1960) 
    P: Morango

    The cultivated Strawberry is a hybrid that occurred in Europe in 1759 between the Chilean Strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis, and the American Wild Strawberry, Fragaria virginiana. That hybridization came about accidentally.

    Genus MALUS

  383. Malus x domestica  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, where it is now cultivated in the southern part of the country, from Asia Minor)
    P: Maca

    Malus x domestica
    is a complex hybrid involving various species, including Malus sieversii, Malus orientalus, and Malus sylvestris.
    Domestication began thousands of years ago, Today, the Apple is the most popular of fruits.

    Genus MESPILUS

  384. Mespilus germanica  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southeastern Europe to central Asia)  
    P: Nespoli   

    Genus PRUNUS

  385. Prunus armeniaca  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from northern China and Siberia)
    P: Damasco

  386. Prunus domestica  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Asia Minor, cultivated by the Romans)
    Italian Plum
    P: Ameixa Europeia

  387. Prunus dulcis  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from western Asia)
    Sweet Almond
    P: Amendua Europeia

  388. Prunus mume  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from China)
    P: Ume

    Prunus mume
    was introduced into Brazil by Japanese Brazilians (there are many, particularly in the So Paulo area), at the end of the 1960s.

  389. Prunus persica  ______  BR   (not native to Brazil, from China)
    P: Pessego

    Prunus presica (var. nucipersica)  ______  BR 
    (not native to Brazil)
    P: Nectarina

  390. Prunus salicina  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from China)
    Japanese Plum
    P: Ameixa Japonesa

    Genus PYRUS

  391. Pyrus communis  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Europe)
    P: Pera

  392. Pyrus pyrifolia  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Asia)
    Apple Pear
    P: Pera Asiatica

    Genus RUBUS

  393. Rubus erythrocladus  ______  BR
    P: Amora Verde

  394. Rubus idaeus  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from North America, Europe, Asia)
    Red Raspberry
    P: Framboesa

  395. Rubus niveus  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Asia, from the Himalayas to the Philippines)
    P: Raspberry de Mysore

  396. Rubus rosifolius  ______  BR
    Wild Raspberry
    P: Moranguinho Silvestre 

  397. Rubus sellowii  ______  BR
    Wild Blackberry
    P: Amora Preta

  398. Rubus ulmifolius  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from North America and Europe)
    P: Amora Preta

    Family RUBIACEAE  (Madders)


  399. Alibertia edulis  ______  BR  
    P: Purui

    Genus COFFEA

  400. Coffea arabica  (ph)  ______  BR  (originally said to have grown in Africa, in Ethopia)
    (a bush with simple, alternate leaves)
    P: Cafe

    In the tropics, Coffee is grown at rather high elevations, as the tree requires fairly cool temperatures. It also needs a moderate rainfall and some shade.
    Places during FONT tours where Coffee has been seen commonly in cultivation include Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Jamaica, Panama, and Puerto Rico. 


    Coffee, photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)       

    Genus CORDIERA

  401. Cordiera elliptica  ______  BR
    P: Marmelada de Pinto

  402. Cordiera humilis  ______  BR
    P: Marmelada Rasteira

  403. Cordiera sessilis  ______  BR
    P: Marmelada de Cachorro

    Genus GENIPA

  404. Genipa americana  ______  BR
    (or Marmelade Box)
    P: Jenipapo

  405. Genipa infudibuliformes  ______  BR
    Smooth Genip
    P: Jenipapo Liso

    Genus HAMELIA

  406. Hamelia patens  ______  BR 
    P: Amelia

    Hamelia patens
    is especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.  

    Genus IXORA

    Plants in IXORA are especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.

  407. Ixora chinensis  ______  BR

  408. Ixora coccinea  ______  BR

  409. Ixora macrothyrsa  ______  BR 

    Genus MORINDA

  410. Morinda citrifolia  ______  BR  (recently introduced in Brazil, from India, Malaysia, and tropical Australia) 
    P: Morinda

    Genus PENTAS

    Plants in PENTAS are especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds, in Brazil.


  411. Posoqueria latifolia  ______  BR 
    Needle Flower Tree
    P: Baga de Macaco


  412. Vangueria edulis  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from tropical Africa) 
    Spanish Tamarind
    P: Tamarindo Espanhol

    Family RUTACEAE  (Citrus, or Rue)

    Genus AEGLE

  413. Aegle marmelos  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southern Asia)


  414. Casimiroa edulis  ______  BR
    Bael Fruit

    Genus CITRUS

  415. Citrus aurantifolia  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from the Indo-Malaysian area of southern Asia)
    (tree with simple, alternating leaves)
    P: Lima

    Among the various English names for Citrus aurantifolia are: Key Lime, West Indian Lime, Mexican Lime, "Bartender's Lime". 

  416. Citrus aurantium  ______  BR  
    Sour Orange
    P: Laranja Azeda

    Other English names for Citrus aurantium are Bitter Orange, Seville Orange, Marmalade Orange.

  417. Citrus deliciosa  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from the Mediterranean region)  
    P: Mexerica

  418. Citrus hystrix  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southeast Asia)
    Kaffir Lime 
    P: LIma de Cafir 

  419. Citrus latifolia  ______  BR  (widely cultivated in Brazil)
    Tahiti Lemon
    P: Limao Tahiti

    Tahiti Lemon
    is thought to be hybrid of Citrus aurantifolia (above) and Citrus medica (below).  

  420. Citrus limetta  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Asia)
    Sweet Lime 
    (or Limetta)
    P: Limao Doce

  421. Citrus limettiodes  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, probably from India)
    Palestine Sweet Lime
    P: Lima de Umbigo

    Some say that Citrus limettioides is a hybrid of Citrus aurantifolia (above) and Citrus medica (below)

  422. Citrus limon  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, possibly from India)
    P: Limao

    Some say that Citrus limon is a complex hybrid of Citrus aurantifolia (above), Citrus medica (below), and Citrus paradisi (below).

  423. Citrus limonia  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, possibly from India)
    P: Limao Cravo

  424. Citrus maxima  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southern China)
    P: Toranja

  425. Citrus medica  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from northeast India at the base of the Himalayas)
    P: Cidra

    Citron Medica (var. sarcodactylis)  ______  BR 
    (not native to Brazil, from India)
    Budda's Hand Citron  
    P: Cidra Mao de Buda

  426. Citrus mitis  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from China)

  427. Citrus x paradisi  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil)
    P: Pomelo

  428. Citrus reshni  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, possibly from China)  
    Cleopatra Mandarin
    P: Tangerina Cleopatra

  429. Citrus reticulata  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southern China, and northeastern India)
    P: Tangerina

    Citrus reticulata x Citrus sinensis  ______  BR
    (or Tangor)

    A name of the hybrid of the Tangerine (Citrus reticulata) (above) and the Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) (below) is, as noted above, the Ortanique, reflecting the origins of the fruit: a composite of orange-tangeine-unique.    
    It is very juicy and has a pleasant flavor.

  430. Citrus sinensis  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, possibly from southern China and northeastern India)
    Sweet Orange 
    P: Laranja

    Citrus sinensis x Citrus x paradisi  ______  BR

  431. Citrus x tangelo  ______  BR

  432. Citrus unshin  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, possibly from Japan)
    Satsuma Tangerine
    P: Tangerina Satsuma

    Genus CLAUSENA

  433. Clausena lansium  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southern China and northern Indo-China) 
    P: Wampee


  434. Fortunella japonica  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from China)
    Kumquat Marumi
    P: Kumquat Redondo, or Chin-chin

  435. Fortunella margarita  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southeast China)
    Kumquat Nagami
    P: Kumquat Nagami, or Chin-chin


  436. Glycosmis citrifolia  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southern China)
    P: Glicosme

    Family SALICACEAE  (Willows)

    Genus CASEARIA  

  437. Casearia decandra  ______  BR
    (or Wild Honey Tree)
    P: Cambroe

  438. Casearia rupestris  ______  BR
    P: Pururuca,
    or Guacatunga Grande 

    Genus DOVYALIS

  439. Dovyalis caffra  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from South Africa)
    Kei Apple
    P: Umkolo

  440. Dovyalis hebecarpa  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from India and Sri Lanka)
    P: Groselha do Ceilao

  441. Dovyalis abyssinica x Dovyalis hebecarpa  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, Dovyalis abyssinica from Aftica)
    Florida Apricot
    P: Groselha Hibrida


  442. Flacourtia indica  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from tropical Africa, and southern Asia east to the Philippines)
    Governor's Plum
    P: Ameixa de Madagascar

  443. Flacourtia jangomas  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from India and Bangladesh)
    Batoko Plum
    P: Esfregadinha

    Genus SALIX

  444. Salix humboldtiana  ______  BR

    Salix humboldtiana
    is a small species of willow occurring along white-water rivers in the mid-elevations of the Andes, but it also occurs lower in Amazon lowlands, where it is common in pure stands on sand bars and low islands of larger rivers.

    Family SANTALACEAE  (Sandalwoods)

    includes VISCACEAE


  445. Acanthosyris spinescens  ______  BR
    P: Sombra de Touro

    Family SAPINDACEAE  (Soapberry)


  446. Allophyllus edulis  ______  BR
    P: Chala-chala  

    Genus BLIGHIA

  447. Blighia sapida  ______  BR  (recently introduced in Brazil, from western tropical Africa)
    (or Akee)
    P: Aki

    The fruits of the Aki develop thick, reddish-green skins that enclose shiny black seeds, each with a fleshy whitish-colored structure at its base called an aril. The aril is the edible part.
    But, beware! The fruit is ready to be eaten only when it has turned red and has split open. Unripened arils and those overripe are poisonous.

    Genus CUPANIA

  448. Cupania vernalis  ______  BR
    P: Camboata


  449. Dimocarpus longan  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southern China and Thailand) 
    P: Longana

    Genus LITCHI

  450. Litchi chinensis  _____  BR  (not native to Brazil, from southern China) 
    P: Lichia

      (or TALISIA)

  451. Melicoccus bijugatus  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from northern South America, Central America, and the West Indies)
    P: Limoncillo


  452. Nephelium lappaceum  ______  BR  (recently introduced in Brazil, from Malaysia)
    P: Rambutao


  453. Paullinia cupana  ______  BR
    Guarana Vine 
    P: Guarana

    The fruits of the vine, or liana, of Paullinia cupana have been used by people for centuries, for example, to make a paste of the fruits and seeds combined with manioc meal and water. The resulting mixture was the dried and eaten as a stimulant. 
    Nowadays, this fruit is put into a popular soft drink called Guarana. 
    It is sold throughout Brazil in its carbonated form.
    During every FONT tour in Brazil we've enjoyed drinking guarana (always saying "kind of like ginger ale"). 

    Studies have shown that the chemicals in Guarana increase physical capacity and learning ability, and reduce anti-oxidants (aging factors). 
    One of the major components inside the seeds of the plant is caffeine, with the concentration of it so being high that it could be toxic to birds that eat them.
    In nature, however, the seeds of Paullinia cupana are dispersed by large birds such as toucans and guans.
    As long as the birds don't crack the seeds and they digest only the sugar and carbohydrates surrounding the seed, there is no release of the caffeine. 
    A cracked seed would not likely survive and germinate, so apparently having a toxic substance inside is the plant's way of making sure that birds, such as macaws, that crack and kill the seeds, are not attracted to the fruits.
    Only birds that eat the fruits whole, enabling them to pass through the digestive system to be deposited later away from the mother tree, can successfully eat the seeds of the Guarana. 

    Genus TALISIA 

  454. Talisia esculenta  ______  BR
    Belizian Genip
    P: Pitomba do Norte

    Family SAPOTACEAE  (Sapote plants)


  455. Chrysophyllum cainito  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Central America and the West Indies, mainly Cuba and Jamaica)
    Star Apple
    P: Caimito

    The Star Apple Tree grows to about 50 feet high and it often planted as a shade tree because of its dense foliage, which is shed only very infrequently.
    The tree produces small, inconspicuous purplish-white flowers.
    The mature fruits are about the size of an ordinary apple and they have a dark, smooth, purplish skin when they are ripe.
    The fruit gets its name from the pattern inside when it is cut in half. The star shape is produced by the arrangement of the purplish seeds in among the white, rather gelatinous flesh. 
    The fruit has a sweetish but mild taste. It is eaten raw, or as a desert, either as part of a fruit salad or in a mixture with pieces of orange.           


  456. Manilkara huberi  ______  BR
    P: Macaranduba da Terra-firme

  457. Manilkara salzmannii  ______  BR
    Black Massaranduba 
    P: Macaranduba Preta

  458. Manilkara subsericea  ______  BR
    P: Macaranduba

  459. Manilkara zapota  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Central America and Mexico)  
    Sapodilla Tree
    P: Sapoti

    A name for the fruit of Manikara zapota is Naseberry.

    Genus MIMUSOPS

  460. Mimusops commersonii  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Madagascar)
    Spanish Cherry
    P: Abrico da Praia

    Genus POUTERIA

  461. Pouteria bullata  ______  BR
    P: Bapeba

  462. Pouteria caimita  ______  BR
    P: Abiu

  463. Pouteria campechiana  ______  BR  (recently introduced in Brazil, from southern Mexico and Central America) 
    Yellow Sapote 
    (or Eggfruit, or Canistel)

    The skin and flesh of the Yellow Sapote are a pale yellow-orange color. The shape of the fruit varies dramatically, from spherical to an elongated egg shape, measuring from 1 and a half to 2 and a half inches in length. The flesh is sweet and soft with a color and texture that can be compared to a cooked egg yolk, hence its English name "Eggfruit".

  464. Pouteria gardneriana  ______  BR
    P: Aguai Guacu

  465. Pouteria gardneii  ______  BR
    P: Macaranduba Vermelha

  466. Pouteria grandiflora  ______  BR
    P: Hapeba

  467. Pouteria macrophylla  ______  BR
    P: Cutite

  468. Pouteria pachycalyx  ______  BR
    P: Bapeba

  469. Pouteria ramiflora  ______  BR 
    P: Curriola

  470. Pouteria sapota  ______  BR  (not native in Brazil, from lowlands of Mexico and Central America)
    Mamey Sapote
    P: Mamei  

  471. Pouteria torta  ______  BR
    Wooly Abiu
    P: Abiu do Cerrado

  472. Pouteria venosa  ______  BR
    P: Aboirana

    Genus PRADOSIA

  473. Pradosia brevipes  ______  BR
    Armadillo Fruit
    P: Fruta de Tatu

    The Tatu, or Armadillo

  474. Pradosia lactescens  ______  BR
    P: Marmixa


  475. Sideroxylon obtusifolium  ______  BR
    Obtuse-leaved Jungle-plum
    P: Quixaba


  476. Synsepalum dulcificum  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Africa)
    Miracle Fruit
    P: Fruta do Milagre

    Family SOLANACEAE  (Nightshades)

    In addition to the potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato, pepper, eggplant, and tobacco are in SOLANACEAE. 

    Genus ACNISTUS

  477. Acnistus arborescens  ______  BR  
    P: Fruta de Sabia
    or Marianeira


  478. Brunfelsia pauciflora  ______  (native to Brazil)
    Yesterday - Today - and Tomorrow 
    (a bush with simple, alternating leaves)


  479. Cyphomandra betacea  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from Peru)
    Tree Tomato
    P: Tomate Arboreo

    Genus PHYSALIS

  480. Physalis pubescens  ______  BR
    P: Camapu

    Genus SOLANUM  

    and Eggplants are among the nonpoisonous and economically important plants in this huge genus.  (W)   

  481. Solanum muricatum  ______  BR  (recently introduced in Brazil, from the Andes i9n western South America)
    P: Meloncito

  482. Solanum quitoense  ______  BR  (recently introduced in Brazil, from the Andes in western South America)
    P: Naranjilo 

  483. Solanum rantonnetii  ______  BR  (native to Paraguay and Argentina)
    Blue Potato Bush 
    (with simple, alternating leaves)

    Another name for Solanum rantonnetii is Paraguay Nightshade. 

  484. Solanum sessiliflorum  ______  BR
    P: Cubiu

  485. Solanum wrightii  ______  BR  (native to Brazil)
    Potato Tree 
    (with simple, alternating leaves)

    Family STERCULIACEAE  (Cacao plants)

    The genus THEOBROMA
    (below) has also been said to be in the family MALVACEAE.

    (below) has also been said to be in the family MALVACEAE.


  486. Sterculia apetala  ______  BR
    Panama Tree 
    (or Bellota)
    P: Mandovi

  487. Sterculia striata  ______  BR
    P: Chicha do Cerrado


  488. Theobroma bicolor  ______  BR
    P: Cacau do Peru,
    or Pataste

  489. Theobroma cacao  (ph)  ______  BR  (native to Brazil, in the Amazon region)
    (or Cocoa)  (a tree with simple, alternating leaves)
    P: Cacau 

    When European explorers arrived in the New World in the 1400s and 1500s, Cacao was being grown in Mexico by the Aztecs.
    From the Caribbean and Central America, Columbus took Cacao (in the form of cocoa beans) back to the Spanish court in 1502.

    The Cacao tree is easily recognized by its dark green shiny leaves and by its characteristic pods, each about 10 inches long and often growing directly from the trunk.
    The pods turn from green to brownish-red when ripe, and at that stage they are picked.
    The beans are extracted from the pods and laid out to dry in the sun before being roasted and then used to make cocoa powder, cocoa butter, and chocolate.

    Although the Cocoa tree has been cultivated for about 500 years, it wasn't until the middle of the 1800s that the beans were used to produce chocolate as a confectionary. 

    A pod of Cacao, photographed during a FONT tour in Belize
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

    At a cacao plantation In southeastern Brazil, over the years during FONT tours, a little bird seen usually when perched at the top of the trees, has been the Buff-throated Purpletuft, said to be a cotinga, but more closely related to tityras.
    That bird is little, smaller than most hummingbirds. It sits erectly when in a treetop, only about 3 inches in length.
    Its range and population are also small. Birdlife International classifies it as "endangered".
    That cacao plantation, as it is right on the Tropic of Capricorn, has been called the Fazenda Capricorno, near the coastal city of Ubatuba.    

  490. Theobroma grandiflora  ______  BR
    P: Cupuassu

  491. Theobroma speciosum  ______  BR
    P: Cacaui

  492. Theobroma subincanum  ______  BR
    P: Cupui

    Family URTICACEAE  (Nettle Family)

    Genus CECROPIA

  493. Cecropia sp.  (*)  ______  BR   

    There are about 60 species of Cecropia trees in the American tropics. They are, among other things, dioecious. They are conspicuous, and, as "pioneer species", they are among the first to grow in recently cleared areas, with sun.
    Generally, they are thinnish trees with very large umbrella-like leaves.
    Most harbor teeming colonies of stinging ants in their hollow trunks. Those ants "protect the trees" from herbivores.     

    The bird, the Tropical Parula, Parula pitiayumi, eats Cecropia corpuscles, that are white ovoid grains the size of a pinhead, well hidden in the felt at the base of the leaves.
    These corpuscles, discovered rather recently in Brazil, are rich in protein and therefore are much sought after by the symbiotic ants of the cecropia.   

    Other birds that like to feed on the fruits of cecropias are tanagers, and euphonias. Like the Tropical Parula (noted above), euphonias eat the corpuscles (or protein deposits) that are principal food of the Azteca ants living in the trees' trunks (also referred to above).    

    In 1945 in Costa Rica, Alexander Skutch entitled one of his publications "The Most Hospitable Tree" referring to the cecropias, calling them the "most characteristic trees" of tropical America, and explaining their immense value for fauna, especially birds. 
    Apparently the germination of cecropia seeds is accelerated by their passage through birds' intestinal systems.  

    "The Most Hospitable Tree" can be read as a chapter in Alexander Skutch's book, "A Bird Watchers Adventures in Tropical America", published in 1977.

    During a few FONT tours in Costa Rica, we visited Alexander Skutch, where he did his writing at his homestead called "Los Cosingos", Below is a photo taken of him there, during one of our tours, as he was writing. 

    Alexander Skutch 
    (photo by Alan Brady)


  494. Cecropia hololeuca  ______  BR
    P: Embauva 

    Birds in Brazil, and other places in the Neotropics, that frequently feed on Cecropia trees include: tanagers of many kinds, thrushes, caciques, toucans, aracaris, parakeets, bellbirds, tityras, flycatchers, saltators, woodpeckers, manakins, euphonias, trogons, and even some others. 
    There really can't be many others. There are not that many types of birds not included here. 

  495. Cecropia pachystachya  ______  BR

    Genus POUROUMA

  496. Pourouma cecropiifolia  ______  BR
    Amazon Tree Grape
    P: Mapati

    Family VERBENACEAE  (Vervains, Verbenas)


  497. Aegiphila sellowiana  ______  BR
    P: Tamanqueira


  498. Callicarpa reevesii  ______  BR
    P: Calicarpa


  499. Citharexylum myrianthum  ______  BR
    P: Pau-de-viola 


    Plants in CLERODENDRON are especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.  

  500. Clerodendron speciosum  ______  BR

  501. Clerodendron splendens  ______  BR

  502. Clerodendron thomsonae  ______  BR


    Plants in HOLMSKIOLDIA are especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds. 

  503. Holmskioldia sanguinea  ______  BR
    Holmskioldia sanguinea aurea  ______  BR

  504. Holmskioldia tettensis  ______  BR

    Family VITACEAE  (Grape)

    Genus VITIS

  505. Vitis labrusca  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from North America)
    Fox Grape
    P: Uva Americana

  506. Vitis labrusca x Vitis vinifera  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil)
    Hybrid Grape
    P: Uva hibrida

  507. Vitis rotundifolia  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from the United States)
    Muscadine Grape

  508. Vitis vinifera  ______  BR  (not native to Brazil, from central Asia)
    Wine Grape 
    (or simply Grape)
    P: Uva, or Uva Europeia

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