PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-8
 or 302/529-1876

Tropical Plants
of the

in Mexico, Central America
South America, 
and the Caribbean

with those during 
Focus On Nature Tours
thru 2015
noted with an (*) 

during tours in the months of 
January, February, March, April,  
May, July, November, and December

The 3rd part of a three-part list of Tropical Plants of the Americas compiled by Armas Hill 

Photo at upper right:  the orchid, SOBRALIA ROSEA
photographed during the FONT tour in southern Ecuador in April 2014  
(photo by Marie Gardner) 

FONT tours in the Neotropics have been in southern Mexico, Central America, South America, and on islands
in the Caribbean.       

In the list that follows, below the scientific names are names in English and Spanish (S:) and Portuguese (P:).
The families in the list are given (mostly) in alphabetical order, and genera within them are given alphabetically as well. 
Families that are "break-offs" from other families are at times here still with them, and may be out of alphabetical order.  

Plant Families listed alphabetically by the scientific name of the family (prior to OCHNACEAE)
are in the first and second parts of this list:

(from ACANTHACEAE, Acanthus to CYATHEACEAE, Tree Ferns)


Links to Plant Families in this Part of the List:

OCHNACEAE - Wild Plane family     OLACACEAE     OLEACEAE - Olive, Jasmine

ONAGRACEAE - Willowherb, Evening Primrose     ORCHIDACEAE - Orchids   includes Vanilla

OROBANCHACEAE - Broomrapes  includes Indian Paintbrush    OXALIDACEAE    PAPAVERACEAE - Poppies     

PASSIFLORACEAE - Passionflowers
    PHYTOLACCACEAE - Pokeweed    PINACEAE - Pines     

     PLANTAGINACEAE - Plantains  (not related to the Banana) 

POACEAE  (or GRAMINEAE) - Grasses   includes Bamboo, Rice, Corn     PODOCARPACEAE - Podocarpus


POLYGONACEAE - Buckwheats  
includes Seagrape, Dziozilache Honey (Mayan)

POLYPODIACEAE - Polypod Ferns     PONTEDERIACEAE - Water Hyacinth, Pickerel-weed

PORTULACACEAE - Purslanes     PRIMULACEAE - Primrose     PROTEACEAE - Macadamia and allies  

PSILOTACEAE - fern-like plants 
without roots and true leaves     PTERIDACEAE - ferns

RHAMNACEE - Buckthorns    

RHIZOPHORACEAE (and PELLICIERACEAE)  - Mangroves and allies
includes Tea Mangrove, Red Mangrove    

Recent taxonomy has put PELLICIERACEAE in the family TETRAMERISTACEAE.  

ROSACEAE - Rose   includes Polylepis    

includes Coffee, Psychotria elata ("Hot Lips"), Quinine    RUPPIACEAE - Ditch Grass

RUTACEAE - Citrus, or Rue   includes Lime, Sour Orange, Shaddock, Sweet Lime, Sweet Orange

SALICACEAE - Willows     SANTALACEAE - Sandalwoods  (includes VISCACEAE, Mistletoes)

SAPINDACEAE - Soapberry family   includes Akee (or Aki), Guarana

SAPOTACEAE  - Sapote plants   includes Star Apple, Chicle (the source of chewing gum), Yellow Sapote (or Eggfruit) 

SCROPHULARIACEAE - Snapdragons, or Figworts    SIMAROUBACEAE     SMILACACEAE - Greenbriars

SOLANACEAE - Nightshades   includes Cayenne Pepper, various Chiles, Tomatillo, Tomato 

STERCULIACEAE - Cacao plants   includes Cacao (or Cocoa)    STRELITZIACEAE     SURIANACEAE


including Cecropias     

VERBENACEAE - Vervains, Verbanas
including Lantana, Mexican Oregano

VIOLACEAE - Violets     VITACEAE - Grape     VOCHYSIACEAE    ZAMIACEAE - Cone-palm Ferns    

includes Jamaican Feverplant


A Photo Gallery of Plants during a FONT Tour in the Dominican Republic
with some of the photographed plants not identified. If you can ID any, we'd greatly appreciate.   

A Photo Gallery of Plants during some FONT Tours in Ecuador
with some of the photographed plants not identified. if you can ID any, we'd greatly appreciate. 


BR: in Brazil    BZ: in Belize    CR: in Costa Rica    CY:  in the Cayman Islands    DR: in the Dominican Republic
: in Ecuador    GU: in Guatemala    JM: in Jamaica    MX: in Mexico    MX(YU): in the Yucatan area of Mexico
: Panama    PR: Puerto Rico
(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT web-site

In this list, Spanish names follow the letter S:  Portuguese names follow the letter P:

Another code throughout the list here, (TPCR:xx), refers to pages with a photograph of the particular species
in the book "Tropical Plants of Costa Rica, A Guide to Native and Exotic Flora" by Willow Zuchowski, with photographs by Turid Forsyth, 2007. 

Other Links:  

Information about Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours:
in the Caribbean 
    in Central America    in South America (Brazil and Ecuador)

or by month in:   2015    2016    or:  by geographic locations worldwide 

Lists and Photo Galleries in this Website of Other Nature: 

Birds in:   the Caribbean    Central America    South America (Brazil)    South America (Ecuador) 

A List and Photo Gallery of Hummingbirds in 2 parts

Mammals:     the Caribbean    Central America    South America

Butterflies and Moths in:   the Caribbean     Central America     South America

Other Lists and Photo Galleries in this website relating to Plants: 

Tropical Plants on West Indian Islands in the Caribbean

Fruiting Plants and Others in Brazil    Orchids of the Americas

Wildflowers & Other Plants in Texas    Wildflowers & Other Plants in Eastern North America 

Desert Plants of the Southwest US & northern Mexico

Northern Plants in Alaska, Iceland, & the mountains of Hokkaido, Japan
(with some notes about medicinal and edible plants)

Links to Other Lists & Photo Galleries of Plants     
Directory of Photos in this Website

Books that have been sources for this list include:
"Aves Brasileiras e Plantas que as Atraem" by Johan Dalgas Frisch and Christian Dalgas Frisch, 2005
"Botanica's Pocket Orchids" by various authors, 2007  (with over 1200 species listed)
"Brazil, Amazon and Pantanal - the Ecotraveler's Wildlife Guide" by David Pearson and Les Beletsky, 2002  
"Brazilian Fruits and Cultivated Exotics" by Harri Lorenzi, Luis Bacher, Marco Lacerda, Sergio Sartori, 2006
"The Butterflies of Hispaniola" by Albert Schwartz, 1989.
"Fruits and Vegetables of the Caribbean" by M Bourne, G. Lennox and S. Seddon, 2006
"Hispaniola" by Eladio Fernandez, 2007
"Hummingbirds, a Life-size Guide to Every Species" by Michael Fogden, Marianne Taylor, and Sheri Williamson, 2014
"A Naturalist in Costa Rica" by Alexander Skutch, 1971 
"Threatened Plants of the Cayman Islands - the Red List" by Frederic Burton, 2008. 
"Tropical Plants of the World" by Jens Rohwer, 2002 
"Yucatan, Recipes from a Culinary Expedition" by David Sterling, 2014

About 50 color illustrations in this 3-part list are from the book "Flowers of Guatemala" by Carol Rogers Chickering.
Most of the illustrations were done about 50 years ago in 1964-1965. The book was published in 1973.  

Another book that has been a valuable source for information here is "Tropical Plants of Costa Rica, A Guide to Native and Exotic Flora" by Willow Zuchowski, with photographs by Turid Forsth, 2007. 
As noted above, the code (TPCR:xx) in this list refers to pages with a photograph of a particular plant. 

A forest on the other side of a river in southern Ecuador
photographed during a FONT tour in April 2014.
There may well be more plant species in this forest
than there are in this list.
(photo by Marie Gardner) 

     A List of Tropical Plants of the Americas, Part 3:

Family OCHNACEAE  (Wild Plane family) 


  1. Cespedesia macrophylla  ______  CR

    Genus OURATEA

  2. Ouratea crassinervia  ______  CR

  3. Ouratea lucens  ______  CR

  4. Ouratea valerii  ______  CR

    Family OLACACEAE 


  5. Chaunochiton kappleri  ______  CR


  6. Heisteria acuminata  ______  CR

  7. Heisteria concinna  ______  CR

  8. Heisteria longipes  ______  CR


  9. Minquartia guianensis  ______  CR


  10. Schoeptia chrysophylloides  ______  CY  (endangered in CY)

  11. Schoeptia schreberi  ______  CR

    Genus XIMENIA

  12. Ximenia americana  ______  CR

    Family OLEACEAE  (Olives, Jasmines)


  13. Chionanthus caymanensis  ______  CY  (endemic to the Cayman Islands) (endangered)


  14. Forestiera segregata  ______  CY  (endemic to the West Indies) (endangered in CY)


  15. Linociera panamensis  ______  CR

    Family ONAGRACEAE  (Willowherb, Evening Primrose)

    Genus FUCHSIA

  16. Fuchsia hybrida  ______  BR
    P: Brinco-de-princesa

    is a hybrid from Fuchsia corymbiflora, Fuchsia fuigens, and Fuchsia magellanica.
    It is especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.   

  17. Fuchsia jimenezii  ______  CR   in Costa Rica common on the continental divide at Monteverde 

  18. Fuchsia paniculata  ______  CR  (TPCR:324)   occurs from Mexico to Panama
    a fuchsia
    S: Achiotillo

  19. Fuchsia splendens  (ph)  ______  GU

    Fuchsia splendens,
    from the "Flowers of Guatemala"

  20. Fuchsia triphylla  (*) (ph)  ______  DR  (endemic to Hispaniola, in mountains of Cordillera Central, Neiba, Bahoruco)
    S: Cocaria

    Fuchsia triphylla
    is called Honeysuckle Fuchsia.

    Fuchsia triphylla photographed during a FONT tour in the Dominican Republic.
    The plant was observed being a food source for the hummingbird, the Hispaniolan Emerald,
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

    Family ORCHIDACEAE  (Orchids)

    The numerous ORCHIDS of the world can be said to be of 3 types:
    1) Many grow on trees. They are EPIPHYTES.
    2) Those that grow on rocks are LITHOPHYTES.
    3) Those that grow in the ground are TERRESTRIALS.      

    There are so many different species of orchids throughout the New World, we have them in a separate list, in which there are now 562 species. Here's the link:   

    In all, there are over 25,000 species of ORCHIDS in the world. In the United States, there are about 250 species of ORCHIDS, with about half of them in Florida.
    In Brazil, the largest country in the Americas south of the United States, there are about 2,500 species of ORCHIDS.
    But in other countries in South America, which are smaller, but in which there are the Andes Mountains, there are even more species of ORCHIDS.
    There are about 3,000 ORCHIDACEAE species in Colombia. 
    And there are about 4,000 species in ORCHIDACEAE in Ecuador. Thus, that small country has more than one-tenth of the world's diversity of ORCHIDS.   

    On the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, there are about 350 described species in ORCHIDACEAE.

    Even on the small Cayman islands in the Caribbean, alone, there are 26 species of native orchids.
    One of them, the endangered Ghost Orchid, is in the photo below.

    Ghost Orchid

    The following three photographs of orchids were taken during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2014:

    The orchid Elleanthus robustus photographed 
    at Copalinga, in southern Ecuador
    (photo by Marie Gardner)  

    An Epidendrum orchid photographed during 
    in the botanical garden in Loja  
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

    This Orchid, Sobralia rosea, was seen commonly
    on mid-level slopes of the Andes, when we were
    in southern Ecuador during that FONT tour in April 2014.
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

    Family OROBANCHACEAE  (Broomrapes)  (was in SCROPHULARIACEAE)

    Genus AGALINIS

  21. Agalinis kingsii  ______  CY  (endemic to Grand Cayman Island)  (critically endangered)

    Genus CASTILLEJA  - Paintbrushes

  22. Castilleja tenuifolia  (ph)  ______  GU
    Indian Paintbrush 
    (or Painted Cup 

    Indian Paintbrush, Castilleja tenuifolia,
    from the "Flowers of Guatemala"


    Genus AVERRHOA

  23. Averrhoa carambola  ______  CR  (TPCR:188)   originally from Indonesia, now cultivated many warm places in the world   
    Star Fruit
    S: Carambola  

    Family PAPAVERACEAE  (Poppies)

    Genus ARGEMONE    

  24. Argemone mexicana  ______  CY  (native to Central America)
    Devil's Fig 
    (or Mexican Poppy(an herbaceous plant)
    Thom Thistle 
    (name in CY)
    P: Cardo Santo
    S: Cardo Amarillo, or Chicalote

    Genus BOCCONIA

  25. Bocconia frutescens  ______  CR

    Family PASSIFLORACEAE  (Passionflowers)

    includes TURNERACEAE


    There are about 450 different species of PASSIFLORA with many distributed throughout the tropics, with some as well in temperate countries.
    The PASSIFLORA flowers have a characteristic and unique shape (see photo below), and the arrangement of the floral parts has been said to symbolize the cross of the crucifixion, hence the name "Passion Fruit".
    Some species have small ball-shaped fruits. 
    One species in particular, Passiflora edulis (var. edulis) is grown commercially for its fruit.

    Of the approximately 450 species of PASSIFLORA, about 60 species are considered edible. 

    Some members of the PASSIFLORA genus are host plants for the butterfly: Agraulis vanillae, the Gulf Fritillary.
    PASSIFLORA species are also visited for their nectar by the hummingbird, the Long-tailed Hermit.  

  26. Passiflora adenopoda  ______  CR

    Passiflora adenopoda
    is one of the Passiflora host plants for the caterpillars of the butterfly Heliconius charithonia, the Zebra Longwing.  
    The caterpillars feed on the leaves of this plant as well as other Passifloras that are either toxic or deadly to other butterflies.
    Other Passifloras (noted below) that are fed upon by the caterpillars of the Zebra Longwing include: Passiflora biflora, Passiflora lobata, Passiflora menispermifolia, and Passoflora pulchella. 

    the Zebra Longwing butterfly

    Passiflora adenopoda
    is also a host plant for the caterpillars of the butterfly Dione moneta, the Mexican Silverspot.     

  27. Passiflora alata  ______  CR

    Passiflora alata
    is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterfly Heliconius ismenius, the Tiger-striped Longwing. 

  28. Passiflora ambigua  ______  CR

    Passiflora ambigua is a host plant for the butterfly Eueides isabella, the Isabella's Longwing, also known as the Isabella's Tiger or Isabella's Heliconian. 
    It is also a host plant for the caterpillars of Heliconius ismenius, a butterfly known as the Tiger-striped Longwing, or Tiger Heliconian, and of Heliconius (or Laparus) doris, the Doris Longwing. 

  29. Passiflora apetala  ______  CR

    Passiflora apetala
    is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterfly Heliconius clysonymus, the Montane Longwing.

  30. Passiflora auriculata  ______  CR

    Passiflora auriculata
    is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterflies: Heliconius hecale, the Hecale Longwing, and Heliconius sara, the Sara Longwing.

  31. Passiflora biflora  ______  CR
    Two-flowered Passionflower

    Passiflora biflora
    is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterflies: Heliconius charithonia, the Zebra Longwing,
    Heliconius erato, the Crimson-patched Longwing, Heliconius clysonymus, the Montane Longwing, and Heliconius cydno, the Cydno Longwing.
  32. Passiflora capsularis  ______  CR

    Passiflora capsularis
    is a host plant for caterpillars of the butterfly Dione moneta, the Mexican Silverspot. 

  33. Passiflora coriacea  ______  CR

    Passiflora coriacea
    is a host plant for the caterpillars of the butterfly Heliconius erato, the Crimson-patched Longwing, or Erato Heliconian.

  34. Passiflora costaricensis  ______  CR

    Passiflora costaricensis
    is a host plant for the caterpillars of the butterfly Heliconius erato, the Crimson-patched Longwing.

  35. Passiflora cupraea  ______  CY

  36. Passiflora edulis  (*) (ph)  ______  CR  EC  (TPCR:190)   originally grew in South America
    Passion Fruit 
    (climbing plant with simple, alternating leaves)
    S: Maracuya

    Passiflora edulis
    is also called the Purple Granadilla. 
    It is a vine-like plant, which climbs by means of long, green tendrils, grown commercially for its fruits, which become purple when ripe. The flesh is usually eaten raw in fruit salads.
    The pulp can also be squashed and the juice made into a cool and refreshing drink. 
    It is also used to make an ice cream with a distinctive flavor.

    A Passion Fruit photographed during the FONT tour 
    in western Ecuador in May 2014.
    This fruit was growing on the side of the home 
    of our Ecuadorian friend, Wilmur.
    In his home, we drank a wonderful juice from the fruit.  

  37. Passiflora filipes  ______  CR

    Passiflora filipes
    is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterfly Heliconius hecale, the Hecale Longwing.

  38. Passiflora foetida  ______  CR
    S: Bombillo,
    or Calzoncillo, or Norbo, or Granadilla del Monte

  39. Passiflora ligularis  ______  CR  (TPCR:190 the fruit  occurs from Mexico to South America
    Sweet Passion Fruit
    S: Granadilla

  40. Passiflora lobata  ______  CR  (A synonym for Passiflora lobata is Tetrastylis lobata.)

    Passiflora lobata is a host plant for the caterpillars of the butterflies: Dione moneta, the Mexican Silverspot, Heliconius charithonia, the Zebra Longwing.

  41. Passiflora menispermifolia  ______  CR

    Passiflora menispermifolia
    is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterflies: Heliconius charithonia, the Zebra Longwing, and Heliconius melpomene, the Melpomene Longwing, or the Postman.

  42. Passiflora microstipula  ______  CR

    Occurring in areas of middle elevation cloud forest, Passiflora microstipula is a host plant for the caterpillars of the butterfly Eueides lineata, the Thick-edged Longwing. 

  43. Passiflora oerstedii  ______  CR

    Passiflora oerstedii
    is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterflies: Heliconius hecale, the Hecale Longwing, and Heliconius melpomene, the Melpomene Longwing, or the Postman.

  44. Passiflora pedata  ______  CR

    Passiflora pedata is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterfly Heliconius ismenius, the Tiger-striped Longwing. 

  45. Passiflora platyloba  ______  CR

    Passiflora platyloba is a host plant for the butterflies: Eueides isabella, the Isabella's Longwing, Heliconius ismenius, the Tiger-striped Longwing, and Heliconius hecale, the Hecale Longwing, or Heart-shaped Heliconian.  

  46. Passiflora pulchella  ______  CR

    Passiflora pulchella is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterfly Heliconius charithonia, the Zebra Longwing.

  47. Passiflora quadrangularis  ______  CR   originally grew in the tropical Western Hemisphere  
    Giant Granadilla 
    (a climbing plant with simple, alternating leaves)
    S: Badea, or Granadilla Real

  48. Passiflora talamancensis  ______  CR

    In Costa Rica, Passiflora talamancensis is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterfly, Dryadula phaetusa, the Banded Longwing, or Banded Orange Heliconian, as are other plants in Passiflora genus.  
    It is also the host plant for caterpillars of the butterfly Heliconius erato, the Crimson-patched Longwing, or the Erato Heliconian.

  49. Passiflora tica  ______  CR

    In Costa Rica, Passiflora tica is thought to be a host plant (or the host plant) for the caterpillar of the butterfly Heliconius eleuchia, the White-edged Longwing. 
    That butterfly, and that plant in Costa Rica occurs in the foothills of the Caribbean slope (in the area of La Virgen del Socorro canyon).  

  50. Passiflora tripartita  (var. molissima) (*) (ph)  ______  (originally grew in the Andes of South America)
    Banana Poka 
    (or Banana Passion Fruit (climbing plant with simple, alternating leaves)
    S: Curuba de Castilla, or Tacso, or Tumbo 

    Passion Flower

  51. Passiflora suberosa  ______  CY
    Corky-stemmed Passionflower
    Wild Pumpkin 
    (name in CY)

    Passiflora suberosa
    is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterfly Heliconius charithonia, the Zebra Longwing.

  52. Passiflora vitiflora  ______  CR  (TPCR:245)
    S: Granadilla del Monte

    In Costa Rica, two species of heliconiine butterflies, Heliconius cydno and Heliconius hecale, often lay their eggs on the tendrils and leaf tips of Passiflora vitiflora.
    Two other butterflies, Eueides aliphera and Philaethria dido, lay their eggs on the mature leaves of the plant, and their larvae feed on those older leaves.   

  53. Passiflora sp.  ______  DR


  54. Turnera diffusa  ______  CY

  55. Turnera triglandulosa  ______  CY  (endemic to Little Cayman and Cayman Brac Islands) 

  56. Turnera ulmifolia  ______  CY  (originally grew in the tropical Western Hemisphere)
    Bahama Buttercup 
    (herbaceous plant)
    Cat Bush 
    (name in CY)
    P: Albina, or Chanana
    S: Marilope

    Family PHYTOLACCACEAE  (Pokeweed)

    Genus RIVINA

  57. Rivina humilis  (ph)  ______  CY
    Rouge Plant
    Fowl Berry 
    (name in CY)

    Another name for Rivina humilis is Pigeonberry.

    A Rouge Plant, with its small red berry
    (photo courtesy of Michiel Koomen) 


  58. Trichostigma octandrum  ______  CY

    Family PINACEAE  (Pines)

    Genus PINUS

  59. Pinus occidentalis  (*) (ph)  ______  DR  (endemic to Hispaniola, in Cordillera Central and the Bahoruco mountain ranges) 
    Hispaniolan Pine 
    S: Pino Criollo, or Pino de Cuaba

    A Pine Warbler in a Hispaniolan Pine.
    The tree is endemic to the Caribbean island of Hispaniola.
    The bird is a resident subspecies endemic to the island, 
    Setophaga pinus chrysoleuca.
    (photo by Marie Gardner during a FONT tour in the Dominican Republic)   

    Family PIPERACEAE  (Pepper)

    On the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, there are over 50 described species in PIPERACEAE.


  60. Peperomia glabella  ______  CY  (critically endangered in CY)

  61. Peperomia obtusifolia  ______  CY  (endangered in CY)
    Vine Balsam 
    (name in CY)

  62. Peperomia pseudopereskiifolia  ______  CY  (nearly endemic to the Cayman Islands) (endangered)

  63. Peperomia simplex  ______  CY  (nearly endemic to the Cayman Islands) (critically endangered)

    Genus PIPER

    PIPER is a very common and widespread genus of forest understory shrubs in the American Tropics.
    There are more than 120 species in Brazil.
    An erect, candle-like, flowering-structure makes such species easy to identify.
    Bats, instead of insects or birds, are pollinators for many of these shrubs. Short-tailed Fruit Bats are the main dispersers of its fruits.
    Black Pepper is harvested from a species in this grouping.   

    Phyllostomatid bats of the genus Carollia, such as Carollia pesspicillata, are "piperphiles", often basing the bulk of their diet on Piper fruits. 

  64. Piper amalago  ______  CY  CR  at Santa Rosa NP, most common in shady understory or relatively mature forest   
    Pepper Elder 
    (name in CY) 

  65. Piper arboreum  ______  CR

  66. Piper augustum  ______  CR

  67. Piper auritum  ______  CR  MX(YU)  (TPCR:64)
    Anise Piper 
    (or Mexican Pepperleaf)
    S: Anisillo,
    or Hinojo, or Sabalero, or Hoja de la Estrella, or Hoja Santa, or Hierba Santa, or Momo, or Acuyo
    also: Hoja de Estrella
    (in Costa Rica)

    Another name for Piper auritum is Root Beer Plant.

  68. Piper biolleyi  ______  CR

  69. Piper biseriatum  ______  CR

  70. Piper carrilloanum  ______  CR

  71. Piper cenocladum  ______  CR

  72. Piper colonense  ______  CR

  73. Piper euryphyllum  ______  CR

  74. Piper imperiale  ______  CR

  75. Piper jacquemontianum  ______  CR  at Santa Rosa NP, restricted to humid ravines

  76. Piper marginatum  ______  CR  at Santa Rosa NP, most common in open, disturbed habitats

  77. Piper nigrum  ______  CR  (TPCR:191)   in Costa Rica, a cultivated plant
    Black Pepper
    S: Pimienta

  78. Piper obliquum  ______  CR

  79. Piper pseudofuligineum  ______  CR  at Santa Rosa NP, a habitat generalist

  80. Piper reticularum  ______  CR

  81. Piper sancti-felicis  ______  CR

  82. Piper sinugaudens   ______  CR

  83. Piper tuberculatum  ______  CR

    Family PLANTAGINACEAE  (Plantains, not related to the Banana)

    Genus PLANTAGO

    Plants in PLANTAGO are a favorite food source for the hummingbird, the Rufous Sabrewing, Campylopteres rufus, in Guatemala and nearby Mexico. 

    Family POACEAE, or GRAMINEAE   (Grasses)

    On the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, there are over 350 described species in POACEAE.  

    Genus CHUSQUEA

    Approximately 20 species of wild bamboo in Costa Rica are in the genus CHUSQUEA.

  84. Chusquea patens  ______  CR  (TPCR:300)   occurs in Costa Rica and western Panama
    S: Canuela

  85. Chusquea subtessellata  ______  CR  (TPCR:325)
    S: Batamba

    is a dwarf bamboo that grows in high, open, burned-over areas.

    Chusquea subtessellata
    was Swallenochloa subtessellata.


  86. Danthonia dominguensis  (*) (ph)  ______  DR  (endemic to Hispaniola, in mountains of Cordillera Central, Neiba, Bahoruco)
    S: Pajon

    Danthonia dominguensis, a Tussock Grass, 
    at 8,000 feet above sea level in the Dominican Republic
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 


  87. Dendrocalamus giganteus  ______  (native to southeast Asia, now in parks in the tropics)
    Giant Bamboo


  88. Hyparrhenia rufa  ______  CR  (TPCR:277)  (originally from Africa)
    S; Jaragua

    Genus LASIACIS

  89. Lasiacis procerrima  ______  CR

    Lasiacis procerrima, and Paspalum virgatum (below, in this list) are host plants for the butterflies of the butterfly, Eryphanis lycomedon. formerly Eryphanis polyxena lycomedon, the Purple Mort Bleu. 

    Genus ORYZA

  90. Oryza sativa  (*) (ph)  ______  CR  DR  (native to Asia)
    Asian Rice 
    (or Rice
    S: Arroz

    Rice being cultivated on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, 
    the rice was native to Asia, the Cattle Egrets in the photo native to Africa.
    (photo by Marie Gardner)   

    Genus PASPALUM

  91. Paspalum virgatum  ______  CR


  92. Saccharum officinarum  (*)  ______  CR  DR  PR  (TPCR:192)  now widely cultivated, thought to have originated in New Guinea
    P: Cana de Acucar
    S: Cana de Acucar

    Genus ZEA
  93. Zea mays  (*)  ______  CR  MX(YU)
    Sweet Corn
    S: Maize (
    or Maiz)  

    "Maize" is not just a staple food of the people of Mexico. It has played a significant role in all aspects of their lives since pre-Hispanic times.
    Among the Mayas on the Yucatan Peninsula, Maize is considered a sacred food and is treated with great respect. It is often called "Gracia", meaning "grace".
    Maize and its multiple manifestations are symbols of societies that have evolved in the Americas for more than 10,000 years. The plant was domesticated in Mesoamerica although exactly where is debated.
    Domesticated Maize was first derived from a wild species known as "Teocintle".

    Today, rural life in the Yucatan region revolves around Maize - its planting, harvest, and conversion into food, along with its use in ceremonies, religion, and art.

    One of the most notable and interesting things relating to Maize, or Corn, is its tremendous diversity. There are nearly 60 different races in Mexico alone. Globally, there are many more.    

    "Maiz" is the word applied to the dried kernel.
    "Elote" is the word used to refer to fresh corn on the cob.
    "Mazorea" refers to the cob itself.

    Many parts of the Maize plant are used.
    The husks are occasionally used in the Yucatan for wrapping tamales, although banana leaves are more commonly.
    The silk from cobs is used to make an infusion employed in traditional medicine.
    Leaves and cobs are used in handicrafts.
    The stripped cob is used as a combustible.

    Maize is transformed into a more flavorful and digestible substance through a process known as nixtamalization, which involves boiling dried maize in water mixed with "cal", that is calcium hydroxide. 
    Once treated and softened in that way, it is ground into a thick dough known as "masa".
    Masa then becomes the fundamental element in Mexican gastronomy, used for making tortillas, tamales, and even beverage.
    In Yucatan cuisine, Masa is often used as a thickener for meat or poultry stocks to create a kind of gray or sauce served with many dishes.
    (from the book: "Yucatan, recipes from a Culinary Expedition" by David Sterling)             

    Family PODOCARPACEAE  (Podocarpus)

    PODOCARPUS forest is a feature of the high Andes Mountains in South America, where unfortunately much has been cut for use as timber.  

    PODOCARPUS is not to be confused with Polylepis, in the Andes, in the family ROSACEAE.  


  94. Podocarpus guatemalensis  ______  CR

    In Costa Rica, Podocarpus guatemalensis occurs in lowlands and hills, up to 3,000 feet above sea level, on the Osa Peninsula and in the northern part of the country. 

  95. Podocarpus oleifolius  (or Podocarpus macrostachus)  ______  CR  (TPCR:326)   occurs from Mexico to South America
    S: Cipresillo

    Family POLEMONIACEAE  (Phloxes)

    Genus COBAEA

  96. Cobaea scandens  ______  GU  (native to the Western Hemisphere)
    Cathedral Bells
    (or "Mexican Ivy"(climbing plant with leaves pinnately divided or tripartite)

  97. Cobaea villosa  (ph)  ______  GU
    S: Herba Acorda

    Cup-and-Saucer, Cobaea villosa,
    from the "Flowers of Guatemala"

    Family POLYGALACEAE  (Milkworts)

    Genus POLYGALA

  98. Polygala propinqua  ______  CY  (nearly endemic to the Cayman Islands)  (critically endangered in CY)    

    On Grand Cayman Island in the Caribbean, Polygala propinqua seems to be an important food source for the bird, the Western Spindalis, Spindalis zena salvini. 
    Birds of that species have been observed returning repeatedly to Polygala bushes, feeding on the leaves. Over time, from that activity, the bushes become shredded, and the birds move on.       

    Family POLYGONACEAE  (Buckwheats)

    Genus ANTIGONON 

  99. Antigonon leptopus  ______  CR  DR  (TPCR:149)   native seemingly to Mexico, now cultivated throughout the Neotropics and Caribbean 
    Coral Vine,
    or Bride's Tears, or "Mexican Creeper"  (a climbing plant with simple, alternating leaves)
    S: Cadena de Amor, or Colacion, or Bellisima  

    In the Dominican Republic, Antigonon leptopus is a food plant for the butterflies: Papilio aristor, the Scarce Haitian Swallowtail, Strymon istapa, the Mallow Scrub-Hairstreak, Hamadryas amphichloe, the Pale Cracker, Junonia genoveva, the Mangrove Buckeye, Anartia lytrea, the Goddard's Anartia, Danaus gilippus, the Queen, Danaus eresimus, the Soldier. 


  100. Coccoloba caracasana  ______  CR

  101. Coccoloba floribunda  ______  CR

  102. Coccoloba padiformis  ______  CR

  103. Coccoloba tuerckheimii  ______  CR

  104. Coccoloba uvifera  (*) (ph)  ______  CY  (originally grew along coasts in tropical America) (critically endangered in CY)
    Sea Grape 
    (tree with simple, alternating leaves)
    S: Uvero de Playa 

    The Sea Grape is certainly characteristic of many Caribbean beaches, and visitors soon become familiar with its smooth, leathery leaves with their prominent reddish veins.
    The male and female flowers occur on separate plants. After fertilization, the fruits develop into purple, grape-like clusters. These clusters do not ripen evenly.

    The Sea Grape varies depending upon the environment in which it is growing.
    On exposed shores, it grows as a sprawling shrub.
    In more sheltered areas, it grows as a tree, reaching a height of about 50 feet.
    The sour fruits are edible when ripe, but they are too sour to be pleasant.
    They contain large amounts of pectin which makes them suitable for making a good jelly and jam preserves.
    On some Caribbean islands, they are made into soup.    

    Sea Grape, showing a cluster of the fruit
    and the leathery leaves with reddish veins
    (photo courtesy of Michiel Koomen)


  105. Gymnopodium floribundum  ______  MX(YU)
    (Mayan name)

    Gymnopodium floribundum is a plant unique to the Yucatan region, with no common English name.
    It is a woody bush that from March through May produces tiny pale green flowers with a lightly sweet floral fragrance.
    Dzidzilche Honey, from the plant, is a pale amber in color. It has an unmistakable tropical flavor and a low moisture content, making it one of the world's finest honeys.  
    (from the book: "Yucatan, Recipes from a Culinary Expedition" by David Sterling) 


  106. Polygonum densiflorum  ______  CY

  107. Polygonum punctatum  ______  CY


  108. Rupprechtia costata  ______  CR


  109. Triplaris melaenodendron  ______  CR  GU
    S: Mulato

    During the early months of the year, one may see Triplaris melaenodendron in all its glory when it is in fruit. It has attractive sprays of seed cases with "wings" rather like those of maples.
    The plant is deciduous and for at least part of the year it has no conspicuous characteristics. When the large leaves grow and the small whitish flowers are in bloom, the tree becomes recognizable.
    Any doubt can be resolved by breaking off a branch: a Triplaris branch is hollow and full of voracious ants.
    Another characteristic is that the stumps send up new sprouts, which form a little thicket.
    The common name mulato derives from the mottled bark.

    Triplaris melaenodendron is common in many parts of the Pacific Plains of Guatemala, where it is one of the most characteristic species, and where it affords displays of color in late January and February.   

    Family POLYPODIACEAE  (Polypod Ferns, including Maiden-hair Ferns

    included here in this grouping is the family THELYPTERIDACEAE, the Beech Ferns,
    in the genus THELYPTERIS 


  110. Acrostichum aureum  ______  CY

  111. Acrostichum danaeifolium  ______  CY

    Genus ADIANTUM  (Maiden-hair Ferns)

  112. Adiantum concinnum  ______  CR

    Adiantum concinnum is the most abundant maiden-hair fern in Central America. About 30 species of maiden-hair ferns occur in Costa Rica. 

  113. Adiantum melanoleucum  ______  CY  (endemic to the Greater Antilles and the Cayman Islands)  (endangered in CY)

  114. Adiantum tenerum  ______  CY  (endangered in CY)

    Genus BLECHNUM

  115. Blechnum serrulatum  ______  CY  (vulnerable in CY)


  116. Cheilanthes microphylla  ______  CY


  117. Nephrolepis biserrata  ______  CY

  118. Nephrolepis exaltata  ______  CY  (endemic to the Greater Antilles and Cayman Islands) 


  119. Polypodium aureum  ______  CY  (critically endangered in CY)

  120. Polypodium dispersum  ______  CY

  121. Polypodium heterophyllum  ______  CY  (endemic to the West Indies) (endangered in CY)

  122. Polypodium phyllitidis  ______  CY
    Cow Tongue 
    (name in CY)

  123. Polypodium polypodioides  ______  CY
    Resurrection Fern

    Genus PTERIS

  124. Pteris longifolia  (var. bahamensis)  ______  CY   

    Genus TECTARIA

  125. Tectaria incisa  ______  CY


  126. Thelypteris augescens  ______  CY  (endemic to the Greater Antilles and Cayman Islands) (endangered in CY)

  127. Thelypteris interrupta  ______  CY  (vulnerable in CY)

  128. Thelypteris kunthii  ______  CY

  129. Thelypteris reptans  ______  CY

    Family PONTEDERIACEAE  (Water Hyacinth, Pickerel-weed)

    There are about 35 species in PONTEDERIACEAE. All are freshwater aquatics, but only Eichhornia crassipes is truly free-floating.


  130. Eichhornia crassipes  (*)  ______  BR  CR  (TPCR:254)  (native to South America, probably originated in Brazil)
    Water Hyacinth
    P: Aguape,
    or Jacinto Aquatico
    S: Buchon de Agua,
    or Jacinto de Agua, or Camalote, or Choreja, or Lirio Aquatico, or Lirio de Agua.

    In the Amazon, the flowers of the Water Hyacinth are pollinated by long-tongued bees. 
    Amazonian Manatees
    feed on the plants.    

    Family PORTULACACEAE  (Purslanes)


  131. Portulaca halimoides  ______  CY  (endemic to the West Indies)

  132. Portulaca pilosa  ______  CY
    Ten O'Clock 
    (name in CY)

  133. Portulaca rubricaulis  ______  CY

  134. Portulaca tuberculata  ______  CY

    Family PRIMULACEAE  (Primroses)



  135. Jacquinia keyensis  ______  CY  (endemic to the Greater Antilles and Cayman Islands) (endangered in CY)
    Wash Wood 
    (name in CY)

  136. Jacquinia proctorii  ______  CY  (nearly endemic to the Cayman Islands) (critically endangered in CY) 

  137. Jacquinia pungens  ______  CR
    False Evergreen Needle Bush
    S: Burriquita,
    or Siempre Viva, or Siempre Verde

    In Costa Rica, Jacquinia pungens has a fully leaved crown during the dry season, and a leafless crown in the rainy season.   

    Family PROTEACEAE  (Macadamia and allies)


  138. Grevillea banksii  ______  BR
    Banks' Grevillea

    Grevillea banksii
    is especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.

    Genus PANOPSIS

  139. Panopsis costaricensis  ______  CR  (TPCR:301)   occurs in Costa Rica and western Panama
    S: Palo de Papa

    Genus ROUPALA

  140. Roupala glaberrima  ______  CR

  141. Roupala montana  ______  CR

    Family PSILOTACEAE  (fern-like plants)

    Genus PSILOTUM

  142. Psilotum nudum  ______  CY
    Skeleton Fork Fern

    Psilotum nudum
    lacks both roots and true leaves.

    Family PTERIDACEAE  (ferns)


    Plants in JAMESONIA are terrestrial ferns.

  143. Jamesonia alsonii  ______  CR

  144. Jamesonia rotundifolia  ______  CR

  145. Jamesonia scammaniae  ______  CR  (TPCR:327)   occurs from Costa Rica to Bolivia

    In Costa Rica, Jamesonia scammaniae occurs from 8,400 to 11.400 feet above sea level in the paramo habitat, on Cerro de la Muerte, and in the Chirripo National park.
    The fiddlehead at its tip is always present and not covered by long hairs as it is in Jamesonia alstonii and Jamesonia rotundifolia (both above)

    Family RHAMNACEAE  (Buckthorns)


  146. Colubrina arborescens  ______  CY  (critically endangered in CY)
    Red Heart 
    (name in CY)

  147. Colubrina cubensis  ______  CY  (endemic to the Greater Antilles and Cayman Islands)
    (name in CY) 

  148. Colubrina elliptica  ______  CY  (endangered in CY)
    Wild Guava 
    (name in CY) 

  149. Colubrina spinosa  ______  CR


  150. Karwinskia calderoni  ______  CR

    Genus ZIZYPHUS

  151. Zizyphus guatemalensis  ______  CR

    Family RHIZOPHORACEAE  (Mangroves)

    including here PELLICIERACEAE  (
    the genus PELLICIERA) 

    Mangroves, or Mangles in Spanish, are a group of unrelated woody plants that grow along tropical coasts.
    They generally occur in physical habitats that in temperate regions would be occupied by salt marshes.

    "Mangrove" is not a precise taxonomic classification. Generally any tree that grows directly from a subtidal or intertidal substrate may be termed a mangrove. 

    The Black Mangrove is in a different family, ACANTHACEAE.
    The White Mangrove and the Buttonwood Mangrove are in the family COMBRETACEAE.


  152. Cassipourea ellipitica  ______  CR

  153. Cassipourea guianensis  ______  CR


  154. Pelliciera rhizophorae  (*)  ______  CR  (TPCR:343,344)  occurs from Nicaragua to Colombia, mostly along the Pacific coast. 
    Tea Mangrove
    S: Mangle Pinuela 

    In Costa Rica, the Tea Mangrove is along the Pacific coast, where it is not common.
    The Mangrove Hummingbird, endemic to the Costa Rican Pacific coast, lives off the large quantity of pollen produced by the prolific blooms of Pelliciera rhizophorae, the only species in its genus, which has been said to be the only genus in the family PELLICIERACEAE.    

    Both the Mangrove Hummingbird and its host plant, the Tea Mangrove, have been seen during FONT tours in Costa Rica. 


  155. Rhizophora mangle  (*)  ______  BR  CR  CY  (TPCR:345)  
    Red Mangrove
    S: Mangle

    The Red Mangrove occurs from Mexico to Peru, and in the West Indies, west Africa, and the southwest Pacific.

  156. Rhizophora racemosa  ______  CR   grows only along the Pacific coast

    Rhizophora racemosa
    has larger inflorescences than Rhizophora mangle, with up to 70 flowers. Rhizophora racemosa lacks the uniform covering of black dots on the underside of the leaf. It is more apt to be in the inner forest. 

    Family ROSACEAE  (Rose)


  157. Polylepis sp.  ______  EC  PE  

    In the High Andes of South America, Polylepis is the favored plant of the bird, the Giant Conebill, Oreomanes fraseri. 
    Both very dry and moss-covered humid Polylepis shrub, woodland, and forest are where that bird occurs. 
    It may on occasion visit the flowers of Puya raimondii, when adjacent to Polylepis, but in mixed forest with several tree species, the Giant Conebill keeps strictly to Polylepis. 

    The Giant Conebill has been seen during FONT tours high in the mountains of Ecuador and Peru in stands of Polylepis.      

    Genus PRUNUS

  158. Prunus annularis  ______  CR

  159. Prunus cornifolia  ______  CR

    Genus RUBUS

    There are hundreds of RUBUS species worldwide. 13 of them are in Costa Rica, with 3 of them being non-native.

    The flowers of RUBUS plants are insect-pollinated, although hummingbirds visit them. The seeds are bird-dispersed.   

    In the Dominican Republic, plants in RUBUS are food plants for the butterfly Danaus gilippus, the Queen.

  160. Rubus  sp.  (*)  ______  CR  (TPCR:193,194)
    S: Mora

    Various species of Rubus sp. (or Blackberry) are found in the mountains of Costa Rica. A particularly good area for them is Cerro de la Muerte. Two species there are below, R. costaricanus and R. miser.

    In Costa Rica, Mora (as the Blackberry is known) is used to make one of the most frequently encountered fruit drinks.
    The berries are also made into tasty jams and ice cream. 

  161. Rubus costaricanus  ______  CR

  162. Rubus miser  ______  CR

    Family RUBIACEAE  (Madders)

    On the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, there are about 275 described species in RUBIACEAE.


  163. Alibertia edulis  ______  CR

    Genus ANTIRHEA

  164. Antirhea lucida  ______  CY  (endemic to the Greater Antilles and Cayman Islands) (critically endangered in CY)

    Genus BERTIERA

  165. Bertiera guianensis  ______  CR


  166. Calycophyllum candidissimum  ______  CR  (TPCR:278)  occurs from Mexico to northern South America, and in the West Indies
    S: Madrono

    Calycophyllum candidissimum
    is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterfly Adelpha iphiclus, the Iphiclus Sister. 


  167. Catesbaea parviflora  ______  CY  (vulnerable in CY)


    Plants in the genus CEPHAELIS, referred to as "hot lips" are fed upon by the butterfly Adelpha cytherea.
    Another plant called "hot lips" is below in this list in the genus PSYCHOTRIA.   

  168. Cephaelis elata  ______  CR

  169. Cephaelis tomentosa  ______  CR


  170. Chimarrhis latifolia  ______  CR

  171. Chimarrhis parviflora  ______  CR


  172. Chococca alba  ______  CY  
    Snow Berry 
    (name in CY)

  173. Chococca parvifolia  ______  CY  (endemic to the West Indies) (vulnerable in CY)

    Genus CHIONE

  174. Chione costaricensis  ______  CR

    Genus CHOMELIA

  175. Chomelia sponosa  ______  CR

    Genus CINCHONA

  176. Cinchona officinalis  ______   occurs in South America

    Cinchona officinalis
    was exploited heavily in the 1800s as a source of natural quinine.

  177. Cinchona pubescens  ______  CR  (TPCR:197)  occurs from Costa Rica to Bolivia and Brazil
    or Red Cinchona
    P: Quina do Amazonas,
    or Quineira
    S: Quina,
    or Cascarilla, or Cinchona

    Cinchona pubescens has the widest distribution of all Cinchona species. In Ecuador, it occurs from 900 to 11,700 feet above sea level, also a wide variation.

    Cinchona pubescens has become an invasive species where planted outside its native range, especially on tropical islands.  

    Genus COFFEA

  178. Coffea arabica  (*) (ph)  ______  BR  CR  GU  PR  (TPCR:195,196)   originally said to have grown in Africa, in Ethopia
    (a bush with simple, alternate leaves)
    P: Cafe
    S: Cafe,
    also Cafeto 

    In the tropics, Coffee is grown at rather high elevations, as the tree requires fairly cool temperatures. It also needs a moderate rainfall and some shade.
    Places during FONT tours where Coffee has been seen commonly in cultivation include Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama, and Puerto Rico. 
    In the Caribbean, Coffee grown in Jamaica, in the Blue Mountains, has been especially good to drink.    


    Coffee, photographed during a FONT tour in the highlands of Guatemala.
    Where we've seen such shade-grown coffee during our tours, we've seen,
    especially during the winter and spring, many passerine birds.
    More common than most of the Neotropical migrants at such places,
    in Central America, has been the Tennessee Warbler.
    (photo by Marie Gardner)       

    In the Dominican Republic, Coffea arabica is a food plant for the butterfly Anartia lytrea, the Goddard's Anartia.  


  179. Coussarea austin-smithii  ______  CR

  180. Coussarea impetiolaris  ______  CR

  181. Coussarea talamancana  ______  CR

  182. Coussarea taurina  ______  CR

    Genus CUBANOLA

  183. Cubanola domingensis  ______  DR  (endemic to Hispaniola, along the northern coast) (rare)
    S: Campanita, or Cubanola

    Genus DUROLA

  184. Durola panamensis  ______  CR

    Genus ELAEAGIA

  185. Elaeagia auriculata  ______  CR


  186. Erithalis fruticosa  ______  CY  (endangered in CY)
    Black Candlewood 
    (name in CY)

    Genus ERNODEA

  187. Ernodea littoralis  ______  CY  (endemic to the West Indies) 
    Guana Berry 
    (name in CY)

    Genus EXOSTEMA

  188. Exostema caribaeum  ______  CY  (endangered in CY)

  189. Exostema mexicana  ______  CR  

    Genus FARAMEA

  190. Faramea occidentalis  ______  CR  CY  (critically endangered in CY)

  191. Faramea quercetorum  ______  CR

  192. Faramea suerrensis  ______  CR

  193. Faramea talamancarum  ______  CR


  194. Ferdinandusa panamensis  ______  CR

    Genus GENIPA  -  Genip-trees

    Plants in GENIPA are fed upon by the butterfly Adelpha iphiclus, the Iphiclus Sister.

  195. Genipa americana  ______  CR  (TPCR:198)

    The caterpillar of the day-flying Titan Sphinx Moth, Aellopos titan, feeds on genipa leaves.


  196. Gonzalagunia rosea  ______  CR 


  197. Guettarda elliptica  ______  CY  (endangered in CY) 

  198. Guettarda macrosperma  ______  CR

  199. Guettarda poasana  ______  CR

    Genus HAMELIA

  200. Hamelia cuprea  ______  CY  (endemic to the Greater Antilles and Cayman Islands) (vulnerable in CY)

  201. Hamelia patens  ______  BR  CR  (TPCR:100)   occurs in Central America, South America, the West Indies, Mexico, and south Florida in the US
    P: Amelia
    S: Zorrillo Real

    Hamelia patens
    is especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.  

  202. Hamelia xerocarpa  ______  CR

    Genus HILLIA

    Some species in HILLIA have fragrant, white flowers that attract hawkmoths.
    Others, such as Hillia triflora (below), have reddish flowers that attract hummingbirds.  

  203. Hillia triflora  ______  CR  (TPCR:302)   occurs from southern Mexico to Colombia
    S: Tres Flores

  204. Hillia valeri  ______  CR 

    Genus IXORA

    Plants in IXORA are especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.
    In the Dominican Republic, IXORA species are food plants for the butterflies: Battus polydamas, the Gold Rim Swallowtail, Papilio machaonides, the Machaonides Swallowtail, Strymon istapa, the Mallow Scrub Hairstreak.  

  205. Ixora chinensis  ______  BR

  206. Ixora coccinea  ______  BR  CR  (TPCR:151)   originated in India

  207. Ixora macrothyrsa  ______  BR  

  208. Ixora nicaraguensis  ______  CR


  209. Ladenbergia valerii  ______  CR

    Genus MORINDA

  210. Morinda royoc  ______  CY
    Yellow Root 
    (name in CY)


  211. Notopleura uliginosa  ______  CR  (TPCR:199)   (was in the Psychotria genus) 

    In Costa Rica, Notopleura uliginosa is a conspicuous herbaceous species of the forest understory.  


    Palicourea sp. photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour
    in April 2014, at Copalinga in the southern part of the country
    (photo by Marie Gardner)  

  212. Palicourea guianensis barbinervia  ______  DR

    Palicourea guianensis barbinervia has small yellow flowers. In the Dominican Republic, the butterfly Papilio machaonides, the Machaonides Swallowtail has been observed being attracted to them. 
    Also in the Dominican Republic, Paliocourea guianensis barbainervia is a food plant for the butterfly Anartia lytrea, the Goddard's Anartia.

  213. Palicourea sp.  ______  EC  (in the photo above) 


  214. Pentagonia donnell-smithii  ______  CR

  215. Pentagonia gymnopoda  ______  CR

    Genus PENTAS

    Plants in PENTAS are especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds, in Brazil.


  216. Portlandia platantha  ______  GU

    Seemingly Portlandia platantha is not native to Guatemala. Portlandia is a genus of 15 to 20 species, most of which are found in the West Indies.  


  217. Posoqueria grandiflora  ______  CR

  218. Posoqueria latifolia  ______  CR  (TPCR:198)
    Monkey Apple Tree
    S: Boca de Vieja,
    or Guayaba de Mico, or Fruita de Mono 

    With its 6-inch long, narrow white blossoms that emit an intense perfume at night, Posoqueria latifolia is the quintessential flower for hawkmoths.
    When touched, the anthers of the flower pop apart and the lowermost stamen dabs a visiting hawkmoth with a pollen mass.

    Monkeys and birds eat the yellow-to-orange fruit of Posoqueria latifolia, or Monkey Apple Tree.   


    PSYCHOTRIA is a large genus, with about 100 species in Costa Rica. 

    In Central America, plants in PSYCHOTRIA are fed upon for their nectar by the hummingbird, the Violet Sabrewing, Campylopterus hemileucurus.
    Plants in PSYCHOTRIA are visited for their nectar by the butterfly Heliconius eleuchia, the White-edged Longwing.    

  219. Psychotria brachiata  ______  DR

    In the Dominican Republic, Psychotria brachiata is a food plant for the butterfly Papilio machaonides, the Machaonides Swallowtail.

  220. Psychotria carthaginensis  ______  CR

  221. Psychotria chiapensis  ______  CR

  222. Psychotria elata  (*) (ph)  ______  CR  PN  (TPCR:199)   occurs in rain forests of Central America and northern South America in Colombia       

    Common names for Psychotria elata in English of "Hot Lips" or "Burning Lips" refer to the appearance of the red portion of the plant.
    But that look of "lips" is only for a short while, before that part of plant opens up more, revealing the plant's white-to-yellowish flower.
    The "lips" are bracts that frame a head of buds and flowers.     

    Psychotria elata, also known as "Hot Lips",
    photographed during a FONT tour in Panama.
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  223. Psychotria grandistipula  ______  CR

  224. Psychotria luxurians  ______  CR

  225. Psychotria nervosa  ______  CY  (vulnerable in CY)
    Strong Back 
    (name in CY) 

  226. Psychotria pilosa  ______  CR  (TPCR:199)

    In Costa Rica, Psychotria pilosa is a conspicuous shrub on the Caribbean side of the country and on the Osa Peninsula. 

    Genus RANDIA

  227. Randia aculeata  ______  CY
    Lance Wood 
    (name in CY)

  228. Randia armata  ______  CR

  229. Randia grandifolia  ______  CR

  230. Randia karstenii  ______  CR

  231. Randia lasiantha  ______  CR

  232. Randia thurberi  ______  CR

    Randia thurberi
    is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterfly Adelpha iphiclus, the Iphiclus Sister.  


  233. Rhachicallis americana  ______  CY
    Sandfly Bush 
    (name in CY)


  234. Rondeletia amoena  ______  CR  (TPCR:199)
    S: Teresa

    Rondeletia amoena,
    or the Teresa, is an attractive small tree in all of the mountain ranges in Costa Rica.  

  235. Rondeletia buddleioides  ______  CR

  236. Rondeletia calycosa  ______  CR
    Jungle Queen
    S: Bouquet de la Reina

  237. Rondeletia cordata  (or Rogiera cordata)  ______  GU

  238. Rondeletia torresii  ______  CR

    Genus RUDGEA

  239. Rudgea cornifolia  ______  CR

    Genus RUSTIA

  240. Rustia costaricensis  ______  CR

    Rustia costaricensis is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterfly Adelpha iphiclus, the Iphiclus Sister. 


  241. Scolosanthus roulstonii  ______  CY  (endemic to Grand Cayman Island) (endangered)


  242. Sickingia maxonii  ______  CR
    S: Guaytil Colorado

    Genus SIMIRA

  243. Simira maxonii  ______  CR


  244. Spermacoce retraquetra  ______  CY


  245. Strumpfia maritima  ______  CY  (endemic to the West Indies)

    Genus TOCOYENA

  246. Tocoyena pittieri  ______  CR

    Genus UNCARIA

  247. Uncaria tomentosa  ______  CR

    Uncaria tomentosa is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterfly Adelpha iphiclus, the Iphiclus Sister. 


  248. Warszewiczia coccinea  ______  CR  (TPCR:246)   occurs from Central America to Bolivia, also in the West Indies
    Pride of Trinidad,
    or Chaconia  (a bush with simple, alternate leaves)
    S: Barba Gallo, or Crucero, or Guna, or Sangrenaria,
    or Pastora de Monte 

    Family RUPPIACEAE  (Ditch Grass, Wigeon Grass)

    Genus RUPPIA

  249. Ruppia cirrhosa  ______  CY

  250. Ruppia maritima  ______  CY

    Family RUTACEAE  (Citrus, or Rue)

    On the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, there are over 50 described species in RUTACEAE.

    Genus AMYRIS

  251. Amyris elemifera  ______  CY  (endangered in CY)
    (name in CY)


  252. Casimiroa edulis  ______  CR

    Genus CITRUS

    In the Dominican Republic, CITRUS species are food plants for the butterfly Papilio machaonides, the Machaonides Swallowtail. 

  253. Citrus aurantifolia  ______  MX(YU)  (native to the Indo-Malaysian area of southeast Asia)
    (tree with simple, alternating leaves)
    P: Lima
    S: Limon,
    or Limon Criollo  

    Among the various English names for Citrus aurantifolia are: Key Lime, West Indian Lime, Mexican Lime, "Bartender's Lime". 
    Other Spanish names for Citrus aurantifolia are: Limon con Semilla, Limon Agrio, Limon Pais, Limon Indio. 

  254. Citrus aurantium  ______  CR  MX(YU)  (TPCR:200)   originally from southern Asia
    Sour Orange
    S: Naranja agria,
    or Narnja amarga

    Other English names for Citrus aurantium are Bitter Orange, Seville Orange, Marmalade Orange.

  255. Citrus grandis  ______  (native to Polynesian islands in the Pacific)

  256. Citrus latifolia  ______  MX(YU)
    S: Limon Persa,
    or Limon sin Semilla

  257. Citrus limetta  ______  MX(YU)
    Sweet Lime 
    (or Limetta)
    S: Lima de Chichi 

  258. Citrus sinensis  ______  CR  MX(YU)
    Sweet Orange 
    S: Naranja Dulce,
    or Naranja China

  259. The hybrid of the Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) and the Tangerine, or Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) is the Ortanique.
    It first appeared in Jamaica and probably by chance. 
    The name reflects the origins of the fruit: a composite of orange-tangerine-unique.
    It is very juicy and has a pleasant flavor. 


  260. Esenbeckia litoralis  ______  CR


    In the Dominican Republic, ZANTHOXYLUM species are larval food plants of several species of Papilio swallowtail butterflies, including Papilio aristor, the Scarce Haitian Swallowtail.   

  261. Zanthoxylum belizense  ______  CR

  262. Zanthoxylum coriaceum  ______  CY  (endemic to the Greater Antilles and Cayman Islands) (critically endangered in CY)
    Shake Hand 
    (name in CY)

  263. Zanthoxylum elephantiasis  ______  CR

  264. Zanthoxylum flavum  ______  CY  (endemic to the West Indies) (critically endangered in CY)
    (name in CY)  

  265. Zanthoxylum martinicense  ______  DR  (in the Dominican Republic in Los Haitises National Park)
    Yellow Prickle
    S: Pino de Teta

  266. Zanthoxylum mayanum  ______  CR

  267. Zanthoxylum melanostichum  ______  CR

  268. Zanthoxylum panamense  ______  CR

  269. Zanthoxylum setulosum  ______  CR

    Family SALICACEAE  (Willows)

    Genus BANARA

  270. Banara caymanensis  ______  CY  (endemic to Cayman Brac and Little Cayman Islands) (critically endangered)

    Genus CASEARIA  

  271. Casearia aculeata  ______  CY  (vulnerable in CY)
    Thom Prickle 
    (name in CY)

  272. Casearia corymbosa  ______  CR
    S: Cerito,
    or Raspa, or Lengua

  273. Casearia guianensis  ______  CY  (critically endangered in CY)
    Wild Coffee 
    (name in CY)

  274. Casearia hirsuta  ______  CY  (vulnerable in CY)
    Wild Coffee 
    (name in CY)

  275. Casearia odorata  ______  CY  (nearly endemic to CY)  (endangered)

  276. Casearia staffordiae  ______  CY  (endemic to Grand Cayman Island) (critically endangered)

  277. Casearia sylvestris  ______  CY  (critically endangered in CY)     

    Genus SALIX

  278. Salix humboldtiana  ______  BR

    Salix humboldtiana
    is a small species of willow occurring along white-water rivers in the mid-elevations of the Andes, but it also occurs lower in Amazon lowlands, where it is common in pure stands on sand bars and low islands of larger rivers.

    Genus XYLOSMA

  279. Xylosma bahamense  ______  CY  (endangered in CY)
    Shake Hand 
    (name in CY)

    Genus ZUELANIA

  280. Zuelania guidonia  ______  CY  (critically endangered in CY)
    Jeremiah Bush 
    (name in CY)

    Family SANTALACEAE  (Sandalwoods)

    includes VISCACEAE


  281. Phoradendron quadrangulare  ______  CR  CY   parasites plants in Tiliaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Fabaceae
    (name in CY)

  282. Phoradendron robustissimum  ______  CR

  283. Phoradendron rubrum  ______  CY
    (name in CY)

  284. Phoradendron trinervium  ______  CY

    Family SAPINDACEAE  (Soapberry)


  285. Allophyllus cominia  (var. caymanensis)  ______  CY  

  286. Allophyllus edulis  ______  BR
    P: Chala-chala  

  287. Allophyllus occidentalis  ______  CR

  288. Allophyllus psilospermus  ______  CR  

    Genus BLIGHIA

  289. Blighia sapida  ______  CR  (TPCR:201,202)  originally from western Africa, now grows on Caribbean islands and elsewhere in the Neotropics 
    S: Aki

    The Akee tree was brought to the Caribbean islands back in the late 18th Century. It is said to have been carried on the MMS Bounty by Captain Bligh in 1787. The scientific name, Blighia, refers to him.

    The fruits of the Akee develop thick, reddish-green skins that enclose shiny black seeds, each with a fleshy whitish-colored structure at its base called an aril. The aril is the edible part.
    But, beware! The fruit is ready to be eaten only when it has turned red and has split open. Unripened arils and those overripe are poisonous.
    "Jamaica Poisoning" is a term given to the condition resulting in death caused by eating arils at the wrong stage of development.

    Jamaica is the only island in the Caribbean where Akee is eaten in any quantity. Akee and salt fish is a favorite Jamaican dish, and despite the fact that the "cod" is soaked overnight to reduce its saltiness, it still keeps enough of a salty taste to go well with the mildness of the Akee to produce, combined, a delicious taste.        


  290. Cardiospermum corindum  ______  CY

  291. Cardiospermum halicacabum  ______  CY  

    Genus CUPANIA

  292. Cupania costaricensis  ______  CR

  293. Cupania glabra  ______  CR

  294. Cupania guatemalensis  ______  CR

  295. Cupania vernalis  ______  BR
    P: Camboata


  296. Dipterodendron costaricense  ______  CR

    Genus DODONAEA

  297. Dodonaea viscosa  ______  CY

    Genus EXOTHEA

  298. Exothea paniculata  ______  CR  CY  (endangered in CY)
    Wild Ginep 
    (name in CY)

    Genus HYPELATE

  299. Hypelate trifoliata  ______  CY  (endemic to the West Indies) (endangered in CY)  
    (name in CY)

    Genus MATAYBA

  300. Matayba oppositifolia  ______  CR

      (or TALISIA)

  301. Melicoccus (or Talisia) jimenezii  ______  DR  (endemic to Hispaniola, only in one area of the southwest coast of the Dominican Republic)
    S: Cotoperi


  302. Nephelium lappaceum  ______  CR  (TPCR:203)   originally from Malaysia
    S: Mamon chino

    In Costa Rica, Nephelium lappaceum is in hot, humid areas. 


    In Costa Rica and elsewhere, plants in PAULLINIA are fed upon for their nectar by the butterfly Adelpha iphiclus, the Iphiclus Sister.  

  303. Paullinia cupana  ______  BR
    Guarana Vine 

    The fruits of the vine, or liana, of Paullinia cupana have been used by people for centuries, for example, to make a paste of the fruits and seeds combined with manioc meal and water. The resulting mixture was the dried and eaten as a stimulant. 
    Nowadays, this fruit is put into a popular soft drink called Guarana. 
    It is sold throughout Brazil in its carbonated form.
    During every FONT tour in Brazil we've enjoyed drinking guarana (always saying "kind of like ginger ale"). 

    Studies have shown that the chemicals in Guarana increase physical capacity and learning ability, and reduce anti-oxidants (aging factors). 
    One of the major components inside the seeds of the plant is caffeine, with the concentration of it so being high that it could be toxic to birds that eat them.
    In nature, however, the seeds of Paullinia cupana are dispersed by large birds such as toucans and guans.
    As long as the birds don't crack the seeds and they digest only the sugar and carbohydrates surrounding the seed, there is no release of the caffeine. 
    A cracked seed would not likely survive and germinate, so apparently having a toxic substance inside is the plant's way of making sure that birds, such as macaws, that crack and kill the seeds, are not attracted to the fruits.
    Only birds that eat the fruits whole, enabling them to pass through the digestive system to be deposited later away from the mother tree, can successfully eat the seeds of the Guarana.  

  304. Paullinia pinnata  ______  DR

    In the Dominican Republic, Paullinia pinnata is a food plant for the butterfly Danaus eresimus, the Soldier.   

    Genus SAPINDUS

  305. Sapindus saponaria  ______  CR

    Genus TALISIA 

  306. Talisia nervosa  ______  CR

  307. Talisia olivaeformis  ______  MX(YU)
    (or Genip)
    S: Guaya (
    or Huaya), or Huayo  or Guaya Pais, or Guaya Cubana,  or Mamocillo  


  308. Thouinidium decandrum  ______  CR

    Family SAPOTACEAE  (Sapote plants)


  309. Calocarpum mammosum  ______  CR

  310. Calocarpum viride  ______  CR


  311. Chrysophyllum brenesii  ______  CR

    The leaves of Chrysophyllum brenesii is fed upon by the caterpillars of the saturniid moth, Othorene purpurascens.
    Other sapotaceous host plants for that species are noted below in this list: Manilkara chicle and Pouteria exfoliata. 

  312. Chrysophyllum cainito  ______  MX(YU)  (grows on Caribbean islands)
    Star Apple
    S: Caimito (or Cainito), Zapote Caimito, Cayumito 

    Although the Star Apple Tree grows throughout the Caribbean, it is more common in Jamaica and Haiti.
    The tree grows to about 50 feet high and it often planted as a shade tree because of its dense foliage, which is shed only very infrequently.
    The tree produces small, inconspicuous purplish-white flowers.
    The mature fruits are about the size of an ordinary apple and they have a dark, smooth, purplish skin when they are ripe.
    The fruit gets its name from the pattern inside when it is cut in half. The star shape is produced by the arrangement of the purplish seeds in among the white, rather gelatinous flesh. 
    The fruit has a sweetish but mild taste. It is eaten raw, or as a desert, either as part of a fruit salad or in a mixture with pieces of orange.   

  313. Chrysophyllum panamense  ______  CR

    Genus DIPHOLIS

  314. Dipholis parvifolia  ______  CR        


  315. Manilkara chicle  ______  CR  (TPCR:278)  (native to Mexico and Central America)
    (a tree with simple, alternating leaves)
    P: Sapoti
    S: Chicozapote,
    or Nispero

    It is from the tree Manilkara chicle (and the following, Manilkara zapota) that we have chewing gum  Although many people know chewing gum, only very few people know the tree, which is a tall sapotaceous tree of the Neotropics that grows, among other places, in the dry forest of Costa Rica. 
    If one cuts through the bark of the Chicle tree into the cambium, that is the living layer just underneath the dead bark, one is cutting through a network of latex vessels that lace through all of the above-ground tissues.
    The white latex that flows out (and has been collected by "chicle-tappers") was the original World War II chewing gum, minus sugar.

    Manilkara chicle is a host plant for the caterpillars of the saturniid moth, Othorene purpurascens, Not many people (even less than the number who see the tree) see this caterpillar as it lives in the crown of the tree, some 60 to 120 feet above the ground.

    Manilkara chicle is also a host plant for the caterpillars of another saturniid moth, Copiopterys semiramis.

  316. Manilkara zapota  ______  CR  MX(YU)  (native to southern Mexico, Central America, and on some Caribbean islands) 
    Sapodilla Tree
    S: Zapote,
    or Chicozapote

    As from the previous species, Manilkara chicle, the sap of Manikara zapota is the basic material for chewing gum. 
    A name for the fruit of Manikara zapota is Naseberry.


  317. Mastichodendron capiri  ______  CR

    Genus POUTERIA

  318. Pouteria campechiana  ______  CR  MX(YU)
    Yellow Sapote 
    (or Eggfruit, or Canistel)
    S: Caniste,
    or Mamey Amarillo, or Zapote Borracho 

    Pouteria campechiana, or the Caniste, is a plant native to the region from southeast Mexico, including the Yucatan Peninsula, south to Panama.
    The skin and flesh of the fruit are a pale yellow-orange color. The shape of the fruit varies dramatically, from spherical to an elongated egg shape, measuring from 1 and a half to 2 and a half inches in length. The flesh is sweet and soft with a color and texture that can be compared to a cooked egg yolk, hence its English name "Eggfruit".
    The tree fruits from November to February.   
    In the Yucatan, although it is still occasionally cultivated in private orchards, it is rarely found in the markets.

    Mature fruits of the Caniste are consumed fresh or pureed with milk to make a refreshing beverage.
    The fruit is also used in pies, similar to pumpkin pie, as well as for cupcakes, pancakes, and preserves.
    (from the book: "Yucatan, Recipes from a Culinary Expedition" by David Sterling)

  319. Pouteria exfoliata  ______  CR

    Pouteria exfoliata
    is a host plant for the caterpillar of the saturniid moth Othorene purpurascns, in rain forest or cloud forest in Costa Rica.
    In dry forest, in that country, another sapotaceous plant, Manilkara chicle, is a host plant for the same species of moth. (See note above with Manilkara chicle.

  320. Pouteria fossicola  ______  CR  (TPCR:303)   occurs from Nicaragua to Panama
    S: Zapote

  321. Pouteria lucentifolia  ______  CR

  322. Pouteria lucuma  ______  CR

  323. Pouteria neglecta  ______  CR

  324. Pouteria sapota  ______  CR  MX(YU)  (TPCR:203)   thought to originally be from southern Mexico and/or Central America 
    or Mamey Sapote
    S: Mamey,
    or Mamey Colorado, or Zapote (in Costa Rica)  

  325. Pouteria standleyana  ______  CR

  326. Pouteria unilocularis  ______  CR 


  327. Sideroxylon foetidissimum  ______  CY  (endemic to the West Indies) (critically endangered in CY)
    (name in CY)

  328. Sideroxylon horridum  ______  CY  (endangered in CY)
    Green Thorn 
    (name in CY)

  329. Sideroxylon salicifolium  ______  CY  (endangered in CY)
    Wild Sapodilla

    Family SCROPHULARIACEAE  (Snapdragons, or Figworts)

    Genus BONTIA

  330. Bontia daphnoides  ______  CY  (on West Indian islands, and in South America)
    Sea Olive

    Bontia has been said to be in MYOPORACEAE, a generally Australian family. 

    On the Caribbean island of Saint Lucia, Bontia daphnoides is indigenous, quite rare along the Atlantic coast, and often close to mangroves.

    Genus RUSSELIA

    Plants in RUSSELIA are especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.

  331. Russelia equisetiformis  ______  (thought to have originally grown in Mexico)
    Coral Plant 
    (bush with simple, opposite leaves) 
    S: Arete de la Cocinera,
    or Coralito, or Lluvia de Fuego.

  332. Russelia sarmentosa  ______  CR  (TPCR:102)   occurs from Mexico to Colombia, and in parts of the Greater Antilles 
    Wild Firecracker
    S: Coralillo

    Genus SCOPARIA

  333. Scoparia dulcis  ______  CY

    Genus STEMODIA

  334. Stemodia maritima  ______  CY



  335. Alvaradoa amorphoides  ______  CR

    Genus QUASSIA

  336. Quassia amara  ______  CR  (TPCR:279)
    S: Hombre Grande


  337. Picramnia allenii  ______  CR

  338. Picramnia carpinterae  ______  CR

  339. Picramnia latifolia  ______  CR

    Genus SIMABA

  340. Simaba cedron  ______  CR


  341. Simarouba amara  ______  CR

  342. Simarouba berteroana  ______  DR  (endemic to Hispaniola)
    S: Olivo 
    (name in DR)

    In the Dominican Republic, Simarouba berteroana is in the Dunas de las Calderas, in Bani.  
    During FONT tours, we've been there and seen this plant found nowhere else in the world.

  343. Simarouba glauca  ______  CR

  344. Simarouba laevis  ______  (in the Caribbean)

  345. Simarouba tulae  ______  (in the Caribbean)   

    Family SMILACACEAE  (Greenbriers)

    Genus SMILAX

  346. Smilax havanensis  ______  CY  (endemic to the Greater Antilles and Cayman Islands) 
    Wire Wiss 
    (name in CY)

    Family SOLANACEAE  (Nightshades)

    In addition to the potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato, pepper, eggplant, and tobacco are in SOLANACEAE. 

    On the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, there are over 50 described species in SOLANACEAE. 
    There are approximately 120 species of SOLANACEAE native to Costa Rica. 

    Genus ACNISTUS

  347. Acnistus arborescens  ______  BR  CR
    P: Fruta de Sabia
    or Marianeira


  348. Brugmansia aurea  ______   native to the northern Andes in South America
    Yellow Angel's Trumpet  
    (a bush with simple, alternating leaves)
    S: Borrachero   

  349. Brugmansia "x. candida  ______  CR  (TPCR:152)  a hybrid, cultivated in Costa Rica

  350. Brugmansia suaveolens  ______  CR  (TPCR:152)  cultivated in Costa Rica

  351. Brugmansia versicolor  ______  CR  (TPCR:153)  cultivated in Costa Rica, quite common in and around Monteverde


  352. Brunfelsia grandiflora  ______  CR  (TPCR:154)  originally from South America
    Yesterday - Today - and Tomorrow 

  353. Brunfelsia pauciflora  ______  BR  native to Brazil
    Yesterday - Today - and Tomorrow 
    (a bush with simple, alternating leaves)

    Genus CAPSICUM

  354. Capsicum annuum  ______  MX(YU)  (this and C. chinense, and C. frutescens, both below, native to the tropical Western Hemisphere)
    Cayenne Pepper 
    (an herbaceous plant)
    S: Chiles

    is the definitive condiment in Mexico, and it is inconceivable for most Mexicans to eat a meal without it.
    There are 5 cultivated species and about 20 wild species.
    The most commonly consumed chile is Capsicum annuum, which was domesticated in Mexico sometime between 6,500 and 5,000 B.C.
    There is a great diversity in Capsicum annuum, with many varieties consumed only locally (in Mexico), and others that are more broadly distributed (in Mexico and elsewhere). 
    More widely consumed Capsicum annuum include jalapeno or cuaremeno, serrano, ancho, pasilla, guajillo, and piquin, which in the Yucatan region is known as "max".

    But perhaps the most representative chile consumed in the Yucatan is from another species, Capsicum chinense (below), specifically the "habanero", unquestionably "the chile" of the Yucatan.  

    The hotness of Chile is measured in Scoville Heat Units. Wilbur Scoville was a U.S. scientist who, in the 1920s, systematically measured the quantity of capsaicin (the heat-producing chemical) found in a range of chiles.
    The chemical is measured in parts-per-million, with the highest mark being for 100 percent pure capsaicin at 16,000,000 Units.

    (from the book: "Yucatan, Recipes from a Culinary Expedition" by David Sterling)  

  355. Capsicum chinense  ______  MX(YU)
    (or Chilles, or Chiles, or Chilies)
    S: Habanero
    or in general Chiles  

    Scoville Heat Units for Chile Habanero: 150,000-325,000 

    Another variety of chile known in English as Bell Pepper, and in Spanish as Chile Dulce, has a Scoville Heat Unit of 0.
    This "Bell Pepper", available in the Yucatan of Mexico, looks rather different from that in other places.
    It is round and smaller than the varieties in the U.S., and characterized by vertical ridges from stem to base.
    Chile Dulce is frequently grown in raised growing beds or in pots to keep them away from animals.

    (from the book: "Yucatan, Recipes from a Culinary Expedition" by David Sterling)     

  356. Also closely related to Capsicum annuum and Capsicum chinenes is Capsicum frutescens, also called Chili.  

    grow on small bushes. As noted above, there are two main types: chili peppers and sweet peppers.
    Chili Peppers are small, red or green fruits that are used to impart a hot, spicy taste to soups, stews, sauces, and curries.
    Sweet Peppers grow to a larger size. They are also colored red or green, but they have a much cooler taste, and are eaten raw as part of salads. Or, they can be cooked as a vegetable in stews, or served by themselves, stuffed with finely chopped meat or other types of filling.     

    Genus CESTRUM

  357. Cestrum aurantiacum  (ph)  ______  GU
    Yellow Cestrum 
    (or Orange Cestrum, Orange Jessamine)
    S: Herba del Perro  

    Yellow Cestrum, Cestrum aurantiacum,
    from the "Flowers of Guatemala"

  358. Cestrum diurnum  ______  CY
    Cestrum diurnum  (var. marcianum)  ______  CY 
    (nearly endemic to the Cayman Islands)
    Cestrum diurnum  (var. venenatum)  ______  CY 
    (vulnerable in CY)

  359. Cestrum nocturnum  ______  GU

  360. Cestrum megalophyllum  ______  CR

  361. Cestrum racemosum  ______  CR

  362. Cestrum rugulosum  ______  CR


  363. Cyphomandra hartwegii  ______  CR

    Genus GOETZEA

  364. Goetzea ekmanii  ______  DR  (endemic to Hispaniola, along the banks of the Cumayasa River)

    Genus PHYSALIS

  365. Physalis philadelphica  ______  MX(YU)
    (or Husk Tomato)
    S: Tomatillo,
    or Tomate de Cascara, or Tomate Verde

    In the Yucatan region of Mexico, the Spanish words  "Tomate" and "Jitomate" (for Solanum lycopersicum, below) are virtually interchangeable. 
    In the rest of Mexico, however, "Jitomate" is the word used for the red tomato, and "Tomate" refers to the species known in the US as the Tomatillo.
    (from the book: "Yucatan, Recipes from a Culinary Expedition" by David Sterling)

    Genus SOLANDRA

  366. Solandra longiflora  ______  CY  (vulnerable in CY)

  367. Solandra maxima  ______  (native to Mexico)
    Cup of Gold 
    (climbing plant with simple, alternating leaves)
    S: "Copa de Oro"

    Genus SOLANUM  

    and Eggplants are among the nonpoisonous and economically important plants in this huge genus.  (W)   

    In the Dominican Republic, SOLANUM species are food plants for the butterfly Papilio androgeus, the Androgeus Swallowtail.

  368. Solanum accrescens  ______  CR

  369. Solanum antillarum  ______  CR

  370. Solanum arboreum  ______  CR

  371. Solanum bahamense  ______  CY  (endemic to the Greater Antilles and Cayman Islands)  

  372. Solanum brenesii  ______  CR

  373. Solanum havanense  ______  CY  (endemic to the Greater Antilles and Cayman Islands)

  374. Solanum hazenii  ______  CR

  375. Solanum lanceifolium  ______  CY  (endemic to the West Indies)  

  376. Solanum lycopersicum  ______  MX(YU)
    S: Tomate, Jitomate, Tomate Rojo

    The Tomato is undoubtedly one of the most used fruits in the world. It is a New World species, not arriving in Europe until the 1500s.

    In most of Mexico, as in the Yucatan region (as noted above with Physalis philadelphica), the word "Jitomate" is used to denote the red tomato, while "Tomate" refers to the green Tomatillo.

    There have always been many varieties of the Tomato, and with modern hybrids, today there are even more, varying in size, shape, sweetness, acidity, number of seeds, and juiciness.
    In the markets of the Yucatan of Mexico, there are several varieties available: bula (spherical), salader (Roma or plum), and uva (grape), but the most common form found is round and flattened, with pronounced segments, very juicy and more acidic than other varieties.
    In the Yucatan, Jitomate is grown year-round.

    Probably the most common use of the tomato in the Yucatan is in a cooked sauce - "Tomate Frito", poured onto a wide range of foods, including tomales.
    (from the book: "Yucatan, Recipes from a Culinary Expedition" by David Sterling)    

  377. Solanum melongena  ______  (now common on Caribbean islands)

  378. Solanum nudum  ______  CR

  379. Solanum ochraceo-ferrugineum  ______  CR
    S: Berenjena de Past, or Berenjena de Monte

    Like most species of Solanum, the flowers of Solanum ochraceo-ferrugineum produces no nectar. Thus they attract only female bees that collect pollen. 

  380. Solanum quitoense  ______  CR  EC  (TPCR:204,205)   probably originated in the Andes in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
    S: Naranjilla

    is now cultivated in Central America and northern South America. In Costa Rica, it occurs in lowlands and up to about 5,100 feet above sea level. 

  381. Solanum rantonnetii  ______  (native to Paraguay and Argentina)
    Blue Potato Bush 
    (with simple, alternating leaves)

    Another name for Solanum rantonnetii is Paraguay Nightshade. 

  382. Solanum rugosum  ______  CR

  383. Solanum sessiliflorum  ______  CR  (TPCR:205)

    In Costa Rica, Solanum sessiliflorum is on the Caribbean side of the country. It is similar to Solanum quitoense (above), with less of a purple tinge.
    The fruit of Solanum sessiliflorum is not green inside (as is S. quitoense), and its flavor is said to be not as good.   

  384. Solanum siparunoides  ______  CR
    Spider Wild Tomato
    S: Tomatillo Arano

  385. Solanum tuberosum  ______  CR
    S: Papa

  386. Solanum wendlandii  ______  CR  (TPCR:103)  occurs in Central America, was once thought to be endemic to Costa Rica
    Costa Rican Nightshade,
    or Marriage Vine  (climbing plant with simple, alternating leaves) 
    S: Eliza, or Volcan

  387. Solanum wrightii  ______  BR  (native to Brazil)
    Potato Tree 
    (with simple, alternating leaves)
    S: Arbol de Papa,
    or Azulillo


  388. Streptosolen jamesonii  ______  (native to western South America)
    (bush with simple, alternating leaves)


  389. Witheringia cuneata  ______  CR

  390. Witheringia riparia  ______  CR

    Family STERCULIACEAE  (Cacao plants)

    The genus THEOBROMA
    (below) has also been said to be in the family MALVACEAE.


  391. Basiloxylon exclsum  ______  CR

    Genus GUAZUMA    
    Plants in GUAZUMA were recently in the family MALVACEAE.

  392. Guazuma invira  ______  CR  (TPCR:66)   in Costa Rica, on the Caribbean slope

  393. Guazuma ulmifolia  ______  CR  (TPCR:65)
    S: Guacimo 

    The green fruits of Guazuma ulmifolia are edible. The leaves and fallen fruits of the plant are eaten, in Costa Rica, by  White-tailed Deer, Peccaries, and Tapir, as well as by horses and cows. 

    Genus HERRANIA

  394. Herrania purpurea  ______  CR


  395. Helicteres jamaicensis  ______  CY  (vulnerable in CY)
    Screw Bush 
    (name in CY)

    Genus MELOCHIA

  396. Melochia tomentosa  ______  CY  DR
    Velvet Leaf 
    (name in CY)

    In the Dominican Republic, Melochia tomentosa is a food plant for the butterfly Strymon istapa, the Mallow Scrub-Hairstreak. 


  397. Neoregnellia cubensis  ______  CY  (critically endangered in CY)


  398. Sterculia apetala  ______  BR  CR

  399. Sterculia mexicana   ______  CR

  400. Sterculia recordiana  ______  CR

  401. Sterculia striata  ______  BR


  402. Theobroma bicolor  ______  CR

  403. Theobroma cacao  (*) (ph)  ______  BR  BZ  CR  MX(YU)  (TPCR:206,207)  said to have originated in the Amazon region in South America
    (or Cocoa)  (a tree with simple, alternating leaves)
    P: Cacau 
    S: Cacao 

    When European explorers arrived in the New World in the 1400s and 1500s, Cacao was being grown in Mexico by the Aztecs.
    From the Caribbean and Central America, Columbus took Cacao (in the form of cocoa beans) back to the Spanish court in 1502.

    The Cacao tree is easily recognized by its dark green shiny leaves and by its characteristic pods, each about 10 inches long and often growing directly from the trunk.
    The pods turn from green to brownish-red when ripe, and at that stage they are picked.
    The beans are extracted from the pods and laid out to dry in the sun before being roasted and then used to make cocoa powder, cocoa butter, and chocolate.

    Although the Cocoa tree has been cultivated for about 500 years, it wasn't until the middle of the 1800s that the beans were used to produce chocolate as a confectionary. 

    A pod of Cacao, photographed during a FONT tour in Belize
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

    At a cacao plantation In southeastern Brazil, over the years during FONT tours, a little bird seen usually when perched at the top of the trees, has been the Buff-throated Purpletuft, said to be a cotinga, but more closely related to tityras.
    That bird is little, smaller than most hummingbirds. It sits erectly when in a treetop, only about 3 inches in length.
    Its range and population are also small. Birdlife International classifies it as "endangered".
    That cacao plantation, as it is right on the Tropic of Capricorn, has been called the Fazenda Capricorno, near the coastal city of Ubatuba.    

  404. Theobroma mammosum  ______  CR

  405. Theobroma simiarum  ______  CR

    was at one time included in MUSACEAE)


  406. Phenakospermum guyannense  ______  native to South America


  407. Strelitzia reginae  (ph)  ______  CR  (TPCR:404)   
    Bird of Paradise

    The plant known as the Bird of Paradise is originally from South Africa. It now grows in the American tropics, including the Caribbean.

    Bird of Paradise flowers photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


    Genus SURIANA

  408. Suriana maritima  ______  CY
    Bay Cedar
    (name in CY)


    Genus BONELLIA

  409. Bonellia nervosa  ______  CR  (TPCR:280)
    S: Barbasco

    Ffamily THYMELACEAE  (Daphne)


  410. Daphnopsis americana  ______  CR  CY  (critically endangered in CY)

  411. Daphnopsis helleron  ______  PR  (endemic to Puerto Rico) (endangered)

  412. Daphnopsis occidentalis  ______  CY  (endangered in CY)

    Family TILIACEAE   (previously in the family MALVACEAE)  

    Genus APEIBA

  413. Apeiba membranacea  ______  CR   in Costa Rica, a forest tree on both the Caribbean and Pacific slopes

  414. Apeiba tibourbou  ______  CR  (TPCR:68)   occurs from Mexico to South America 
    Monkey Comb
    S: Peine de Mico 

    In Amazonia, the odd fruit of Apeiba tibourbou, which looks like a sea urchin, is boiled and opened, and then inhaled as an asthma treatment.  

    Genus LUEBEA

  415. Luebea alternifolia  ______  CR  (TPCR:69)   occurs from Mexico to South America, also Cuba
    S: Guacimo Macho

  416. Luebea candida  ______  CR   in Costa Rica, in northwest lowlands

  417. Luebea seemannii  ______  CR

    Luebea seemannii is a widespread species. In Costa Rica, it is a large tree that is common in some Caribbean lowland forests. 

    Family TYPHACEAE  (Cattail)

    Genus TYPHA

  418. Typha dominigensis  ______  CY  (vulnerable in CY)
    Cat Tail 
    (name in CY)  

    Family URTICACEAE  (Nettle Family)

    On the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, there are about 120 described species in URTICACEAE. 

    Genus CECROPIA

  419. Cecropia sp.  (*)  ______  BR  CR 
    S: Guarumo 

    There are about 60 species of Cecropia trees in the American tropics. They are, among other things, dioecious. They are conspicuous, and, as "pioneer species", they are among the first to grow in recently cleared areas, with sun.
    Generally, they are thinnish trees with very large umbrella-like leaves.
    Most harbor teeming colonies of stinging ants in their hollow trunks. Those ants "protect the trees" from herbivores.     

    The bird, the Tropical Parula, Parula pitiayumi, eats Cecropia corpuscles, that are white ovoid grains the size of a pinhead, well hidden in the felt at the base of the leaves.
    These corpuscles, discovered rather recently in Brazil, are rich in protein and therefore are much sought after by the symbiotic ants of the cecropia.   

    Other birds that like to feed on the fruits of cecropias are tanagers, and euphonias. Like the Tropical Parula (noted above), euphonias eat the corpuscles (or protein deposits) that are principal food of the Azteca ants living in the trees' trunks (also referred to above).    

    In 1945 in Costa Rica, Alexander Skutch entitled one of his publications "The Most Hospitable Tree" referring to the cecropias, calling them the "most characteristic trees" of tropical America, and explaining their immense value for fauna, especially birds. 
    Apparently the germination of cecropia seeds is accelerated by their passage through birds' intestinal systems.  

    "The Most Hospitable Tree" can be read as a chapter in Alexander Skutch's book, "A Bird Watchers Adventures in Tropical America", published in 1977.

    During a few FONT tours in Costa Rica, we visited Alexander Skutch, where he did his writing at his homestead called "Los Cosingos", Below is a photo taken of him there, during one of our tours, as he was writing. 

    Alexander Skutch 
    (photo by Alan Brady)


  420. Cecropia angustifolia  ______  CR   occurs from Mexico to Venezuela and Bolivia

    In Costa Rica, Cecropia angustifolia is found in mountains from 3,600 to 6,000 or more feet above sea level. 

  421. Cecropia hololeuca  ______  BR
    P: Embauva 

    Birds in Brazil, and other places in the Neotropics, that frequently feed on Cecropia trees include: tanagers of many kinds, thrushes, caciques, toucans, aracaris, parakeets, bellbirds, tityras, flycatchers, saltators, woodpeckers, manakins, euphonias, trogons, and even some others. 
    There really can't be many others. There are not that many types of birds not included here. 

  422. Cecropia insignis  ______  CR  occurs from Nicaragua to Ecuador

    In Costa Rica, Cecropia insignis and Cecropia obtusifolia (below) are found in wet areas on both the Caribbean and Pacific sides of the country, below 4,350 feet above sea level.

    The leaves of Cecropia insignis, as well as Cecropia obtusifolia and Cecropia peltata (both below), are host plant food for the caterpillars of the butterfly Colobura dirce, the Dirce Beauty. 

  423. Cecropia obtusifolia  ______  CR  (TPCR:46)   occurs from Mexico to northern South America

  424. Cecropia pachystachya  ______  BR

  425. Cecropia peltata  ______  CR   occurs from Mexico to northern South America. and in the Antilles

    In Costa Rica, Cecropia peliata is found mostly on the Pacific side of the country, in dry climates, below 3,600 feet above sea level.  

  426. Cecropia pittieri  ______  CR   endemic to Cocos Island, offshore Costa Rica in the Pacific Ocean

  427. Cecropia polyphlebia  ______  CR

    Cecropia polyphlebia
    is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterfly Hypanartia dione, the Banded Mapwing.


  428. Myriocarpa longipes  ______  CR 

    Myriocarpa longipes
    is a host plant for the caterpillars of the butterflies: Smyrna blomfildia, the Blomfild's Beauty, and Hypanartia dione, the Banded Mapwing.

    Genus PILEA

  429. Pilea herniarioides  ______  CY  (endemic to the West Indies)

  430. Pilea microphylla  ______  CY

    Genus URERA

  431. Urera alceifolia  ______  CR

  432. Urera baccifera  ______  CR

    Urera baccifera
    and Urera caracsana (below) are host plants for the caterpillar of the butterfly Smyrna blomfildia, the Blomfild's Beauty.

  433. Urera caracasana  ______  CR

  434. Urera eggersii  ______  CR

    Urera eggersii
    is a host plant for the caterpillar of the butterfly Hypanartia dione, the Banded Mapwing.

  435. Urera elata  ______  CR 

    Family VERBENACEAE  (Vervains, Verbenas)

    On the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, there are over 50 described species in VERBENACEAE.


  436. Aegiphila caymanensis  ______  CY  (endemic to Grand Cayman Island)  (critically endangered)

  437. Aegiphila elata  ______  CY

  438. Aegiphila facata  ______  CR

  439. Aegiphila martinicensis  ______  CR

  440. Aegiphila paniculata  ______  CR 

  441. Aegiphila sellowiana  ______  BR
    P: Tamanqueira


  442. Callicarpa reevesii  ______  BR
    P: Calicarpa


  443. Citharexylum costaricense  ______  CR

  444. Citharexylum donnell-smithii  ______  CR

  445. Citharexylum fruticosum  ______  CY  (endangered in CY)
    Yellow Fiddlewood 
    (name in CY) 

  446. Citharexylum macradenium  ______  CR

  447. Citharexylum macrophyllum  ______  CR

  448. Citharexylum myrianthum  ______  BR
    P: Pau-de-viola 

  449. Citharexylum viride  ______  CR


    Plants in CLERODENDRON are especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.  

  450. Clerodendrum aculeatum  ______  CY
    Cat Claw 
    (name in CY) 

  451. Clerodendron speciosum  ______  BR

  452. Clerodendron splendens  ______  BR

  453. Clerodendron thomsonae  ______  BR

    Genus CORNUTIA

  454. Cornutia grandifolia  ______  CR

    Genus DURANTA

  455. Duranta erecta  ______  CR  CY  (TPCR:155)   originally in the American tropics
    Forget-me-not Tree,
    or Golden Dewdrop  (a bush with simple, opposite leaves) 
    S: Adonis Morado,
    or Celosa Cimmarona, or Espina de Paloma, or Fruita de Iguana, or Durana 


    Plants in HOLMSKIOLDIA are especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.

  456. Holmskioldia sanguinea  ______  BR
    Holmskioldia sanguinea aurea  ______  BR

  457. Holmskioldia tettensis  ______  BR

    Genus LANTANA

    Plants in LANTANA are especially attractive to feeding hummingbirds.

  458. Lantana aculeata  ______  CY

  459. Lantana bahamensis  ______  CY

  460. Lantana camara  (*) (ph)  ______  CR  CY  PN  (TPCR:103,104)  occurs from Texas south into South America, and in the West Indies  
    Shrub Verbena 
    (or Lantana (a bush with simple, alternate leaves)
    S: Camara,
    or "Coronitas del Sol", or Cinco Negritos 

    Other names for Lantana camara are: Wild Sage, and "Cherry Pie". 

    The following, about Lantana camara, a widespread, weedy, tropical shrub, is from the book "A Naturalist in Costa Rica" by Alexander Skutch, published in 1971:
    "The small florets are borne in flattish heads that are orange in the center, where the unopened bulbs are situated.
    Around this is a circle of bright yellow, containing freshly opened flowers with yellow chromoplasts in their cells.
    At the outside of the head is a zone of orange, composed of older florets.
    As the blossoms age, a reddish-purple soluble pigment appears in the epidermal cells and deepens the yellow to orange."  

    A Vervain Hummingbird feeding at Lantana camara 
    during a FONT tour in the Dominican Republic.
    The Vervain Hummingbird is one of the smallest birds in the world.
    (photo by Marie Garner) 

    Approximately 25 species of butterflies have been observed visiting the flowers of Lantana camara in Costa Rica on the Osa Peninsula, including: Eurema daira, Phoebis sennae, Ascia monuste, Anartia jatrophae, Anartia fatima, Agraulis vanillae 
    Also observed visiting have been moths in the genus Urbanus.

    The fruit of Lantana camara is bird-dispersed. In Panama, on Barro Colorado Island, the birds that are exploiters of the fruits of Lantana camara are: 
    the manakin, Manacus vitellinus, 
    the more frugivorous flycatchers, Tyrannus melanocholicus, Myiodynastes maculatus,
    the euphonia, honeycreepers, and tanager, Euphonia fulvicrissa, Chlorophanes spiza, Dacnis cayana, Tangara inornata      

  461. Lantana involucrata  ______  CY
    Bitter Sage 
    (name in CY)

  462. Lantana ovatifolia  ______  DR

    In the Dominican Republic, Lantana ovatifolia is a food plant for the butterflies: Battus polydamas, the Gold Rim Swallowtail, Papilio machaonides, the Machaonides Swallowtail, Papilio androgeus, the Androgeus Swallowtail, Papilio aristor, the Scarce Haitian Swallowtail, Strymon bazochii, the Lantana Scrub-Hairstreak, Hamadryas amphichloe, the Pale Cracker, Junonia genoveva, the Mangrove Buckeye, Danaus gilippus, the Queen, Danaus eresimus, the Soldier, Danaus cleophile, the Caribbean Queen or Jamaican Monarch.   

  463. Lantana reticulata  ______  DR

    In the Dominican Republic, Lantana reticulata is a food plant for the butterfly Strymon bazochii, the Lantana Scrub-Hairstreak.

  464. Lantana trifolia  ______  CR

    Lantana trifolia
    is a syntopic species with Lantana camara, but the blue-flowered Lantana trifolia has narrower inflorescences, fewer nectar-producing flowers per inflorescence, and shorter flowers.   

  465. Lantana urticifolia  ______  CY  (endemic to the West Indies)
    Sweet Sage 
    (name in CY)

    Genus LIPPIA

  466. Lippia alba  ______  CY

  467. Lippia graveolens  ______  MX(YU)
    Mexican Oregano
    S: Oregano

    Not to be confused with European, or so-called Italian, Oregano, Lippia graveolens is in a completely different botanical family. European Oregano is in the LAMIACEAE family.
    The two bear a faint resemblance in terms of fragrance, but the flavor of Lippia graveolens is much stronger due to its higher concentration of oils.
    There are several varieties of Lippia graveolens found throughout Mexico, with each slightly different according to its growing environment.
    There is a variety that grows wild in the Yucatan, called, appropriately Oregano Yucateco, Women and children often go in search of it. It is then dried and sold in markets. It is also cultivated in family gardens (solares) and orchards. 
    (from the book: "Yucatan, Recipes from a Culinary Expedition" by David Sterling)    

  468. Lippia nodiflora  ______  CY
    Match Head 
    (name in CY) 

  469. Lippia torresii  ______  CR

    Genus PETITIA

  470. Petitia domingensis  ______  CY  (endemic to the Greater Antilles and Cayman Islands) (endangered in CY)

    Genus PETREA

    There are about 50 species of PETREA in tropical America.

  471. Petrea volubilis  (or Petrea arborea (ph)  ______  CR  GU  (TPCR:105,106)  native to Central America, Mexico, and the Lesser Antilles
    Queen's Wreath,
    or Blue Bird Vine  (a climbing plant with simple, opposite leaves)
    S: Adolfina,
    or Bejuco, or Choreque

    When Petrea volubilis is in full bloom, with its drooping panicles of light-blue flowers (whose star-like sepals remain on the plant for a long time), they are a glorious sight. The pansy-like corollas fall off intact, and the ground underfoot becomes a bright blue.

    There is also a white-flowered form, called "Albiflora".

    Petrea volubilis,
    from the "Flowers of Guatemala"

    Genus REHDERA

  472. Rehdera trinervis  ______  CR


    In a Verbena in the Stachytarpheta genus, a male Wire-crested Thorntail,
    at Copalinga during the April 2014 FONT tour in southern Ecuador
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  473. Stachytarpheta frantzii  ______  CR  (TPCR:107)   occurs in Central America

    Although Stachytarpheta frantzii is a native species in Costa Rica, it is more often seen there in cultivation.
    It is a great plant for attracting hummingbirds (generally with short bills), butterflies, and moths.

  474. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis  ______  CY  DR

    In the Dominican Republic, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis is a food plant for the butterfly Strymon istapa, the Mallow Scrub-Hairstreak.

  475. Stachytarpheta sp.  ______  EC  (in the photo above) 

    Genus VITEX

  476. Vitex cooperi  ______  CR 

    Family VIOLACEAE  (Violet)


  477. Amphirrhox longifolia  ______  CR


  478. Gleoaspermum diversipetalum  ______  CR

    Genus RINOREA

  479. Rinorea pubipes  ______  CR

    Family VITACEAE  (Grape)

    Genus CISSUS

  480. Cissus microcarpa  ______  CY
    Pudding White 
    (name in CY) 

  481. Cissus trifoliata  ______  CY

  482. Cissus verticillata  ______  CY  (vulnerable in CY)

    Family VOCHYSIACEAE  (most closely related to MYRTACEAE)

    6 of the 8 genera in VOCHYSIACEAE are in the Neotropics.

    Genus VOCHYSIA

    Plants in VOCHYSIA are fed upon, for the nectar in their flowers, by the butterfly Adelpha iphiclus, the Iphiclus Sister. 

    Family ZAMIACEAE  (Cone-palm Ferns) 

    The CYCADS, in the genus ZAMIA, are some of the oldest living plants on Earth, being well represented in the fossil record, and often referred to a "living fossils".

    The genus ZAMIA, now in the family ZAMIACEAE, was previously in CYCADACEAE.    

    Genus DIOON

  483. Dioon edule  ______  (native to Central America)
    Chestnut Dioon 
     (a palm fern)

    Genus ZAMIA

  484. Zamia fairchildiana  ______  CR
    S: Zamia, or Palmera Siempre Verde 

  485. Zamia integrifolia  ______  CY  (endemic to the Greater Antilles)  (critically endangered in CY)
    (name in CY)

  486. Zamia skinneri  ______  CR
    S: Zamia,
    or Palmera Siempre Verde

    Family ZINGIBERACEAE  (Ginger and allies)

    Genus ALPINIA

  487. Alpinia purpurata  ______  CR  (TPCR:156)   originally from southeast Asia and southern Pacific islands
    Red Ginger
    S: Antorcha


  488. Hedychium coronarium  ______  CR  (TPCR:157)   originally from the Himalayan region in Asia 
    White Ginger
    S: Lirio Blanco  

    Genus RENEALMIA 

  489. Renealmia cernua  ______  CR  (TPCR:158) 

    Renealmia cernua
    is one of 14 native ginger species in Costa Rica.  

    Genus ZINGIBER

  490. Zingiber officinale  ______  CR  (TPCR:209)   thought to have originated in southern Asia
    S: Jengibre

    is a perennial herbaceous plant that is now widely cultivated in most tropical countries, particularly so in the Caribbean, where Jamaica is famous for the production and exportation of commercial ginger.
    In Costa Rica, it is grown in most areas, but more so in hotter, more humid regions. It sometimes escapes from cultivation.

    The plant grows as a group of leafy shoots which reach a height of between 2 and 3 feet. The ginger familiar in shops and supermarkets is extracted from the underground tuberous stems.
    The white form of ginger is obtained by washing, boiling, peeling, and then blanching the rhizomes.
    Another form, black ginger, is produced by washing and boiling he rhizomes and then drying them. The dried rhizomes are also ground into a powder.
    Ground ginger is used mainly in cake flavorings and for adding to drinks such as ginger ale.          
    Preserved ginger, which is used in baking fruit cakes and as an ingredient of ginger marmalade, is produced by boiling prepared rhizones in a sugar syrup. 

    Family ZYGOPHYLLACEAE  (Caltrop)

    Genus GUAIACUM

  491. Guaiacum sanctum  (ph)  ______  CR  GU
    S: Guayacan

    Guiaiacum sanctum,
    from the "Flowers of Guatemala" 

    Genus TRIBULUS  

  492. Tribulus cistoides  ______  CY
    Jamaican Feverplant 
    (or Puncture Vine)
    Jim Carter Weed 
    (name in CY)


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